Primary sources are identified by name used in text, followed by published title, editor, volume(s) if relevant, publisher, and date; secondary works by author, title, publisher, and date; entries for articles also specify the publishing journal, volume, and page numbers. Abbreviations used are as below:


Cambridge University Press


English Historical Review


Mariner’s Mirror


Oxford University Press


Rolls Series


Transactions of the Royal Historical Society


Weidenfeld and Nicolson


Yale University Press

All publishers are London unless otherwise specified.


Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, ed. M. Swanton (Phoenix, 2000)

Anonymous of Béthune: Histoire des Ducs de Normandie et des Rois d’Angleterre, ed. F. Michel (Societé de l’Histoire de France, Paris, 1840)

Barnwell Chronicle: Memoriale fratris Walteri de Coventria, ed. W. Stubbs, vol. ii (RS 58, 1872–73)

Chronicle of the Princes: Brut Tywysogion or the Chronicle of the Princes, ed. T. Jones (RS 17, 1860)


- The Third Crusade (Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi), ed. K Fenwick (Folio, 1958)

- Joinville and Villehardouin: Chronicles of the Crusades, ed. M.R.B. Shaw (Penguin 1963)

- Chronicles of the First Crusade, ed. C. Tyerman (Penguin, 2012)

Gervase of Canterbury: The Historical Works of Gervase of Canterbury, ed. W. Stubbs, vol. ii (RS 66, 1879–80)

Gesta Abbiatum Monasterii Sancti Albani, ed. H.T. Riley (three vols, RS 28, 1867–69)

Gesta Stephani, ed. R. Howlett in Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, Henry II and Richard I, iii (RS 82, 1884)

Henry of Huntingdon: The History of the English People 1000–1154, tr. D. Greenaway (OUP, 1996 & 2002)

History of William Marshal:

- L’Histoire de Guillaume le Maréchal, ed. P. Meyer (three vols, Societé de l’Histoire de France, 1891–1901)

- The History of William the Marshal, ed. A.J. Holden, D. Gregory and D. Crouch (three vols, Anglo–Norman Texts Society 2002–07)

Jocelin of Brakelond: The Chronicle of Jocelin of Brakelond, ed. Sir E. Clarke (John Murray, 1907)

John of Worcester (originally known as Florence): A History of the Kings of England, ed. J. Stevenson (Llanerch, Dyfed, n.d.)

Jordan of Fantôme: Contemporary Chronicles of the Middle Ages, ed. J. Stevenson (Llanerch, Dyfed, 1988)

Loch Cé: Annals of Loch Cé – A Chronicle of Irish Affairs AD1014–AD1590, tr. W. Hennessy, vol. i (RS 54, 1871)

Matthew Paris: Chronica Maiora Matthaei Parisiensis, ed. H.R. Luard, vols ii & iii (RS 57, 1884–89)

Melsa Chronicle: Chronica Monasterii de Melsa, ed. E.A. Bond, vol. i (RS 43, 1866–68)

Monastic Annals: Annales Monastici, ed. H.R. Luard (four vols, RS 36, 1865–69):

i) Margan, Tewkesbury, Burton

ii) Winchester, Waverley

iii) Dunstable, Bermondsey

iv) Wykes, Worcester

Ousama: Un prince syrien face aus croisés, ed. A. Miquel (Tallandier, Paris 1986)

Ralph of Coggeshall: Radulphi de Coggeshall Chronicon Anglicanum, ed. J. Stevenson (RS 66, 1875)

Ralph of Diceto: The Historical Works of Master Ralph de Diceto, ed. W. Stubbs (two vols, RS 68, 1876)

Robert of Torigni: The Chronicle of Robert of Torigni, ed. R. Howlett in Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, Henry II and Richard I, vol. iv (RS 82, 1889)

Roger of Howden: Chronica Magistri Rogeri de Hoveden, ed. W. Stubbs (four vols, RS 51, 1868)

Roger of Wendover’s Flowers of History, tr. J.A. Giles (Llanerch, Dyfed, 1996)

- Flores Historiarum of Roger of Wendover, ed. H.R. Luard, vol. ii (RS, 1890)

Walter of Guisborough: The Chronicle of Walter of Guisborough, ed. H. Rothwell (Camden Soc, 1957)

Welsh Annals: Annales Cambriae, ed. J. Williams ab Ithel (RS 20, 1860)

William of Malmesbury: Contemporary Chronicles of the Middle Ages, ed. J. Stevenson (Llanerch, Dyfed, 1988)

William of Newburgh: Historia Rerum Anglicarum, ed. R. Howlett in Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, Henry II and Richard I (two vols, RS 82, 1884)


Baldwin, J., The Government of Philip Augustus: Foundations of French Royal Power in the Middle Ages (University of California, CA, 1986)

Barlow, F., The Feudal Kingdom of England 1042–1216 (Longman, 1998)

Bartlett, R., England under the Norman and Angevin Kings 1075–1225 (OUP, 2000)

Beeler, J., Warfare in Feudal Europe 730–1200 (Cornell University, NY, 1971)

Beeler, J., Warfare in England 1066–1189 (Ithaca, NY, 1966)

Beffeyte, R., Les Machines de Guerre au Moyen Age (Ouest France, 2008)

Brindle, S., Dover Castle (English Heritage, 2012)

Brooks, F.W., The English Naval Forces 1199–1272 (no pub., 1933)

Brooks, F.W., ‘The Battle of Damme’, MM xvi (1930) 263–71

Brooks, F.W., ‘Naval Administration and the Raising of Fleets under John and Henry’, MM xv (1929) 351–90

Brooks, F.W., ‘The King’s Ships and Galleys, under John and Henry III’, MM xv (1929) 15–48

Brooks, F.W., ‘Naval Armament in the Thirteenth Century’, MM xiv (1928) 115–31

Brooks, F.W. and Oakley, F., ‘The Campaign and Battle of Lincoln 1217’, Associated Architectural Societies Reports & Papers xxxvi 2 (1922) 295–312

Brooks, R., Cassell’s Battlefields of Britain and Ireland (W&N, 2005)

Brown, R.A., Rochester Castle, Kent (English Heritage, 1989)

Burgess, G.S., Two Medieval Outlaws: The Romances of Eustace the Monk & Fauke Fitzwaryn (Boydell, Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1997)

Cannon, H.L., ‘The Battle of Sandwich and Eustace the Monk’, EHR xxvi (1912) 649–70

Carpenter, D.A., The Struggle for Mastery (Allen Lane, 2003)

Carpenter, D.A., The Minority of Henry III (Methuen, 1990)

Church, S.D. (ed.), King John New Interpretations (Boydell, Woodbridge Suffolk, 2007)

Contamine, P. (tr. M. Jones), War in the Middle Ages (Blackwell, Oxford, 1984)

Crouch, D., William the Marshal: Knighthood, War and Chivalry 1147–1219 (Longman, 2002)

Danziger, D. and J. Gillingham, 1215 The Year of Magna Carta (Hodder & Stoughton, 2003)

Davies, R.R., Conquest, Coexistence and Change – Wales 1063–1415 (OUP, 1987)

Delbruck H. (tr. W.J. Renfroe), History of the Art of War, vol. iii (University of Nebraska, 1990)

Duby, G., France in the Middle Ages (Blackwell, Oxford, 1984)

Duby, G., Guillaume le Marechal ou le meilleure chevalier du monde (Fayard, Paris, 1984) tr. as The Flower of Chivalry (1986)

Duby, G., Le dimanche de Bouvines (Gallimard, Pais, 1973) tr. C. Tihanyi as The Legend of Bouvines, Religion and Culture in the Middle Ages (CUP, 1990)

Duggan, A., Leopards and Lilies (Chatto & Windus, 1954)

Edbury, P.W., Crusade and Settlement, Papers read at the First Conference of the Society for the Study of the Crusades, etc (Cardiff University, 1985)

Edgar, J.G., Runnymede and Lincoln Fair (JM Dent, 1908)

Flori, J., Chevaliers et chevalerie au Moyen Âge (Hachette, Paris, 2008)

France, J., Western Warfare in the Age of the Crusades 1000–1300 (Routledge, 2007)

Gillingham, J., The Angevin Empire (Edward Arnold, 1984)

Gillingham, J., Richard I (Yale, 1999)

Gillingham, J., ‘Richard I and the Art of War in the Middle Ages’ (in Strickland, Anglo-Norman Warfare)

Gillingham, J., ‘War and Chivalry in the History of William the Marshal’ (Strickland op. cit.)

Grainge, G., The Roman Invasions of Britain (Tempus, 2005)

Grant, J., British Battles by Land and Sea, vol. i (Cassell, undated)

Harding, A., England in the Thirteenth Century (CUP, 1993)

Hattendorf, J.B. and Knight, R.J.B., British Naval Documents 1216–1961 (Navy Records Society, 1993)

Hill, J.W.F., Medieval Lincoln (CUP, 1948)

Hill, R., The Battle of Stockbridge 1141 (1989) in C. Harper Bill, Studies in Medieval History Presented to R Allen Brown pp.173–38 (Boydell, Woodbridge, 1989)

Holt, J.C., Magna Carta and Medieval Government (Hambledon, 1985)

Holt, J.C., Magna Carta (CUP, 1965)

Holt, J.C., King John (Historical Association, 1963)

Jones, M.J., Lincoln: History and Guide (History Press, Stroud, 2011)

Keen, M. (ed.), Medieval Warfare: A History (OUP, 1999)

Keen, M., Chivalry (Yale, 1984)

King, E., ‘Mountsorrel and its Region in King Stephen’s Reign’, Huntingdon Library Quarterly xliv (1980) 1–10

Lindley, P. (ed.), The Early History of Lincoln Castle (Society for Lincolnshire History & Archeology 2004)

Lloyd, S.D., ‘“Political Crusades” in England c.1215–17 and c.1263–5’ (in Edbury, Crusade and Settlement)

McLynn, S., Blood Cries Afar: the Forgotten Invasion of England 1216 (Spellmount, 2011)

McLynn, S., By Sword and Fire (W&N, 2008)

Morris, J.E., The Welsh Wars of Edward I (OUP, 1901)

Mortimer, R., Angevin England 1154–1258 (Blackwell, Oxford 1994)

Nicolas, Sir N.H., A History of the Royal Navy from the Earliest Times to the Wars of the French Revolution, vol. i (London, 1847)

Norgate, K., The Minority of Henry III (MacMillan, 1912)

Oman, Sir C., The History of the Art of War in the Middle Ages, vol. i (Methuen, 1924)

Painter, S., William Marshal: Knight Errant, Baron and Regent of England (Baltimore, 1933, reprinted 1971)

Petit-Dutaillis, C., Etude sur le regne de Louis VIII 1187–1226 (Bovillar, Paris, 1894)

Poole, A.L., From Domesday Book to Magna Carta 1087–1216 (OUP, 1955)

Portal, M., The Great Hall at Winchester Castle (Warren, Winchester, 1899)

Powicke, Sir M., The Thirteenth Century 1216–1307 (OUP, 1962)

Powicke, Sir M., The Loss of Normandy 1189–1204 (Manchester University Press, 1961)

Prestwich, M., Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages, the English Experience (Yale, 1996)

Rodger, N.A.M., The Safeguard of the Sea: A Naval History of Britain 660–1649 (Harper Collins, 1997)

Rodgers, Vice Admiral W.L. USN, Naval Warfare under Oars 4th to 16th Centuries (US Naval Institute MD, 1939)

Rose, S., Medieval Naval Warfare 1000–1500 (Routledge, 2002)

Rothwell, H. (ed.), English Historical Documents 1189–1327 (OUP, 1975)

Smail, R.C., Crusading Warfare 1097–1193 (CUP, 1978)

Stephens, G.R., ‘A Note on William of Cassingham’, Speculum 16 (1941) 216–23

Strayer, J.R., The Albigensian Crusades (University of Michigan, 1992)

Strickland, M. (ed.), Anglo-Norman Warfare (Boydell, Woodbridge, 1997)

Strickland, M., Against the Lord’s Anointed: Aspects of War and Baronial Rebellion in England and Normandy 1066–1265 (CUP, 1994)

Stringer, K.J., The Reign of Stephen: Kingship, Warfare and Government in Twelfth Century England (Routledge, 1993)

Stubbs, W. (ed.), Select Charters (OUP, 1966)

Thomas, H.M., The English and the Normans Ethnic Hostility, Assimilation and Identity 1066–1220 (OUP, 2003)

Tout, T.F., ‘The Fair of Lincoln and the “Histoire de Guillaume le Marechal”’, EHR xviii (1903) 240–65

Turner, G.J., ‘The Minority of Henry III, part 1’, TRHS (New Series) xviii (1904) 245–95

Turner, R., Chepstow Castle (CADW, 2006)

Turner, R.V., King John (Longman, 1994)

Verbruggen, J.F., The Art of Warfare in Western Europe during the Middle Ages (Boydell, Woodbridge Suffolk, 1997)

Vincent, N., Peter des Roches: An Alien in English Politics 1205–1238 (CUP, 1996)

War Office, Field Service Pocket Book (HMSO, 1914)

War Office, Field Service Regulations Vol. II Operations 1924 (HMSO, 1924)

Warren, W.L., King John (Eyre & Methuen, 1978)

Wright, T. (ed.), The Political Songs of England (Camden Society, 1839) rep. 1996

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