Notes

NOTES ON THE USE OF THIS BOOK

1. Coulton, Chaucer, 62.

2. Michelet, x, 3.

3. Müntz, Leonardo da Vinci, I, 22.

CHAPTER I

1. Coulton, Life in the Middle Ages, I, 205.

2. Pastor, History of the Popes, I, 71, 66.

3. Ibid.

4. Bryce, The Holy Roman Empire, 226; Cambridge Medieval History, VIII, 623.

5. Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science, III-I, 1034.

6. Pastor, I, 91.

7. Sismondi, History of the Italian Republics, 328.

8. Gierke, Political Theories of the Middle Ages, 52, 59; Hearnshaw, Medieval Contributions to Modern Civilization, 67.

9. Emerton, The Defensor Pacis of Marsiglio of Padua, 70-2.

10. Milman, History of Latin Christianity, VII, 328-31.

11. Ogg, Source Book of Medieval History, 391.

12. Creighton, History of the Papacy during the Reformation, I, 297; Camb. Med. Hy, VIII, 8n.

13. Pastor, I, 241.

14. Pastor, III, 269.

15. Ibid., 324.

16. For a candid Catholic summary of ecclesiastical abuses c. 1500 cf. Janelle, The Catholic Reformation, Chapters I-III.

17. Cambridge Modern History, I, 388.

18. Montalembert, The Monks of the West, I, 81.

19. Coulton, Inquisition and Liberty, 45.

20. Coulton, Five Centuries of Religion, I, 465.

21. Beard, Chas., Martin Luther and the Reformation, 42.

22. Machiavelli, Discourses, iii, 1.

23. Robertson, History of the Reign of Charles V, I, 402.

24. Hayes, Political and Social History of Modern Europe, I, 126.

25. La Tour, Les origines de la Reforme, I, 361.

26. Cf. Pastor, V, 361-2.

27. Camb. Mod. Hy, I, 670.

28. Ibid.

29. Ibid.

30. Coulton, Five Centuries of Religion, II, 411.

31. Erasmus, Mar. 5, 1518, in Epistles, III, 287

32. Pastor, VIII, 124.

33. Camb. Mod. Hy, I, 670.

34. Ibid., 659.

35. Smith, Preserved, History of Modern Culture, I, 19.

36. Camb. Mod. Hy, I, 674.

37. Coulton, Five Centuries of Religion, I, 410 f.; II, 429.

38. Ibid., 400.

39. Erasmus, Epistle 94 in Froude, Life and Letters of Erasmus, 352.

40. Blok, History of the People of the Netherlands, II, 299.

41. Coulton, Life in the Middle Ages, IV, 354.

42. Coulton, Five Centuries, II, 399.

43. Lea, History of the Inquisition in Spain, I. 427.

44. Coulton, Five Centuries, 1,410.

45. La Tour, Les origines, II, 297 f.

46. Coulton, Medieval Panorama, 150, 160.

47. Ibid., 177.

48. Lea, Inquisition in Spain, IV, 95 f.

49. Lea, Historical Sketch of Sacerdotal Celibacy, 429-32; Kautsky, Communism in Central Europe in the Time of the Reformation, 268.

50. Camb. Mod. Hy, I, 672.

51. Pastor, V, 457 f.

52. Lea, Inquisition in Spain I, 394.

53. Ibid., 402.

54. Ibid.

55. 406.

56. 407.

57. Gascoigne, Seven Rivers of Babylon, in Coulton, Social Life in Britain, 203.

58. Lea, Auricular Confession, III, 277; Beard, Luther, 299.

59. Lea, Auricular Confession, III, 74.

60. Ibid., 179.

61. 343 f.

62. Pastor, VII, 338, 340.

63. Ranke, History of the Reformation in Germany, 153.

64. Camb. Mod. Hy, 660.

65. Pastor, VII, 305.

66. Coulton, The Black Death, 114.

67. Erasmus, Militis Christiani enchiridion, in Lea, Auricular Confession, III, 429.

68. Lea, ibid.

69. Coulton, Five Centuries, I, 410.

CHAPTER II

1. Stubbs, Constitutional History of England, II, 331.

2. Headlam, Story of Nuremberg, 164.

3. Coulton, Chaucer and His England, 173.

4. Froissart, Chronicles, I, 77, 89.

5. Froissart, Everyman ed., 124.

6. Trevelyan, England in the Age of Wycliffe, 28.

7. Stubbs, III, 385.

8. Power, Medieval People, 78.

9. Ibid., 68.

10. Green, Mrs. J. R., Town Life in the Fifteenth Century, I, 351 f.

11. Rogers, Economic Interpretation of History, 75.

12. Cheyney, Dawn of a New Era, 186.

13. Poole, R. L., Wycliffe and Movements for Reform, 88; Id., Illustrations of the History of Medieval Thought, 254.

14. Wyclif, De civili dominio, i, 30, in Poole, Wycliffe, 89.

15. Poole, Illustrations, 264.

16. Poole, Wycliffe, 65.

17. Camb. Med. Hy, VII, 489.

18. Thompson, J. W., Economic and Social History of Europe in the Later Middle Ages, 499.

19. Trevelyan, England in the Age of Wycliffe, 82.

20. Wyclif, “On the Pope,” in English Works, 477.

21. Wyclif, “Of Prelates,” in English Works, 80-1.

22. Ibid., 81.

23. Ibid., 100.

24. 143-63.

25. 96-104.

26. Wyclif, “Of Prelates,” v, 66; vi, 68.

27. “On the Popes,” iii.

28. De officio pastorali in English Works, 457.

29. I John, ii, 18.

30. Rev., xi, 7.

31. Janssen, History of the German People, IV, 119.

32. Wyclif, “On Dominion” (English), i.

33. English Works, 47-57.

34. “On Dominion,” iv; De officio pastorali.

35. English Works, 469-70.

36. “On Dominion,” ii, in Poole, Illustrations, 261.

37. English Works, 452.

38. Ibid., 328

39. 330-1.

40. Trevelyan, England in the Age of Wycliffe, 173.

41. English Works, 465.

42. Ibid., 227-9.

430. 276 f.

44. Coulton, Medieval Panorama, 685.

45. Poole, Wycliffe, no; Trevelyan, Wycliffe, 316.

46. Coulton, Black Death, 68; Medieval Panorama, 89.

47. Mrs. Green, Town Life, I, 54.

48. Stubbs, III, 617-8.

49. Mrs. Green, I, 141.

50. Abram, A., English Life and Manners, 191.

51. Lounsbury, Studies in Chaucer, I, 14.

52. Abram, 191-3.

53. Coulton, Black Death, 96; Camb. Med. Hy, VII, 442.

54. Coulton, Social Life, 350.

55. Ashley, Introd. to English Economic History and Theory, II, 333.

56. Poole, Wycliffe, 106.

57. Oman, The Great Revolt of 1381, 42.

58. Ibid., 51.

59. Froissart, ii, 73.

60. Ibid.

61. Oman, 38-43.

62. Speculum, Jan., 1940, 25.

63. Oman, 68-77.

64. Ibid., 84.

65. Stubbs, II, 428 f.

66. Chambers, Medieval Stage, II, 185.

67. Langland, Vision of William .... concerning Piers the Plowman, i, 73 f.

68. Ibid., i, 68-99, 144–94; vi, 169 f.; xiii, 4 f.

69. Jusserand, Literary History of the English People, 401.

70. Coulton, Chaucer, 30.

71. Lounsbury, I, 74; Coulton, Chaucer, 54.

72. Ibid., 36.

73. Lounsbury, II, 228.

74. Chaucer, Troilus, i, 463.

75. Ibid., iii, 1373 f.

76. The Nun’s Priest’s Tale, 413 f.

77. Legend of Good Women, 1-9.

78. Knight’s Tale, 444 f.

79. Coulton, Chaucer, 60.

80. Lounsbury, I, 87.

81. Shakespeare, Richard II, iii, 3.

82. Holinshed, iii, 507.

CHAPTER III

1. Pirenne, Economic and Social History of Medieval Europe, 187, 207; Ashley, II, 101; Salzman, English Industries of the Middle Ages, 337.

2. Coulton, The Medieval Village, 126; Boissonade, Life and Work in Medieval Europe, 310.

3. Pirenne, op. cit., 198.

4. Milman, VII, 65-6; Thompson, Economic History... of Later Middle Ages, 53.

5. Michelet, History of France, bk. vi, ch. 1.

6. Campbell, Life and Times of Petrarch, XXV.

7. Guizot, History of France, I, 616 f.

8. Encyc. Brit., XIX, 880b.

9. Froissart, i, 115.

10. Ibid., 127-8.

11. Sarton, III-i, 38.

12. Hammerton, Universal History of the World, VI, 3394.

13. Froissart, i, 151.

14. Boissonade, 284.

15. Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire, II, 65.

16. Sarton, III-2, 1653.

17. Castiglioni, History of Medicine, 359.

18. Coulton, Black Death, 68.

19. Sarton, III-2, 1654.

20. Thompson, Economic History, 383.

21. Michelet, vi, 3.

22. Froissart, i, 178.

23. Carlyle, R. W., History of Medieval Political Theory, VI, 213.

24. Clapman and Power, Cambridge Economic Hy of Europe, 559.

25. Froissart, I, 181, 183.

26. Michelet, vi, 3.

27. Michelet, vii, 1.

28. Guizot, History of France, II, 245.

29. Boissonade, 330.

30. Nussbaum, History of the Economic Institutions of Modern Europe, 108.

31. Boissonade, 315.

32. Wright, Book of the Knight of La Tour-Landry, ch. 2.

33. Michelet, xi, I.

34. En. Br., IV, 857b.

35. Huizinga, Waning of the Middle Ages, 144-7.

36. Lacroix, History of Prostitution, I, 793.

37. Ibid., II, 1114.

38. Sanger, History of Prostitution, 106.

39. Huizinga, Waning, 145.

40. Ibid., 97.

41. Lacroix, Prostitution, I, 911.

42. Huizinga, 103, 108.

43. Le menagier de Paris, in Power, Medieval People, 85.

44. Coulton, Life in the Middle Ages, III, 152.

45. Huizinga, 133,

46. Ibid., 21, 175.

47. Thompson, Economic History, 105.

48. Huizinga, 140.

49. Speculum, April, 1940, 148.

50. Friedländer, Roman Life and Manners, III, 196.

51. France, A., Joan of Arc, II, 254.

52. In Jusserand, English Wayfaring Life in the Middle Ages, 400.

53. Froissart, Everyman ed., 368, 292, 1.

54. In Pernoud, La poésie médiévale, 80.

55. In Faguet, Literary History of France, 147. Margaret came to France in 1436; there is no trace of Chartier after 1434.

56. In Pauphilet, Poètes et romanciers du moyen age, 774.

57. Tr. in Lang, Ballads and Lyrics of Old France.

58. In Faguet, 151.

59. In Pauphilet, 792.

60. Michelet, x, 3.

61. Ibid.; France, Joan of Arc, I, 25.

62. Trial process in Michelet, x, 3.

63. Ibid.; France, Joan of Arc, 139&

64. Michelet, i.e.

65. Ibid.

66. France, Joan, II, 250.

67. Ibid., I, xlvii.

68. Michelet, xi, I.

69. Ibid., xi, 2; D’Orliac, The Lady of Beauty, 17-35.

CHAPTER IV

1. Guizot, History of France, II, 407,

2. Ibid.; Hare, Life of Louis X/, 69.

3. Comines, Memoirs, i, 10,

4. Ibid., ii, 1; Hare, 241.

5. Hare, 204.

6. Comines, vi, 2.

7. Ibid., iv, 10.

8. Ibid., vi, 7, 11; Camb. Med. Hy, VIII, 296.

9. Troyes, Chronique scandaleuse, in Comines, II, 379, 395.

10. Comines, vi, 12.

11. Lacroix, Prostitution, II, 116.

12. Ferrara, The Borgia Pope, 184; Beuf, Cesare Borgia, 42; Michelet, Histoire de France, III, i, 1.

13. Lacroix, Prostitution, II, 1117,

14. Batiffol, Century of the Renaissance, 22.

15. Guizot, France, II, 627.

16. Michelet, iii, 109.

17. Ward, Architecture of the Renaissance in France, II, 16-17.

18. Boyd, French Renaissance, 9.

19. Cf. the handsome reissue of Les heures d’Anne de Bretagne, Editions Verve, Paris, 1946.

20. Addison, J. D., Arts and Crafts in the Middle Ages, 265.

21. Comines, v, 18.

22. Ibid., iii, 8-9; ii, 6.

23. Mantzius, History of Theatrical Art, II, 134.

24. Pauphilet, Jeux et sapience du moyen age, 332.

25. Villon, Ballade de la grosse Margot; Lewis, François Villon, 6, 301.

26. Villon, Le petit testaptent, xxiii, xxxi, x.

27. Tr. by John Payne. Ruskin’s version, less agreeable as a whole, rendered better the final line: “But where are the snows of yester-year?”

28. Villon, Poems, tr. John Payne, 128.

29. Ibid., 189.

30. Ibid., 191.

31. Tr. by Swinburne, Poems, 265-6.

32. In Lewis, 209.

CHAPTER V

1. Camb. Med. Hy, VIII, 375n.

2. Holinshed, iii, 541.

3. Walsingham in Stubbs, III, 79.

4. Michelet, ix, 3.

5. Comines, ii, 12.

6. Ibid., vi, 2.

7. Holinshed, iii, 712; cf. Shakespeare, 5 Henry VI, iii, 2; Richard III, i, 1.

8. Bacon, Works, VI, 240.

9. Coulton, Medieval Village, 136.

10. More, Utopia, 175.

11. Coulton, Social Life in Britain, 321.

12. Rogers, Six Centuries of Work and Wages, 73; Schoenhof, History of Money and Prices, 311-2.

13. From Sir E. Dudley, Tree of the Commonwealth (1509), in Coulton, Social Life in Britain, 354.

14. Green, J. R., Short History of the English People, II, 568; Mrs. Green, Town Life, II, 70.

15. Camb. Med. Hy, VIII, 441-2.

16. Ibid.

17. Holinshed, iii, 632.

18. Ibid., 636.

19. Coulton, Social Life, 37.

20. Lounsbury, II, 346; Wright, Homes of Other Days, 429.

21. Paston Letters, I, 70.

22. Holinshed, iii, 508.

23. Cf. Percy’s Reliques, II, 88 f.

24. Salzman, 230.

25. Mrs. Green, Town Life, I, 212-5; Coulton, Chaucer, 200.

26. Camb. Med. Hy, VIII, 365.

27. In Coulton, Medieval Panorama, 304.

28. Sarton, III-i, 158.

29. Wright, Homes, 379.

30. Hammerton, Universal History, VI, 3443.

31. Hearnshaw, Social and Political Ideas of... the Renaissance and the Reformation, 75.

32. Chaucer, Parson’s Tale, lines 415-30.

33. Stubbs, III, 288.

34. Hearnshaw, op. cit., 82.

35. Coulton, Medieval Panorama, 126.

36. Id., Black Death, 112.

37. Catholic Encyclopedia, X, 334; Sarton III-2, 1046; Trevelyan, England in the Age of Wycliffe, 179, 317, 321, 327.

38. Coulton, Medieval Panorama, 490,

39. Trevelyan, Wycliffe, 334.

40. Shakespeare, 2 Henry IV, Epilogue.

41. Cath. Encyc., X, 335.

42. Trevelyan, Wycliffe, 347-9.

43. In Sellery, Renaissance, 207.

44. Jusserand, English Wayfaring, 192.

45. Mantle, Burns, and Gassner, A Treasury of the Theater, 1345.

46. Putnam, G. H., Books and Their Makers during the Middle Ages, II, 104.

47. Kittredge, G. L., Harvard Studies ....in Philology and Literature, II, 87 f.

48. Malory, Morte d’Arthur, iii, 15.

49. Ibid., x, 5.

50. Paston Letters, I, 81.

51. Gasquet, Eve of the Reformation, 220.

52. Einstein, Lewis, Italian Renaissance in England, 36.

53. Ibid., 38.

54. Smith, P., Erasmus, 95-6.

55. Seebohm, The Oxford Reformers, 70-1, 74-6, 110.

CHAPTER VI

1. Blok, History... of the Netherlands, II, 289.

2. Pirenne, Histoire de Belgique, II, 471; Michelet, x, 4; Blok, II, 289.

3. Pirenne, Histoire, II, 471.

4. Huizinga, 289.

5. Ibid., 203.

6. Hastings’ Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, II, 843a.

7. Janssen, History of the German People, I, 88.

8. Kempis, Thomas à, Imitation of Christ, i, 1, 3, 10, 22, 9, 20.

9. In Michelet, xii, 2.

10. Baldass, Jan van Eyck, 273.

11. Cheney, World History of Art, 623.

12. Conway, The Van Eycks and Their Followers, 141.

13. Comines, Memoirs, v, 9; Freeman, E. A., Historical Essays, 338.

14. Comines, ii, 3-4; Michelet, xv, 2-4.

15. Conway, 185.

16. Ibid., 194.

17. Baedeker, Belgique et Hollande, 129.

18. Baldass, Memling, 148.

19. Isaiah, xl, 6.

CHAPTER VII

1. Boissonade, 285.

2. Rickard, Man and Metals, II, 525.

3. Boissonade, 325.

4. Camb. Med. Hy, VII, 736 f.

5. Beard, Miriam, History of the Business Man, 63.

6. Headlam, Nuremberg, 32.

7. Thompson, Later Middle Ages, 402.

8. Janssen, IV, 132-6.

9. Freeman, Historical Essays, 360.

10. Gregorovius, History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages, VI, 116; Camb. Med. Hy, VII, 120, 283 f.

11. Emerton, 66.

12. Gregorovious, VI, 151.

13. Emerton, 17; Ueberweg, History of Philosophy, 1,462; Owen, Evenings with the Skeptics, II, 357.

14. Camb. Med. Hy, VII, 130-1.

15. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 602.

16. Lea, Sacerdotal Celibacy, 395.

17. Pastor, II, 48.

18. Kautsky, 102-3.

19. In Inge, Christian Mysticism, 160; James, Wm., Varieties of Religious Experience, 417; Huizinga, 203.

20. In Francke, History of German Literature, no.

21. De Wulf, Philosophy and Civilization in the Middle Ages, 294-7; Id., History of Medieval Philosophy, II, 130; Coulton, Medieval Panorama, 522.

22. Inge, 162.

23. Coulton, Medieval Scene, 126.

24. Headlam, Nuremberg, 29.

25. Cheney, History of Art, 665.

26. In Walsh, J. J., Thirteenth, Greatest of Centuries, 158.

27. As supposed by Carter, Invention of Printing in China, 24.

28. Sarton, III-i, 830.

29. Putnam, Books, I, 352-6.

30. En. Brit., XI, 12 c.

31. Putnam, Books, I, 359.

32. Janssen, I, 19.

CHAPTER VIII

1. Lützow, Bohemia, 59.

2. Ibid., 68.

3. Milman, VII, 487.

4. Kautsky, 46.

5. Huss, De Ecclesta, 114.

6. Ibid., 3, 16 f.

7. Ibid., xvi, 127.

8. 220-1.

9. Kautsky, 47.

10. In Creighton, History of the Papacy, I, 359.

11. Kautsky, 48.

12. Bax, German Society at the Close of the Middle Ages, 43.

13. Kautsky, 58 f.

14. Nosek, Spirit of Bohemia, 76 f.

15. Kautsky, 61-4.

16. Creighton, Papacy, II, 471; Reynaud, Unite or Perish, 185.

17. Burton, The Jew, the Gypsy, and Islam, 123.

18. Lewinski, Political History of Poland, 58.

CHAPTER IX

1. Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine Empire, II, 395.

2. Ibid., 388.

3. 419.

4. In Diehl, C., Manuel d’art Byzantin, 761.

5. Gibbons, H. A., Foundation of the Ottoman Empire, 134.

6. Camb. Med. Hy, IV, 546.

7. Lane-Poole, Story of Turkey, 52.

8. Froissart, iv, 90.

9. Gibbons, H. A., Foundation, 132.

10. Camb. Med. Hy, IV, 620 f.

11. Ibid.

12. Ibid., 693; Pastor, II, 252.

13. The remainder of this section follows the incomparable narrative of Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, ch. lxviii.

14. Voltaire, Essai sur les moeurs, in Works, XIV-I, 297.

15. Camb. Med. Hy, IV, 691.

16. Gibb, Ottoman Literature, 203.

17. Sismondi, History of the Italian Republics, 630.

18. Janssen, II, 198.

19. Vambéry, Story of Hungary, 221.

20. Ibid., 23.

21. Réau, L’art russe, I, 235; Riedl, F., History of Hungarian Literature, 27.

22. Domanovsky, S., Magyar Muvelodestortenet, I, 160.

23. Szoni, Regi Magyar Templomok, 203.

24. Cf. Divald, Old Hungarian Art, figs. 123, 145.

25. Riedl, 34.

26. Nekam, Cultural Aspirations of Hungary, 88.

27. Vambéry, 251.

28. Riedi, 28-9.

29. Vambéry, 272-5.

CHAPTER X

1. Camoes, Lusiads, iii, 132.

2. Camb. Mod. Hy, I, 12.

3. Beazley, Prince Henry the Navigator, 213.

4. Camb. Mod. Hy, I, 10, 16.

CHAPTER XI

1. Thompson, Economic and Social History, 349, 422, 449.

2. Michelet, III, 348; Camb. Mod. Hy, I, 651; Belloc, How the Reformation Happened, 69.

3. Chapman, C. E., History of Spain, 139, 163.

4. Ibid., 216.

5. Burke, U. R., History of Spain, I, 404; Prescott, Ferdinand and Isabella, I, 338; Lea, Inquisition in Spain, I, 16.

6. Carpenter, Ed., Pagan and Christian Creeds, 25.

7. Graetz, Hy of the Jews, IV, 77.

8. Lea, op. cit., I, 64.

9. Graetz, IV, 79-84.

10. Michelet, vi, 4.

11. Roth C., Hy of the Marranos, 28.

12. Lea, Inquisition in Spain, I, 120.

13. Graetz, IV, 566.

14. Ibn Batuta, Travels, 315.

15. Ameer Ali, S., Short History of the Saracens, 570.

16. In Chapman, Hy of Spain, 200.

17. Pedraza in Prescott, Ferdinand and Isabella, I, 314.

18. Lane-Poole, The Moors in Spain, 232.

19. Ibid., 267.

20. Prescott, Ferdinand, I, 169.

21. Cf. Lea, Inquisition in Spain, I, 560-6.

22. Prescott, II, 340, note 46.

23. Lea, Spain, IV, 362.

24. Guizot, Hy of France, II, 564.

25. Letter to Fr. Vettori in Machiavelli, Hy of Florence, Appendix, p. 498; cf. The Prince, ch. xxi.

26. Guicciardini, History, IV, 108.

27. Hefele, K., Cardinal Ximenes, 40-4.

28. Graetz, IV, 315.

29. Lea, Spain, II, 511-13.

30. Ibid., III, 2; Ellis, H., Soul of Spain, 42.

31. Lea, Spain, I, 268, 100, 193; II, 323, 385.

32. Ibid., I, 235.

33. Ibid., I, 233-6; Pastor, IV, 400.

34. Lea, I, 178; II, 104-9, 401 f.; III, 184; Lacroix, P., Military and Religious Life in the Middle Ages, 433.

35. Graetz, IV, 313.

36. Lea, Spain, IV, 517.

37. Ibid.

38. Beginning of Psalm CXIV in the Vulgate translation.

39. Lea, Spain, I, 133.

40. Ibid.

41. Ibid., I, 134.

42. Prescott, Ferdinand, I, 514.

43. Graetz, IV, 391.

44. Ibid., 369.

45. Ibid., 370.

46. Ibid., 371; Abbott, Israel in Europe, 167.

47. Graetz, IV, 372.

48. Ibid., 376.

49. Marcus, The Jew in the Medieval World, 56-9.

50. Dozy, Spanish Islam, 268.

51. Arnold, T. W., The Preaching of Islam, 143.

52. Lea, Spain, III, 325.

53. Lane-Poole, Moors in Spain, 279.

54. Coulton, Inquisition and Liberty, 315.

55. Vacandard, The Inquisition, 198.

56. Santos y Olivera, La cathedral de Sevilla, 8.

57. Calvert, Moorish Remains in Spain, 383.

58. Post, C. R., History of Spanish Painting, VIII-2, 705.

59. In Ticknor, Hy of Spanish Literature, I, 227.

60. Prescott, Ferdinand, II, 448-9.

61. Ibid., 327.

62. Ibid., 332.

CHAPTER XII

1. France, A., Joan of Arc, II, 17.

2. Lacroix, Prostitution, II, 1040 f.

3. Thorndike, Lynn, History of Magic and Experimental Science, III, 18.

4. Lacroix, Science and Literature in the Middle Ages, 187.

5. Thorndike, III, 520.

6. Sarton, III-2, 1246.

7. Coulton, Social Life, 505.

8. Singer, C., Studies in the History and Method of Science, 191.

9. Lea, Inquisition in the Middle Ages, III, 461-5; Jusserand, English Wayfaring Life, 333.

10. Smith, P., Age of the Reformation, 655.

11. Sanger, Prostitution, 104.

12. Lea, Inquisition in the Middle Ages, III, 519.

13. Ibid., 543.

14. Sprenger, Malleus malefic arum, in Ibid., 502.

15. Michelet, III, 36.

16. Lea, Middle Ages, III, 549.

17. Cf. Thorndike, IV, ch. LI.

18. Id., III, II.

19. III, 30, 33.

20. 454.

21. 398-469.

22. Jusserand, Wayfaring Life, 328.

23. Abram, English Life and Manners, 205.

24. In Seebohm, Oxford Reformers, 211.

25. Paston Letters, 1,117.

26. De Wulf, Hy of Med. Philosophy, II, 168.

27. Thorndike, Science and Thought in the Fifteenth Century, 254.

28. Cambridge Hy of Poland, I, 274.

29. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 117.

30. Duhem, Études sur Léonard de Vinci, III, 388.

31. Gilson, La philosophie au Moyen Age, II, 388.

32. Kesten, Copernicus, 91.

33. Penrose, Travel and Discovery in the Renaissance, 19,

34. In Morison, S. E., Admiral of the Ocean Sea, 93.

35. Thorndike, IV, 102.

36. Ibid., 108.

37. Gilson, La philosophie au Moyen Age, II, 129; Sarton, III-i, 543-4; Duhem, III, chs. IX-X.

38. Ibid., 181 f.

39. Sarton, III-2, 1429-31.

40. Thompson, Social and Economic History, 503.

41. Usher, A. P., Hy of Mechanical Inventions, 127.

42. Lacroix, Science and Literature in the Middle Ages, 186.

43. Thorndike, III, 483.

44. Walsh, J. J., The Popes and Science, 79.

45. Froissart, iv, 51.

46. In Sarton, III-1, 870.

47. Castiglioni, Hy of Medicine, 381.

48. Coulton, Social Life, 330.

49. Ashley, Introd. to English Economic Hy, II, 318.

50. Lecky, Hy of European Morals, II, 86.

51. Ibid.

52. Beard, C., Luther, 56.

53. De Wulf, Hy of Med. Philosophy, II, 172.

54. Ockham, Super IV Lib. Sentent., 1, 27, 2, K, in Tornay, Ockham, 9.

55. Summa totius logicae, I, 12, in Tornay, 9-

56. Thomas Aquinas, Summa theologica, I, ii, 3.

57. Ockham, Super IV Lib. Sentent., IV, 12, K, in Tornay, 119.

58. Ibid., I, ii, 6, in Owen, Evenings with the Skeptics, II, 375.

59. Ibid., I, iii, 2. in Owen, II, 378.

60. Tornay, 63.

61. Gilson, Philosophie au Moyen Age, II, 104; Tornay, 58, 191-2.

62. Tornay, 186; Owen, II, 377.

63. De Wulf, Med. Philosophy, II, 184; Crump and Jacob, Legacy of the Middle Ages, 251.

64. Owen, II, 392,

65. Gilson, Reason and Revelation in the Middle Ages, 86.

66. Ockham, Centiloquium theologicum, ix, in Owen, II, 395.

67. Owen, II, 386.

68. Ibid., 396, 399.

69. Allen, J. W., Hy of Political Thought in the Sixteenth Century, 124.

70. Beer, Social Struggles in the Middle Ages, 112; Tornay, 81.

71. Carlyle, R. W., Medieval Political Theory, VI, 44.

72. De Wulf, Med. Philosophy, II, 187.

73. Jacobs, E. F., in History, XVI, no. 63, p. 218.

74. Rashdall, Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages, III, 265.

75. Owen, II, 410.

76. Duhem, Etudes, in Tornay, 51, 165.

77. Cunningham, W., Growth of English Industry and Commerce, 359.

78. Marsilius of Padua in Emerton, 35, 45, and passim.

79. Ibid., 39; Pastor, I, 78; Coulton, Medieval Panorama, 656.

80. Coker, F. W., Readings in Political Philosophy, 246-52.

81. Ibid., 25; Emerton, 22.

82. Defensor Pacis, i, 15, in Carlyle, R. W., Medieval Political Theory, VI, 41.

83. Coker, 257; Duhem, II, 106-7.

84. Thorndike, IV, 388.

85. Id., Science and Thought in Fifteenth Century, 296.

86. Ibid., 296, 136-7.

87. Nicholas of Cusa, De concordantia Catholica, in Hearnshaw, Thinkers of the Renaissance and Reformation, 44n.

88. Figgis, J. N., From Gerson to Grotius, 67.

89. In Pastor, II, 137,

90. Coulton, Med. Panorama, 528.

91. In Janssen, I, 3.

CHAPTER XIII

1. Morison, 24. The account henceforth follows this fascinating biography.

2. The evidence is presented in the early chapters of Madariaga, S. de, Christopher Columbus, esp. pp. 53-9, and 184.

3. Beazley, C. R., in En. Brit., VI, 78.

4. Penrose, 10.

5. Seneca, Medea, 364 f.

6. Morison, 72.

7. Roth, C., Jewish Contribution to Civilization, 74.

8. Lea, Spain, I, 259.

9. Morison, 229.

10. Ibid., 231-3.

11. 115.

12. David, M., Who Was Columbus?, 70.

13. Morison, 576.

14. Ibid., 617.

15. En. Brit., XXIII, 107c. For a recent defense of Vespucci cf. Arciniegas, G., Amerigo and the New World.

CHAPTER XIV

1. Froude, Erasmus, 110.

2. One of many bon mots appropriated from Mrs. Will Durant by the laws of community property.

3. Letter to Wm. Gauden in Froude, Erasmus, 32-3.

4. In Smith, P., Erasmus, 28.

5. Erasmus, Colloquies, II, 326 f.

6. Id., Epistles, I, 127.

7. Smith, Erasmus, 60; Froude, Erasmus, 45.

8. Smith, Erasmus, 63.

9. Erasmus, Epistles, II, 117.

10. Froude, Erasmus, 80.

11. Smith, 32.

12. Epistles, I, 301, 307.

13. Froude, 80-1.

14. Epistles, I, 370.

15. Colloquies, II, 13-35.

16. In Froude, 91.

17. Erasmus, In Praise of Folly, 14, 30, 33.

18. Ibid., 51.

19. 127.

20. 138.

21. 67.

22. 131-4.

23. 86-8.

24. 175.

25. 169-74.

26. 207.

27. Epistles, II, 168.

28. On Erasmus’ authorship cf. Allen, P. S., The Age of Erasmus, 185-9, an d Chambers, R. W., Thomas More, 114-5.

29. In Froude, 150-68.

30. Epistles, III, 418.

31. Colloquies, I, 298.

32. Ibid., 391; II, 13, 34.

33. Colloquies, I, 298.

34. Ibid., 229, 236.

35. Ibid., II, 161.

36. I, 22.

37. I, 24, 35.

38. Smith, 299.

39. Froude, 121 and Smith, 171.

40. In Froude, 126.

41. Smith, Age of Reformation, 58.

42. Epistles, II, 400.

43. Ibid., 464.

44. 249.

45. Erasmus, Education of a Christian Prince, 173; Smith, Erasmus, 201, 217.

46. Epistles, II, 201.

47. Education, 253,

48. Epistles, II, 517.

49. “Peace Protests!” in Chapiro, J., Erasmus and Our Struggle for Peace, 153-65.

50. Ibid., 168.

51. 81.

52. Epistles, II, 120.

53. Letter to Zwingli, Sept 5, 1522.

54. Epistles, II, 421.

55. “Peace Protests!” in Chapiro, 173, 183.

56. Tract “On the Immense Mercy of God” in Bainton, Reformation of the Sixteenth Century, 218.

57. Froude, 195.

58. Erasmus, In Praise of Folly, 48.

59. Froude, 108.

60. Folly, 215.

61. Froude, 130-1, 144.

62. Beard, Luther, 97.

63. Erasmus, Encheiridion, in Beard, 98.

64. Letter of March 25, 1520, m Murray, Erasmus and Luther, 83.

65. Colloquies, I, 98.

66. Ibid., 182.

67. Letter of Jan. 5, 1523, in Chapiro, 105.

68. Epistles, II, 143; Froude, 171-2.

69. Epistles, II, 163, 327.

70. Smith, Erasmus, 150.

71. Epistles, III, iv

72. Smith, 155.

73. Cf., e.g., Smith, 176-9.

74. Epistles, I, 42.

75. In Froude, 172.

76. Epistles, II, 176.

77. Ibid., III, 186.

78. Ibid., 94.

79. Letters to Fabricius Capito, Feb. 26, 1517, and to Leo X in Epistles, II, 505, 521.

80. Epistles, III, 48.

CHAPTER XV

1. Bax, German Society at Close of the Middle Ages, 54-6.

2. Rickard, Man and Metals, II, 562.

3. Janssen, II, 39, 41; Kautsky, 91.

4. Adams, B., Law of Civilization and Decay, 56.

5. Strieder, J., Jacob Fugger, 124,

6. Ibid., 86-9.

7. Crump, Legacy of Middle Ages, 449; Janssen, II, 87; Schapiro, J. S., Social Reform and the Reformation, 32.

8. Janssen, II, 85.

9. Ibid., 88.

10. Bax, German Society, 234-5; Schapiro, 29.

11. In Schapiro, 30.

12. Janssen, II, 88; Boissonade, Life and Work in Medieval Europe, 299.

13. Schapiro, 30.

14. Ibid., 31.

15. Schoenhof, Money and Prices, 72.

16. Janssen, II, 82.

17. Ibid., 3.

18. Adams, B., Civilization and Decay, 56.

19. Janssen, II, 60; Francke, Hy of German Literature, 103.

20. Janssen, I, 140.

21. Erasmus, Epistles, II, 175.

22. Comines, Memoirs, v, 18.

23. Ranke, Reformation, 100, 108-9.

24. In Villari, Machiavelli, I, 444; Janssen II, 202.

25. Creighton, Hy of the Papacy, IV, 94.

26. Janssen, II, 260.

27. Schoenfeld, Women of the Teutonic Nations, 188 f.

28. Beard, Luther, 147.

29. Müller-Lyer, Evolution of Modern Marriage, 57.

30. En. Brit., XVIII, 598b.

31. Schoenfeld, 181.

32. Schultz, A., Deutsches Leben in XIV und XV Jahrhundert, I, 277, 283.

33. Lacroix, Prostitution, I, 165-7.

34. Coulton, Medieval Village, 248; Headlam, Nuremberg, 163-4.

35. Ibid., 164-8.

36. Camb. Mod. Hy, I, 638.

37. In Whitcomb, Literary Source Book of the German Renaissance, 63.

38. Richard, E., Hy of German Civilization, 219.

39. Janssen, II, 64.

40. Ibid., 6.

41. Janssen, I, 168.

42. Speculum, Jan. 1931.

43. In Headlam, Nuremberg, 208.

44. Cf. Glück, Die Kunst der Renaissance in Deutschland, 100-1; Haug, H., Grünewald, 1-3, 13-18.

45. Cf. Bock, Geschichte der Graphischen Kunst, 260-1.

46. The ascription of this picture to Grünewald follows Haug. Stänge assigns it to the Master of the House Book.

47. N. Y. Times, April 7, 1928.

48. In Cust, Paintings and Drawings of Albrecht Dürer, 17.

49. Camerarius in La Fargue, Great Masters, 197.

50. Panofsky, Dürer, I, 43.

51. Ibid., II.

52. Ibid., 8.

53. Cust, 59; Janssen, XI, 94.

54. N.Y. Times magazine, April 8,1928, p. 11.

55. Cust, 31.

56. In Panofsky, I, 44.

57. Panofsky, II, fig. 171.

58. Id., I, 6.

59. Ibid., 208.

60. In Scott, W. B., Albert Dürer, 136.

61. Ibid., 154-6.

62. Janssen, I, 301.

63. Hughes, P., The Reformation in England, I, 100; Beard, Luther, 53.

64. In La Tour, Les origines de la Réforme, II, 340.

65. In Janssen, I, 78.

66. In Thompson, Social and Economic Hy, 604.

67. Janssen, I, 108.

68. Schoenfeld, Women of the Teutonic Nations, 218.

69. In Smith, Age of the Reformation, 54.

70. Strauss, D., Ulrich von Hutten, 22.

71. Creighton, Hy of the Papacy, VI, 32.

72. Robertson, J. M., Hy of Freethought, I, 435.

73. Creighton, VI, 31.

74. Ibid., 32.

75. Acton, Lectures on Modern History, 84.

76. Ranke, Reformation, 135; Beard, Luther, 85.

77. In Janssen, I, 104.

78. Strauss, Hutten, 112 f .

79. Henderson, E., Hy of Germany in the Middle Ages, 131.

80. Janssen, I, 278.

81. Camb. Mod. Hy, I, 675.

82. Lacroix, Prostitution, 960.

83. Strauss, 89.

84. Janssen, III, 74.

85. Ibid.

86. Strauss, 83.

87. Janssen, III, 72.

88. Letter of Nov. 1519 in Froude, Erasmus, 252.

89. Lea, Inquisition in the Middle Ages, III, 89.

90. Janssen, II, 298; Ranke, 140; Beard, Luther, 48.

91. Preface to Luther’s edition of Wessel’s Farrago, in Creighton, Papacy, VI, 7.

92. Ranke, 120.

93. Beard, Luther, 35.

94. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 106.

95. Tawney, R. H., Religion and the Rise of Capitalism, 138.

96. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 106.

97. Janssen, II, 292-6; cf. III, 77, and Catholic Encyclopedia, IX, 446.

98. Thompson, 500.

99. Pastor, VII, 326.

100. In Pastor, II, 413; italics mine.

101. Pastor, III, 194; 98 f.; Camb. Mod. Hy, I, 689.

102. Pastor, VI, 85.

103. Pastor, I, 157-8.

104. Camb. Mod. Hy, I, 690.

CHAPTER XVI

1. Acton, Lectures on Modern Hy, 91; Thompson, Social and Economic Hy, 425, 428; Ranke, Reformation, 151.

2. Friar Myconius in Thatcher, O. J., Source Book for Medieval Hy, 339.

3. In Robertson, W., Charles V, I, 372.

4. Pastor, VII, 349.

5. Luther, Works, I, 26; Thesis 75.

6. Beard, Luther, 257.

7. Acton, 97.

8. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 127.

9. Ranke, Reformation, 154.

10. Beard, 121; Smith, P., Luther, 2.

11. In D’Arcy, M. C., Thomas Aquinas, 254.

12. Ranke, 144; Beard, 156.

13. Beard, 165.

14. Luther, Tischreden, lxxvii, in Gregorovius, Hy of Rome, VIII-1, 249.

15. Ganss, H. G., in Cath. En., IX, 441.

16. In Janssen, III, 97.

17. Ibid., 89.

18. Cath. En., IX, 442.

19. In Pastor, VII, 354.

20. Cath. En., IX, 443.

21. In Beard, 231-3.

22. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 132.

23. Ranke, 160.

24. Roscoe, Wm., Leo X, II, 95, 105-7.

25. Pastor, VII, 367.

26. H. von Schubert in Smith, Luther, ix.

27. In Pastor, VII, 378.

28. Smith, Reformation, 700.

29. Beard, 270.

30. Ibid., 273-4; Ranke, 195; Cath. En., IX, 443; Acton, 94-5.

31. Pastor, VII, 382; Beard, 272.

32. Smith, Luther, 56.

33. Cath. En., IX, 444.

34. Smith, Luther, 71.

35. Letter of Aug. 20, 1531, in Froude, Erasmus, 397.

36. In Ledderhose, Life of Melanchthon, 30.

37. In Beard, 279.

38. In Strauss, Hutten, 263.

39. In Pastor, VII, 389; Janssen, III, III.

40. Strauss, 225.

41. Werke, VIII, 203, in Beard, 352.

42. Pastor, VII, 384; Smith, Luther, 75,

43. Luther, Works, II, 63.

44. Ibid., 69-70.

45. 76.

46. 78.

47. 83-99, italics mine.

48. 110-42.

49. 138-9.

50. Babylonian Captivity, in Works, II, 188.

51. Ibid., 257.

52. In Janssen, III, 129.

53. Works, II, 269-71.

54. Ibid., 293.

55. 302-10.

56. 299.

57. 331.

58. 318.

59. Ranke, 215; Pastor, VII, 400-8; Janssen, III, 30.

60. Ranke, 220; Beard, 375.

61. Hume, M., The Spanish People, 331.

62. Adams, Brooks, Civilization and Decay, 98.

63. Strieder, Jacob Fugger, 153.

64. Michelet, III, 174.

65. Thompson, Social and Economic History, 428.

66. Armstrong, E., Charles V, I, 69.

67. Janssen, III, 173.

68. Pastor, VII, 423.

69. Lingard, Hy of England, IV, 225.

70. In Janssen, III, 172; Bainton, Here I Stand, 175.

71. Strauss, 276 f.

72. Beard, 421-3.

73. Janssen, III, 182.

74. Beard, 432.

75. Bainton, Here I Stand, 185.

76. Ibid.; Schaff, German Reformation, 29.

77. Bainton, Here I Stand, 185; cf. Cath. En. IX, 446d, and the Protestant authors there cited.

78. Creighton, Hy of the Papacy, VI, 176.

79. Carlyle, Thos., Heroes and Hero Worship, 360.

80. Bainton, Here 1 Stand, 186.

81. Acton, 101.

82. Bainton, 189.

83. Ibid., 195.

84. Taylor, H. O., Thought and Expression in the 16th Century, II, 213.

85. Bax, German Society, 142; Lecky, History of Rationalism, I, 22.

86. Janssen, III, 246-8.

87. Bainton, 200.

88. Ibid., 205-6; Ranke, 251.

89. Luther, Works, III, 206-7.

90. Ibid., 211.

91. Ranke, 254.

92. Bainton, 208.

93. Janssen, III, 259.

94. Ibid., 263.

95. Bainton, 214.

96. Beard, 127.

97. Janssen, IV, 98.

98. Smith, Luther, 155.

99. Ibid., 168.

100. 380.

101. Froude, Erasmus, 294.

102. Janssen, XIV, 408.

103. Luther, Table Talk, 118.

104. Werke (Walch), VIII, 2042, in Beard, The Reformation of the 16th Century in Relation to Modern Thought and Knowledge, 161.

105. Luther, Table Talk, 353.

106. Luther, Werke (Erlangen), VI, 142-8, in Maritain, Three Reformers, 33, and Beard, Reformation, 156.

107. In Paulsen, German Education, 47.

108. In Janssen, III, 240.

109. Schaff, German Reformation, 35-6.

110. Luther, T.T., 24.

111. Smith, Luther, xi.

112. T.T., 2.

113. Ibid., 91, 96.

114. 67.

115. 15.

116. 797; Smith, Luther, 362.

117. T.T., 574.

118. Sermon of March 6, J521; Janssen, XII, 316.

119. Maritain, Three Reformers, 30.

120. Smith, Reformation, 653.

121. Lecky, Rationalism, I, 22.

122. T.T., 577, 597; Janssen, XIV, 87.

123. Janssen, XII, 317.

124. Lecky, Rationalism, I, 23.

125. T.T., 579-86, 608.

126. Luther, Works, III, 235-7.

127. Works, II, 391.

128. Ibid., 316.

129. T.T., 283.

130. Romans, x, 9.

131. Mark, xvi, 16.

132. Works, II, 316.

133. Werke, XL, 436; XXV, 330, 142, 130; Werke (Erlangen), XVIII, 260.

134. Werke (Erlangen), XX, 58; LX, 107-8; Werke (Weimar), X-2, 276.

135. O’Brien, G., Economic Effects of the Reformation, 41.

136. Works, II, 328-9.

137. Ibid., 331.

138. Romans, ix, 18.

139. Luther, De servo arbitrio, in Janssen, IV, 104.

140. De servo arbitrio, in Lecky, Rationalism, I, 140.

141. In Fülöp-Miller, R., Saints That Moved the World, 291.

142. Janssen, IV, 114.

143. T.T., 96.

144. Ibid., 178.

145. Works, II, 188.

146. Werke, XXVIII, 142-201, in Bax, German Society, 188-90.

147. Works, III, 258-61.

148. In Janssen, III, 268.

149. In Allen, J. W., Political Thought, 330.

150. Works, IV, 25.

151. Ibid., 26, 29.

152. Works, II, 160.

153. Ibid., IV, 35.

CHAPTER XVII

1. Richard, E., German Civilization, 250.

2. Janssen, III, 214.

3. Pastor, IX, 134.

4. Schapiro, J. S., Social Reform, 34-5.

5. Richard, 250; Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 174.

6. Luther, Works, III, 204-5.

7. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 183.

8. Janssen, III, 221; Schapiro, 103-14.

9. Janssen, III, 223; Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 177.

10. Janssen, III, 342.

11. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 193.

12. Kautsky, 116-119.

13. Ibid., 121.

14. 130.

15. Ranke, Reformation, 338.

16. In Kautsky, 139.

17. Ibid., 144.

18. Luther, Works, IV, 210-16.

19. Ibid., 220-1.

20. 240.

21. 244.

22. Ranke, 459.

23. Janssen, IV, 166; Bax, Peasant? War, 79-84.

24. Ranke, 348-9.

25. Robinson, J. H., Readings in European Hy, 289 f; Bax, Peasants’ War, 156-60.

26. Ranke, 344.

27. Bax, Peasants’ War, 101.

28. Ibid., 118-30.

29. In Janssen, IV, 208

30. Bax, 76, 224.

31. Ibid., 205.

32. 229.

33. Luther, Works, IV, 248-54.

34. Bax, 265-6.

35. Ibid., 312-5.

36. 303.

37. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 191.

38. Bax, 336-7.

39. Armstrong, Charles V, I, 222.

40. Ranke, 360.

41. Schapiro, 86; Smith, Luther, 164.

42. Ibid., 165.

43. 164.

44. Works, IV, 261.

45. Ibid., 261-72.

46. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 192.

47. Ranke, 728.

48. Payne, E. A., Anabaptists, 11.

49. Kautsky, 164..

50. Ibid., 166.

51. Allen, Political Thought, 43.

52. Ranke, 732-3.

53. Schaff, Swiss Reformation, 82.

54. Janssen, IV, 114.

55. Kautsky, 176.

56. Ibid., 185.

57. 187.

58. Ranke, 729.

59. Kautsky, 192.

60. Ranke, 757.

61. Kautsky, 255-6.

62. Ibid., 257.

63. 260.

64. 273.

65. Ranke, 745-6.

66. Smithson, R. J., Anabaptists, 179-80.

67. Kautsky, 290; Ranke, 755.

68. Smithson, 181.

69. Fosdick, Great Voices of the Reformation, 285.

70. Payne, Anabaptists, 16.

CHAPTER XVIII

1. Cath. En., XV, 773.

2. Schaff, Swiss Ref., 6.

3. Ibid.

4. Hughes, Reformation, I, 124.

5. Schaff, 24.

6. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 713.

7. Schaff, 32.

8. Ranke, 513.

9. Schaff, 52-3.

10. Fosdick, 183.

11. Ibid., 173, 191,

12. Lea, Auricular Confession, I, 519.

13. Fosdick, 190.

14. Schaff, 59.

15. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 321, 334.

16. Smith, Erasmus, 391.

17. Schaff, 94.

18. Bainton, Hunted Heretic, 36-8.

19. Erasmus, Epistle of May 9, 1529, in Schaff, Swiss Reformation, 112.

20. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 207-10.

21. In Janssen, V, 231.

22. Schaff, 177.

23. Ibid.

24. Bossuet, Variations, II, 29.

25. En. Brit., XXIII, 998.

26. Schaff, 188.

27. Smith, Luther, 290.

28. T.T., 801.

CHAPTER XIX

1. Kauffmann Collection, Berlin.

2. Werke, XLII, 582, in Maritain, 171.

3. Werke, X-2, 304, in Maritain, 171.

4. T.T., 715.

5. Ibid., 752.

6. Maulde, Women of the Renaissance, 467.

7. Werke, X-2, 301, in Maritain, 184.

8. Bainton, Here I Stand, 299.

9. T.T., 715.

10. Bainton, 301.

11. T.T., 737.

12. Ibid., 751.

13. In Schaff, Swiss Reformation, 417.

14. In Fosdick, 71.

15. Smith, Luther, 354.

16. Schaff, German Reformation, 465,

17. Bainton, 304.

18. Smith, 320.

19. Letter to Pope Leo, 1520.

20. Luther, Works, I, 7.

21. Janssen, XI, 349; Luther, Works, II, 231; Bainton, 295.

22. Bainton, 295.

23. Janssen, III, 242.

24. Werke, VIII, 624, in Maritain, 188.

25. In Carpenter, Pagan and Christian Creeds, 207.

26. T.T., 462.

27. Werke, XXV, 108, in Cath. En., IX, 447b.

28. T.T., 319.

29. Gasquet, Eve of the Reformation, 173.

30. Smith, Luther, 407; Bainton, Here I Stand, 295.

31. Smith, 355.

32. Ibid., 326.

33. In Janssen, XI, 253.

34. Bainton, 225.

35. T.T., 100.

36. Smith, Luther, 322.

37. Ibid., 349.

38. Ibid.

39. Janssen, XII, 16; T.T., 114.

40. Ibid., 257.

41. 91, 96.

42. 780.

43. Jusserand, Literary History of the English People, II, 167

44. T.T., 841.

45. Ibid., 413.

46. Luther, Works, I, 76.

47. Ibid., 142.

48. Works, III, 251.

49. Bainton, Here, 314.

50. PForfo., III, 204, 207.

51. Preface to the Shorter Catechism.

52. Werke (Erlangen), XXIX, 46-74, in Jewish Encyc., VIII, 213.

53. T.T., 275.

54. Werke (Erlangen), XXXII, 217-33, in Janssen, III, 211-12.

55. Werke (Erlangen), XXVIII, 144, in Maritain, 15.

56. Letter of Aug. 26, 1529, to Jos. Metsch, in Smith, Luther, 218.

57. In Froude, Erasmus, 389.

58. T.T., 61.

59. Putnam, Books, II, 244.

60. Werke, XXXI-i, 208 f.

61. Werke (Erlangen), XVI, in Allen, Political Thought, 27.

62. Bax, Peasants’ War, 352.

63. Smith, Luther, xiv.

64. Id., Reformation, 645.

65. Janssen, IV, 140-1.

66. Murray, Erasmus and Luther, 366.

67. Janssen, XIV, 503.

68. Janssen, V, 290.

69. Luther, Commentary on Psalm LXXXII.

70. Janssen, V, 491, 502, 505.

71. Janssen, VI, 46-63, 181, 190, 208-14, 348-9; Lecky, Rationalism, II, 15.

72. Janssen, IV, 232 f.

73. Lea, Studies in Church History, 492.

74. T.T., 389.

75. Smith, Reformation, 104; Panofsky, Dürer, I, 233; Cath. En., IX, 447c.

76. Janssen, III, 198.

77. Ibid., 342.

78. Robertson, J. M., Freethought, I, 455.

79. Erasmus, letter to Pirkheimer, Feb. 21, 1529.

80. Janssen, III, 361.

81. Strauss, Hutten, 290.

82. Smith, Erasmus, 233.

83. In Michelet, III, 170.

84. Smith, Erasmus, 334.

85. Letter of March 5, 1518.

86. Letter of October 17, 1518.

87. In Froude, Erasmus, 139.

88. Smith, Erasmus, 219.

89. Ibid., 221.

90. Ibid., 22; Froude, Erasmus, 233-4.

91. In Murray, Erasmus, 76.

92. Froude, 270-2.

93. Smith, Erasmus, 241.

94. Ibid., 255.

95. Erasmus, Epistles, I, ep. lxxxv.

96. Ibid., ep. ccclxvi.

97. Froude, 308.

98. Letter of Feb., 1523, in Froude, 310.

99. Acton, 105; Lecky, Rationalism, I, 140.

100. Ibid.

101. Bainton, Here I Stand, 254-5.

102. Froude, 340, 381.

103. In Allen, Political Thought, 80.

104. Froude, 403.

105. Ibid., 352.

106. In Froude, 400.

107. Erasmus, Hyperaspistes.

108. In Froude, 352.

109. Walpole, H., Letters, III, 184.

110. Beard, Luther, 93.

111. Acton, 89.

CHAPTER XX

1. Janssen, IV, 62.

2. Cf. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 159.

3. Janssen, VI, 534.

4. Janssen, V, 277.

5. Lea, Clerical Celibacy, 530.

6. Janssen, VII, 247.

7. Id., IV, 47.

8. Id., IX, 130.

9. Id., XIII, 24.

10. Froude, Erasmus, 387.

11. Vambéry, 283.

12. Janssen, IV, 119.

13. Ibid., 109-11.

14. En. Brit., XI, 288.

15. Janssen, V, 271; Ranke, 614.

16. Cath. En., XI, 453.

17. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 219.

18. Janssen, V, 423.

19. Luther, Works, V, 128; Pastor, XI, 69, 81-7.

20. Janssen, V, 495 f; Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 233.

21. Pastor, XI, 362-3.

22. Ibid., 375-98.

23. Ledderhose, 177-82.

24. Ibid., 188.

25. Cath. En., IX, 452d.

26. In Bainton, Here I Stand, 346.

27. Pastor, XI, 67.

28. Smith, Luther, 309.

29. Werke (Walch), XX, 223, in Cath. En., IX, 45 6d.

30. Luther, Works, V, 163.

31. In Tawney, Religion and the Rise of Capitalism, 101; Bainton, Here I Stand, 238.

32. Werke, XIX, 626, in Allen, Political Thought, 22.

33. Bax, Peasants’ War, 351.

34. Werke, XV, 276, in Bax, 352.

35. Smith, Luther, 374.

36. Letter of Sept. 3, 1531.

37. Smith, 196.

38. In Bebel, Woman under Socialism, 68.

39. Janssen, VI, 81-6.

40. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 241.

41. Ledderhose, 170.

42. Janssen, VI, 122.

43. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 241.

44. In Smith, Luther, 399 f.; Pastor, XI, 215 f.

45. Werke, XXV, 124-55, in Janssen, VI, 271-2, and Pastor, XII, 216 f.

46. Weber, Hermann, On Means for the Prolongation of Life, 48.

47. Smith, Luther, 405.

48. Ibid., 409.

49. James, Wm., Varieties of Religious Belief, 137.

50. Ibid.

51. T.T., 633.

52. Ibid., 15.

53. 19.

54. 235.

55. In Robertson, Charles V, II, 158n.

56. Smith, Luther, 419.

57. Armstrong, Charles V, 1,138.

58. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 276.

59. Ibid., 278.

60. Schaff, Swiss Reformation, 387, 548; Janssen, XIV, 149.

61. Id., VII, 139.

62. Id., IV, 362-3; Schapiro, 78; Allen, Political Thought, 33.

63. In La Tour, IV, 161.

64. In Janssen, VII, 139.

CHAPTER XXI

1. Cath. En., III, 196.

2. Beza in Schaff, Swiss Ref., 302.

3. La Tour, IV, 11.

4. Calvin, Institutes, Preface, 20-2, 39-40.

5. Institutes, I, viii, 1.

6. Ibid., II, 19.

7. Ephesians, i, 3-7.

8. Institutes, III, xxi-xxii.

9. Romans, ix, 15.

10. Institutes, II, xxi, 7.

11. Consensus Genevensis in Schaff, Swiss Ref., 554.

12. Institutes, III, xxi, 1.

13. Ibid.

14. III, xxiii, 7.

15. IV, i, 10.

16. IV, i, 4.

17. Allen, Political Thought, 61; Hearnshaw, Thinkers of the Renaissance and the Reformation, 211.

18. Institutes, IV, xix, 3.

19. III, xxi, I.

20. Schaff, 558.

21. Institutes, III, ix, 4.

22. Ibid.

23. III, ix, 6.

24. For: La Tour, IV, 32, and Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 358; against: Cath. En., III, 196a.

25. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 360.

26. Robinson, Readings, 299.

27. Schaff, 361.

28. Ibid., 414.

29. 412.

30. 426.

31. 437.

32. Robinson, Readings, 300.

33. La Tour, IV, 178.

34. Villari, Savonarola, 491.

35. Schaff, 492.

36. Beard, The Reformation, 250.

37. Ibid., Schaff, 491.

38. Ibid., 492.

39. O’Brien, Economic Effects, 101.

40. As by Weber, Max, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, passim; Barnes, Economic Hy of the Western World, 201-2; and O’Brien, 129.

41. Institutes, III, vii, 5.

42. Cf. O’Brien, 100.

43. Ibid., 20.

44. Tawney, 119.

45. Barnes, Economic History, 201.

46. Schaff, 644.

47. Beard, The Reformation, 252: Muir, John Knox, 108.

48. Smith, Reformation, 174.

49. Schaff, 519.

50. Ibid., 839.

51. La Tour, IV, 206.

52. Schaff, 739.

53. La Tour, IV, 200; Schaff, 594.

54. Schaff, 618.

55. Ibid., 502.

56. Robertson, J. M., Freethought, I, 443-4.

57. Servetus, De Trinitatis erroribus, i, 94b, in Bainton, Hunted Heretic, 48.

58. Servetus, ibid., i, 34; Newman, L. I., Jewish Influence on Christian Reform Movements, 584.

59. Bainton, Hunted Heretic, 144.

60. Ibid.

61. Ibid., 147.

62. Schaff, 733.

63. Bury, J. B., History of Freedom of Thought, 64.

64. Schaff, 770.

65. Ibid., 764, 773; Bainton, 191.

66. Bainton, 188.

67. Schaff, 777.

68. Ibid., 778.

69. Bainton, 185.

70. Ibid., 209-11; Schaff, 710, 781-4.

71. Schaff, 784.

72. Walker, John Calvin, 425.

73. Schaff, 707-8.

74. Ibid.

75. 709.

76. In Allen, Political Thought, 87.

77. Castellio in Allen, 90-4; Haydn, Counter-Renaissance, 104.

78. In Allen, 98.

79. Time magazine, Feb. 22, 1954.

80. Schaff, 652n.

CHAPTER XXII

1. In Lacroix, Prostitution, II, 1142.

2. Ibid., 1141.

3. 1130.

4. Taylor, R., Leonardo, 444.

5. Sichel, Catherine de’ Medici and the French Reformation, 38.

6. Erasmus, Colloquies, II, 54.

7. Erasmus, Epistles, II, 468.

8. Michelet, III, 175.

9. E.g., Aretino, La cortigiana, in Dialogues, 228.

10. Batiffol, Century of the Renaissance, 44.

11. Lacroix, Prostitution, II, 1131.

12. Cellini, Autobiography, ii, 10.

13. Guizot, Hy of France, III, 81.

14. Ibid., Michelet, III, 218.

15. Michelet, III, 148.

16. Sichel, Women and Men of the French Renaissance, 87.

17. Ibid.

18. Michelet, III, 135.

19. Sichel, Women, 193.

20. Faguet, Literary History of France, 281.

21. Margaret, Queen of Navarre, Heptameron, xli.

22. In Maulde, 354.

23. Margaret, Heptameron, 36.

24. In Maulde, 53.

25. Ibid., 297.

26. In Sichel, Women, 195.

27. Ibid., 371.

28. 180.

29. Boyd, French Renaissance, 25.

30. Sichel, Catherine de’ Medici and the French Reformation, 138.

31. Sichel, Women, 104.

32. Michelet, III, 136.

33. Camb. Mod. Hy, I, 659.

34. Ibid.

35. Lacroix, Prostitution, II, 1247.

36. Margaret, Heptameron, Tale 22.

37. Ibid., xlii.

38. In Guizot, III, 187.

39. Ibid., 196.

40. 197.

41. Roeder, Catherine de’ Medici, 54.

42. La Tour, II, 237 f.

43. Michelet, III, 216.

44. Guizot, III, 216.

45. Schaff, Swiss Reformation, 320.

46. Ibid., 320; La Tour, II, 556-7.

47. Sichel, Women, 18.

48. Guizot, III, 220.

49. La Tour, II, 612.

50. Michelet, III, 319; Guizot, III, 229; Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 289.

51. Guizot, III, 15.

52. Ibid., 73.

53. Ibid., 91; Michelet, III, 239.

54. Guizot, III, 95.

55. Ibid., 91.

56. Michelet, III, 244.

57. Robertson, W., Charles V, 538.

58. Guizot, III, 105-6.

59. Ibid., 116.

60. Camb. Mod. Hy, III, 105.

61. Guizot, III, 129; Robertson, Charles V, II, 57-60.

62. Michelet, III, 316; Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 77.

63. Janssen, VI, 358.

64. Michelet, III, 293-4.

65. Hackett, Francis I, 428.

66. Brantôme in Guizot, III, 192.

67. Sichel, Catherine, 51.

68. D’Orliac, The Moon Mistress, 186.

69. Janssen, VI, 359.

70. Michelet, III, 366.

71. Guizot, III, 281.

72. Pastor, XII, 486.

73. Batiffol, 175.

74. Robertson, Charles V, 11, 351.

75. Guizot, III, 261.

CHAPTER XXIII

1. Pollard, Henry VIII, 39.

2. Froude, Erasmus, 142.

3. Chambers, Thomas More, 99.

4. Erasmus, Epistles, I, 457.

5. Froude, Henry VIII, I, 30; Ep. 447 in Froude, Erasmus, 107.

6. Seebohm, Oxford Reformers, 261-6.

7. Erasmus, Epistles, II, 546.

8. Guicciardini, VIII, 126.

9. Pollard, 67.

10. Creighton, Cardinal Wolsey, 48.

11. Gasquet, Henry VIII and the English Monasteries, I, 69.

12. Robinson, J. H., Readings, 303.

13. Burnet, History of the Reformation, 1,6.

14. Chambers, More, 158; Hughes, Reformation, I, 80.

15. Ibid.

16. Creighton, Wolsey, 59.

17. Burnet, I, 15.

18. Lingard, IV, 192.

19. Robinson, Readings, 303.

20. Pollard, 110.

21. Robinson, i.e.

22. Lingard, IV, 193; Chambers, More, 173-4; Hughes, I, 109.

23. Froude, Henry VIII, I, 60; but cf. Hughes, I, 58 f.

24. Hughes, I, 103n.

25. Belloc, How the Reformation Happened, 117.

26. Seebohm, 230-46.

27. Coulton, Panorama, 718.

28. Froude, Henry VIII, II, 114-5.

29. Hughes, I, 49-50.

30. Froude, I, 350.

31. Hughes, I, 50-66.

32. Gasquet, Monasteries, II, 237; Trevelyan, English Social Hy, 73.

33. Ibid.

34. Hughes, I, 57-8.

35. Coulton, Panorama, 554.

36. Hughes, I, 150.

37. Ibid., 127-9.

38. 202.

39. Smith, Luther, 193.

40. Coulton, Life in the Middle Ages, II, 143; Gasquet, Eve, 213.

41. Camb. Mod. Hy, I, 640.

42. Beard, Reformation, 305.

43. Ibid.

44. Hughes, I, 146.

45. Froude, I, 319, 336.

46. Burnet, I, 16.

47. Gasquet, Monasteries, I, 85-8.

48. Froude, I, 81.

49. Burnet, I, 26.

50. Hughes, I, 67-70.

51. Pollard, 174.

52. Burnet, I, 27.

53. Pollard, 76, 176.

54. Froude, I, 74n.

55. Pollard, 183.

56. Ibid., 135.

57. Froude, Divorce of Catherine of Aragon, 47.

58. Pastor, X, 241.

59. Froude, Divorce, 47.

60. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 431.

61. Pastor, X, 244.

62. Pollard, 207.

63. Ibid., 208.

64. Pastor, X, 257-8; Hughes, I, 175-9; Acton, 139.

65. Hughes, I, 176.

66. Pastor, X, 267,

67. Pollard, 225.

68. Burnet, I, 55.

69. Froude, Reign of Elizabeth, III, 259.

70. Froude, Divorce, 190.

71. Hughes, I, 181.

72. Cavendish, Life of Wolsey, in Froude, Henry VIII, III, 115.

73. Creighton, Wolsey, 186.

74. Pollard, 223-4.

75. Creighton, 185.

76. Burnet, I, 61.

77. Creighton, 194.

78. Froude, Divorce, 138.

79. Creighton, 205.

CHAPTER XXIV

1. Froude, Divorce, 166, 81.

2. Pollard, 250-1.

3. Trevelyan, Social Hy, 102.

4. Pollard, 237.

5. Froude, Henry VIII, I, 128-35.

6. Ibid., 139.

7. 162.

8. Sichel, Women, 176.

9. Lingard, IV, 273.

10. Prescott, H. F., Mary Tudor, 38.

11. Schuster, M. L., Treasury of the World’s Great Letters, 77.

12. Froude, Henry VIII, I, 218.

13. Ibid., 265.

14. Pollard, 187.

15. Ibid., 300.

16. Gasquet, Monasteries, I, 122, 129, 134 f.

17. Pollard, 304-5.

18. Chambers, More, 323, 326; Lingard, IV. 19.

19. Froude, Henry VIII, II, 82.

20. Burnet, I, 123-5.

21. Erasmus, Epistles, II, 186.

22. Pollard, 305; Froude, Council of Trent, 116-7.

23. Chambers, More, 334.

24. Prescott, Mary Tudor, 60.

25. Roper, More, 46.

26. Hughes, I, 345.

27. Cf., e.g., Chambers, More, 191, 193,

28. Erasmus, Epistles, II, 427.

29. Jusserand, Wayfaring Life, 354.

30. Froude, Erasmus, 103-7; Chambers, More, 75.

31. Chapiro, 36.

32. Erasmus, Epistles, II, 423.

33. Chambers, More, 125.

34. More, Utopia, 168.

35. Ibid., 213.

36. 247.

37. Ibid.

38. 303.

39. 322-5.

40. 323.

41. 320.

42. 335.

43. 290-1.

44. 215-347, 209.

45. 178-9.

46. 343-4.

47. Froude, Henry VIII, I, 347.

48. Chambers, More, 276.

49. Ibid., 281.

50. Cf. Coulton, Panorama, 709.

51. More, English Works, 586, in Taylor, Thought and Expression, II, 68.

52. Roper, 89.

53. Ibid., 109.

54. Hearnshaw, Thinkers of the Renaissance, 146.

55. Roper, 126.

56. Chambers, More, 349.

57. Froude, Henry VIII, II, 95.

58. Erasmus, Letters of Aug. 24 and 31,1535.

59. Roper, 127.

60. Chambers, 277.

61. Burnet, I, 143.

62. Prescott, Mary Tudor, 50; Pollard, 304.

63. Froude, Henry VIII, II, 142.

64. Burnet, I, 143.

65. Prescott, Mary Tudor, 70.

66. Pollard, 343.

67. Ibid.

68. Froude, Henry VIII, II, 159.

69. Lingard, V, 37.

70. Froude, II, 171.

71. Pollard, 346.

72. Ibid., 305.

73. Froude, Henry VIII, III, 26n.

74. Ibid., II, 204.

CHAPTER XXV

1. C. R. Beazley in Traill, Social England, III, 49.

2. Gasquet, Eve, 397-8.

3. Montesquieu, Spirit of Laws, xii, 10.

4. Froude, Henry VIII, II, 116.

5. Ibid., 240.

6. Pollard, 337; Gasquet, Monasteries, I, 254-336.

7. Pollard, 339.

8. Froude, II, 119-26.

9. Ashley, Economic Hy,., 312.

10. Gasquet, I, 341-3.

11. Ibid., 291-5.

12. Froude, II, 240.

13. Gasquet. II, 82.

14. Ibid., I, 408-9.

15. Froude, II, 56.

16. Gasquet, I, 363; II, 33, 323.

17. Ibid., II, 386-7, 438.

18. Hughes, I, 328.

19. Gasquet, II, 447-8.

20. Traill, III, 129.

21. Salzman, English Industries, 232; Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 467.

22. Lecky, Rationalism, II, 126; Ashley, II, 316; Trevelyan, Social Hy, 112.

23. Traill, III, 128.

24. D’Alton, E. A., Hy of Ireland, II, 382-7; Joyce, Short Hy of Ireland, 317-20.

25. D’Alton, 530 f.; Froude, Henry VIII, III, 166.

26. Pollard, 438.

27. Froude, III, 280.

28. Pocock in English Historical Review, Vol. X, p. 421.

29. Froude, III, 280.

30. Id., II, 363.

31. III, 23-4; Pollard, 390-1.

32. Lingard, V, 73-4; Pollard, 400; Froude, III, 104.

33. Froude, Edward VI, 68.

34. Ashley, II, 351.

35. Froude, Edward VI, 69.

36. Froude, Henry VIII, I, 525; II, 137; Traill, III, 250; Marx, Capital, I, 806.

37. Trevelyan, Social Hy, 137,

38. Froude, Henry VIII, I, 16n.

39. Rogers, J., Six Centuries of Work and Wages, 78.

40. Hughes, I, 29.

41. Traill, III, 127.

42. Hughes, I, 159.

43. Lingard, V, 61.

44. Pollard, 403.

45. Lingard, V, 76.

46. Lees-Milne, Tudor Renaissance, 21.

47. Froude, Henry VIII, III, 281-2,

48. Ibid., 402-6.

49. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 459; Traill, iii, 65.

50. In Coulton, Medieval Village, who disagrees. Cf. Froude, Henry VIII, I, 43.

51. Rogers, 79 f.

CHAPTER XXVI

1. Stow’s Chronicle, in Froude, Edward VI, 21.

2. Ibid., 34.

3. Hughes, II, 162; Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 490-1.

4. Rogers, 89.

5. Froude, Edward, 165.

6. Ibid., 183; Prescott, Mary Tudor, 25.

7. Hughes, II, 192-3.

8. Robertson, Freethought, I, 459.

9. Froude, Edward, 98-101-

10. Ibid., 163.

11. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 502,

12. Froude, Edward, 156.

13. Ibid., 278,

14. Ibid,

15. 163.

16. 176; Lingard, V, 22S,

17. Froude, 176.

18. Ibid., 209.

19. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 301.

20. Froude, 226.

21. Cf. Prescott, Mary Tudor, 17.

22. En. Brit., XIV, 1001.

23. Chapuys in Prescott, 50, 54.

24. Ibid.

25. En. Brit., XIV, 1000b.

26. Prescott, 122.

27. Ibid., 209.

28. Pastor, XIV, 399.

29. Froude, Mary Tudor, 44.

30. Prescott, 191-2.

31. Ibid., 194.

32. 196.

33. Froude, Mary Tudor, 66.

34. Hughes, I, 18.

35. Froude, 56.

36. Ibid., 50.

37. 56.

38. Prescott, 285.

39. Ibid., 247.

40. 266.

41. 284.

42. 315.

43. Froude, 325.

44. Prescott, 325.

45. Lingard, V, 230.

46. Prescott, 206.

47. Ibid., 302.

48. 304.

49. Pastor, XIV, 360.

50. Froude, 119.

51. Prescott, 307.

52. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 543.

53. Froude, no.

54. Prescott, 311.

55. Foxe, Acts and Monuments, I, 231 f.; Maitland, S. R., Essays on the Reformation, 409; Smith, Reformation, 586; Lee, Sidney, Dictionary of National Bioggraphy, XX, 146.

56. Hughes, II, 258-9.

57. Froude, Mary Tudor, 199.

58. Lingard, V, 231.

59. Pastor, XIV, 370.

60. Froude, 202.

61. Ibid., 233.

62. Foxe, VIII, 82 3.

63. Ibid., 88.

64. 90.

65. Froude, 235.

66. Beard, Reformation, 182.

67. Hughes, II, 198.

68. Hume, Spain: Its Greatness and Decay, 117.

69. Prescott, 332.

70. Ibid., 381.

71. 390.

CHAPTER XXVII

1. Cf. Buckle, Hy of Civilization, II, ch.ii.

2. Ibid., I, 150; Belloc, How the Reformation Happened, 188.

3. Ibid., 189.

4. Lang, Hy of Scotland, I, 425.

5. Froude, Elizabeth, I, 73.

6. Knox, Hy of the Reformation, Introd, by W. C. Dickinson, xvii.

7. Lang, I, 300.

8. Ibid., 476.

9. Froude, Henry VIII, III, 298.

10. Ibid., 295, 300.

11. Knox, History, I, 76.

12. Ibid., 78.

13. 8.

14. 55.

15. Lang, I, 484.

16. Knox, I, 84-5.

17. Muir, Knox, 119.

18. Ibid., 133.

19. 120.

20. 202.

21. Froude, Elizabeth, I, 257.

22. Allen, Political Thought, no.

23. Knox, History, Introd., lxxiii; Muir, 67.

24. Knox, I, 194 and note 2.

25. Knox, Introd., xlv; cf. Muir, 300.

26. Muir, 157.

27. Lang, II, 37.

28. Knox, II, 18.

29. Ibid., 4.

30. I, 6.

31. Knox, Introd., xli.

32. Ibid., xxxix.

33. Knox, Works, IV, 365, 373-7.

34. Ibid., 418-20.

35. Knox, Book of Discipline, in Allen, Political Thought, 113n.

36. Ibid., 113; Lecky, Rationalism, II, 16.

37. Knox, Introd., xlii, and Allen, 113.

38. In Muir, 142.

39. Ibid., 148-9.

40. Lang, II, 45.

41. Knox, I, 161-2.

42. Ibid.

43. 163.

44. Lang, II, 51-3.

45. Knox, I, 164.

46. Ibid., 171-2.

47. 182; Lang, II, 54-5.

48. Knox, I, 191.

49. Knox, II, Appendix VI.

CHAPTER XXVIII

1. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 602; En. Brit., VII, 210a.

2. Watson, P. B., Swedish Revolution under Gustavus Vasa, 123.

3. Ibid., 162.

4. 169.

5. Horn, Literature of the Scandinavian North, 147.

6. In Lednicki, Life and Culture of Poland, 107.

7. Kesten, Copernicus, 144.

8. Camb. Hy of Poland, I, 322-4.

9. Ibid., 329.

10. Lützow, Bohemia, 206n.

11. Tawney, 75.

12. Blok, II, 331.

13. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 63; Taine, Lectures on Art, 272.

14. Pirenne, H., Belgian Democracy, 218.

15. Motley, J. L., Rise of the Dutch Republic, I, 101.

16. Smith, Reformation, 240.

17. Blok, II, 314.

18. In Kautsky, 283.

19. Smith, 244.

20. Kautsky, 285 f.; Ranke, 75 f.

21. Motley, I, 222-5.

22. Smith, 245.

23. Draper, J. W., Intellectual Development of Europe, II, 226.

24. Smith, 245.

25. Armstrong, Charles V, II, 382-3; Robertson, Charles V, II, 137; Michelet, III, 293.

26. Ibid., 363.

27. 349.

28. Robinson, Readings, 317-9.

29. Altamira, Hy of Spanish Civilization, 135.

30. Hume, Spanish People, 222-3.

31. Vernadsky, G., Kievan Russia, 243,

32. Wilkins, Spanish Protestantism in the 16th Century, 19.

33. Lea, Inquisition in Spain, IV, 8-12.

34. Wilkins, 26; Camb. Mod. Hy, 1,403.

35. Lea, IV, 431-8.

36. Ibid., 441.

37. Prescott, W. H. in Robertson, Charles V, II, 648.

CHAPTER XXIX

1. Waliszewski, Ivan the Terrible, 95.

2. Rambaud, Hy of Russia, I, 286.

3. Waliszewski, Ivan, 68.

4. Eckhardt, Russia, 29.

5. Réau, L’art russe, I, 244.

6. Kluchevsky, Hy of Russia, I, 275.

7. Pokrovsky, Hy of Russia, 104.

8. Vernadsky, Hy of Russia, 55.

9. Rambaud, I, 253.

10. Kluchevsky, I, 75, 95.

11. Pokrovsky, 144.

12. Rambaud, I, 266; Waliszewski, Ivan, 267.

13. Ibid., 268, 272.

14. Pokrovsky, 157.

15. Waliszewski, 258.

16. Rambaud, I, 300.

17. Réau, I, 272.

18. Waliszewski, 374.

19. Roeder, Catherine de’ Medici, 495.

20. Waliszewski, 381.

CHAPTER XXX

1. Browne, E. G., Literary Hy of Persia, III, 43.

2. Lamb, H., Tamerlane, 293.

3. Clavijo, Embassy to Tamerlane, 153.

4. Bulletin of the American Institute for Iranian Art, June, 1938, 248-52.

5. Arnold, T. W., Painting in Islam, 93.

6. Browne, III, 289.

7. Ibid., 277.

8. Hafiz, tr. Streit, 80.

9. In Gottheil, ed., Literature of Persia, I, 408.

10. Hafiz, tr. Streit, stanzas 10,11,19, 21, 49.

11. Bell, G. L., Poems from the Divan of Hafiz, xxiii.

12. Ouseley, G., Biographical Notices of Persian Poets, 23 f.

13. In Grousset, R., Civilizations of the East, I, 338-9.

14. Hafiz, tr. Streit, 65.

15. Ibid., stanza 38.

16. Bell, stanza xliii.

17. Clavijo, 181.

18. Ibid., 137.

19. Browne, III, 185. Some assign Timur’s lameness to a later period; so Clavijo, 210, and Sykes, P., History of Persia, II, 121.

20. Timur, Mulfuzat, v. 26.

21. Browne, III, 186.

22. Ibid., 178; Lamb, 150.

23. Browne, III, 189.

24. Ibid., 190.

25. Clavijo, 132.

26. Ibid., 151, 278.

27. Ibid., 249.

28. Pope, A. U., Masterpieces of Persian Art; 149.

29. Dawlatshah in Browne, III, 501,

30. Ibn Khaldun, Les Prolegomena, I, p. lxxii.

31. Lane-Poole, S., Cairo, 50.

32. Gibbons, H. A., Foundation of the Ottoman Empire, 150.

33. Froissart, J., Chronicles, iv, 90.

34. Lane-Poole, S., Story of Turkey, 97.

35. Cambridge Modern History, IV, 705.

36. Vambéry, A., Story of Hungary, 282.

37. Gibb, E. J., Ottoman Literature, 3.

38. Ibid., 209 f.

39. Browne, III, 455.

40. Jami, Mulla Nuru’ d-Din, tr. E. Fitzgerald, 69.

41. Pope, Masterpieces, 146.

42. Davis, F. H., Persian Mystics: Jami, 71.

43. Clavijo, 153.

44. Saladin, H., et Migeon, G., Manuel d’art musulmane, I, 357.

45. Cf. Pope, A. U., Survey of Persian Art, IV, 428 f.

46. Ibid., III, 1324.

47. Sykes, II, 155.

48. In Dimand, M. S., Handbook of Muhammadan Art, 42.

49. Arnold, T., and Guillaume, A., Legacy of Islam, 96.

50. Ibn Battuta, M., Travels, tr. H. A. Gibb, 148.

51. Ibid., 57.

52. Sarton, G., Introd. to the History of Science, II-2, 1100.

53. Arnold, Legacy of Islam, 340.

54. Ibn Khaldun, Prolegomènes, I, p. xxx.

55. Ibid., lxxiii.

56. Ibid., 4.

57. 71.

58. 12.

59. 67.

60. Boer, T., History of Philosophy in Islam, 203.

61. Ibid., 205.

62. De Vaux, C., Les penseurs de l’Islam, I, 288.

63. Ibn Khaldun, I, 175.

64. Ibid., 176 f.

65. 17 of.

66. Ibid., Introd., xxxii.

67. Ibid., 95.

68. Introd., xxxii.

69. Ibid., 324.

70. Ibid., III, 44.

71. I, 303.

72. I, 345; III, 300-5.

73. I, 333, 354.

74. III, 227, 233, 240.

75. III, 115-20, 184, 188; I, 218.

76. De Vaux, I, 282.

77. Ibn Khaldun, III, 249; I, 347.

78. III, 456.

79. III, 125.

80. Issawi, C., An Arab Philosophy of History, 21.

81. Toynbee, A., A Study of History, III, 321.

82. Sarton, III-2, 1770.

CHAPTER XXXI

1. Cambridge Mod. Hy, III, 112.

2. Sykes, II, 164; Browne, IV, 21.

3. Browne, IV, 62.

4. Ibid., 51.

5. Hughes, T. P., Dictionary of Islam, 572.

6. Doughty, Chas., Arabia Deserta, I, 59.

7. Sykes, II, 163.

8. Pope, A. U., Introduction to Persian Art, 224.

9. Browne, IV, 93.

10. Sykes, II, 168-9.

11. Dimand, M. S., Guide to an Exhibition of Islamic Miniature Painting, 34.

12. Pope, A. U., Catalogue of a Loan Exhibition of Early Oriental Carpets, 39.

13. Merriman, R. B., Suleiman the Magnificent, 33.

14. Ibid., 190.

15. Camb. Mod. Hy, I, 92.

16. Guicciardini, F., History of the Wars in Italy, VIII, 12; Schevill, F., History of the Balkan Peninsula, 217; Camb. Mod. Hy, I, 93.

17. Merriman, 60.

18. Ibid., 61.

19. Bury, J. B., in Camb. Mod. Hy, I, 93.

20. Merriman, 72.

21. Camb. Mod. Hy, 94-5,

22. Ibid., 95.

23. Ranke, L. von, History of the Reformation in Germany, 579.

24. Merriman, 124.

25. Ibid., 141-2.

26. Camb. Mod. Hy, III, 123.

27. Gibbons, Foundation of the Ottoman Empire, 81; Schevill, 240.

28. Schevill, 233.

29. Merriman, 171.

30. Bury in Camb. Mod. Hy, I, 101.

31. Merriman, 202.

32. Ibid., 165.

33. Camb. Mod. Hy, I, 101.

34. Creasy, E. S., History of the Ottoman Turks, 113; Merriman, 148.

35. Robertson, Wm., History of the Reign of Charles V, II, 367.

36. Schevill, 238.

37. Creasy, 109.

38. Lane-Poole, S., Saladin, 36.

39. Hitti, P. K., History of the Arabs, 19.

40. Merriman, 203.

41. Gibbons, 74; Creasy, 106.

42. Bacon, Fr., Philosophical Works, ed. Robertson, 749.

43. Creasy, 113.

44. Gibb, Ottoman Literature, 233.

45. Camb. Mod. Hy, VI, 420.

46. Creasy, 108.

47. Ibid., 109.

48. Gibb, 123-8.

49. Luther, To the Christian Nobility, in Works, II, 149.

50. Froude, J. A., The Reign of Henry VIII, II, 184n.

51. Lang, A., History of Scotland, II, 78.

52. Gibb., 218.

53. Merriman, 185-93; Robertson, Charles V. II, 365-73.

CHAPTER XXXII

1. Percy, Thos., Reliques of Ancient English Poetry, II, 116; Jewish Encyc., XII, 462.

2. Marcus, J., The Jew in the Medieval World, 395-7.

3. Graetz, H., History of the Jews, IV, 272.

4. Erasmus, Letter to Capito, March 13, 1518.

5. Graetz, IV, 296-9; Abbott, G. F., Israel in Europe, 198-9.

6. Abbott, 203.

7. Baron, Salo, Social and Religious History of the Jews, II, 58 f.

8. Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science, III-I, 57.

9. Graetz, IV, 220.

10. Ibid., 407.

11. Pastor, L., History of the Popes, VIII, 444.

12. Id., X, 372.

13. Roth, C., in Finkelstein, L., ed., The Jews, 239.

14. Waxman, M., History of Jewish Literature, II, 66.

15. Roth, C., The Jewish Contribution to Civilization, 92.

16. Thompson, J. W., Economic and Social History of Europe in the Later Middle Ages, 30.

17. Newman, L. J., Jewish Influence in Christian Reform Movements, 436-50.

18. Dubnow, S. M., History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, I, 61.

19. Ibid., 85-7.

20. Abrahams, Israel, Jewish Life in the Middle Ages, 403.

21. Newman, 483.

22. Ibid., 473.

23. Graetz, IV, 549-51.

24. Finkelstein, 241.

25. Coulton, G. G., Medieval Panorama, 185.

26. Sarton, III-2, 1059.

27. Coulton, G. G., From St. Francis to Dante, no.

28. Janssen, J., History of the German People at the Close of the Middle Ages, II, 73.

29. Roth, Jewish Contribution, 25.

30. Graetz, IV, 286.

31. Ibid., 245.

32. Cf. e.g., Coulton, Life in the Middle Ages, II, 147.

33. Graetz, IV, 253.

34. Ibid., 55-7; Baron, II, 29.

35. Monmarché, M., ed., Châteaux of the Loire, 190.

36. Graetz, IV, 98.

37. Lea, Inquisition in Spain, I, 101; Abbott, 103; Graetz, 103.

38. Ibid., 101.

39. Abrahams, Jewish Life, 331.

40. Marcus, 44.

41. Cambridge Medieval History, VII, 657.

42. Baron, II, 29.

43. Lea, Inquisition in the Middle Ages, II, 379.

44. Graetz, 109-10.

45. Thompson, Economic and Social History, 214.

46. Kastein, J., History and Destiny of the Jews, 321.

47. Janssen, II, 78.

48. Ibid., 76.

49. Jew. Encyc., III, 554.

50. Graetz, 302-7.

51. Ibid., 513.

52. Ibid., 515.

53. Ibid., 52071.

54. Ibid., 523.

55. Prescott, W. H., History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, I, 517; Abbott, 191.

56. Burckhardt, J., Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, 488.

57. Sombart, W., The Jews and Modern Capitalism, 17.

58. Finkelstein, 240.

59. Roth, Jewish Contribution, 210.

60. Graetz, 500.

61. Ibid., 515.

62. Ibid., 525-7.

63. Ibid., 567; Pastor, XIV, 271-4.

64. Abbott, 203; Abrahams, Jewish Life, 67.

65. Pastor, XIV, 274.

66. Abbott, 204; Robertson, W., History of the Reign of Charles V, I, 206-7.

67. Pastor, i.e.

68. Graetz, 361-2.

69. Ibid.

70. Ibid., 356.

71. Robertson, W., Charles V, I, 207.

72. Burton, R. F., The Jew, the Gypsy, and El Islam, 65.

73. Graetz, III, 511.

74. Durant, W., Age of Faith, 375.

75. Finkelstein, 229.

76. Abrahams, Jewish Life, 160.

77. Abbott, 202.

78. Marcus, 170 f.

79. Abrahams, I., Chapters on Jewish Literature, 226.

80. Waxman, II, 258.

81. Jew. Encyc., XII, 404.

82. Baron, II, 132.

83. Husik, I., History of Medieval Jewish Philosophy, 360; Waxman, 256.

84. Jew. Encyc., VIII, 29.

85. Baron, 85.

CHAPTER XXXIII

1. Mattingly, G., Catherine of Aragon, 109.

2. Agricola, De re metallica, 99, 100.

3. Ibid., xiii, 46-7, 52.

4. Usher, 274.

5. Toynbee, A., A Study of History, IX, 365-6.

6. Erasmus, “Diversoria,” in Colloquies, I, 288 f.

7. Merchant of Venice, III, iv, 271.

8. Smith, Reformation, 473.

9. Froude, Edward VI, 41-2; Marx, Capital, 808.

10. Smith, Reformation, 554-5.

11. Ibid., 469.

12. Thomas Aquinas, Summa theologica, II Ilae, lxvi, 7; cxviii, 1.

13. Lacroix, Manners, Customs, and Dress during the Middle Ages, 479.

14. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 436.

15. Kesten, Copernicus, 33.

16. Coulton, Medieval Village, 338.

17. Lecky, Rationalism, II, 113.

18. Hackett, Francis I, 406.

19. Smith, Reformation, 483.

20. Beard, Luther, 126.

21. Froude, Edward VI, 2.

22. Pollard, Henry VIII, 432.

23. Armstrong, Charles V, I, 59.

24. Starkey, Thos., Dialogue between Reginald Pole and Thomas Lupset, London, 1871, in Allen, Political Thought, 149.

25. Smith, Erasmus, 27.

26. Bakeless, Tragicall Hy of Christopher Marlowe, 50.

27. Friedländer, Roman Life and Manners, II, 93.

28. Janssen, XI, 239.

29. Brantôme, Lives of Gallant Ladies, 65,68.

30. Maulde, 391.

31. Lacroix, Prostitution, II, 1151.

32. Janssen, XI, 233.

33. Lacroix, II, 1162 f.

34. Brantôme, 133.

35. Lacroix, II, 1189.

36. Smith, Reformation, 321

37. Erasmus, Colloquies, I, 342.

38. Rabelais, iii, 48.

39. Ascham, The Scholemaster, 50.

40. In Smith, Reformation, 412.

41. Turner, Hy of Courting, 45-7; Briffauk, The Mothers, III, 415; Smith, Modern Culture, I, 531.

42. Sichel, Catherine de’ Medici, 6.

43. Cf. Lippmann, W., The Public Philosophy, 117.

44. Cf. O’Brien, Economic Effects of the Reformation, 75.

45. Schapiro, Social Reform, 31.

46. Ibid.

47. Froude, Edward VI, 166.

48. Maulde, 66.

49. Sichel, Women, 230.

50. O’Brien, 55.

51. Janssen, III, 367.

52. Froude, Edward VI, 69.

53. Prescott, Mary Tudor, 327.

54. Froude, i.e.

55. Smith, Reformation, 559.

56. Ashley, II, 369.

57. Ibid., 342.

58. Watson, F., Luis Vives, 61.

59. Froude, Henry VIII, II, 372.

60. Lecky, Hy of European Morals, II, 54.

61. Ibid., 55.

62. Janssen, IV, 60 f.

63. Werke (Erlangen), I, 14, in Maritain, Three Reformers, 186.

64. O’Brien, 51, transposed.

65. Janssen, VI, 275; Smith, Luther, 416.

66. Janssen, VII, 301.

67. Lea, Auricular Confession, III, 428.

68. Calvin, Preface to the Geneva Catechism.

69. Lang, Hy of Scotland, II, 402.

70. Froude, Edward VI, 265.

71. Traill, III, 160.

72. Lacroix, Prostitution, II, 1213-4.

73. Maulde, 217.

74. Schaff, Swiss Reformation, 722.

75. Wright, Thos., Womankind in Western Europe, 325.

76. Lacroix, Prostitution, II, 1205.

77. Ibid., 1204.

78. Allen, P. S., Age of Erasmus, 203-4; Smith, Reformation, 510.

79. Wright, Thos., Domestic Manners, 491.

80. Coulton, Social Life, 376; Medieval Panorama, 313.

81. Baedeker, Munich, 12.

82. Huizinga, Waning of Middle Ages, 289.

83. Smith, Reformation, 500,

84. Wright, Domestic Manners, 485-8.

85. In Nock & Wilson, Rabelais, 41.

86. In Bainton, Here I Stand, 343.

87. Rashdall, Universities, III, 422.

88. In Lacroix, Manners, 241.

CHAPTER XXXIV

1. Sichel, Women, 246.

2. Lang, Music in Western Civilization, 300.

3. Einstein, A., The Italian Madrigal, I, 7.

4. Grove, Dictionary of Music and Musicians, III, 459.

5. Whitcomb, Literary Source Book of the German Renaissance, 22.

6. Grove, III, 254.

7. McKinney and Anderson, Music in History, 210.

8. Blok, II, 377.

9. Kiesewetter, Hy of Music, in Grove, III, 684.

10. Bainton, Here I Stand, 343.

11. McKinney, 303.

12. Guizot, Hy of France, III, 123.

13. Bainton, Here I Stand, 344.

14. Janelle, Catholic Reformation, 218.

15. Froude, Erasmus, 122.

16. Grove, IV, 20 f.

17. Cf. Oxford Hy of Music, II, 243.

CHAPTER XXXV

1. Putnam, Books, II, 40-1.

2. Luther, Works, IV, 128.

3. Janssen, III, 355.

4. Ibid., 356.

5. 363.

6. Luther, IV, 156.

7. Richard, German Civilization, 289; Janssen, III, 358.

8. Paulsen, German Education, 56-7.

9. Luther, IV, 128.

10. Janssen, XIII, 260, 264.

11. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 468; Gasquet, Eve, 42.

12. Traill, III, 93.

13. Owen, J., Skeptics of the French Renaissance, 438.

14. Graves, F., Peter Ramus, 15.

15. Camb. Hy of Poland, I, 274.

16. Elyot, The Governour, i, 12.

17. Ibid., I, II.

18. Watson, F., Luis Vives, 33.

19. In Haydn, Counter-Renaissance, 242.

20. Ibid., 199.

21. Sichel, Women, 47.

22. Marot, Rondeau 13, in Maulde, 165.

23. France, A., Rabelais, 6.

24. Smith, Erasmus, 414; France, Rabelais, 38.

25. Faguet, 211.

26. Rabelais, Gargantua, ed. Cluny, Introd., xxi.

27. Michelet, III, 300.

28. Rabelais, Introd., xxiii.

29. Owen, French Renaissance, 619.

30. Rabelais, Works, bk. ii, ch. 8.

31. Tilley, Studies in the French Renaissance, 85 f.

32. Nock, Rabelais, 105.

33. Brunetière, Manual of French Literature, 46n.

34. France, Rabelais, 216.

35. Smith, Reformation, 195n.

36. France, 124.

37. Sichel, Women, 239.

38. Sichel, Catherine de’ Medici, 245

39. La Tour, Origines, IV, 413.

40. Roeder, Catherine de’ Medici, 510.

41. Holzknecht, Backgrounds of Shakespeare, 270.

42. Camb. Hy of English Literature, III, 189.

43. Richard, German Civilization, 151.

44. Janssen, XIII, 467.

45. In Bainton, Reformation, 129.

46. En. Brit., IX, 675.

47. Putnam, Books, II, 243.

48. Janssen, XI, 317 f.

49. In Friedell, Cultural Hy of the Modern Age, I, 232.

50. Janssen, XII, 324 f

51. En. Brit., XXXIII, 1192.

52. In Trend, Civilization of Spain, 101.

53. Prescott, Ferdinand, II, 568n.

54. Ibid., 569n; Camb. Mod. Hy, V, 495.

55. Hefele, Ximenez, 101; Hume, The Spanish People, 348.

56. Allen, Political Thought, 119.

57. Diaz del Castillo, True Hy of the Conquest of Mexico, xi.

58. Mendoza, Lazarillo de Tormes, Introd., 3.

59. Ticknor, Spanish Literature, II, 512.

60. Mendoza, 71.

CHAPTER XXXVI

1. In Coulton, Art and the Reformation, 408.

2. Janssen, XI, 56.

3. Calvin, Institutes, I, xi, 12.

4. Michelet, III, 295.

5. Dimier, French Painting in the Sixteenth Century, 51.

6. Tavannes in Sichel, Catherine, 294.

7. Vasari, II, 355.

8. Ibid.

9. Blomfield, Hy of French Architecture, I, 81.

10. Lacroix, Arts of the Middle Ages, 151.

11. Ward, Architecture of the Renaissance in France, II, 125.

12. Sichel, Catherine, 394.

13. Réalitiés magazine, March, 1954, p. 27.

14. Conway, The Van Eycks, 494.

15. Glück, Pieter Brueghel le Vieux, 7.

16. Conway, 492.

17. Glück, Brueghel: Details from His Pictures, 10-11.

18. Craven, Treasury of Art Masterpieces, 112.

19. Smith, Luther, 176.

20. Bond, Fr., Westminster Abbey, 131.

21. Bacon, Fr., Henry VII, in Works, VI, 245.

22. Blomfield, Renaissance Architecture in England, 8; Lees-Milne, Tudor Renaissance, 31.

23. Ibid.

24. 45.

25. Blomfield, 11.

26. Ganz, P., The Paintings of Hans Holbein, 218.

27. So Stange, German Painting, 28; but Ganz, 223, assigns it to 1528-30.

28. En. Brit., VIII, 679a.

29. Stange, 22.

30. Janssen, XI, 48.

31. Ibid.

32. Ganz, 284.

33. Woltmann, Holbein and His Time, 454.

34. Calvert, Cordova, 97.

35. Dieulafoy, Art in Spain and Portugal, 230.

36. Calvert, Sculpture in Spain, 125; but Stirling-Maxwell, Annals of the Artists of Spain, I, 126, questions the story.

37. Dieulafoy, 336.

CHAPTER XXXVII

1. Schaff, Swiss Reformation, 182.

2. Janssen, XII, 292.

3. Traill, III, 269.

4. Janssen, XII, 307.

5. Thorndike, Hy of Magic and Experimental Science, V, 231.

6. Coulton, Medieval Village, 268.

7. Janssen, XII, 372.

8. Bainton, Hunted Heretic, 112.

9. In Kesten, Copernicus, 96.

10. Lacroix, Science and Literature in the Middle Ages, 211; Thorndike, V, 175, 255-9.

11. Bainton, Hunted Heretic, 112.

12. Smith, Luther, 310.

13. Roeder, Catherine de, Medici, 368.

14. Lecky, Rationalism, II, 3.

15. Lacroix, Military and Religious Life, 444; Smith, Reformation, 656.

16. Friedell, I, 283.

17. Lea, Studies in Church Hy, 588.

18. Lea, Inquisition in Spain, IV, 220.

19. Lecky, Hy of European Morals, II, 54.

20. Traill, III, 326; Froude, Henry VIII, III, 191.

21. Lea, IV, 212-25.

22. Janssen, XII, 355.

23. Spence, Cornelius Agrippa, 84.

24. Ibid.

25. Thorndike, V, 136-7.

26. Spence, 79.

27. Owen, Evenings with the Skeptics, II, 495-6.

28. Kesten, 196; Thorndike, V, 178 f.

29. Cath. En., IV, 352.

30. Leonardo, Notebooks, I, 310, 298.

31. Gassendi in Kesten, 109.

32. Kesten, 132.

33. Ibid., 153.

34. Commentariolus, in Rosen. Three Coperincan Treatises, 58.

35. Trattner, Architects of Ideas, 28.

36. Luther, Table Talk, 69, in Fosdick, Great Voices of the Reformation, xviii

37. In Russell, B., Hy of Western Philosophy, 52%.

38. Kesten, 233.

39. Ibid., 382.

40. 309.

41. 295-6.

42. Rosen, 30.

43. Kesten, 297-8.

44. E.g., Kesten, 299; Trattner, 31,

45. Prefaces and Prologues, in Harvard Classics, XXXIX, 52 f.

46. Copernicus, De revolutionibus, i, 5.

47. Ibid., i, 10.

48. Josiah Royce in Fletcher, J. A., Dante, 236.

49. In White, Warfare of Science with Theology, I, 212.

50. In Agricola, De re metallica, 595.

51. Penrose, Travel and Discovery, 306.

52. R. I. Mantiri of Indonesia has argued unconvincingly that Magellan was not killed on Mactan, but chose to remain behind and to found a kingdom in the Celebes.

53. Castiglioni, Hy of Medicine, 421.

54. Sigerist, The Great Doctors, 125.

55. In Saunders & O’Malley, The Illustrations from the Works of Andreas Vesalius, 14.

56. Locy, Biology and Its Makers, 28.

57. Saunders, 14; italics mine.

58. Ibid., 15.

59. In Haydn, Counter-Renaissance, 198.

60. Vesalius, De humam corporis fabrica, 15, in Thorndike, V, 526.

61. Locy, 35.

62. Letter of Vesalius of June 13, 15;6, in Thorndike, V, 529.

63. Sarton, III-1, 267.

64. Saunders, 37.

65. Ibid., 39.

66. Walsh, Popes and Science, 117.

67. Speculum, April, 1928, p. 193.

68. Castiglioni, 466.

69. Janssen, XIV, 68.

70. Sigerist, 131.

71. Ibid., III. The usual interpretation of Paracelsus as meaning “Beyond Celsus” is stultified by the very minor rank of Celsus (1st cy A.D.) in the history of medicine.

72. Pachter, Magic into Science: the Story of Paracelsus, 92.

73. Ibid., 105-6.

74. Cf. passage in Robinson, D. S., Anthology of Modern Philosophy, 13-14.

75. Pachter, 67,112,116.

76. Thorndike, V, 628.

77. Opus Paramirum, in Pachter, 129.

78. Thorndike, V, 665.

79. In Pachter, 210.

80. Ibid., 211.

81. Ibid.

82. 147.

83. 152-3.

84. 163.

85. 158.

86. 155.

87. 168.

88. 187.

89. 167.

90. Inscription on engraving of Paracelsus in Vienna State Library.

91. Pachter, 108, 229.

92. Ibid., 4.

93. Commentary on Galatians, iii, 6, in Janssen, XIV, 121.

94. Robertson, Freethought I, 399

95. Ibid., 389.

96. Table Talk, 66,

97. La Tour, IV, 417.

98. Sichel, Women, 225,

99. In Hallam, Introd. to the Literature of Europe, II, 140.

100. Montaigne, Letter to M. de Mesmes in Sichel, Montaigne, 21.

101. In Rocker, R., Nationalism and Culture, 134.

102. In Taylor, Thought and Expression in the 16th Cy, I, 381.

103. Speculum, Oct. 1933, p. 431.

104. Owen J., Skeptics of the French Renaissance, 505.

105. Ibid., 539.

106. Graves, Peter Ramus, 108. Italics mine.

107. Owen, 529.

108. Ibid., 534-5; Michelet, III, 474; Graves, 106-7.

109. Ibid., 106.

110. Michelet, III, 474.

CHAPTER XXXVIII

1. Pastor, X, 310; XII, 494; Robertson, Freethought, I, 408.

2. Noyes, Ferrara, 203-19.

3. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 386.

4. Trend, Civilization of Spain, 123.

5. Schaff, Swiss Reformation, 651.

6. Pastor, XI, 3.

7. Ibid., X, 444.

8. Carpacciolus in Ranke, Hy of the Popes, I, 131.

9. Janelle, Catholic Reformation, 64.

10. Pastor, XI, 134.

11. Ibid., 155 f.

12. Ranke, Popes, I, 117.

13. In Pastor, XI, 164 f.

14. Ibid., 192.

15. McCabe, Crises in the History of the Papacy, 319.

16. Voltaire, Selected Works, ed. McCabe, IV, 216.

17. Fülöp-Miller, Saints That Moved the World, 333.

18. Ibid., 350.

19. 354.

20. James, Varieties of Religious Experience, 414.

21. Fülöp-Miller, 375.

22. James, 411.

23. Fülöp-Miller, 367.

24. Ibid., 396.

25. 405.

26. 419.

27. 274.

28. Ignatius, St., Autobiography, 28.

29. Ibid., 40.

30. 54.

31. Cath. En., VII, 640,

32. Fülöp-Miller, 302.

33. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 657; McCabe, Candid Hy of the Jesuits, 8; Ranke, Popes, I, 173n.

34. Longridge, The Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius Loyola, 119.

35, Sedgwick, Ignatius Loyola, 350; McCabe, Candid Hy, 40.

36. Sedgwick, 182.

37. Belloc, 228, 234.

38. McCabe, 32.

39. Sedgwick, 221.

40. Ibid., 215.

41. Symonds, The Catholic Reaction, I, 215.

42. Report of Father Gonzalez in Sedgwick, 344.

43. Fülöp-Miller, 319-20,

44. Cath. En., VII, 643.

45. Sedgwick, III.

46. Penrose, Travel and Discovery, 69.

47. Campbell, Thos., The Jesuits, 77-8.

48. Ibid., 78.

49. 84.

50. McCabe, 84.

51. Acton, Lectures, 115.

52. Robertson, Charles V, II, 78

53. Pastor, XIII, 222.

54. Graves, Hy of Education during the Middle Ages, 214.

55. Smith, Reformation, 666

CHAPTER XXXIX

1. Pastor, VII, 6.

2. Ibid., 5.

3. Pastor, X, 385.

4. XI, 40.

5. Cellini, Autobiography, i, 123,

6. Pastor, XI, 50.

7. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 233

8. Ranke, Popes, I, 125.

9. Froude, Council of Trent, 213

10. Pastor, XI, 356.

11. XIII, 61 f.

12. Ibid., 154.

13. Robertson, Charles V, II, 401

14. Pastor, XIV, 72.

15. Armstrong, Charles V, II, 361.

16. Pastor, XIV, 126.

17. Ranke, Popes, I, 218.

18. Pastor, XIV, 345.

19. Ibid., 142-3.

20. Ranke, I, 226.

21. Ibid., 227.

22. Acts, xix, 19.

23. Putnam, Censorship of the Church of Rome, I, 1.

24. Draper, Hy of Intellectual Development, II, 214.

25. Pastor, XIV, 277 f.

26. Sarpi, Istoria del Concilio Tridenttno, II, 91, in Symonds, Catholic Reaction, 1, 154.

27. Robertson, Freethought, I, 456-7.

28. Pastor, XII, 503.

29. Ranke, I, 159.

30. Pastor, XII, 508.

31. XIV, 286.

32. ibid., 300

33. Ibid

34. 414 f.; Ranke, I, 235.

35. Ibid., 245n.

36. Admitted by Janelle, 78.

37. Ibid., 71.

38. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 664, 678

39. Sarton, II-2, 916.

40. Ranke, I, 153; Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 667; Froude, Edward VI, 9 f.

41. Ranke, I, 155; Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 668.

42. Lea, Sacerdotal Celibacy, 518.

43. Froude, Council of Trent, 283.

44. Pastor, XIII, 116.

45. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 675; Ranke, I, 252.

46. Ibid., 251.

47. Camb. Mod. Hy, II, 680.

48. Session XXV; Cath. En., VII, 787.

49. For Italy cf. Symonds, Catholic Reaction, I, 234, 333; for Spain, Lea, Auricular Confession, II, 426.

50. Lecroix, Prostitution, II, 1156.

51. Figgis, From Gerson to Grotius, 43; Robertson, Charles V, II, 515-6, Taine, Italy: Rome and Naples, 240.

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