Post-classical history

NOTES

Overview: The White Rose, 1485–1547

1. R.T. Davies (ed.), Medieval English Lyrics: A Critical Anthology, London, Faber & Faber, 1963, no. 156.

2. P. Vergil, The Anglica Historia of Polydore Vergil AD 1485–1537, Camden Society, 1950, p. 9.

3. ‘The spectre of possible rivals, true or false, haunted Henry VII all the days, and maybe the nights, of his life, and inflamed the heated imagination of his son after him; many guilty and innocent heads were to roll so that the Tudors might sleep more easily.’ S.B. Chrimes, Lancastrians, Yorkists and Henry VII, London, Macmillan, 1964, p. 158

4. A. Fletcher and D. MacCulloch, Tudor Rebellions, London and New York, Longmans, 1997, p. 116.

5. L. Wooding, Henry VIII, London, Routledge, 2009, p. 18.

1. Autumn 1485: ‘this woeful season’

1. Sir F. Bacon, The History of the Reign of King Henry VII and Selected Works, Cambridge, 1998, p. 23. Bacon may not have known of material that has since come to light, but he had read Vergil, Fabyan and Robert André, besides several manuscript sources, and is often a remarkably shrewd interpreter.

2. R. Davies, Municipal Records of the City of York during the Reigns of Edward IV, Edward V and Richard III, London, 1843, p. 218.

3. The Paston Letters, Gloucester, Alan Sutton, 1986, 1001.

4. Memorials of King Henry the Seventh, Rolls Series, London, 1858, 1, 4–5.

5. Vergil, op. cit., p. 8.

6. Rotoli Parliamentorum (1278–1504), London,1767–77, vol. VI, 268–70.

7. Vergil, op. cit., p. 144.

8. S. Cunningham, Henry VII, London, Routledge, 2007, p. 98.

9. Bacon, op. cit., p. 19.

2. Easter 1486: Lord Lovell and the Stafford Brothers

1. Bacon, p. 65.

2. The Plumpton Correspondence, OS Old Series (21), London, 1839, p. 48.

3. Ibid., p. 48.

4. Material for a History of the Reign of Henry VII, 2 vols, Rolls Series, 1873–7, vol. I, p. 143.

5. C.H. Williams, ‘The Rebellion of Sir Humphrey Stafford in 1486’, The English Historical Review, 43 (1928).

6. LP Hen VII, vol. I, p. 234.

7. Vergil, op. cit., p. 10.

8. E.H. Fonblanque, The Annals of the House of Percy, 2 vols, London, [Private Circulation], 1887, vol. I, p. 300.

9. H.T. Riley (ed.), Ingulph’s Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland, London, 1854, pp. 513–14.

10. Bacon, op. cit., p. 20.

11. Coram Rege Rolls, Trin. 1, Hen VII Rex. Rot. 10, quoted in Williams, ‘The Rebellion’, p. 188.

12. Material, op. cit., vol. I, p. 434.

13. Paston Letters, op. cit., p. 890.

14. J. Leland, The Itinerary of John Leland … 1535–1543, 5 vols, ed. L. Toulmin Smith, London, 1907–10, vol. 5, pp. 75–6.

15. M. Hemmant (ed.), Select Cases in the Exchequer Chamber before all Justices of England, 1461–1509, Selden Society 64, London 1943, vol. II, pp. 115–24

16. Materials, op. cit., vol. I, pp. 513–14

17. Calendar of the Fine Rolls, S.M.O., 22 vols, London, 1911–62: Henry VII, 1485–1509, vol. 22, 842.

18. Plumpton Corr, op. cit., p. 54

3. Early 1487: Margaret of York

1. E. Hall, The Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Families …, London, 1809, p. 430.

2. Vergil op. cit., pp. 14–16.

3. Margaret de la Pole, daughter of Sir John de la Pole, a younger bother of William, first Duke of Suffolk – married Jean de Foix, Earl of Kendal (‘Cumbria’), whose duather Anne became the Queen of Ladislas II of Hungary. GEC, vol. VIII, p. 150.

4. W.E.A. Moorhen, ‘The Career of John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln’, The Ricardian, Journal of the Richard III Society, 13 (2003).

5. H.T. Riley (trans.), Ingulph’s Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland, 1854, pp. 513–14.

6. L. Attreed, York House Books, Stroud, Alan Sutton, 1991, vol. 2, p. 54.

7. Riley, Ingulph’s Chronicle, op. cit., p. 514.

8. M. Bennett, Lambert Simnel and the Battle of Stoke, Gloucester, Alan Sutton, 1987.

9. J.S. Brewer (ed.), The Book of Howth, in Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts, 6 vols, London, Public Record Office, 1867, vol. 5, pp.188–9.

10. Materials, op. cit., vol. 2, p. 273.

11. W.E. Hampton, ‘The Later Career of Robert Stillington’, in J. Petre (ed.), Richard III: Crown and People, London, Richard III Society, 1975–81, pp. 162–8.

12. York House Books, op. cit., vol. 2, pp. 540–2.

13. H. Delbruck, Die Nenzeit, vol. IV of Geshicte der Kriegskunst, Berlin, 1920.

14. J. Nichols (ed.), The Chronicle of Calais in the Reigns of Henry VII and Henry VIII, Camden Society, Old Series, 35, London, 1846, p. 1.

15. Vergil, op. cit., p. 23.

4. Summer 1487: ‘Stoke Field’

1. Rot. Parl., vol. VI, 397.

2. P.L. Hughes and J.F. Larkin (eds), Tudor Royal Proclamations, 3 vols, New Haven and London, Yale University Press, 1964–9, vol. 1, pp. 12–13.

3. York House Books, op. cit., vol. 2, p. 570.

4. Bacon, op. cit., p. 34.

5. The Great Chronicle of London, ed. A.H. Thomas and I.D. Thornley, London, G.W. Jones, 1938, p. 241.

6. Vergil, op. cit., p. 22.

7. Great Chronicle, op. cit., p. 242.

8. J. Molinet, see G. Doutrepont and O. Jodogne (eds), Chroniques de Jean Molinet (1474–1507), 3 vols, Brussels, Académie royale de Belgique, 1935–7, vol. 1, pp. 362–5.

9. Hall, op. cit., p. 434.

10. J. Leland, De Rebus Britannicis Collectanea, 6 vols, London, 1770, vol. IV, p. 210.

11. A.H. Burne, The Battlefields of England, London, Penguin, 1996, p. 314

12. Bacon, op. cit., p. 35.

13. J.M. Thompson, J.B. Paul and others (eds), Registrum Magni Sigilli Regnum Scotorum: Register of the Great Seal of Scotland, Edinburgh, Scottish Record Society, 1882–1914, vol. 2 (1424– 1513), p. 370.

14. D. Baldwin, ‘What Happened to Lord Lovell?’, The Ricardian, 89 (June 1985).

15. Vergil, op. cit., p. 24.

16. Rot. Parl., op. cit., vol. VI, 397.

17. B. André, De Vita atque gestis Henrici Septimi Historia, in Memorials, pp. 49–52.

18. Bacon, op. cit., p. 20.

5. Winter 1489–90: The Conscience of Abbot Sant

1. Vergil, op. cit., p. 32.

2. Bacon, op. cit., p. 201.

3. Paston Letters, op. cit., p. 1032.

4. Paston Letters, op. cit., p. 1037.

5. M.A. Hicks, ‘Dynastic Change and Northern Society: The Career of the Fourth Earl of Northumberland’, Northern Society 14 (1978), pp. 78–107.

6. Hall, op. cit., p. 443.

7. Materials, op. cit., vol. II, pp. 337 and 339.

8. Vergil, op. cit., p. 32.

9. D. Luckett, ‘The Thames Valley Conspiracies against Henry VII’, Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, 68 (1995), pp. 164–72.

10. Rot. Parl., op. cit., vol. VI, p. 436.

11. I. Arthurson, ‘Espionage and Intelligence from the Wars of the Roses to the Reformation’, Nottingham Medieval Studies, 35 (1991), pp. 145–6.

12. Plumpton Corr, op. cit., letter lxxi; Leland, Collectanea, vol. IV, p. 257.

13. Calendar of the Close Rolls, Henry VII (1485–1500), 2 vols, London, H.M.S.O., 1955–63, vol. 1, 672, pp. 196–7.

6. Winter 1491–Autumn 1492: One of the Princes in the Tower?

1. Bacon, op. cit., p. 95.

2. Hall, op. cit., p. 462.

3. LP Hen VII, op. cit., vol. I, p. 99.

4. Rot. Parl., op. cit., vol. VI, p. 455.

5. Rot. Parl., op. cit., vol. VI, p. 454.

6. Hall, op. cit., pp. 488–9.

7. J.R.O. O’Flanagan, The Blackwater in Munster, London, 1844, p. 37.

8. Bacon, op. cit., p. 105.

9. LP Hen VII, Rolls Series, 1861–3, vol. II, pp. 326–7.

10. A. Conway, Henry VII’s Relations with Scotland and Ireland 1485–98, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1932, p. 49.

11. B. André, De vita atque gestis Henrici Septimi Historia, in Memorials, p. 66.

12. Hall, op. cit., p. 464.

13. Vergil, op. cit., p. 64.

14. Ibid., p. 66.

15. Richard Arnold, Customs of London, Antwerp, 1504.

16. Vergil, op. cit., p. 64.

17. A. Morel Fatio, ‘Marguerite d’York et Perkin Warbeck’, in Mélanges d’Histoire offerts à M. Charles Belmont, Paris, Félix Alcan, 1913, pp. 411–16.

18. Bacon, op. cit., p. 102.

19. Vergil, op. cit., p. 68.

20. A. Wroe, Perkin: A Story of Deception, London, Jonathan Cape, 2003.

21. C. Roth, ‘Perkin Warbeck and his Jewish Master’, Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society of England, 9 (1922), pp. 143–62.

22. Archeologica, xxvi.

23. A.F. Pollard, The Reign of Henry VII from Contemporary Sources, 3 vols, London, Longmann, Green, & Co., 1913, vol. 1, pp. 93–5.

24. LP Hen VII, vol. II, p. 321.

25. Ibid., pp. 292–7.

26. Ibid., pp. 388–404.

7. January 1495: The Lord Chamberlain is a Traitor

1. Bacon, op. cit., p. 202.

2. G.L. Kingsford (ed.), Chronicles of London, Oxford, 1905, p. 203.

3. Hall, op. cit., p. 463.

4. Chronicles of London, op. cit., p. 203.

5. Bacon, op. cit., p. 122.

6. Hall, op. cit., p. 470.

7. Vergil, op. cit., p. 74; T.B.Howell, State Trials, London, 1816, p. 282.

8. W.A.J. Archbold, ‘Sir William Stanley and Perkin Warbeck’, English Historical Review, 14 (1899).

9. R. Flenley, Six Town Chronicles, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1911, p. 166.

8. Summer 1495: The Yorkist Invasion

1. Hall, op. cit., pp. 471–2.

2. Ibid., p. 462.

3. J. Gairdner, The History of the Life and Reign of King Richard the Third, Cambridge, 1898, pp. 291–2.

4. Ibid., p. 292.

5. Memorials, op. cit., pp. 393–9.

6. CSP Ven, vol. I, 648.

7. Chronicles of London, op. cit., p. 205.

8. Hall, op. cit., p. 472; Vergil B, p. 80.

9. CSP Sp, vol. I, 98.

10. Vergil, op. cit., p. 84.

11. Chroniques de Jean Molinet, op. cit., vol 1, pp. 421–2.

12. Chronicles of London, op. cit., p. 205.

13. Paston Letters, op. cit., p. 936.

14. Ibid., p. 937.

15. CSP Ven, op. cit., vol. I, 649.

16. Ibid., vol. I, 651.

17. Chronicles of London, op. cit., p. 205.

18. Bacon, op. cit., p. 119.

19. Ibid., p. 124.

20. A.M.McCormack, The Earldom of Desmond 1463–1583, Dublin, Four Courts Press, 2005, p. 62.

21. L. Price, ‘Armed Forces of the Irish Chiefs in the Early Sixteenth Century’, Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquarians of Ireland, 62 (1932).

9. Autumn 1495–Summer 1497: The Scots and the Cornish

1. Vergil, op. cit., p. 92.

2. CSP Sp, op. cit., vol. I, 169.

3. Gairdner, History of the Life and Reign of Richard the Third, p. 300.

4. Vergil, op. cit., p. 84; Hall, op. cit., p. 474; Bacon, op. cit., p. 127–8.

5. LP Hen VII, op. cit., vol. II, pp. 325–6.

6. W. Busch, England Unter Den Tudors, vol. 1, ed. J.G. Cotta, Stuttgart, 1892, trans. A.M. Todd as England under the Tudors, vol. 1, Henry VII, London, 1895, p. 105.

7. H. Ellis, Original Letters Illustrative of British History, 1st series, London, 1824, vol. 1, p. 23.

8. Ibid., vol. 1, p. 25.

9. Calender of State Papers and Manuscripts … at Milan (1385–1618), London, 1912, vol. I, p. 490.

10. Vergil, op. cit., p. 88.

11. Chronicles of London, op. cit., p. 210.

12. Hall, op. cit., p. 475.

13. Bacon, op. cit., p. 135.

14. Bacon, op. cit., p. 137.

15. Chronicles of London, op. cit., p. 215.

16. I. Arthurson, The Perkin Warbeck Conspiracy 1491–1499, Stroud, Sutton, 1994, p. 165, quoting TNA, PRO KB9/441/6.

17. Bacon, op. cit., p. 142. 18. Gairdner, Richard the Third …, op. cit., p. 317.

10. March 1496: The Grand Prior Plans to Poison the King

1. LP Hen VII, op. cit., II, pp. 318–23. Our only source for this episode is Bernart’s Depositum.

2. G. O’Malley, The Knights Hospitaller of the English Langue 1460– 1565, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2005, p. 144.

3. Oxford DNB.

4. I. Arthurson, The Perkin Warbeck Conspiracy 1491–99, Stroud, Alan Sutton, 1994, pp. 76 and 232 n. 54.

5. The Knights Hospitaller, pp. 146–50.

6. A. Wroe, Perkin, a Story of Deception, London, Jonathan Cape, 2003, pp. 166–9 and 203–4.

11. September 1497: Cornwall Rises for Richard IV

1. CSP Milan, op. cit., vol. I, 327.

2. CSP Ven, op. cit., vol. I, 754.

3. A.F. Pollard (ed.), The Reign of Henry VII from Contemporary Sources, 3 vols, London, Longmans, Green and Co., 1913, vol. 1, pp. 162–3.

4. LP Hen VII, op. cit., vol. II, p. xli–xlii.

5. Pollard, Reign of Henry VII, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 163.

6. Ibid., p. 168.

7. Rot. Parl., op. cit., vol. VI, p. 545.

8. Vergil, op. cit., p. 106.

9. CSP Milan, op. cit., vol. I, 325.

10. Pollard, Reign of Henry VII, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 150.

11. Chronicles of London, op. cit., p. 217.

12. A.L. Rowse, Tudor Cornwall, London, Macmillan, 1969, p. 131

13. CSP Milan, op. cit., vol. I, 327.

14. Ibid., 329.

15. Pollard, Reign of Henry VII, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 173.

16. B. André, in Memorials, pp. 73–5.

17. Hall, op. cit., p. 485.

18. Vergil, op. cit., p.108.

19. Vergil, op. cit., p. 109.

20. LP Hen VII, op. cit., vol. II, pp. 335–7.

21. Bacon, op. cit., p. 151.

12. Autumn 1499: Bringing Down a Curse

1. Vergil, op. cit., p. 118.

2. Chronicles of London, op. cit., p. 219.

3. CSP Milan, op. cit., vol. I, 550.

4. Chronicles of London, op. cit., p. 219.

5. Gairdner, Richard III, op. cit., pp. 229–30.

6. CSP Ven, op. cit., vol. I, 760.

7. Chronicles of London, op. cit., p. 223.

8. CSP Sp, op. cit., vol. I, 198.

9. Ibid., 221.

10. Vergil, op. cit., p. 116.

11. Chronicles of London, op. cit., p. 225.

12. Hall, op. cit., p. 491.

13. CSP Sp, op. cit., vol. I, 221.

14. CSP Milan,. vol I, 799.

15. CSP Ven, op. cit., vol. V, 575.

16. Bacon, op. cit., p. 160.

17. Arthurson, ‘Espionage and Intelligence’, Nottingham Medieval Studies, 1991, pp. 202–18.

18. Plumpton Corr, op. cit., p. 141.

19. Chroniques de Jean Molinet, op. cit., vol. 2, p. 467.

20. LP Hen VII, op. cit., p. 1.

21. Bacon, op. cit., p. 160.

22. Chronicles of London, op. cit., pp. 227–8.

23. Vergil, op. cit., p. 118.

13. Autumn 1499: Edmund de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk

1. Hall, op. cit., p. 495.

2. Sir Thomas More, ‘A Rueful Lamentation on the Death of Queen Elizabeth’, in R.S.Sylvester (ed.), The Complete Works of St Thomas More, Yale, Yale University Press, vol. 1, p. 9.

3. CSP Sp, op. cit., vol. I, 249.

4. LP Hen VII, op. cit., vol. I, pp. 397, 400–1.

5. Vergil, op. cit., p. 127.

6. Cunningham, Henry VII, pp. 187–8.

7. LP Hen VII, op. cit., vol. I, pp. 131–4.

8. Vergil, op. cit., p. 123.

14. Summer 1501: White Rose and White King

1. Hall, op. cit., p. 495.

2. LP Hen VII, op. cit., vol, I, p. 134.

3. Vergil, op. cit., p. 123.

4. LP Hen VII, vol. I, op. cit., p. 266.

5. Ibid., pp. 137–8.

6. J.G. Nichols (ed.), Chronicle of the Grey Friars of London, Camden Society, Old Series 53, London, 1852, p. 127.

7. Chronicles of London, op. cit., p. 55.

8. Vergil, op. cit., p. 125.

9. Chronicles of London, op. cit., p. 256.

10. Vergil, op. cit., p. 126.

11. LP Hen VII, op. cit., vol. I, p. 180.

12. Ibid., p. 184.

13. A. Hanham, ‘Edmund de la Pole, defector’, in Journal of the Society for Renaissance Studies, 2 (1988), p. 244.

14. LP Hen VII, op. cit., vol. I, pp. 134–51.

15. Ibid., pp. 205–6.

16. W. Busch, England under the Tudors, vol. I, p. 179.

17. Hall, op. cit., p. 496.

18. Vergil, op. cit., p. 122.

19. Bacon, op. cit., p. 180.

20. LP Hen VII, op. cit., vol. I, p. 228.

21. Ibid., p. 188.

22. Ibid., p. 220–5.

23. CSP Ven, op. cit., vol. I, 849 and 851.

24. LP Hen VII, op. cit., vol. I, p. 254.

25. Ibid., p. 276.

26. CSP Ven, op. cit., vol. I, 861.

15. September 1504: A Conversation about the Future

1. LP Hen VII, op. cit., vol. I, pp. 231–40.

2. G. Cavendish, Thomas Wolsey, late Cardinal, his Life and Death written by George Cavendish, his Gentleman Usher, London, Folio Society, 1999, p. 33.

16. Winter 1505–6: An Ill Wind

1. Chronicle of the Grey Friars, op. cit., p. 28.

2. LP Hen VII, op. cit., vol. I, pp. 278–85.

3. Chronicles of London, op. cit., p. 261.

4. Vergil, op. cit., p. 136.

5. CSP Sp, op. cit., vol. I, 456.

6. Vergil, op. cit., p. 136.

7. Ibid., pp. 138–40.

8. The Chronicle of Calais, p. 126.

9. Vergil, op. cit., p. 126.

10. Bacon, op. cit., pp. 182–3.

11. C.J. Harrison, ‘The Petition of Edmund Dudley’, English Historical Review, 87 (1972).

12. LP Hen VII, op. cit., vol. I, p. 319.

13. CSP Ven, op. cit., vol. 5, 575.

17. Spring 1509: A Yorkist Tudor?

1. P. Henderson (ed.), The Complete Poems of John Skelton, Laureate, London and Toronto, J.M. Dent, 1948, p. 13.

2. Hall, op. cit., p. 1.

3 Ibid., p. 519.

4. Erasmus, Opus Epistolarum Desiderii Erasmi Roterdami (ed. P.S. and M.H. Allen and W.W. Garrod) vol. III, ep. 657, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1906–58, 12 vols.

5. M. Bennet, ‘Table Tittle Tattle and the Tudor View of History’, in K. Dockray and P. Fleming (eds), People, Places and Perspectives: Essays on Later Medieval and Tudor England in Honour of Ralph A. Griffiths, Stroud, Nonsuch Publishing, 2005.

6. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. I (i), p. 11.

7. Hall, op. cit., p. 512.

8. S. Angelo (ed.), Chivalry in the Renaissance, Woodbridge, Boydell Press, 1990, p. 110.

9. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. I (i), 596.10. Ibid., vol. I (ii), 2072.

18. 1513–21: A King over the Water

1. Hall, op. cit., p. 495.

2. LP Hen VII, op. cit., vol. I, p. 258.

3. Ibid., pp. 273–5.

4. Ibid., p. 276.

5. Ibid., p. 53.

6. CPR Hen VII, 1494–1509, op. cit., p. 468.

7. LP Hen VII, vol. I, p. 307.

8. Ibid., pp. 315–20.

9. Ibid., p. 321.

10. CSP Ven, op. cit., vol. II, 172.

11. It looks as though the date of Richard’s birth was earlier than has generally been assumed and that William, not Richard, was the youngest of the de la Pole brothers. Humphrey and Geoffrey, both clerics, died before 1513.

12. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. I (i), 2072.

13. Ibid., 1315.

14. Ibid., 1575.

15. Ibid., 4691.

16. Hall, p. 569.

17. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. II (i), 147, 325.

18. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. III (i), appendix to preface (ccccxl).

19. LP Hen VIII, vol. II (i), 1163.

20. Ibid., 742, 809, 1239.

21. Ibid., 1894.

22. Ibid., 2113.

23. Ibid., 1973, 2081.

24. Ibid., 2419.

25. Ibid., 2673.

26. Ibid., 2926, 3043.

27. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. II (ii), appendix 39.

19. 1519–Autumn 1520: The Duke of Buckingham

1. Vergil, op. cit., p. 239

2. CSP Ven, op. cit., vol. II, 1287.

3. Some sources suggest the lady was another of Buckingham’s sisters, Lady Hastings.

4. CSP Sp, op. cit., supplement to vols I and II, 8, 39–40.

5. E.M. Thompson, History of the Somerset Carthusians, London, 1895, p. 281.

6. C. Rawcliffe, The Staffords, Earls of Stafford and Dukes of Buckingham, 1394–1521, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1978, pp. 244–51.

7. Sir J. MacLean (ed.), The Berkeley Manuscripts: Lives of the Berkeleys, Gloucester, 1883, vol. II, pp. 206, 215.

8. B.J. Harris, Edward Stafford, Third Duke of Buckingham 1478– 1521, Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1988, London, 1948 pp. 147–8.

9. CSP Ven, op. cit., vol. II, 1287.

10. Complete Poems of John Skelton, pp. 313–4.

11. Vergil, op. cit., p. 263.

12. CSP Ven, op. cit., vol. III, 209.

13. C.A.J. Skeel, Council in the Marches of Wales, London, Hugh Rees Ltd, 1904, pp. 35–6.

14. CSP Ven, op. cit., vol. II, 564.

15. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. III (i), 1284.

20. Winter 1520–Spring 1521: ‘A Giant Traitor’

1. W. Roper, The Life of Sir Thomas More, London, J.M. Dent, 1906, p. 14

2. Vergil, op. cit., p. 278

3. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. III (i), 1070.

4. William Shakespeare, Henry VIII, Act 2, Sc 1.

5. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. III (i), 1283.

6. Ibid., 1284.

7. In J.S. Brewer, The Reign of Henry VIII from his Accession to the Death of Wolsey, ed. J. Gairdner, London, 1884, vol. 1, pp. 391–2.

8. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. III (i), 1284.

9. Hall, op. cit., p. 623.

10. Ibid., p. 624.

11. Harris, Edward Stafford, op. cit., pp. 192–3.

12. Hall, op. cit., p. 624.

13. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. VI, 1164; Thompson, History of the Somerset Carthusians, p. 284.

21. Winter 1524–5: A White Rose Dies

1. R. Macquereau, Histoire générale de l’Europe, Louvain, 1765, p. 231

2. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. III (ii), 2340.

3. Ibid., vol. III (i), 1313.

4. Ibid., 1221.

5. For Philippe de Vignolles, see LP Hen VIII, vol. III (i), appendix to preface, ccccxliii.

6. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. III (ii), 2768.

7. Ibid., 2769.

8. CSP Sp, op. cit., 219.

9. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. IV (i), 317.

10. Ibid., 324.

11. Ibid., 335.

12. LP Hen VIII, vol. III (ii), 3118; A.M. McCormack, The Earldom of Desmond, Dublin, Four Courts Press, 2005, p. 64.

13. CSP Ven op. cit., 1520–26, vol. III, (1120–26), 742.

14. For Marguerite de la Pole, see G. de La Rivoire de La Batie, Armorial de Dauphiné, Lyons, 1867, pp. 106–7.

15. Macquereau, Histoire générale de l’Europe, p. 231.

22. 1525–35: The White Rose Party

1. Shakespeare, Henry VI, Part 1, Act 2, Scene 4.

2. Hall, op. cit., p. 703.

3. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. III (i), 386.

4. Leviticus 20: 21.

5. Hall, op. cit., p. 782.

6. G.W. Bernard, The King’s Reformation: Henry VIII and the Remaking of the English Church, New Haven and London, Yale University Press, pp. 87–101.

7. M.H. and R. Dodds, The Pilgrimage of Grace 1536–1537 and the Exeter Conspiracy, 2 vols, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1916, vol. II, p. 181.

8. LP Hen VIII, vol. XIII (ii), 961.

9. Hall, op. cit., pp. 780–1.

10. Ibid., pp. 808–14.

11. Ibid., p. 813.

23. 1533–4: Rebellion?

1. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. VI, 1164.

2. CSP Ven, op. cit., vol. V, 575.

3. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. VI, 508.

4. G.R. Elton, Reform and Reformation: England 1509–1558, London, Edward Arnold, 1977, p. 122.

5. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. VI, 1164.

6. Ibid., 1164.

7. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. VII, 136.

8. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. VI, 1540.

9. J.J. Scarisbrick, ‘Fisher, Henry VIII and the Reformation Crisis’, in B. Bradshaw and E. Duffy (eds), Humanism, Reform and the Reformation: The Career of Bishop John Fisher, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1989, p. 163.

10. CSP Spain, V (i), 86..

11. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. VII, 1095.

12. Oxford DNB.

13. Oxford DNB.

14. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XII (i), 576.

15. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. VIII, 35.

24. 1535–6: The Lady Mary and the White Rose

1. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XIV (i), 200

2. The best study of this character change is S. Lipscomb, 1536: The Year that Changed Henry VIII, London, Lion Hudson, 2009.

3. G.R. Elton, The Tudor Constitution: Documents and Commentary, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1960, no. 30, p. 62.

4. For the spy network run by Cromwell, see G.R. Elton, Policy and Police, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1972.

5. R.B. Merriman, Life and Letters of Thomas Cromwell, 2 vols, Oxford, 1902, vol. 1, no. 113.

6. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. IX, 776.

25. Summer 1535: A New White Rose?

1. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. V (ii), 72.

2. Mayer, Reginald Pole: Prince and Prophet, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, p. 98.

3. CSP Ven, vol. V, 806.

4. T.F. Mayer (ed.), The Correspondence of Reginald Pole, Aldershot, Ashgate, 2002, vol. 1, p. 86.

5. For De Unitate, see T.F. Mayer, Reginald Pole, Prince and Prophet, Cambridge, Cambridge University Presss, 2000, pp. 13–61; also see the summary in LP Hen VIII, vol. X, p. 975.

6. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XIV (i), 200.

7. T.F. Mayer, ‘A Diet for Henry VIII: The Failure of Cardinal Pole’s 1537 Legation’, in Journal of British Studies 26 (1987), p. 305.

26. Autumn 1536: The Pilgrimage of Grace

1. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XI, (iii), 786.

2. The definitive study is R.W. Hoyle, The Pilgrimage of Grace and the Politics of the 1530s, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2001 – which argues that the gentry only joined in order to defuse it.

3. Dodds and Dodds, The Pilgrimage of Grace, op. cit., vol. 1, pp. 88–9.

4. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XII (i), 900, 901 and 945.

5. Ibid., vol. XI, 780.

6. LP Hen VIII, X, 1086; Dodds and Dodds, The Pilgrimage of Grace, op. cit., vol. 1, pp. 300–6.

7. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XI, 672, 722–3.

8. C. Ross, Richard III, London, Eyre Methuen, 1981, p. 212.

9. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. V (ii), 114.

10. LP Hen VIII, XI, 957.

11. Ibid., XII (i), 1013.

12. R.B. Merriman, Life and Letters of Thomas Cromwell, 2 vols, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1902, vol. 2, p. 169.

13. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XI, 1246.

14. Ibid., vol. XII (i), 976.

15. C. Wriothesley, A Chronicle of England during the Reign of the Tudors from ad 1485–1559, ed. W.D. Hamilton, vol. 1.

16. Bernard, The King’s Reformation, op. cit., p. 344.

17. Dodds and Dodds, The Pilgrimage of Grace, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 305.

18. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XII (i), 841.

19. Scarisbrick suggests that the Pilgrimage ‘could have openly enlisted latent Yorkist sentiment’, stressing its failure to do so. J.J. Scarisbrick, Henry VIII, London, Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1968, p. 341.

27. Spring–Summer 1537: ‘Mr Pole’s Traitorous Practises’

1. Hall, op. cit., p. 828.

2. CSP Ven, op. cit., vol. V, 575.

3. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. V (i), 131.

4. Dodds and Dodds, The Pilgrimage of Grace, op. cit., vol. II, p. 280.

5. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XII (i), 779.

6. Mayer, Correspondence of Reginald Pole, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 174.

7. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XII (i), 1032.

8. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XIII (ii), 797.

9. Mayer, ‘A Diet for Henry VIII’, op. cit., p. 323.

10. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XII (ii), 128.

11. Mayer, Correspondence of Reginald Pole, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 168.

12. Ibid., p. 178.

13. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XII (i), 809.

14. CSP Sp, op. cit., vol. V (ii), 151.

15. Merriman, Thomas Cromwell, op. cit., vol. II, pp. 87–90.

16. See A. Overell, ‘Cardinal Pole’s Special Agent: Michael Throckmorton, c. 1503–1558’, in History, 94 (July 2009), p. 315.

28. Autumn 1538: The ‘Exeter Conspiracy’

1. Merriman, Thomas Cromwell, op. cit., vol. 2, no. 281

2. M.L. Busch, ‘The Tudors and the Royal Race’, in History, 55 (1971), pp. 37–48.

3. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XIII (ii), 753.

4. E.W. Ives, ‘Faction at the Court of Henry VIII: The Fall of Anne Boleyn’, in History, 57 (1972), pp. 169–88.

5. Mayer, Correspondence of Reginald Pole, op. cit., vol. 1, pp. 118–19.

6. Ibid., p. 118.

7. T.E. Bindoff, Tudor England, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1950, p. 108.

8. Elton, Policy and Police, op. cit., pp. 350 and 359 n. 4.

9. Dodds and Dodds, The Pilgrimage of Grace, op. cit., vol. 2, p. 293.

10. Bernard, The King’s Reformation, op. cit., p. 431.

11. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XIII (ii), 804.

12. Ibid., 804.

13. For Helyar, see Oxford DNB.

14. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XIII (ii), 797.

15. M. St Clair Byrne, The Lisle Letters, 6 vols, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1981, vol. 5, no. 259.

16. Hall, op. cit., p. 826.

17. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XIII (ii), 924.

18. R. Morison, An Invective ayenst [against] Treason, London, 1539.

19. CSP Ven., op. cit., vol. V, 806.

20. Hall, op. cit., p. 827.

21. Ibid., p. 827.

22. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XIII (ii), 960.

23. Elton, Reform and Reformation, p. 281.

24. J. A.Youings, ‘The Council of the West’, in Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, fifth series, 10 (1960), p. 45.

25. Bernard, The King’s Reformation, op. cit., p. 419.

26. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XIV (i), 280.

27. Ibid., 280.

28. Ibid., 144.

29. Winter 1538–Summer 1539: Cardinal Pole’s Last Throw

1. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XIV (i), 456.

2. Hall, op. cit., p. 823.

3. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XIV (i), 114.

4. Ibid., 405.

5. Ibid., 456.

6. Ibid., 200.

7. Ibid., 560.

8. Mayer, Correspondence of Reginald Pole, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 222.

9. Hall, op. cit., pp. 828–9.

10. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XIV (i), 967.

11. Mayer, Correspondence of Reginald Pole, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 228.

12. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XIV (i), 280.

13. Transcript from Lambeth Palace Library, in Fletcher and MacCulloch, Tudor Rebellions, p. 141.

30. May 1541: The Death of the Last Plantagenet

1. Lord Herbert of Cherbury, The Life and Reigne of King Henry VIII, London, 1649, p. 648.

2. H. Pierce, Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury 1473–1541, Cardiff, University of Wales Press, 2003, p. 14.

3. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. VI, 1126.

4. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XIII (ii), 855.

5. Ibid., 818.

6. Pierce, Margaret Pole, p. 171.

7. St Clare Byrne, Lisle Letters, vol. 5, no. 1419.

8. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XIV (ii), 212.

9. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XVI, 1011.

10. Ibid., 403.

11. Pierce, Margaret Pole, p. 176.

12. Bernard, The King’s Reformation, op. cit., p. 574.

13. CSP Sp, op. cit., vol. VI (i), 158. For a detailed account, A.G. Dickens, ‘Sedition and conspiracy in Yorkshire during the latter years of Henry VIII in Reformation Studies, London, Hambledon Press, 1982, p. 5–20.

14. Ibid., 166.

15. The Life and Reigne of King Henry VIII, p.648; CSP Sp, vol. VI (i), p. 332.

16. Hall, op. cit., p. 842.

17. CSP Sp, op. cit., vol. VI (i), 166.

31. Winter 1546–7: Henry VIII’s Final Phobia

1. E. Jones (ed.), Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey: Poems, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1973, no. 45.

2. Hall, p. 866.

3. ‘devious, vengeful, foul-mouthed and essentially second rate’ is G.R. Elton’s verdict on the Duke of Norfolk, in Reform and Reformation, p. 117.

4. The latest studies of Surrey are: W.A. Sessions, Henry Howard, the Poet Earl of Surrey, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1999; and J. Childs, Henry VIII’s Last Victim, Jonathan Cape, London, 2006.

5. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XVI (i), 12.

6. G. Constantyne, ‘Transcript of an Original Manuscript Containing a Memorial from George Constantine to Thomas, Lord Cromwell’, ed. T. Amyot, Archaeologia 22, London 1831, p. 62.

7. Jones, Henry Howard.

8. LP Hen VIII, op. cit., vol. XXI (ii), 696.

9. CSP Spain, VIII, 364.

Epilogue

1. D.M. Loades, Two Tudor Conspiracies, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1965, pp. 21–3, 45–6.

2. Ibid., p. 225.

3. A. Rowntree (ed.), History of Scarborough, London, Dent, 1931, p. 214.

4. Oxford DNB: H. Pierce, ‘Arthur Pole’.

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