Notes

CHAPTER I

1. Carlyle, R. W., History of Medieval Political Theory, VI, 85–6.

2. In Hollway-Calthrop, Petrarch, His Life and Times, 14.

2a. Robinson, J. H., and Rolf, H. W., Petrarch, 67,82.

3. Marquis de Sade, Memoires pour la vie de Petrarque, III, 243, in Prescott, Ferdinand and Isabella, I, 328n.

4. Petrarch, Sonnets and Other Poems, sonnet 159.

5. Petrarch, Sonnets, tr. Jos. Auslander, 126.

6. Epistolae variae, no. 25, in Whitcomb, Literary Source-book of the Italian Renaissance, 13.

7. Renan, Averroès, 328.

8. Robinson and Rolf, 107.

9. Hutton, E., Giovanni Boccaccio, 3–5.

10. Ibid., 25, quoting the Filocolo.

11. Encycl. Brit., III, 766b.

12. Boccaccio, Filostrato, iii, 32.

13. Gregorovius, F., History of the City of Rome, VI, 245.

14. Robinson and Rolf, 426.

15. Ibid., 137.

16. Ibid., 61, 97n.

17. Speculum, Apr., 1936, p. 267.

18. In Hollway-Calthrop, 21.

19. Owen, John, Sceptics of the Italian Renaissance, 110, 117.

20. Robinson and Rolf, 137.

21. Epistolae rerum senilium, i, 5, in Owen, 121.

22. Sismondi, History of the Italian Republics, 333.

23. Gregorovius, VI, 246.

24. Ibid., 252f.

25. Ibid., 271, 253.

26. Robinson and Rolf, 347.

27. Gregorovius, VI, 370–3; Sismondi, 340–1.

28. In Foligno, C., Story of Padua, 155.

29. Owen, 130.

30. Fattorusso, J., Wonders of Italy, 215.

31. Beard, Miriam, History of the Business Man, 141.

32. In Taylor, Rachel A., Leonardo the Florentine, 60.

33. Vasari, Lives of the Painters, Giotto, I, 66.

34. Dante, La commedia divina, Purgatorio, xi, 94.

35. Vasari, Taddeo Gaddi, I, 139.

36. Villari, Pasquale, The Two First Centuries of Florentine History, 50.

37. Boccaccio, Amorous Fiammetta, 39.

38. Castiglioni, History of Medicine, 355.

39. Coulton, G. G., Black Death, 10–11.

40. Cambridge Modern History, I, 501.

41. In Schevill, F., Siena, 210.

42. Machiavelli, History of Florence, ii, 9.

43. Boccaccio, Decameron, 2–7.

44. Ibid., 11.

45. Ibid., 13.

46. Dante, Inferno, xxviii, 22–42.

47. Decameron, Introd. to Sixth Day.

48. Cambridge Medieval History, VII, 756.

49. Hollway-Calthrop, 290.

50. Robinson and Rolf, 413.

51. Ibid., 119.

52. Genoa, a Descriptive Booklet, 6.

53. Crump and Jacob, Legacy of the Middle Ages, 442; Cambridge Medieval History, VI, 490.

54. In Sismondi, 527.

54a. Burckhardt, J., Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, 79.

55. In Mather, F. J., Venetian Painters, 5.

56. Hutton, Boccaccio, 201.

57. Hollway-Calthrop, 257.

58. Ibid., 280.

59. Robinson and Rolf, 428.

60. Symonds, Age of the Despots, 73.

61. Hollway-Calthrop, 123.

62. Robinson and Rolf, 4.

CHAPTER II

1. Sismondi, 306; Coulton, G. G., Life in the Middle Ages, I, 205.

2. Milman, H. H., History of Latin Christianity, VII, 205.

3. Gregorovius, VI, 193.

4. Creighton, M., History of the Papacy During the Reformation, I, 42; Gregorovius, 192.

5. Milman, VII, 136.

6. Ibid., 137.

7. Cambridge Medieval History, VII, 273f; Rogers, J. E. T., Economic Interpretation of History, 75; Pastor, History of the Popes, I, 98.

8.Ibid., 66, 71.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid., 92.

11. Coulton, Life in the Middle Ages, I, 205.

12. Cambridge Medieval History, VII, 288; Milman, VII, 138n.

13. Pastor, I, 107.

14. Sarton, G., Introd. to the History of Science, IIIb, 1034.

15. Pastor, I, 91.

16. Machiavelli, History of Florence, i, 6.

17. Sismondi, 328.

18. Gregorovius, VI, 436.

19. Ibid., 450.

20. Sismondi, 437.

21. Pastor, I, 100.

22. Ibid., 103.

23. Sismondi, 439.

24. In Pastor, I, 105.

25. Lanciani, R., Golden Days of the Renaissance in Rome, 1.

26. Lea, H. C, History of the Inquisition in the Middle Ages, III, 90–120; Milman, VII, 41–51.

27. Beazley, C. R., Dawn of Modern Geography, III, 181.

28. Coulton, G. G., Medieval Panorama, 650.

29. Sismondi, 458.

30. Gregorovius, VI, 522.

31. Pastor, I, 232.

32. Coulton, Inquisition and Liberty, 45.

CHAPTER III

1. Thompson, James W., Economic and Social History of Europe in the Later Middle Ages, 458.

2. Beard, Miriam, History of the Business Man, 134.

3. Cellini, B., Autobiography, i, 69.

4. Cambridge Medieval History, VI, 487.

5. Pirenne, Henri, Economic and Social History of Medieval Europe, 215.

6. Burckhardt, 76.

7. Nussbaum, F. L., History of the Economic Institutions of Modern Europe, 70.

8. Beard, M., 115.

9. Sarton, IIIa, 125.

10. Thompson, Economic and Social History, 406.

11. Symonds, Age of the Despots, 197; Sismondi, 573.

12. Machiavelli, History, iv, 3.

13. Beard, M., 152; Burckhardt, 80.

14. Machiavelli, History, iv, 6–7.

15. Beard, M., 152.

16. Villari, P., Two First Centuries, 358.

17. Sismondi, 598f; Beard, 152.

18. Burckhardt, 78.

19. Boissonnade, P., Life and Work in Medieval Europe, 299.

20. Roscoe, Wm., Life of Lorenzo de’ Medici, 79.

21. Varchi, Benedetto, Storia florentina, end of book ix.

22. Ariosto, Satires, vii, 25.

23. Cambridge Modern History, I, 542.

24. Symonds, Revival of Learning, 104.

25. Ibid., 243.

26. Sismondi, 747.

27. Villari, Machiavelli, I, 89.

28. Pastor, I, 27.

29. Villari, Machiavelli, 83; Symonds, Revival of Learning, 234.

30. Villari, I.c.

31. Pastor, II, 201.

32. Symonds, Revival, 237.

33. Burckhardt, 503.

34. Symonds, Revival, 240.

35. In Dopsch, Economic and Social Foundations of European Civilization, 2.

36. Vasari, Lives, II, 270, Andrea da Fiesole.

37. Fattorusso, 209.

38. Vasari, Lives, II, 209, Baldassare Peruzzi.

39. Beard, 153.

40. Symonds, Fine Arts, 134; Cambridge Modem History, I, 548.

41. Vasari, II, 52, The Bellini Family.

42. Baedeker, Northern Italy, 567.

43. Vasari, II, 306, Andrea del Sarto.

44. Ibid.

45. Sarton, IIIb, 1132.

46. Vasari, II, 239, Raphael.

47. In Taylor, R. A., Leonardo, 60.

48. Morey, C. R., Medieval Art, 340.

49. Vasari, II, 3, Fra Filippo Lippi.

50. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, New History of Painting in Italy, II, 324.

51. Symonds, Sketches and Studies in Italy and Greece, 21–6.

52. Machiavelli, History, vii, 1.

53. Guicciardini, Fr., History of the Wars in Italy, I, 181.

54. Machiavelli, History, vii, 1.

55. In Young, G. F., The Medici, 77.

CHAPTER IV

1. Machiavelli, History, vii, 2.

2. Ibid.

3. Cambridge Modern History, I, 661; Roscoe, Lorenzo, 156–7.

4.Roscoe, 169.

5. Ibid., 278; Young, 220.

6. Sismondi, 659; Villari, Life and Times of Savonarola, 45; Beard, 156.

7. Machiavelli, viii, 7.

8. Guicciardini, I, 5.

9. Roscoe, Lorenzo, 235.

10. Storia florentina, ch. ix, in Villari, Machiavelli, I, 35.

11. Translation by Symonds, Italian Literature, I, 390.

12. Varchi, end of book ix.

13. Sellery, G. C., The Renaissance, 196.

14. Pastor, V, 154.

15. Villari, Machiavelli, I, 132.

16. Abrahams, I., Jewish Life in the Middle Ages, 421.

17. In Pater, W., The Renaissance, 32.

18. Translated from the Latin text as given in Burckhardt, 354–5.

19. Symonds, Sketches, II, 319–20.

20. Pulci, Morgante maggiore, i, 54f, in Owen, 151.

21. XVIII, 115f, in Symonds, Italian Literature, I, Appendix V.

22. Canto xxv.

23. XXV, 229–30, in Prescott, Ferdinand and Isabella, I, 496.

24. In Roscoe, Lorenzo, 311.

25. Vasari, Life of Rustici.

26. Vasari, II, 98, Andrea Verrocchio.

27. Müntz, E., Raphael, 146.

28. Berenson, B., Study and Criticism of Italian Art, 2.

29. Vasari, II, 23, Benozzo Gozzoli.

30. Berenson, Florentine Painters of the Renaissance, 63; Taine, H. A., Italy: Florence and Venice, 127.

31. In The Martyrdom of St. Peter in the Brancacci Chapel.

32. Vasari, II, 85, 87, Botticelli.

33. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, II, 431–3.

34. Von Reumont, Lorenzo il Magnifico, II, 590, Creighton, III, 296–8, and Roscoe, Lorenzo, 327, accept Politian’s account; Villari, Savonarola, 168–72, prefers Pico’s. Politian’s third condition seems too innocuous to be historic.

35. Machiavelli, History, viii, 7; Guicciardini, I, 10.

36. Roscoe, Lorenzo, 334.

CHAPTER V

1. Noyes, Ferrara, 98.

2. In Roeder, R., The Man of the Renaissance, 6.

3. Ibid., 5.

4. Ibid.

5. Savonarola, 28th Sermon on Ezekiel.

6. In Villari, Savonarola, 126.

7. In Roeder, 25.

8. Villari, Savonarola, 129.

9. Symonds, Italian Literature, I, 386.

10. Villari, 183.

11. Ibid., 189.

12. Guicciardini, I, 173.

13. Villari, 343.

14. Roeder, 57.

15. Villari, 330.

16. Ibid., 329.

17. Guicciardini, II, 391.

18. Cambridge Modern History, I, 672 and ch. xix.

19. Villari, 393.

20. Ibid., 376.

21. Ibid., 390.

22. Ibid., 400.

23. Ibid., 401.

24. Ibid., 406.

25. Ibid., 410.

26. Ibid., 474.

27. Cambridge Modern History, I, 179.

28. Lenten sermons of 1497, no. 22, in Villari, 516–8.

29. Sermon no. 28, in Villari, 519–20.

30. Villari, 522.

31. Cambridge Modern History, I, 179.

32. Villari, 601.

33. Ibid., 645.

34. Cambridge Modern History, I, 182.

35. Vasari, II, 176, Piero di Cosimo.

36. Id., III, 319, Lombard Artists.

37. Crowe, III, 562.

CHAPTER VI

1. Beard, 134.

2. Boissonnade, 326.

3. Pastor, V, 126.

4. Sismondi, 746; Burckhardt, 296.

5. Ibid., 297.

6. Hollway-Calthrop, 14.

7. Thompson, J. W., Economic and Social History, 236.

8. Noyes, Milan, 132.

9. Thompson, 460; calculations made by Schmoller from governmental archives.

10. Burckhardt, 14; Symonds, Age of the Despots, 151.

11. Machiavelli, History, vii, 6; Sismondi, 620–1.

12. Cartwright, J., Beatrice d’Este, 260.

13. Müntz, E., Leonardo da Vinci, I, 103.

14. Taylor, R., Leonardo, 104.

15. In Cartwright, Beatrice d’Este, 165.

16. Cf., e.g., Cartwright, 78.

17. Sismondi, 741.

17a. In Noyes, Milan, 165.

18. Ibid., 183.

19. Cartwright, Isabella d’Este, I, 151.

20. Cartwright, Beatrice (d’Este, 370–3.

21. Ibid., 141.

22. In Symonds, Revival of Learning, 273.

23. Ibid., 269.

24. Cellini, Autobiography, i, 26.

CHAPTER VII

1. Leonardo da Vinci, Phaidon, 21; Taylor, Leonardo, 49.

2. Ibid., 488.

3. Codice Atlantico, in Leonardo da Vinci, Notebooks, II, 502.

4. Fogli A ior in Notebooks, I, 106.

5. Vasari, II, 160, Leonardo da Vinci; Paolo Giovio in Phaidon Leonardo, 5.

6. Vasari, II, 162; Codice Atlantico, 167 v.c. in Notebooks, II, 394.

7. Müntz, Leonardo, I, 192.

8. Matteo Bandelli in Müntz, Leonardo, I, 184.

9. Ibid., 187.

10. In Taylor, Leonardo, 231.

11. Müntz, I, 185; Cartwright, Beatrice, 138.

12. E.g., Müntz, II, 123.

13. MS. B 83 ν in Notebooks, II, 204; illustration facing p. 212.

14. Notebooks, II, 212.

15. Popham, A. E., Drawings of Leonardo da Vinci, plate 309.

16. Ibid., plate 308.

17. Müntz, II, 96.

18. B. M. 35 r in Notebooks, II, 96.

19. Popham, plates 305, 298, 303.

20. Phaidon Leonardo, 19.

21. Ibid., 16, quoting a 1540 Life of Leonardo.

22. Müntz, II, 158.

23. Ibid., 124.

24. Vasari, II, 166, Leonardo.

24a. Phaidon Leonardo, 23.

25. Taylor, R. A., Leonardo, xii.

26. Andrea Corsali, writing to Giuliano de’ Medici in 1515, in Müntz, I, 17.

27. Vasari, II, 157.

28. Trattato della pittura, 27 v, in Notebooks, II, 261.

29. MS 2037, Bibliothèque Nationale, 10 r in Notebooks II, 177.

30. A 56 in Notebooks, II, 24.

31. Berenson, Florentine Painters, 68.

32. Quaderni III, 12 ν in Notebooks, II, 529.

33. Richter, J. P., Literary Works of L. da V., II, 385–92; Müntz, I, 82–4.

34. In Müntz, II, 19.

35. Notebooks, I, 363; II, 13, 287–92.

36. Trattato 31 r and 30 v; Notebooks, 267–9.

37. Richter, I, #10.

38. Trattato 2 r; Bibl. Nat. ms. 2038; Notebooks, II, 235.

39. In Taylor, Leonardo, 355.

40. Trattato, 20 r; Notebooks, II, 245.

41. B 16 r and 15 ν in Notebooks, II, 424.

42. Vasari, II, 157.

43. Usher, in Nussbaum, 80.

44. Life Magazine, July 17, 1939.

45. Notebooks, I, 25.

46. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th ed., XXI, 230c.

47. A 27 v.a.; Notebooks, II, 437.

48. Codice Atlantico, 381 v.a.; Notebooks, 515.

49. Codice Atlantico, 45 r.a.; Notebooks, I, 442.

50. Sul volo, in Notebooks, I, 436.

51. Ibid., 437.

52. Codice Atlantico, 161 r.a.; Notebooks, I, 511.

53. Popham, 317–8.

54. Notebooks, I, 427.

55. B 83 ν; Notebooks, I, 517.

56. B 89 r; Notebooks, I, 519.

57. Sul volo, in Notebooks, I, 441.

58. Codice Atantico, 318 v.a.; Notebooks, I,5i3.

59. Taylor, Leonardo, 225.

60. Trattato, #10.

61. H 90 E 42 in Notebooks, II, 75.

62. Duhem, P., Ètudes sur Léonard de Vinci, I, 20, 22, 30; III, 54f.

63. In Freud, Leonardo da Vinci, 102.

64. Codice Atlantico, 367 v.b. in Notebooks, II, 500.

65. Popham, plate 161.

66. G 96 v; Notebooks, I, 625.

67. Richter, I, 11, no. 3.

68. Codice Atlantico, 190 r.a.

69. Qaderni v., 25 r, and F 41 ν; Notebooks, I, 310, 298.

70. Codice Atlantico, 303 v.b.

71. Duhem, I, 25f

72. Ibid., 25, 30; Notebooks, I, 302.

73. F 79 r; Notebooks, I, 330–1.

74. About 1338. Cf. D. Müntz, II, 91.

75. Codice Atlantico, 155 r.b.; Leic 8 ν, 9 r.v.

76. Richter, II, 265.

77. Codice Atlantico, 84 r.a.

78. Ibid., 160 v.a.

79. A 56 r; Leic 33 v; Notebooks, II, 21, 368.

80. Leic 36 r; Notebooks, II, 373.

81. E 8 v; Notebooks, I, 628.

82. B.M. 151 r; Notebooks, I, 602.

83. Codice Atlantico, 302 v.b.; Notebooks, I, 529; Müntz, II, 71.

84. Müntz, II, 79.

85. B 6 r; Notebooks, I, 284.

86. Codice Atlantico, 345 v.b.; Notebooks, I, 253.

87. Codice Atlantico, 244 r.a.; Notebooks, I, 248.

88. Richter, I, $$70–82.

89. Müntz, II, 78.

90. B.M. 57 v; Notebooks, II, 98.

91. Duhem, I, 204.

92. Codice Atlantico, 314, in Müntz, II, 75.

93. Vasari, II, 157.

94. Müntz, II, 87.

95. Ibid., 80.

96. Notebooks, I, 13.

97. Castiglioni, History of Medicine, 413–17.

98. Richter II, p. 132; Müntz, II, 84.

99. Fogli B, 10 v; Notebooks, I, 124.

100. Taylor, Leonardo, 406.

101. Humboldt, A. von, Kosmos, II, 324, in Müntz, II, 60.

102. In Garrison, History of Medicine, 216.

103. F 41 r; Notebooks, II, 47.

104. Codice Atlantico, 345 v.b.; Notebooks, I,243.

105. In Müntz, II, 32n.

106. Richter, II, p. 302, 363–4.

107. Ibid., II, p. 369.

108. Codice Atlantico, B 70 r.a.; Notebooks, II,504.

109. F 5 r and 4 v ν; Notebooks, I, 295.

110. Taylor, Leonardo, 22.

111. Ibid., 462.

112. Müntz, II, 31.

113. Codice Atlantico, 51 r.b.

114. A 24 r; Notebooks, I, 538; Richter, II, p. 285.

115. Taylor, 7.

116. Quoted in Müntz, II, 207.

117. Basler, Leonardo, 6.

118. Marcel Raymond in Taylor, 449–50.

119. Notebooks, I, 36.

120. Müntz, II, 22.

121. Taylor, 466.

CHAPTER VIII

1. Sismondi, 593.

2. 2, Vasari, I, 183, Spinello.

3. Id., II, 147, Signorelli.

4. E.g., Symonds, Sketches, III, 151.

5. Allegretto Allegretti in Symonds, Age of the Despots, 616.

5a. Craven, Treasury of Art Masterpieces, 1952 ed., 6.

6. Vasari, III, 286, Sodoma.

7. Ibid., 285.

8. Emporium Magazine, June, 1939, 354.

9. Crowe, III, 104, 106.

10. Vasari, II, 18; Gentile da Fabriano.

11. Matarazzo, Cronaca, in Symonds, Sketches, III, 134–5.

12. In Villari, Machiavelli, I, 355.

13. Symonds, Sketches, III, 129.

14. Crowe, III, 293.

15. Ibid., 183.

16. Vasari, II, 133, Perugino.

17. Thorndike, L., History of Medieval Europe, 675–6.

18. Vasari, II, 132, Perugino; Crowe, III, 223.

19. Symonds, Fine Arts, 297n.

CHAPTER IX

1. Brinton, The Gonzaga Lords of Mantua, 91.

2. Mantegna, L’oeuvre, xiv.

3. Cartwright, Isabella, I, 362.

4. Ibid., 83.

5. Ibid., 152.

6. Ibid., 4.

7. Ibid., 288.

8. Maulde, Women of the Renaissance, 432.

9. Cartwright, Isabella, II, 381.

CHAPTER X

1. Gregorovius, Lucrezia Borgia, 267.

2. Noyes, Ferrara, 82.

3. Ibid., 136.

4. Burckhardt, 47.

5. Ariosto, Orlando furioso, xxxiii, 2.

6. Noyes, Ferrara, 83.

7. Ibid., 82–4.

8. Symonds, Revival, 298–301.

9. Burckhardt, 323.

10. Carducci in Villari, Machiavelli, I, 410.

11. Ariosto, I Suppositi, Prologue.

12. Cf. Symonds, Italian Literature, I, 496n, and Ariosto, Satire ii, 94–9.

13. Orlando furioso, x, 95–6.

13a. Cf. Croce, Ariosto, Shakespeare, and Corneille, 65.

14. Orlando furioso, x, 84.

15. Satire vii, tr. Symonds.

16. In Symonds. Italian Literature, II, 323.

17.Rabelais, Pantagruel, ii, 1, 7.

18. Gregorovius, Lucrezia, 362.

CHAPTER XI

1. Comines, Memoirs, vii, 17.

2. Molmenti, P., Part I, Vol. II, 62.

3. Young, Medici, 28.

4. Beazley, Dawn of Modern Geography, 474

5. Thompson, J. W., Economic and Social History, 490.

6. Guicciardini, IV, 359.

7. Speech of Mocenigo, in Sismondi, 534n.

8. Molmenti, l.c., 42.

9. Ibid., 33.

10. Sismondi, 788.

11. Molmenti, 30.

12. Sismondi, 789.

13. Ibid.

14. Molmenti, 37–9.

15. Ibid., 94.

16. Burckhardt, 63.

17. Cambridge Modern History, I, 263; Molmenti, 12; Villari, Machiavelli, I, 464, 466; Foligno, Padua, 141.

18. Machiavelli, History, vi, 4.

19. Molmenti, Part I, Vol. II, 98.

20. Id., Part II, Vol. II, 240.

21. Ibid.

22. Petrarch, Letter of Sept. 21, 1373, in Foligno, 126.

23. Molmenti, Part I, Vol. II, 269.

24. Ibid., 22.

25. Cambridge Modern History, I, 269.

26. Molmenti, Part I, Vol. II, 21.

27. Cambridge Modern History, I, 268.

28. Vasari, I, 357, Antonello da Messina.

29. Ibid., 358.

30. Gronau, G., Titian, 6.

31. Vasari, II, 47, The Bellini.

32. Mather, F. J., Venetian Painters, 91.

33. Molmenti, Part I, Vol. II, 160.

34. Carlo Ridolfo in Mather, 195.

35. Mather, 206.

36. Gronau, 28.

37. Ibid., 38.

38. Ibid., 35.

39. Ibid., 62.

40. Mather, 300.

41. Lombardia, II, 85.

42. Renard, G., Guilds of the Middle Ages, 36; Dillon, E., Glass, 222.

43. Quoted by Alan Moorehead in The New Yorker, Feb. 24, 1951.

44. Symonds, Revival, 369.

45. Putnam, G. H., Books, I, 438.

46. Symonds, Revival, 381.

47. Ibid., 411; Gregorovius, Lucrezia, 305; Noyes, Ferrara, 163.

48. Pastor, VIII, 191.

49. Cambridge Modern History, I, 564; Symonds, Revival, 398.

50. Maulde, 366–7.

51. Berenson, B., Venetian Painters, 31.

52. Vasari, III, 48, Veronese Artists.

53. Ibid., 49

54. Ibid., 30, Giov. Fr. Caroto.

CHAPTER XII

1. Stoecklin, Le Corrége, 21.

2. Vasari, II, 175, Correggio.

3. James, E. E. C., Bologna, 301.

4. Vasari, II, 118, Francia.

5. Ibid., 122

6. Berenson, North Italian Painters, 70.

7. James, E. E., 355.

8. Vasari, II, 123.

9. Sismondi, 737.

10. Symonds, Sketches, II, 17.

11. Burckhardt, 454.

12. Sismondi, 737.

13. Villari, Machiavelli, I, 117–8; Pastor, III, 117.

14. Symonds, Sketches, II, 20.

15. Burckhardt, 454.

16. Pastor, III, 117.

17. Miniatures de la Renaissance, 79.

18. Müntz, Raphael, 5.

19. Castiglione, The Courtier, 231.

20. Roeder, Man of the Renaissance, 175.

21. Cartwright, Isabella, I, no.

22. Maulde, 294.

23. Roeder, 222.

24. Ibid., 397.

25. Castiglione, 188.

26. Ibid., 310.

27. Ibid., 304.

28. Ibid., 306.

29. Ibid., 286.

30. Cartwright, Baldassare Castiglione, II, 430.

CHAPTER XIII

1. Burckhardt, 226.

2. Pastor, I, 13–7; Villari, Machiavelli, I, 96–7; Symonds, Revival, 258.

3. Cf. Sellery, Renaissance, 202Î.

4. Pastor, I, 19–21; Villari, Machiavelli, I, 98.

5. Pastor, V, 115; Burckhardt, 36–7; Villari, Machiavelli, I, 58; Sismondi, 739; Symonds, Age of the Despots, 570–2; but these rely on Paolo Giovio, an historian favorable to the popes.

6. Burckhardt, 267.

7. In Portogliotti, The Borgias, 60.

8. In Symonds, Revival, 469.

CHAPTER XIV

1. Pastor, I, 117; Creighton, I, 566–9.

2. In Pastor, I, 124.

3. Coulton, Medieval Panorama, 486.

4. Pastor, VII, 339; Creighton, I, 161.

5. Lea, H. C, History of Auricular Confession, III, 65.

6. Creighton, I, 147.

7. Ibid., 168.

8. Gierke, Political Theories of the Middle Age, 52, 59; Hearnshaw, Medieval Contributions to Civilization, 67.

9. Emerton, E., Defensor Pacts of Marsiglio of Padua, 70–2.

10. Pastor, I, 184.

11. Niem in Milman, VII, 235n.

12. Creighton, I, 273.

13. Milman, VII, 460.

14. Figgis, J. N., From Gerson to Grotius, 41

15. In Ogg, F. A., Source Book of Medieval History, 391.

16. Creighton, I, 297.

17. Cambridge Medieval History, VIII, 8n.

18. Creighton, IV, 8.

19. In Pastor, I, 241.

20. Creighton, II, 272; Pastor I, 284.

21. Creighton, IV, 44.

22. Ogg, 393–7.

23. Pastor, II, 215.

24. Cambridge Medieval History, IV, 620f; Pastor, II, 258.

25. Creighton, IV, 71.

CHAPTER XV

1. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, VI, 558.

2. Lanciani, Golden Days of the Renaissance, 78–80.

3. Burckhardt, 105.

4. Roscoe, Leo X, I, 435.

5. Cf. Pastor, VII, 104.

6. Pastor, I, 169.

7. Pastor, II, 180; Hare, Walks in Rome, 167.

8. In Creighton, III, 11 in.

9. Pastor, II, 14; Symonds, Revival, 222–5.

10. Ibid., 226.

11. Pastor, II, 193.

12. Pastor, II, 200.

13. Burckhardt, 188.

14. Pastor, II, 198.

15. Sismondi, 613.

16. Vasari, II, 31, Bernardino Rossellino.

17. Lea, Auricular Confession, III, 202.

18. Pastor, II, 102.

19. Creighton, II, 308f.

20. Pastor, II, 272f.

21. Ibid., 313.

21a. La Tour, P. Imbart de, Les origines de la Réforme, II, 7, 14.

22. Creighton, II, 245.

23. Ibid., 246.

24. Ibid., 247.

25. Platina, In vitas summorum pontificum, in Whitcomb, Source Book, 69.

26. Creighton, II, 483.

27. Ibid.

28. Burckhardt, 305.

29. Creighton, II, 483.

30. Sellery, 239.

31. Platina in Whitcomb,65.

32. Creighton, II, 488.

33. Platina, I.e.

34. Ibid., 66.

35. Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine Empire, II, 442.

36. Pastor, III, 324.

37. Ibid., 256.

38. Creighton, IV, 209.

39. Thompson, J. W., 297.

40. Pastor, IV, 41–5; Villari, Machiavelli, I, 106–7; Burckhardt, 280, 505.

41. Ferrara, O., The Borgia Pope, 95.

42. Pastor IV, 238–44; Creighton, III, 63–6.

43. Ibid., 75.

44. Symonds, Despots, 388.

45. Ibid., 398n.

46. Cf. Creighton, III, 115, 285; Pastor, IV, 416.

47. Soriano in Symonds, Despots, 394n; Pastor, IV, 428.

48. Symonds, Despots, 394.

49. Pastor, V, 236–8.

50. Vespucci in Cambridge Modern History, I, 222.

51. Creighton, III, 120.

52. Ibid., 154–5; Pastor, V, 351.

53. Ibid., 352–4; Creighton, IV, 318.

54. Creighton, III, 126.

55. Ibid.

56. Burckhardt, 108; Pastor, V, 354.

57. Pastor, V, 317; Creighton, III, 126.

57a. La Tour, II, 13.

58. Pastor, V, 361–2.

59. Creighton, IV, 297–8.

60. Creighton, III, 126.

61. Ibid., 135.

62. In Taine, Italy: Rome and Naples, 171.

63. Creighton, III, 153; Cambridge Modern History, I, 225.

CHAPTER XVI

1. Ferrara, Borgia Pope, 55–62; Pastor, II, 541–2.

2. Creighton, III, 162.

3. Pastor, II, 455.

4. Beuf, Cesare Borgia, 19; Gregorovius, Lucrezia, 10.

5. Ibid., 18, 20.

6. Roscoe, Leo X, I, 24.

7. Gregorovius, Lucrezia, 352.

8. Id., IV, 324.

9. Cambridge Modern History, I, 225; Ferrara, 66; Creighton, III, 159.

10. Ferrara, 51; Pastor, V, 366; Gregorovius, 17.

11. Creighton, III, 160n.

12. Cambridge Modern History, I, 226.

13. Pastor, V, 385.

14. Sacerdote, G., Cesare Borgia, 94.

15. In Creighton, III, 47.

16. Cambridge Modern History, I, 234.

17. Vasari, II, 116, Pinturicchio.

18. Ferrara, 310.

18a. La Tour, II, 39.

19. Pastor, V, 396; Burckhardt, 109.

20. Portigliotti, 28f.

21. Guicciardini, I, 19–20.

22. Creighton, III, 168.

23. Ibid., 194–5, quoting the letters as given in Burckhard’s Diarium.

24. Creighton, III, 196; Pastor, V, 429; Cambridge Modern History, I, 229.

24a. Guicciardini, I, 209.

25. Creighton, III, 206; Cambridge Modern History, I, 231.

26. Ibid., 230.

27. Pastor, V, 381.

28. Ferrara, 163.

29. Roscoe, Leo X, I, 394.

30. Guicciardini, I, 29.

31. Gregorovius, 75.

32. Creighton, III, 175; Gregorovius, 39, 62; Portigliotti, 47.

33. Ferrara, 164.

34. Creighton, III, 176; Gregorovius, 65.

35. Portigliotti, 45, 48, 61.

36. Burckhard, Diarium, iii, 227, in Creighton, IV, 49n.

37. Boccaccio, Ferrarese ambassador, in Symonds, Despots, 417; Portigliotti, 56.

38. Gregorovius, 75.

39. Lea, Auricular Confession, III, 21 if.

40. Guicciardini, III, 26; Pastor, VI, 153–4.

41. Guicciardini, III, 26; Creighton, IV, 13–4.

42. Portigliotti, 66.

43. In Villari, Machiavelli, I, 321.

44. Portigliotti, 66.

45. Ferrara, 318.

46. Villari, I.e.

47. Cf. Ferrara, ch. xxi.

48. Ibid., 309.

49. Ferrara, 246; Sacerdote, 198f.

50. Ibid., 221.

51. Ibid., 202.

52. Ferrara, 246; Pastor, V, 512, and Roscoe, Leo X, I, 154, acquit Caesar Borgia; Gregorovius, Lucrezia, 106; Beuf, 76–8; and Symonds, Despots, 425 accuse him; Creighton, III, 258, concludes that “it is impossible to pronounce any certain opinion.”

53. Pastor, V, 501.

54. Gregorovius, 220; Burckhardt, no.

55. Beuf, 41.

56. Gregorovius, 57.

57. Beuf, 97.

58. Cartwright, Isabella, I, 178.

59. Beuf, 7; Sacerdote, 207.

60. Ferrara, 291.

61. Burckhardt, 112; Creighton, IV, 3–4.

62. Id., III, 6n; Ferrara, 293.

63. Richard Garnett in Cambridge Modern History, I, 238.

64. In Beuf, 155.

65. Ferrara, 308.

66. Beuf, 194.

67. Ibid., 223.

68. Creighton, IV, 27.

69. Ibid.

70. Ibid., 29; Sacerdote, 806.

71. Guicciardini, III, 137; Machiavelli, Relation of the Murder of Vitellezzo, in Appendix to History of Florence, pp. 491–6.

72. Beuf, 292.

73. Ibid.

74. Ibid and 296.

75. Creighton, IV, 36.

76. Ibid., 40.

77. Beuf, 290.

78. Beuf, 252–8.

79. Beuf, 131.

80. Beuf, 66, 177; Guicciardini, III, 129.

81. Portigliotti, 83.

82. Villari, Machiavelli, I, 323.

83. Burckhardt, 116.

84. Pastor, VI, 128.

85. Beuf, 305–7.

86. Ferrara, 326.

87. Burckhardt, 115; Villari, Machiavelli, I, 323.

88. Cartwright, Isabella, I, 327.

89. Creighton, IV, 30, 40; Cambridge Modern History, I, 242; Beuf, 307.

90. Symonds, Despots, 426.

91. Burckhard, Diarium, ed. Celani, II, 303, in Portigliotti, 54.

92. Ferrara, 337; Gregorovius, Lucrezia, 178.

93. Ferrara, 337.

94. Gregorovius, 177; Ferrara, 336. Creighton, IV, 50n, accepts the tale.

95. Gregorovius, 189.

96. Ferrara, 252.

97. Ibid., 251.

98. Gregorovius, 108, 330.

99. Creighton, III, 264.

100. There are different accounts of Alfonso’s death; the text follows the despatches of the Venetian ambassador Capello as given in Creighton, IV, 25762. Pastor (VI, 77) suggests that Alfonso was slain by his own bodyguard.

101. Cf. Gregorovius, Lucrezia, 175.

102. Cartwright, Isabella, I, 205.

103. Creighton, IV, 21; Pastor, V, 399; Gregorovius, 175.

104. Ibid., 167.

105. Ibid., 213.

106. Ibid., 222; Friedländer, L., Roman Life and Manners, II, 176.

107. Gregorovius, 246–8.

108. Ibid., 290.

109. Cambridge Modern History, I, 241; Pastor, VI, 132; Sacerdote, 683; Villari, Machiavelli, I, 327; Lanciani, 76; Ferrara, 400; Roscoe, Leo X, I, 469; Beuf, 318. Portigliotti, 129–37, defends the poison theory.

110. Lanciani, 76.

111. Portigliotti, 127.

112. Gregorovius, 289.

113. Guicciardini, III, 228.

114. Machiavelli, Prince, ch. xviii.

115. Pastor, VI, 137.

116. Roscoe, Leo X, I, 195.

117. Creighton, IV, 44–50.

118. Cambridge Modern History, I, 241–2.

119. Creighton, IV, 57.

120. Pastor, VI, 208.

121. Gregorovius, Lucrezia, 310.

122. Ibid., 31.

123. Roscoe, Leo X, 1,404.

CHAPTER XVII

1. Pastor, V, 369.

2. Paris de Grassis in Roscoe, Leo X, I, 300.

3. Pastor, l.c.

4. Villari, Machiavelli, i, 367.

5. Pastor, VI, 215.

6. Ibid., 223.

7. Beuf, 364.

8. Machiavelli, Discourses, i, 27.

9. Creighton, IV, 117.

10. Ibid., 123.

11. Ibid., 124.

12. Ibid., 127.

13. Guicciardini, V, 90.

14. Creighton, IV, 163n.

15. Ibid., 130n.

16. Guicciardini, VI, in.

17. Müntz, Raphael, 293.

18. Symonds, Michelangelo, 92–4.

19. Pastor, VI, 469f.

20. New York World, May 12, 1928.

21. Nietzsche, Letter to Brandes, in Huneker, Egoists, 251.

22. Vasari, ed., Blashfield and Hopkins, IV, 37n, Michelangelo.

23. Ibid., 38.

24. In Symonds, Michelangelo, 7.

25. Cellini, Autobiography, i, 13.

26. Symonds, Mich., 134.

27. Ibid., 44.

28. Ibid., 45.

29. Maulde, 313.

30. Symonds, Mich., 58.

31. Vasari, IV, 59.

32. Symonds, 70.

33. Ibid., 100.

34. Cellini, i, 12.

35. Condivi in Symonds, in.

36. Symonds, 125.

37. Vasari, IV, 89.

38. Condivi in Symonds, 139.

39. Faure, E., Spirit of Forms, 139.

40. Vasari, IV, 91.

CHAPTER XVIII

1. Montalembert, Monks of the West, I, 81.

2. Roscoe, Lorenzo, 285.

3. Guicciardini, VI, 114.

4. Roscoe, Leo X, I, 344.

5. Guicciardini, VII, 68.

6. Ibid., VI, 117.

7. Creighton, IV, 182.

8. Cambridge Modern History, II, 14; Gregorovius, History of City of Rome, VIIIa, 294; Creighton, IV, 18in. All these rest on the Relazione of Marino Giorgio, the Venetian ambassador, and on Prato’s Storia Milanese; probable but inconclusive evidence, since Giorgio did not take up residence in Rome till 1515.

9. Pastor, VIII, 391.

10. Ibid.

11. Ibid., 84.

12. Roscoe, Leo X, II, 259.

13. Ibid., 388; Pastor, VIII, 79.

14. Müntz, Raphael, 409.

15. Taine, Italy: Rome and Naples, 185.

16. Pastor, VIII, 74.

17. Roscoe, II, 391.

18. Burckhardt, 185.

19. Pastor, VIII, 160, 162.

20. Ibid., 163–4.

21. Lanciani, Golden Days of the Renaissance in Rome, 321.

22. Burckhardt, 387.

23. Gregorovius, VIIIa, 407.

24. Lanciani, 58.

30. Roscoe, II, 82; Pastor, VIII, 127.

31. Gregorovius, VIIIa, 302.

32. Lanciani, 108.

33. Pastor, VIII, 121.

34. Cartwright, Isabella, II, 116.

35. Gregorovius, VIIIa, 309, 311.

36. Rashdall, H., Universities of Europe in the M.A., II, 39.

37. Roscoe, I, 342.

38. Huizinga, Waning of the Middle Ages, 62.

39. Pastor, VIII, 268.

40. Roscoe, I, 357.

41. Ibid., 287.

42. Ibid.

43. Maulde, 432.

44. Roscoe, II, 173.

45. Müntz, Raphael, 405; Symonds, Italian Literature, II, 147.

46. Roscoe, II, 209–302; Pastor, VIII, 238.

47. Ibid., 270.

48. Roscoe, II, 176.

49. Ibid., 110; Pastor, VIII, 184.

50. Roscoe, II, 110.

51. In Symonds, Revival, 499.

52. Ibid., 500.

53. Ibid., 503.

54. Ibid., 476.

55. Lanciani, Ancient Rome, 154f

56. In Pastor, VIII, 362.

57. Symonds, Michelangelo, 195.

58. Vasari, IV, 75.

59. Pastor, VIII, 435.

60. Symonds, 219.

61. Ibid., 51.

62. Ibid., 52.

63. Vasari, IV, 213.

64. Ibid., 218.

65. Ibid., 212.

66. Symonds, Fine Arts, 268.

67. Symonds, Michel., 203.

68. Ibid., 529.

69. 535.

70. 149.

71. Müntz, Raphael, 421.

72. Ibid., 422.

73. 420.

74. Ibid.

75. Vasari, II, 247–9, Raphael.

76. Winckelmann, History of Ancient Art, II, 316.

77. Müntz, Raphael, 462.

78. Roscoe, Leo X, I, 347.

79. Lanciani, Golden Days, 279–80.

80. Friedländer, II, 136; Pastor, VIII, 117.

81. Friedländer, I.e.

82. Ibid., 157.

83. Lanciani, Golden Days, 302.

84. Müntz, Raphael, 491.

85. Time Magazine, April 30, 1951, p. 29.

86. Vasari, II, 238.

87. Lanciani, 230.

88. Vasari, II, 241.

89. Ibid., 247.

90. Matt. 17:1–3, 141”.

91. Vasari, II, 247.

92. In Mantegna, L’ oeuvre, Introd., x.

93. Guicciardini, VII, 287; VIII, 11.

94. Ibid., VI, 412.

95. Ibid., VII, 129; Roscoe, Leo X, II, 200.

96. Cf. Ranke, History of the Popes, I, 309.

97. Pastor, VIII, 2.

98. Thompson, J. W., 423.

99. Pastor, VIII, 81, 151.

100. Ibid., 102.

101. 63–5.

102. Thompson, 423.

103. Pastor, VIII, 460.

104. Young, Medici, 296.

105. Pastor, VIII, 139.

CHAPTER XIX

1. Poggio, Facetiae, in Burckhardt, 521.

2. Machiavelli, Discourses, i, 56.

3. Burckhardt, 519.

4. Ibid., 520.

5. Thorndike, Lynn, History of Magic and Experimental Science, IV, 562.

6. Jusserand, J. J., English Wayfaring Life in the M.A., 377.

7. Ibid.

8. Aretino, Ragionamenti del Zoppino, in Burckhardt, 529; Sismondi, 744.

9. Ibid.

10. Pastor, V, 348.

11. Ibid., 349; Exodus, xxii, 18.

12. Pastor, V, 349.

13. Lea, H. C., History of the Inquisition in the M.A., III, 540.

14. Sismondi, 745; Burckhardt, 528.

15. Lea, op. cit., 547.

16. Ibid.

16a. Ibid., 548.

16b. Burckhardt, 508.

16c. Thorndike, IV, 761.

16d. Ibid., 435.

16e. Guicciardini, Ricordi, 57, in Burckhardt, 518.

16f. Robertson, J. M., Short History of Freethought, I, 369.

16g. Roscoe, Leo X, II, 253.

16h. Lacroix, Paul, Science and Literature in the Middh Ages, 290.

16i. Burckhardt, 211.

16j. Boccaccio, Decameron, viii, 9.

17. In Castiglioni, History of Medicine, 399.

18. Walsh, J. J., The Popes and Science, 75.

19. Ibid., 115.

19a. Cornaro, L., Art of Living Long, 43f.

20. Castiglioni, 368.

20a. Cornaro, 92, 103.

20b. Ibid., Introd., 31.

20c. Ibid.

21. Lanciani, Golden Days, 87.

22. Molmenti, Part II, Vol. I, 159f

23. Lanciani, 86.

24. Thorndike, Science and Thought in the Fifteenth Century, 221.

24. Sarton, IIIb, 1658.

25. Garrison, 187.

27. Molmenti, Part I, Vol. II, 54.

28. Pastor, V, 61.

29. Luther, Table Talk, in Pastor, V, 65.

30. Garrison, 191.

31. Ibid.

32. Lacroix, Paul, History of Prostitution, II, 1119.

33. Castiglioni, 454.

34. Lanciani, Golden Days, 84.

35. Sudhoff in Garrison, 191.

36. Castiglioni, 453.

37. Sarton, IIIa, 274.

38. Castiglioni, 465.

39. Ibid., 459; Lacroix, Prostitution, II, 951.

40. Molmenti, Part I, Vol. II, 262.

41. Robertson, Freethought, I, 369.

42. Ibid.

43. Owen, Skeptics, 215.

44. Cambridge Modern History, II, 703.

45. Pastor, V, 157.

46. Owen, 208.

47. Ibid.

48. 209.

49. De incantatione, ch. iii, in Symonds, Italian Literature, II, 476.

50. Ibid., ch. xii, in Symonds, op. cit., 477.

51. Owen, 201.

52. De immortalitate animae, ch. xiv.

52a. Ibid.

53. In Owen, 204.

54. Ibid.

55. De fato, iii, 7.

56. In Cambridge Modern History, II, 703.

57. Pastor, V, 157.

58. Molmenti, Part I, Vol. II, 1.

59. Burckhardt, 453.

60. Ranke, History of the Popes, I, 56.

61. Pastor, I, 27.

62. Pastor, X, 422.

63. Encyclopaedia Britannica, nth ed., XXIII, 85a.

64. Symonds, Italian Lit., II, 479.

65. Ibid.

66. Lea, Inquisition in the M.A., III, 576.

67. Erasmus, Epistle xxvi, 34, in Robertson, J. M., Freethought, I, 370.

68. Guicciardini, I, 4.

69. Mather, F. J., Western European Painting of the Renaissance, 150.

70. In Villari, Machiavelli, I, 417.

71. Guicciardini, I, Introd. xvi.

72. Guicciardini, Ricordi, xxviii, in Burckhardt, 464, Pastor, VIII, 178, and Villari, Machiavelli, II, 86.

73. Ricordi civ and cclxvii, in Villari, Machiavelli, II, 86.

74. Opere inedite, ii, 51, in Sismondi, 389.

75. Ricordi, cccxlvi, in Villari, II, 85; Guicciardini, History, III, 104.

76. Villari, II, 158–9.

77. Ibid., 325.

78. In Roeder, 209.

79. Cf. the letters in Villari, I, 469 and II, 48.

80. In Pastor, V, 160.

81. Machiavelli, Discourses, ii, 10.

82. Ibid., ii, 18.

83. In Villari, II, 344.

84. Discourses, iii, 43.

85. Ibid., proem to book ii.

86. Machiavelli, History, v, i.

87. Machiavelli, The Prince, ch. xxv.

88. Discourses, i, 3; Prince, iii.

89. Robertson, I, 374.

90. Discourses, i, 11.

91. I, 12.

92. I, 11–12.

93. I, 10.

94. II, 2; iii, i.

95. I, 12.

96. III, 1.

97. III, 41.

98. I, 9.

99. History, v, 2.

100. In Villari, II, 143.

101. Discourses, i, 9.

102. Prince, i.

103. Discourses, 1, 12.

104. In Villari, II, 151.

105. Prince, xi-xii; History, vi, 1.

106. In Pastor, V, 164.

107. Prince, xv.

108. Prince, xviii.

109. Ibid., xvii.

110. Discourses, iii, 19.

111. Ibid.1, 10.

112. Prince, xxi.

113. Ibid., viii.

114. XVIII.

115. Ibid.

116. VII, xvii.

117. XXVI.

118. Villari, II, 193; Treitschke, H. von, Lectures on Politics, 29.

119. Bacon, F., De augmentis scientiarum, vii, 2.

120. Hegel, Philosophy of History, in Symonds, Despots, 367.

CHAPTER XX

1. Burckhardt, 485.

2. Coulton, Medieval Panorama, 192.

3. Platina, Vitae, in Burckhardt, 501.

4. Sismondi, 468.

5. Pastor, V, 84.

6. Decameron, i, 2 and 7.

7. Symonds, Despots, 458n.

8. In Roeder, 512.

9. Pastor, I, 31.

10. Molmenti, Part I, Vol. II, 222.

11. Aretino, Dialogues, p. 82.

12. Guicciardini, Considerazione on Machiavelli’s Discourses (i, 12), in Villari, II, 151.

13. St. Catherine of Siena in Coulton, Five Centuries of Religion, II, 399.

14. Pastor, V, 171–3.

16. Robertson, I, 369.

17. Burckhardt, 502.

18. Robertson, I, 369.

19. Pastor, VI, 443.

20. Pastor, X, 457–76.

21. Bandello, Novels, Vol. I, Part I, Story I; Maulde, 178.

22. Ibid.

23. Pastor, V, 113.

24. Lea, Auricular Confession, III, 417.

25. Pastor, V, 133; Symonds, Despots, 477.

26. Pastor, V, 132.

27. Aretino, La cortigiana, Act. iii, p. 219 of Works.

28. Chubb, T. C, Aretino, 216.

29. Pastor, I, 26.

30. Molmenti, Part II, Vol. II, 239.

31. Ibid., 238.

32. Castiglioni, 464; Burckhardt, 400, who considers the estimate exaggerated.

33. Castiglioni, 464.

34. Molmenti, 250n.

35. Pastor, VIII, 121.

36. Gregorovius, Lucrezia, 96.

37. Symonds, Italian Lit., II, 225.

38. Maulde, 361.

39. Gregorovius, VIIIa, 306.

40. Lanciani, Golden Days, 67.

41. Ibid., 64.

42. Maulde, 360, 164.

43. Ibid., 27, 98.

44. Villari, I, 315.

45. Pastor, V, 105, 127.

46. Burckhardt, 416.

47. An example in Cartwright, Isabella, II, 288.

48. Maulde, 43.

49. Burckhardt, 456.

50. Maulde, 353; Sismondi, 747.

51. Ibid., 456.

52. Coulton, From St. Francis to Dante, 14.

53. In Symonds, Italian Lit., II, 86.

54. Burckhardt, 346.

55. Molmenti, II, II, 92.

56. Burckhardt, 374.

57. Molmenti, 94; Taylor, Leonardo, 484.

58. Ibid.

59. Sismondi, 452.

60. Addison, Julia, Development of Arts and Crafts in the Middle Ages, 192.

61. Cagnola in Noyes, Milan, 133.

62. Cartwright, Isabella, II, 115.

63. Maulde, 131.

64. Ibid., 70–1.

65. Cartwright, Beatrice, 172.

66. Pastor, V, 17–9.

67. Symonds, Despots, 240f.

68. In Burckhardt, 404.

69. Ibid.

70. Pastor, VIII, 124.

71. Pastor, V, 107.

72. Ashley, W. J., Introd. to English Economic History, 447.

73. Pastor, V, 106.

74. Cambridge Modern History, I, 250; Symonds, Despots, 474.

75. Taine: Rome and Naples, 172.

76. Chubb, 23.

77. Guicciardini, III, 59.

78. Ibid., VII, 69; Machiavelli, History, vi, 4.

79. Pastor, V, 134.

80. Sismondi, 456.

81. James, Bologna, 138.

82. Schevill, Siena, 223.

83. Robinson and Rolf, 123.

84. Cartwright, Isabella, II, 59.

85. Lanciani, 99.

86. Brinton, The Gonzaga Lords, 88.

87. Fattorusso, 247.

88. Thorndike, Science and Thought in the Fifteenth Century, 53; Burckhardt, 374.

89. Friedländer, II, 176.

90. Wright, T., Homes of Other Days, 462.

91. Molmenti, II, II, 162.

92. Decameron, i, 1.

93. Molmenti, 231.

94. Villari, Savonarola, 246.

95. Gibbon, VI, 562.

96. Symonds, Italian Lit., I, 307–8.

97. Vasari, II, 178–9, Fiero di Cosimo.

98. pastor, V, 48.

99. In Lang, P. H., Music in Western Civilization, 299.

100. Cellini, i, 32.

101. Lang, 302.

102. Castiglione, B., The Courtier, p. 76.

103. Ibid.; Oxford History of Music, Introd. Volume, 215; Lang, 300.

104. Oxford History, Introd., 188.

105. In Einstein, Alfred, The Italian Madrigal, I, 39.

106. Symonds, Ital. Lit., I, 217.

107. Einstein, 7.

108. Tr. Symonds, Sketches, II, 332.

109. Rabelais, Pantagruel, bk. iv, Prologue.

109a. Grove, Dictionary of Music, IV, 809.

110. Einstein, 6, 8.

111. Luther, in Gregorovius, VIIIa, 249.

112. Ascham, The Scholemaster, 87.

113. Machiavelli, Discourses, i, 12.

114. Guicciardini, VIII, 354.

115. Pastor, V, 181.

CHAPTER XXI

1. The phrase is from Michelet, Histoire de France, III, i, 2, p. 5.

2. Lacroix, Paul, Arts of the M.A., 99.

3. Guicciardini, I, 147.

4. Guizot, History of France, II, 554.

5. Cambridge Modern History, I, 240.

6. Roscoe, Leo X, I, 200–1.

7. Prescott, II, 307.

8. Guizot, II, 511; Sismondi, 676.

9. Lacroix, Prostitution, II, 1130.

10. Pastor, VII, 105.

11. Ibid., 141; Roscoe, Leo X, II, 39; Guicciardini, VI, 382, however, thought that Leo agreed.

12. De Grassis in Roscoe, Leo X, II, 40.

13. Pastor, VII, 139.

14. Beuf, 222.

15. Guicciardini, VII, 266.

16. Pastor, IX, 27.

17. Chubb, 76.

18. Symonds, Despots, 440.

19. Pastor, IX, 73.

20. Burckhardt, 162.

21. Pastor, IX, 91–113.

22. Ibid., 125.

23. Cartwright, Isabella, II, 232.

24. Tr. Symonds, Ital. Lit., II, 368.

25. Pastor, IX, 266.

26. Ibid., 271.

27. Guicciardini, VIII, 230f

28. Pastor, IX, 304.

29. Ibid., 328.

30. 331.

31. Sismondi, 687.

32. Young, 330.

33. In Cartwright, II, 272.

34. Guicciardini, IX, 98, 113.

35. Pastor, IX, 362.

36. Ibid., 390–405; Cartwright, II, 260.

37. Pastor, IX, 400, 413.

38. Guicciardini, IX, 305; Lanciani, 108.

39. Ibid., 107.

40. Guicciardini, IX, 307.

41. Pastor, IX, 400.

42. Symonds, Revival, 444–5.

43. Guicciardini, IX, 308; Pastor, IX, 413.

44. Symonds, Despots, 444; Job, x, 18.

45. Guicciardini, IX, 320–2; Pastor, IX, 424.

46. In Cartwright, Isabella, II, 270.

47. Burckhardt, 123; Symonds, Despots, 445:

48. Guicciardini, X, 139.

49. Sismondi, 729; Symonds, Despots, 446.

50. Fattorusso, Florence, 192.

51. Sismondi, 731.

52. Symonds, Michelangelo, 279.

53. Young, 351.

54. Pastor, X, 199.

55. Vasari, II, 295, Peruzzi.

56. Symonds, Michelangelo, 441.

57. Ibid., 372.

58. 255.

59. Vasari, IV, 119n.

60. Symonds, Michelangelo, 267.

61. Ibid., 282.

62. 324.

63. Cambridge Modern History, II, 67.

64. Pastor, X, 235.

65. Ibid., 322.

66. Letter of Gregorio da Casale, Oct., 1534, in Young, 358.

CHAPTER XXII

1. Burckhardt, Cicerone, in Vasari, IV, 320n.

2. Vasari, IV, 327.

3. Ibid., 329.

4. In Anderson, Architecture of the Renaissance in Italy, 145.

5. This section is especially indebted to Thomas Caldecott Chubb’s Aretino.

6. Chubb, 46.

7. Vasari, III, 77, Marcantonio Bolognese.

8. In Chubb, 117.

9. Symonds, Ital. Lit., II, 395.

10. Ariosto, Orlando furioso, xlvi, 14.

11. Maulde, 391.

12. Symonds, Lit., II, 399–400.

13. Ibid., 404.

14. Chubb, 205.

15. Aretino, Dialogues, p. 55.

16. Aretino, 108, 83.

17. Roeder, 498.

18. Ibid., 441.

19. Taine, Italy: Florence and Venice, 289.

20. In Gronau, Titian, 46.

21. Chubb, 437.

22. Vasari, IV, 286.

23. Ruskin, Stones of Venice, I, 10.

24. Vasari, IV, 298.

25. In Mather, Venetian Painters, 340.

26. Soulier, G., Le Tintoret, 12.

27. Ibid., 19; Mather, 342.

28. Soulier, 115.

29. Ruskin, Stones, III, 285.

30. Ibid., 295.

31. Symonds, Fine Arts, 377.

32. Soulier, 75–6.

33. Ruskin, Stones, II, 243.

34. Siviero, R., Catalogue of the Second National Exhibition of the Works of Art Recovered in Germany, 45.

35. Mather, Venetian Painters, 396.

36. Ibid., 168.

37. 416; Venturi and Skira-Venturi, Italian Painting: The Creators of the Renaissance, 164.

38. Ruskin, Stones, II, 10.

39. Quoted by E. Herriot in a lecture at Cannes, Jan., 1951.

CHAPTER XXIII

1. Thompson, J. W., 376.

2. Adams, Brooks, The New Empire, 90.

3. Cf. Barnes, H. E., History of Western Civilization, I, 867.

4. Robertson, J. M., I, 469.

5. Symonds, Catholic Reaction, I, 33.

6. Ibid., 38, 234–334; Sismondi, 763.

7. Symonds, Catholic Reaction, I, 273.

8. Coulton, Medieval Panorama, 679.

9. Ranke, History of the Popes, I, 181.

10. Guicciardini, X, 257.

11. Ibid., 258.

12. Cardan, Jerome, Book of My Life, ch. ii.

13. Ibid., ch. vi.

14. Hallam, H., Literature of Europe, I, 451–2.

15. Duhem, Leonardo, I, 229f Wolf, A., History of Science, Technology, and Philosophy in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, 537.

16. Cardan, ch. xiii.

17. Ch. xiv.

18. Prologue.

19. Walsh, The Popes and Science, 116.

20. Cornaro, 43–7.

21. Ibid., 66–72.

22. Ibid., 79, 92, 103.

23. Ibid., Introd., 31. Addison, in No. 195 of The Spectator, III, 328, makes good use of Cornaro’s treatise.

24. Hallam, II, 88.

25. Ibid., 119; Robertson, I, 470.

26. Hallam, II, 260.

27. Bandello, III, 123.

28. Holzknecht, Backgrounds of Shakespeare, 243.

29. Cambridge Modern History, III, 400–4.

30. Cellini, ii, 99.

31. Ibid., ii, 70.

32. James, Bologna, 317.

33. Vasari, III, 237. Pontormo.

34. Ibid., 245.

35. Cellini, i, 2.

36. Ibid., i, 14.

37. I, 26.

38. I, 52.

39. II, 33.

40. II, 50.

41. I, 51.

42. I, 73.

43. I, 64.

44. I, 55.

45. I,74.

46. II, 26.

47. II, 12.

48. II, 28.

49. Ibid.

50. II, 34–5.

51. II, 37.

52. Notes by Symonds, p. 415.

53. I, 58.

54. Symonds, Michelangelo, 484.

55. Vasari, IV, 134, Michelangelo.

56. Ibid., 140.

57. 148.

58. Symonds, Michelangelo, 501.

58a. Ellis, H., Studies in the Psychology of Sex, Vol. II, Sexual Inversion, 19.

59. Maulde, 182.

60. Symonds, 377; Taine, Italy: Rome and Naples, 188.

61. Symonds, 442.

62. Vasari, IV, 198.

63. Symonds, 490.

64. Vasari, IV, 219.

65. Ibid., 203.

66. Ruskin, Modern Painters, Part I, ch. ii, end.

67. Symonds, 372.

68. Balcarres, Lord, Evolution of Italian Sculpture, 271; Spengler, O., Decline of the West, I, 276.

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