GLOSSARY

arbalestrier

user of an arbalest or crossbow

avoué

hereditary title of secular representative of ecclesiastical institution

bachelier

unmarried household knight

bataille

squadron of mounted knights/sergeants 100–120 strong, cf. eschiele

Brabançon

mercenary soldier originally from Brabant in Flanders

Boulonnais

appertaining to Boulogne

chevauchée

mounted raiding expedition

Cinque Ports

confederacy of Channel ports, originally five in number

cog

large sailing ship, cf. nef

commençailles

opening stages of a tournament

conroi

troop of mounted knights/sergeants twelve to twenty-four strong

curialis

member of the court

demesne

land exploited directly by a feudal lord

denier

silver penny; the standard unit of currency

destrier

war horse

eschiele

squadron of mounted knights/sergeants 100–120 strong, cf. bataille

fee

landed estate held in exchange for military service; also feodum or fief

gambeson

padded protective jacket used by mounted or foot troops, cf. pourpoint

haubergeon

short mail shirt, sometimes hooded, used by foot troops

hauberk

long mail shirt with hood, used by mounted troops

Hospitaller

knightly monk, member of the religious order of the Hospital of St John

knot

nautical measure of speed = 1 sea mile per hour (2025yd/1.8km)

losengier

deceitful flatterer

Marcher

Anglo-Norman lord or knight resident on the Welsh border

mesnie

band of knights maintained in a lord’s household

Michaelmas

29 September

nef

large sailing ship, cf. cog

Outremer

Frankish overseas possessions in the East, e.g. Kingdom of Jerusalem

palfrey

gentleman’s riding horse

perrière

small counter-weight stone-thrower or petraria

pourpoint

padded linen jacket, cf. gambeson

Poitevin

someone from Poitou, south of the Loire

prud’homme

counsellor of repute

recet

palisaded refuge at tournament

rouncey

poor-quality riding horse or pack horse

routier

member of a band of mercenary soldiers or ruta

scutage

tax levied on knights in lieu of personal service

seneschal

originally steward of a great house, hence deputy for its absent lord

sergeant

mounted or foot soldier of non-noble origin

snecca

fast longship powered by oars, from snekkjur or ‘snake’

tallage

tax levied on towns and the royal demesne

Templar

knightly monk, member of the religious order of the Temple

Tourangeau

someone from Touraine, near Tours on the Loire

trébuchet

large counter-weight stone-thrower

trovère

troubadour or poet

vavassour

knightly warrior living on his own estate

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