Post-classical history

The Reformation: A History of European Civilization from Wycliffe to Calvin

The Reformation: A History of European Civilization from Wycliffe to Calvin

An engrossing volume on the European Reformation by Pulitzer Prize-winning historian Will Durant

The sixth volume of Durant's acclaimed Story of Civilization, ''The Reformation'' chronicles the history of European civilization from 1300 to 1564. In this masterful work, listeners will encounter:

-the schism within the Roman Catholic Church and the formation of early Protestantism;
-the theology of Martin Luther and his societal impact;
-the rise of Humanism and the life of Desiderius Erasmus;
-the royal monarchies of England, France, Spain, and Italy;
-the imperial conquests of Christopher Columbus and the discovery of the Americas;
-the Bohemian revolution of Eastern Europe, the unification of Russia, and the rise of the Ottoman Empire;
-the teachings of John Calvin; and
-the Counter-Reformation of the sixteenth century.

BOOK I: FROM WYCLIF TO LUTHER: 1300–1517

Chapter I. THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH: 1300–1517

I. The Services of Christianity

II. The Church at Nadir

III. The Triumphant Papacy

IV. The Changing Environment

V. The Case against the Church

Chapter II. ENGLAND: WYCLIF, CHAUCER, AND THE GREAT REVOLT: 1308–1400

I. The Government

II. John Wyclif

III. The Great Revolt

IV. The New Literature

V. Geoffrey Chaucer

VI. Richard II

Chapter III. FRANCE BESIEGED: 1300–1461

I. The French Scene

II. The Road to Crécy

III. Black Death and Other

IV. Revolution and Renewal

V. The Mad King

VI. Life among the Ruins

VII. Letters

VIII. Art

IX. Joan of Arc

X. France Survives

Chapter IV. GALLIA PHOENIX: 1453–1515

I. Louis XI

II. Italian Adventure

III. The Rise of the Châteaux

IV. François Villon

Chapter V. ENGLAND IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY: 1399–1509

I. Kings

II. The Growth of Wealth

III. Morals and Manners

IV. The Lollards

V. English Art

VI. Caxton and Malory

VII. The English Humanists

Chapter VI. EPISODE IN BURGUNDY: 1363–1515

I. The Royal Dukes

II. The Religious Spirit

III. Sparkling Burgundy

IV. Charles the Bold

V. Art in the Lowlands

Chapter VII. MIDDLE EUROPE: 1300–1460

I. Land and Labor

II. The Organization of Order

III. Germany Challenges the Church

IV. The Mystics

V. The Arts

VI. Gutenberg

Chapter VIII. THE WESTERN SLAVS: 1300–1517

I. Bohemia

II. John Huss

III. The Bohemian Revolution

IV. Poland

Chapter IX. THE OTTOMAN TIDE: 1300–1516

I. Second Blooming in Byzantium

II. The Balkans Meet the Turks

III. The Last Years of Constantinople

IV. Hunyadi János

V. The Tide at Full

VI. The Hungarian Renaissance

Chapter X. PORTUGAL INAUGURATES THE COMMERCIAL REVOLUTION: 1300–1517

Chapter XI. SPAIN: 1300–1517

I. The Spanish Scene

II. Granada

III. Ferdinand and Isabella

IV. The Methods of the Inquisition

V. Progress of the Inquisition

VI. In Exitu Israel

VII. Spanish Art

VIII. Spanish Literature

IX. Sovereign Death

Chapter XII. THE GROWTH OF KNOWLEDGE: 1300–1517

I. The Magicians

II. The Teachers

III. The Scientists

IV. The Healers

V. The Philosophers

VI. The Reformers

Chapter XIII. THE CONQUEST OF THE SEA: 1492–1517

I. Columbus

II. America

III. The Waters of Bitterness

IV. The New Perspective

Chapter XIV. ERASMUS THE FORERUNNER: 1469–1517

I. The Education of a Humanist

II. The Peripatetic

III. The Satirist

IV. The Scholar

V. The Philosopher

VI. The Man

Chapter XV. GERMANY ON THE EVE OF LUTHER: 1453–1517

I. The Age of the Fuggers

II. The State

III. The Germans

IV. The Maturing of German Art

V. Albrecht Dürer

VI. The German Humanists

VII. Ulrich von Hutten

VIII. The German Church

BOOK II: THE RELIGIOUS REVOLUTION: 1517–64

Chapter XVI. LUTHER: THE REFORMATION IN GERMANY: 1517–24

I. Tetzel

II. The Genesis of Luther

III. The Revolution Takes Form

IV. Bulls and Blasts

V. The Diet of Worms

VI. The Radicals

VII. The Foundations of Faith

VIII. Luther’s Theology

IX. The Revolutionist

Chapter XVII. THE SOCIAL REVOLUTION: 1522–36

I. The Mounting Revolt

II. The Peasants’ War

III. The Anabaptists Try Communism

Chapter XVIII. ZWINGLI: THE REFORMATION IN SWITZERLAND: 1477–1531

I. Multum in Parvo

II. Zwingli

III. The Zwinglian Reformation

IV. Onward, Christian Soldiers

Chapter XIX. LUTHER AND ERASMUS: 1517–36

I. Luther

II. The Intolerant Heretics

III. The Humanists and the Reformation

IV. Erasmus Appendix

Chapter XX. THE FAITHS AT WAR: 1525–60

I. The Protestant Advance

II. The Diets Disagree

III. The Lion of Wittenberg

IV. The Triumph of Protestantism

Chapter XXI. JOHN CALVIN: 1509–64

I. Youth

II. The Theologian

III. Geneva and Strasbourg

IV. The City of God

V. The Conflicts of Calvin

VI. Michael Servetus

VII. An Appeal for Toleration

VIII. Calvin to the End

Chapter XXII. FRANCIS I AND THE REFORMATION IN FRANCE 1515–59

I. Le Roi Grand Nez

II. France in 1515

III. Marguerite of Navarre

IV. The French Protestants

V. Hapsburg and Valois

VI. War and Peace

VII. Diane de Poitiers

Chapter XXIII. HENRY VIII AND CARDINAL WOLSEY: 1509–29

I. A Promising King

II. Wolsey

III. Wolsey and the Church

IV. The King’s “Divorce”

Chapter XXIV. HENRY VIII AND THOMAS MORE: 1529–35

I. The Reformation Parliament

II. The Utopian

III. The Martyr

IV. A Tale of Three Queens

Chapter XXV. HENRY VIII AND THE MONASTERIES: 1535–47

I. The Technique of Dissolution

II. The Obstinate Irish

III. Every Ounce a King

IV. The Dragon Retires

Chapter XXVI. EDWARD VI AND MARY TUDOR: 1547–58

I. The Somerset Protectorate

II. The Warwick Protectorate

III. The Gentle Queen

IV. “Bloody Mary”

Chapter XXVII. FROM ROBERT BRUCE TO JOHN KNOX: 1300–1561

I. The Indomitable Scots

II. Royal Chronicle

III. John Knox

IV. The Congregation of Jesus Christ

Chapter XXVIII. THE MIGRATIONS OF REFORM: 1517–60

I. The Scandinavian Scene

II. The Swedish Reformation

III. The Danish Reformation

IV. Protestantism in Eastern Europe

V. Charles V and the Netherlands

VI. Spain

BOOK III: THE STRANGERS IN THE GATE: 1300–1566

Chapter XXIX. THE UNIFICATION OF RUSSIA: 1300–1584

I. The People

II. The Princes of Moscow

III. Ivan the Terrible

Chapter XXX. THE GENIUS OF ISLAM: 1258–1520

I. The II-Khans of Persia

II. Hafiz

III. Timur

IV. The Mamluks

V. The Ottomans

VI. Islamic Literature

VII. Art in Asiatic Islam

VIII. Islamic Thought

Chapter XXXI. SULEIMAN THE MAGNIFICENT: 1520–66

I. African Islam

II. Safavid Persia

III. Suleiman and the West

IV. Ottoman Civilization

V. Suleiman Himself

Chapter XXXII. THE JEWS: 1300–1564

I. The Wanderers

II. On the Rack

III. The Second Dispersion

IV. The Technique of Survival

V. Jewish Thought

BOOK IV: BEHIND THE SCENES: 1517–64

Chapter XXXIII. THE LIFE OF THE PEOPLE

I. The Economy

II. Law

III. Morals

IV. Manners

Chapter XXXIV. MUSIC: 1300–1564

I. The Instruments

II. The Flemish Ascendancy

III. Music and the Reformation

IV. Palestrina

Chapter XXXV. LITERATURE IN THE AGE OF RABELAIS

I. Of Making Books

II. Schools

III. Scholars

IV. The French Renaissance

V. Rabelais

VI. Ronsard and the Pléiade

VII. Wyatt and Surrey

VIII. Hans Sachs

IX. The Iberian Muse

Chapter XXXVI. ART IN THE AGE OF HOLBEIN

I. Art, the Reformation, and the Renaissance

II. The Art of the French Renaissance

III. Pieter Brueghel

IV. Cranach and the Germans

V. The Tudor Style

VI. Holbein the Younger

VII. Art in Spain and Portugal

Chapter XXXVII. SCIENCE IN THE AGE OF COPERNICUS

I. The Cult of the Occult

II. The Copernican Revolution

III. Magellan and the Discovery of the Earth

IV. The Resurrection of Biology

V. Vesalius

VI. The Rise of Surgery

VII. Paracelsus and the Doctors

VIII. The Skeptics

IX. Ramus and the Philosophers

BOOK V: THE COUNTER REFORMATION: 1517–65

Chapter XXXVIII. THE CHURCH AND REFORM

I. Italian Protestant Reformers

II. Italian Catholic Reform

III. St. Teresa and Monastic Reform

IV. Ignatius Loyola

V. The Jesuits

Chapter XXXIX. THE POPES AND THE COUNCIL

I. The Popes at Bay

II. Censorship and Inquisition

III. The Council of Trent

EPILOGUE: RENAISSANCE, REFORMATION, AND ENLIGHTENMENT

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL GUIDE

NOTES