Post-classical history

Notes

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Chapter One: Oimmeddam

2 a handsome town of “beautiful markets”: Ibn Battuta in W. Heyd, Histoire du commerce du Levant au moyen age, vol. 2 (Leipzig: O. Harrassowitz, 1936), pp. 172–74.

2 Vivaldi brothers: J. R. S. Phillips, The Medieval Expansion of Europe, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998), p. 238.

2 “a city of sea without fish”: Eileen Power, Medieval People (New York: Harper & Row, 1963), p. 42.

2 “And so many are the Genoese”: Steven A. Epstein, Genoa and the Genoese, 958–1528 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996), p. 166.

3 travel from the Crimea to China: Phillips, The Medieval Expansion of Europe, p. 100.

3 Description of Caffa: Heyd, Histoire du commerce du Levant, pp. 170–74. See also: G. Balbi and S. Raiteri, Notai genovesi in Oltremare Atti rogati a Caffa e a Licostomo (Genoa: 1973), sec. 14; R. S. Lopez, Storie delle Colonie Genovese nel Mediterraneo(Bologna: 1930).

4 tremendous environmental upheaval: J. F. C. Hecker, The Epidemics of the Middle Ages, trans. B. G. Babington (London: Trübner, 1859), pp. 12–15.

4 Mandate of Heaven: Sir Henry H. Howorth, History of the Mongols, from the 9th to the 19th Century, vol. 2 (London: 1888), p. 87.

4 “in the Orient”: Gabriele de’ Mussis, quoted in Stephen D’Irsay, “Defense Reactions During the Black Death,” Annals of Medical History 9 (1927), p. 169.

4 “Hard by greater India”: Louis Heyligen, “Breve Chronicon Cleric Anonymi,” excerpted in The Black Death: Manchester Medieval Sources, trans. and ed. by Rosemary Horrox (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1994), pp. 41–42.

5 Dorias of Genoa: Phillips, The Medieval Expansion of Europe, p. 102.

5 “eaters of sweet greasy food”: René Grousset, Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1970), p. 249.

5 “The road you take”: Francesco Balducci di Pegolotti, in R. S. Lopez and Irving W. Raymond, Medieval Trade in the Mediterranean World: Illustrative Documents Translated with Introductions and Notes (New York: Columbia University Press, 1955), pp. 355–58.

5 An ultimatum was sent: A. A. Vasiliev, The Goths in the Crimea (Cambridge, MA: Mediaeval Academy of America, 1936), p. 48.

6 “Oh God”: Gabriele de’ Mussis, “Historia de Morbo,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 17.

6 “In 1346”: Ibid., p. 16.

6 “terrible events”: Heyligen, “Breve Chronicon Cleric Anonymi,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 42.

6 pestilence raged in the East: Michael W. Dols, The Black Death in the Middle East (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977), p. 40.

6 Jijaghatu Toq-Temur and his sons: Ibid., p. 41.

6 Hopei province: William H. McNeill, Plagues and Peoples (New York: Anchor Books, 1976), p. 173.

7 “a six month ride”: Dols, The Black Death in the Middle East, p. 41.

7 Lake Issyk Kul: Jean-Noël Biraben, Les hommes et la peste en France et dans les pays européens et méditerranéens, vol. 1 (Paris: Mouton & Co., 1975), pp. 49–55.

7 “In the year”: J. Stewart, Nestorian Missionary Enterprise: The Story of a Church on Fire (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1928), p. 198.

8 after Issyk Kul: Robert S. Gottfried, The Black Death: Natural and Human Disaster in Medieval Europe (New York: Free Press, 1983), p. 36.

8 Russian Chronicle: Ole J. Benedictow, The Black Death, 1346–1353: The Complete History (Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press, 2004), p. 50.

8 “Stunned and stupefied”: de’ Mussis, “Historia de Morbo,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 17.

9 fabricated the catapults: Benedictow, p. 52.

10 chronicler of Este: Quoted in Philip Ziegler, The Black Death (New York: Harper & Row, 1969), p. 16.

10 ancient Indian legend: David E. Stannard, “Disease, Human Migration and History” in The Cambridge World History of Human Disease (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), p. 35.

11 200 million people: Robert R. Brubaker, “The Genus Yersinia,” Current Topics in Microbiology 57 (1972): p. 111.

11 Foster scale: Harold Foster, “Assessing the Magnitude of Disaster,” Professional Geographer 28 (1976): pp. 241–47.

11 David Herbert Donald: David Herbert Donald, “The Ten Most Significant Events of the Second Millennium,” in The World Almanac and Book of Facts (Mahwah, NJ: Primedia, 1999), p. 35.

11 Cold War—era study: Jack Hirshleifer, Disaster and Recovery: The Black Death in Western Europe, prepared for Technical Analysis Branch United States Atomic Energy Commission (Los Angeles: RAND Corporation, 1966), pp. 1–2.

11 mortality figure is 33 percent: Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 230. See also: Maria Kelly, A History of the Black Death in Ireland (Stroud, Gloucestershire: Tempus, 2001), p. 41; “The Black Death in the Middle Ages,” Dictionary of the Middle Ages, ed. by Joseph R. Strayer (New York: Charles Scribner, 1982), p. 244; Horrox, The Black Death, p. 3; William Naphy and Andrew Spicer, The Black Death and History of Plagues, 1345–1730 (Stroud, Gloucestershire: Tempus, 2000), pp. 34–35.

12 “Where are our dear friends?”: Francesco Petrarch, “Letter from Parma,” in Horrox, The Black Death, pp. 248–49.

12 In the Islamic Middle East: Gottfried, The Black Death, p. 35.

12 “the voice of existence”: Ibn Khaldun, in Dols, The Black Death in the Middle East, p. 67.

12 In China: McNeill, Plagues and Peoples, p. 174.

12 disaster on the scale of the Black Death: Naphy and Spicer, The Black Death and History of Plagues, p. 35.

13 environmental stress in the fourteenth century: M. G. L. Baillie, “Putting Abrupt Environmental Change Back into Human History,” in Environments and Historical Change, ed. Paul Slack (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), pp. 52–72. See Also Bruce M.S. Campbell, “Britain 1300,”History Today, June 2000.

13 relationship between plague and earthquakes: Personal communication, Dr. Ken Gage, chief of Plague Control Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Centers for Disease Control.

13 “We marvel to see”: M. G. L. Baillie, “Marking in Marker Dates: Towards an Archeology with Historical Precision,” World Archeology 23, no. 2 (Oct. 1991): 23.

13 environmental instability: Gottfried, The Black Death, p. 34.

14 Seismic activity in the world’s oceans: Personal communication. M. G. L. Baillie, professor, School of Archaeology and Paleoecology, Queen’s University, Belfast.

14 risk factors in plague: Robert Pollitzer, Plague (Geneva: World Health Organization, 1954); L. Fabian Hirst, The Conquest of Plague: A Study of the Evolution of Epidemiology (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1953); Wu Lien-Teh et al., Plague: A Manual for Medical and Public Health Workers(Shanghai: Weishengshu National Quarantine Service, Shanghai Station, 1936); Wu Lien-Teh, A Treatise of Pneumonic Plague (Geneva: 1926); Plague Research Commission, “On the Seasonal Prevalence of Plagues in India,” Journal of Hygiene 8 (1900): 266–301; Plague Research Commission, “Statistical Investigation of Plague in the Punjab, Third Report on Some Factors Which Influence the Prevalence of Plague,” Journal of Hygiene 11 (1911): 62–156.

14 role of malnutrition: David Herlihy, in The Black Death and the Transformation of the West, ed. by Samuel K. Cohn, Jr. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1997), p. 34.

16 “Malthusian deadlock”: Herlihy, in The Black Death and the Transformation of the West, p. 34.

16 died of starvation: William Chester Jordan, The Great Famine: Northern Europe in the Fourteenth Century (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996), pp. 118, 147.

16 medieval city a human cesspool: Jean-Pierre Leguay, La rue au Moyen age (Paris: Éditions Ouest-France, 1984).

17 “I shall undress myself”: Giovanni Boccaccio, The Decameron, trans. G. H. McWilliam (London: Penguin Books, 1972), p. 308.

17 “boiled over”: Terence McLaughlin, Coprophilia, Or a Peck of Dirt (London: Cassell, 1971), p. 19.

17 the medieval countryside: Benedictow, The Black Death, 1346–1353, pp. 33, 34.

18 “Corrupted air”: “The Report of the Paris Medical Faculty, October 1348,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 158.

18 Gentile da Foligno: “Tractatus de pestilenta,” in Archive für Geschichte der Medizin, ed. by Karl Sudhoff (Berlin: 1912), p. 84.

18 “a troupe of ladies”: Henry Knighton, “Chronicon Henrici Knighton,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 130.

19 grain or cloth shipments: Graham Twigg, The Black Death: A Biological Reappraisal (London: Batsford Academic and Educational, 1984), p. 21.

19 in an infected flea: Robert R. Brubaker, “Yersinia Pestis,” in Molecular Medical Microbiology, ed. by M. Sussman (London: Academic Press, 2001), pp. 2033–2058.

20 incubation period: Robert Perry and Jacqueline D. Fetherstone, “Yersinia Pestis—Etiologic Agent of Plague,” Clinical Microbiology Review 10, no. 1 (Jan. 1997): p. 58.

20 God’s tokens: Benedictow, The Black Death, 1346–1353: The Complete Story, p. 26.

21 Infrequency of plague symptoms: personal communication with Dr. Kenneth Gage, chief of the Plague Control Division, CDC.

22 Difficulty in transmitting pneumonic plague: Benedictow, p. 28.

22 Survival time in septicemic plague: Ibid., p. 26.

23 term Black Death: Jon Arrizabalaga, “Facing the Black Death: Perceptions and Reactions of University Medical Practitioners,” in Practical Medicine from Salerno to the Black Death, ed. Luis Garcia-Ballester, Robert French, Jon Arrizabalaga, and Andrew Cunningham (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), pp. 242–243.

23 the “Big Death”: Samuel K. Cohn, Jr., The Black Death Transformed: Disease and Culture in Early Renaissance Europe (London: Arnold, 2002), p. 104.

23 recent research suggests: J. Clairborne Stephens et al., “Dating the Origin of the CCR5-∆32 AIDS-Resistance Allele by the Coalescence of Haplotypes,” American Journal of Human Genetics 62 (1998): 1507–15. See also: Cohn, The Black Death Transformed,p. 250.

25 “Unusual conjuction”: “The Report of the Paris Medical Faculty, October 1348,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 158.

25 “No fellow human being”: “Letter of Edward III to Alfonso, King of Castile,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 250.

25 “black smoke”: W. Rees, “The Black Death in England and Wales,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine Vol. 16 (part 2 [1920]): 134.

25 “waiting among the dead”: In Annalium Hibernae Chronicon, ed. by R. Butler (Dublin: Irish Archaeological Society, 1849), p. 37.

26 “the sick hated”: Marchionne di Coppo Stefani, Cronica friorentino, ed. by Niccolo Rodolico, RIS, XXX/1 (Città di Castello: 1903).

26 “end of the world”: Agnolo di Tura del Grasso, “Cronaca sense attribuita ad Agnolo di Tura del Grasso,” in Cronache senesi, ed. by A. Lisini and F. Iacometti, RIS, XV/6 (Bologna: 1931–37), p. 555.

26 “each grave”: Ordinances of Pistoia 1348, quoted in Horrox, The Black Death, pp. 195–203.

26 “turned and fled”: Neuburg Chronicle, in Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 84.

27 “lashed themselves”: Thomas Walsingham, Historia Anglicana 1272–1422, H.T. Riley (ed.), 2 vols, Rolls Series, 1863–64, Vol 1, p. 275.

27 “no mortal”: Hecker, p. 13.

Chapter Two: “They Are Monsters, Not Men”

30 La Practica della Mercata: R. S. Lopez and Irving W. Raymond, Medieval Trade in the Mediterranean World: Illustrative Documents Translated with Introductions and Notes (New York: Columbia University Press, 1955), pp. 355–58.

30 travel time to Mongolia and China: J. R. S. Phillips, The Medieval Expansion of Europe (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998) p. 100.

30 “They [are] like beasts”: René Grousset, Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1970), p. 249.

31 Description of Mongols: William of Rubruck, The Mission of Friar William of Rubruck: His Journey to the Court of the Great Khan Möngke, 1253–1255, trans. by Peter Jackson (London: Hakluyt Society, 1990), pp. 89–90.

31 “discovery of Asia”: René Grousset, Histoire de l’Asie (Paris: 1922), p. 130.

31 Dog Men: Ibn Battuta, in Cathay and the Way Thither: Being a Collection of Medieval Notices of China, trans. and ed. by Colonel Sir Henry Yule (London: Hakluyt Society, 1913–16), p. 94.

31 Prester John: Robert Marshall, Storm from the East: From Genghis Khan to Khubilai Khan (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994), p. 121.

31 “delighted, yea”: J. Stewart, Nestorian Missionary Enterprise: The Story of a Church on Fire (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1928), p. 7.

32 “I myself am”: Eileen Power, “The Opening of the Land Routes to Cathay,” in Travel and Travellers of the Middle Ages, ed. by Arthur Percival Newton (London: K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., 1926), p. 147.

32 William’s discoveries: Rubruck, The Mission of Friar William of Rubruck, p. 50.

32 defended the Western concept: Ibid., p. 229.

32 second wave of European visitors: Power, “The Opening of the Land Routes to Cathay,” p. 128.

32 Italian colonies: Phillips, The Medieval Expansion of Europe, pp. 104–5.

33 “worth more”: Power, “The Opening of the Land Routes to Cathay,” p. 137.

33 route led down: Ibid., pp. 140–41.

33 Hangchow, Venice of the East: Stewart, Nestorian Missionary Enterprise, p. 193. See also: Power, “The Opening of the Land Routes to Cathay,” pp. 134–35.

33 singing virgins: Howorth, History of the Mongols, p. 310.

33 route across the northern steppe: Phillips, Medieval Expansion of Europe, p. 99, and Power, “The Opening of the Land Routes to Cathay,” p. 142. See also McNeill, Plagues and Peoples, p. 163.

33 tarabagan colonies: Hirst, Conquest of Plague, p. 189.

33 Memories of a Hunter in Siberia: A. K. Tasherkasoff, Memories of a Hunter in Siberia. Wu Lien-Teh et al., Plague: A Manual for Medical and Public Health Workers (Shanghai: Weishengshu National Quarantine Service, Shanghai Station, 1936), p. 198.

34 “tarabagan gardens”: Ibid., p. 7.

34 marmot plague: Wendy Orent, Plague: The Mysterious Past and Terrifying Future of the World’s Most Dangerous Disease (New York: Free Press, 2004), pp. 56–60, 158.

34 “I only want one strain”: Ibid., p. 58.

34 seems to have originated: Wu Lien-Teh, “The Original Home of the Plague,” Japan Medical World 4, no. 1 (January 15, 1924): 7. See also: Orent, Plague, pp. 55–60.

34 big bang: Dr. Robert R. Brubaker, Professor of Microbiology at Michigan State University, personal communication.

34 Y. pestis is only: Mark Achtman et al., “Yersinia pestis: The Cause of the Plague Is a Recently Emerged Clone of Yersinia Pseudotuberculosis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 46, no. 24 (November 23, 1999): 14043–48.

35 Y. pestis has all the properties: Brubaker, “Yersinia Pestis,” pp. 2033–2058.

35 lions: Samuel K. Cohn, Jr., The Black Death Transformed: Disease and Culture in Early Renaissance Europe (London: Arnold, 2002), p. 132.

35 different flea species: Robert Perry and Jacqueline D. Fetherstone, “Yersinia Pestis—Etiologic Agent of Plagues,” Clinical Microbiology Review 10, no. 1 (Jan. 1997): p. 52.

36 General Shiro Ishii: Thomas W. McGovern, M.D., and Arthur M. Friedlander, M.D., “Plague,” in Military Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare (Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General at TNN, 1997), pp. 483–85.

36 “one of Ishii’s greatest achievements”: Ibid., p. 485.

36 number of animals are also resistant: Perry and Fetherstone, “Yersinia Pestis,” p. 53.

36 allele that protects: Cohn, The Black Death Transformed, p. 252.

36 partial immunity: Perry and Fetherstone, “Yersinia Pestis,” p. 52.

37 surge years: Hirst, The Conquest of Plague, p. 214.

37 sun spot cycles: Ibid.

38 local hunters: Ibid., p. 217.

38 pneumonic plague broke out: Graham Twigg, The Black Death: A Biological Reappraisal (London: Batsford Academic and Educational, 1984), pp. 164–65.

38 looking for new pastureland: Robert S. Gottfried, The Black Death: Natural and Human Disaster in Medieval Europe (New York: Free Press, 1983), p. 34.

38 wind patterns: Ibid., p. 14.

39 “Assuredly the far-flung”: McNeill, Plagues and Peoples, p. 175.

39 water temperatures: Stewart, Nestorian Missionary Enterprise, p. 199.

39 “We have found”: Ibid., p. 193.

39 “This is the grave”: Ibid., pp. 212–13.

42 “The Japanese . . . have”: Thomas Butler, Plague and Other Yersinia Infections (New York: Plenum Medical Book Co., 1983), p. 17.

42 “The pulp of the buboes”: Ibid., p. 18.

42 “disease of rats”: William Ernest Jennings, A Manual of Plague (London: Rebman, 1903), pp. 39–40.

42 port of Pelusium: Jean-Noël Biraben and Jacques Le Goff, “The Plague in the Early Middle Ages,” in Biology of Man in History, ed. by Robert Foster and Orest Ranum (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975), p. 58.

42 trade route from Egypt: Ibid.

42 tree ring dates: M. G. L. Baillie, “Putting Abrupt Environmental Change Back into Human History,” in Environments and Historical Change, ed. by Paul Slack (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), pp. 55–56.

43 “The streams are”: Georges Duby, The Early Growth of the European Economy, trans. by Howard B. Clarke (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1974),p. 10.

43 “History of Evagrius Scholastica Ecclesiastica,” trans. M. Whitley (Liverpool: University of Liverpool, 2000), pp. 229–33.

43 name badges: P. Allen, “The ‘Justinianic’ Plague in Byzantion,” Revue Internationale des Études Byzantines 49 (1979):5–20.

43 “In every field”: Ibid., p. 12.

43 “soon no coffins”: Biraben and Le Goff, “The Plague in the Early Middle Ages,” p. 57.

43 smallpox and measles outbreaks: McNeill, Plagues and Peoples, pp. 131–32.

44 if not disease-free: Gottfried, The Black Death, p. 12.

44 population plunged precipitously: “Demography,” in Joseph Strayer, ed., The Dictionary of the Middle Ages (New York: Scribner, 1982), p. 140.

44 twenty thousand residents: David Herlihy, “Ecological Conditions and Demographic Changes,” in Western Europe in the Middle Ages (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977), p. 4.

44 dense woodland: “Demography,” in The Dictionary of the Middle Ages, p. 140.

44 Little Optimum: “Climatology,” Ibid., p. 456.

45 European farms began to produce: Gottfried, The Black Death, p. 25.

45 horse collar: Herlihy, “Ecological Conditions and Demographic Changes,” p. 18.

45 carruca plow: Ibid., p. 17.

45 “river throws itself”: David Levine, At the Dawn of Modernity: Biology, Culture, and Material Life in Europe After the Year 1000 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), p. 169.

46 Population estimates: “Demography,” in The Dictionary of the Middle Ages, p. 141.

46 urban life reawakened: “Demography,” Ibid., p. 141.

46 medieval countryside: “Demography,” Ibid.

47 village of Broughton: Edward Britton, The Community of the Vill: A Study in the History of the Family and Village Life in Fourteenth-Century England (Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1977), p. 138.

47 Europeans burst out of: “Demography,” in The Dictionary of the Middle Ages, p. 140.

48 prostitutes-for-a-day: Joseph and Frances Gies, Life in a Medieval City (New York: Harper & Row, 1969), p. 86.

48 local tolls: Power, “The Opening of the Land Routes to Cathay,” p. 137.

48 “rulers of half”: Eileen Power, Medieval People (New York: Harper & Row, 1963), p. 42.

49 Sorceress of Ryazan: Marshall, Storm from the East, p. 97.

49 “For our sins”: Phillips, The Medieval Expansion of Europe, p. 62.

50 held a kuriltai: Marshall, Storm from the East, p. 88.

50 fisheries of Yarmouth: Power, “The Opening of the Land Routes to Cathay,” p. 127.

50 “Old Man of the Mountain”: Phillips, The Medieval Expansion of Europe, p. 63.

50 “monsters rather than men”: Ibid.

50 “You personally, as the head”: Ibid., p. 60.

51 “great numbers of Pharaoh’s rats”: Marco Polo in Wu Lien-Teh, Plague: A Manual for Medical and Public Health Workers, p. 199.

Chapter Three: The Day Before the Day of the Dead

54 Broughton had some 268 residents: Edward Britton, The Community of the Vill: A Study in the History of the Family and Village Life in Fourteenth-Century England (Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1977), p. 138.

54 Broughton was anglicizing itself: Ibid., pp. 11–12.

54 John’s great aunt Alota: Ibid., p. 29.

55 John was fined for drinking: Ibid., pp. 42–43.

55 receive an alebedrep: Barbara A. Hanawalt, The Ties That Bound: Peasant Families in Medieval England (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986), p. 58.

55 spinal deformations: Brian M. Fagan, The Little Ice Age: How Climate Made History, 1300–1850 (New York: Basic Books, 2000), p. 33.

55 die young: David Herlihy, “The Generation in European History,” in The Social History of Italy and Western Europe, 700–1500, vol. 12 (London: Variorum Reprints, 1978), p. 351.

55 heriot: Hanawalt, The Ties That Bound, p. 110.

56 acreage under plow: Christopher Dyer, Making a Living in the Middle Ages: The People of Britain 850–1520 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000), p. 239.

56 decline in productivity: Ibid.

56 officials in west Derbyshire: Ibid., p. 236.

56 rents in central London: Ibid., p. 243.

57 “Many . . . went hungry”: David Herlihy, in The Black Death and the Transformation of the West, ed. Samuel K. Cohn, Jr. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1997), p. 38.

57 weather was changing: “Climatology,” in The Dictionary of the Middle Ages, pp. 454–55. See also Philip Ziegler, The Black Death (Harper & Row, 1969), p. 32.

58 “The ice now comes: “Climatology,” in The Dictionary of Middle Ages, p. 455.

58 Little Ice Age: Fagan, The Little Ice Age, pp. 48–49.

58 poor and mediocre harvests: Ian Kershaw, “The Great Famine and Agrarian Crisis in England, 1315–1322,” Past and Present 59 (May 1975), p. 7.

58 “inundation of waters”: William Chester Jordan, The Great Famine: Northern Europe in the Fourteenth Century (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996), p. 24.

58 Flanders experienced some of the worst downpours: Henry Lucas, “The Great European Famine of 1315, 1316, and 1317,” Speculum 5 (1930): 348.

59 near the English village of Milton: Ibid., p. 346.

59 poor huddled under trees: Jordan, The Great Famine, p. 143.

59 “cries that were heard”: Ibid., p. 141.

59 “dearness of wheat”: Ibid., p. 135.

60 cost of wheat: Lucas, “The Great European Famine,” p. 352.

60 year’s worth of barley: Dyer, Making a Living in the Middle Ages, p. 230.

60 “extracted the bodies”: John de Trokelowe in John Aberth, From the Brink of the Apocalypse: Confronting Famine, War, Plague, and Death in the Later Middle Ages (New York: Routledge, 2000), p. 13.

60 “Incarcerated thieves”: Ibid., p. 14.

60 “parents, after slaying their children”: Jordan, The Great Famine, p. 148.

60 accounts of cannibalism: Ibid., pp. 149–50.

60 exiled for stealing food: Ibid., p. 271.

60 Adam Bray: Dyer, Making a Living in the Middle Ages, p. 231.

61 “certain malefactors”: Lucas, “The Great European Famine,” p. 360.

61 “serenity of the air”: Aberth, From the Brink of the Apocalypse, p. 35.

61 Bolton Abbey: Dyer, Making a Living in the Middle Ages, p. 229.

61 “most savage, atrocious death”: Jordan, The Great Famine, p. 143.

61 In Antwerp: Lucas, “The Great European Famine,” p. 367.

61 In Erfurt: Jordan, The Great Famine, p. 144.

61 In Louvain: Ibid., p. 144.

61 In Tournai: Aberth, From the Brink of the Apocalypse, p. 54.

61 animals began to die: Kershaw, The Great Famine and Agrarian Crisis, pp. 20–21. See also: Jordan, The Great Famine, p. 36.

62 “It is a dysentery type illness: Ibid., p. 14.

62 vitamin deficiencies: Aberth, From the Brink of the Apocalypse, pp. 14–15.

62 half-million people died: Dyer, Making a Living in the Middle Ages, p. 235.

62 Flanders and Germany: Jordan, The Great Famine, p. 148.

63 “Think how their bodies”: Giovanni Morelli in Herlihy, in The Black Death and the Transformation of the West, p. 33.

63 “poorly nourished”: Simon Couvin in Herlihy, in The Black Death and the Transformation of the West, p. 33.

63 question the link: Biraben, Les hommes et la peste en France et dans les pays européens et méditerranéens, vol. 1 (Paris: Mouton, 1975), pp. 131–32.

63 periods of dearth: Cohn, The Black Death Transformed: Disease and Culture in Early Renaissance Europe (London: Arnold, 2002), p. 32.

63 “A famine”: Jordan, The Great Famine, p. 186.

64 fetal malnutrition is also a factor: S. E. Moore, A. C. Cole, et al., “Prenatal or Early Postnatal Events Predict Infectious Deaths in Young Adulthood in Rural Africa,” International Journal of Epidemiology 28, no. 6 (December 1999): 1088–1095.

64 mortality pattern: Jordan, The Great Famine, pp. 186–87.

64 confronted a peddler: Ernest L. Sabine, “City Cleaning in Medieval London,” Speculum 12, no. 1 (1937): 29.

65 “I make bold”: Stefan’s Florilegium, ed. by Mark Harris, May 19, 1997, stefan@florilegium.org. See also: www.florilegium.org.

65 antirodent remedies: Ibid.

65 Princess Asaf-Khan: Hirst, The Conquest of Plague, p. 124.

65 “Dead rats in the east”: Shi Tao-nan in Wu Lien-Teh et al., Plague, p. 12.

66 incredible powers of reproduction: J. Laurens Nicholes, Vandals of the Night (Los Angeles, 1948), pp. 18–19.

66 remarkable qualities: Robert Pollitzer, Plague (Geneva: World Health Organization, 1954), p. 286.

66 reconnaissance lesson: Nicholes, Vandals of the Night, p. 22.

67 rats have been observed laughing: Jaak Panksepp and Jeffrey Burgdorf, “‘Laughing’ Rats and the Evolutionary Antecedents of Human Joy?” Physiology and Behavior 79 (2003): 533–47.

67 rat migrations: Pollitzer, Plague, p. 294.

67 rat first appeared in the West: F. Audoin-Rouzeau, “Le rat noir (Rattus rattus) et la peste dans l’occident antique et médiéval,” Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique 92, no. 5 (1999): 125–35.

68 “horse dung”: Sabine, “City Cleaning in Medieval London,” p. 26.

69 “Every seat”: Lucinda Lambton, Temples of Convenience and Chambers of Delight (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995), p. 9.

69 public sanitation systems: Sabine, “City Cleaning in Medieval London,” p. 21.

70 “dung, lay-stalls”: Memorials of London and London Life in the XIIIth, XIVth, and XVth Centuries, ed. by H. T. Riley (London: London, Longmans, Green and Co., 1868), p. 295.

70 municipal sanitation workers: Sabine, “City Cleaning in Medieval London,” p. 23.

70 attacked by an assailant: Ibid., p. 30.

71 two women in Billingsgate: Ibid.

71 “Filth [is] being”: Philip Ziegler, The Black Death (New York: Harper & Row, 1969), p. 156.

71 unfortunate English peasant: Graham Twigg, The Black Death: A Biological Reappraisal (London: Batsford Academic and Educational, 1984), p. 102.

71 rat count: Ibid., p. 105.

71 “meanest Roman”: Edward Gibbon in McLaughlin, Coprophilia, p. 7.

72 “To those who are well”: Ibid., p. 11.

72 St. Agnes: Ibid.

72 St. Francis: Ibid., p. 7.

72 “civil and mannerly”: Ibid., p. 86.

72 “Hi, the fleas”: Stefan’s Florilegium, ed. by Mark Harris, May 19, 1997, stefan@florilegium.org.

72 battle changed: Aberth, From the Brink of the Apocalypse, p. 63.

73 village of Coutrai: Clifford J. Rogers, “The Age of the Hundred Years War,” in Medieval Warfare: A History, ed. by Maurice Keen (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 137.

74 larger armies produced larger concentrations: Aberth, From the Brink of the Apocalypse, p. 63.

74 “A castle can hardly be taken”: Rogers, “The Age of the Hundred Years War,” p. 136.

74 “humble and innocent”: Aberth, From the Brink of the Apocalypse, p. 84.

75 “dismal devastation”: Ibid., p. 86.

75 “Many people [have been] slaughtered”: Rogers, “The Age of the Hundred Years War,” p. 152.

75 old Soviet army, which fought in Afghanistan: Lieutenant Colonel Lester W. Grant and Major William A. Jorgensen, “Medical Support in a Counter-Guerrilla War: Epidemiologic Lessons Learned in the Soviet-Afghan War,” U.S. Army Medical Department Journal, May–June 1995, pp. 1–11.

76 plague between 1966 and 1974: Dr. Evgeni Tikhomirov, in Plague Manual: Epidemiology, Distribution, Surveillance and Control, ed. by David. T. Dennis and Kenneth L. Gage (Geneva: World Health Organization, 1999), pp. 23, 24.

76 lived in dirt bunkers: L. J. Legters, A. J. Cottingham, and D. H. Hunter, “Clinical and Epidemiologic Notes on a Defined Outbreak of Plague in Vietnam,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 19, no. 4 (1970): 639–52.

76 village of Dong Ha: Lieutenant Commander Frederick M. Burkle, Jr., “Plague as Seen in South Vietnamese Children,” Clinical Pediatrics 12, no. 5 (May 1973): 291–98.

Chapter Four: Sicilian Autumn

80 “sickness clinging to”: Philip S. Ziegler, The Black Death (New York: Harper & Row, 1969), p. 40.

80 “Speak, Genoa:” de’ Mussis, “Historia de Morbo,” in The Black Death: Manchester Medieval Sources, trans. and ed. by Rosemary Horrox (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1994), p. 19.

80 “three galleys”: Louis Heyligen, “Breve Chronicon Clerici Anonymi,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 42.

80 “full of infected sailors”: Giovanni Villani, quoted in Robert S. Gottfried, The Black Death: Natural and Human Disaster in Medieval Europe (New York: Free Press, 1983), p. 53.

80 Genoese fleet: Albano Sorbelli, ed., Corpus Chronicorum Bononiensium, RIS, XVIII/I, 2 vol. (Città di Castello: 1910–38), Chronica B., p. 584.

81 scribe who estimated: Gottfried, The Black Death, p. 38.

81 “Men inhumanely”: C. S. Bartsocas, “Two Fourteenth-Century Greek Descriptions of the Black Death,” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 21, no. 4 (Oct. 1966): 394–95.

81 “Upon arrival”: Ibid., p. 395.

81 Y. pestis followed the trade routes: Michael W. Dols, The Black Death in the Middle East (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977), pp. 36–39.

82 island immediately rose up: Hecker, Epidemics of the Middle Ages, p. 13.

82 “Ships were dashed”: Ibid.

82 “pestiferous wind”: Ibid.

83 “future tense of verbs”: Leonardo Sciascia, La Sicile comme métaphore (Paris: Editions Stock, 1979), p. 53.

83 “In October 1347”: Michele da Piazza, “Bibliotheca Scriptorum qui res in Sicilica getas sub aragonum imperio retulere,” excerpted in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 36.

84 “disease in their bodies”: Jean-Noël Biraben, Les hommes et la peste en France et dans les pays européens et méditerranéens, vol. 1 (Paris: Mouton, 1975), pp. 49–55.

84 “a sort of boil”: Ibid.

84 voyage to Italy: Mark Wheelis, “Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa,” Emerging Infectious Diseases 8, no. 9 (2002): 974–75.

85 “The disease bred”: da Piazza, “Bibliotheca Scriptorum,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 36.

85 “Cats and . . . livestock”: Ibid.

85 “a black dog”: Ibid., p. 38.

85 “earth gaped wide”: Ibid., pp. 38–39.

86 “With his friends”: Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 133.

86 “a man, wanting to make his will”: de’ Mussis, “Historia de Morbo,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 21.

86 “Don’t talk to me”: da Piazza, “Bibliotheca Scriptorum,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 39.

86 “stupid idea”: Ibid., pp. 38–39.

87 “see him dead”: Ibid., p. 37.

87 Duke Giovanni: Ibid., p. 41.

88 third of Sicily: Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 62.

88 “nature of a donkey”: Quoted in Benjamin Z. Kedar, Merchants in Crisis: Genoese and Venetian Men of Affairs and the Fourteenth-Century Depression (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976), p. 9.

88 “heading toward the Atlantic”: Heyligen, “Breve Chronicon Clerici Anonymi,” in Horrox, p. 42.

89 ecological upheaval in Italy: J. C. L. Sismondi, Histoire des Républiques Italiennes du Moyen Age, vol. 4 (Paris: 1826), p. 11.

89 “severe shortage”: in Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 44.

89 poisonous gas: Hecker, Epidemics of the Middle Ages, p. 14.

89 “true of Italy”: Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 45.

90 “fine circuit of walls”: Anonimo Genovese, in Poete del Duecento, vol. 1, ed. by G. Contini (Milan and Naples: 1961), p. 751.

90 reconstruction of the timeline: Biraben, Les hommes et la peste en France, pp. 53–55.

90 during this second visit: Ibid.

91 monetary bequest: Steven A. Epstein, Genoa and the Genoese, 958–1528 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996), p. 211.

91 De Benitio and his colleagues: Ibid., pp. 211–12.

92 “Venetians are like pigs”: Quoted in Kedar, Merchants in Crisis: Genoese and Venetian Men of Affairs and the Fourteenth-Century Depression, p. 9.

92 all-day parade: Martino da Canale, in Eileen Power, Medieval People (New York: Harper & Row, 1963), pp. 43–45.

93 instruction from municipal authorities: Mario Brunetti, “Venezia durante la Peste del 1348,” Ateneo Veneto 32 (1909): 295–96.

94 “Corpi morti!”: D’Irsay, “Defense Reactions During the Black Death,” Annals of Medical History 9 (1927) p. 171.

94 five feet deep: Ibid., p. 297.

94 banned gramaglia: Ibid.

94 often mentioned as the source: Robert S. Gottfried, The Black Death: Natural and Human Disaster in Medieval Europe (New York: Free Press, 1983), p. 48.

95 Ragusa: Francis Aidan Gasquet, The Black Death of 1348 and 1349 (London: George Bell and Sons, 1908), p. 65.

95 killed about 60 percent: Frederick C. Lane, Venice, a Maritime Republic (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973), p. 169.

95 “rather die here”: D’Irsay, “Defense Reactions During the Black Death,” p. 174.

95 “At the beginning”: Cronica di Pisa di Ranieri Sardo, ed. by Ottavio Banti, Fonti per la Storia d’Italia 99 (1963).

96 preparations for the coming onslaught: Ann G. Carmichael, Plague and the Poor in Renaissance Florence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), p. 99.

96 “bodies . . . shall not be removed”: “Gli Ordinamenti Sanitari del Commune di Pistoia contro la Pestilenza del 1348,” in Archivio Storico Italiano, ed. by A. Chiappelli, series 4, 20 (1887), pp. 8–12.

96 “it shall be understood”: Ibid., pp. 11–12.

96 Gentile da Foligno: Lynn Thorndike, A History of Magic and Experimental Science, vol. 3 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1931), pp. 237–39.

97 plague tract: Ibid., p. 243.

97 “unprecedented.” Ibid.

97 studium generale: William M. Bowsky, “The Impact of the Black Death upon Sienese Government and Society,” Speculum 39, no. 1 (Jan. 1964): p. 13.

98 In Orvieto: Elizabeth Carpentier, Une ville devant la peste: Orvieto et la peste noire de 1348 (Paris: 1962), pp. 79–81.

98 thinks 50 percent: Ibid., p. 135.

99 only 29 percent: David Herlihy, “Plague, Population and Social Change in Rural Pistoia, 1201–1430,” Economic History Review 18, no. 2 (1965): p. 231.

99 In neighboring Bologna: Shona Kelly Wray, “Last Wills in Bologna During the Black Plague,” unpublished Ph.D. thesis (Boulder: University of Colorado, 1998), p. 165.

Chapter Five: Villani’s Last Sentence

102 “grown to vigor”: Giovanni Villani, in Ferdinand Schevill, History of Florence, from the Founding of the City Through the Renaissance (New York: Frederick Ungar, 1961), p. 239.

102 “full of infected”: Ibid.

102 Villani biography: Louis Green, Chronicle into History: An Essay on the Interpretation of History in Florentine Fourteenth-Century Chronicles (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), pp. 1–20.

103 “appetite of women”: Ibid., p. 13.

103 appetite for disastrous and apocalyptic events: Ibid.

103 “presence of the father”: Giovanni Villani, in Schevill, History of Florence, p. 222.

103 defaulted on his loans: Giovanni Villani, in Gene A. Brucker, Florence: The Golden Age, 1138–1737 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), p. 251.

103 “plague was . . . foretold”: Giovanni Villani, in Green, Chronicle into History, p. 37.

104 “sign of future and great events”: Ibid., p. 38.

104 “dry or oily substance”: Boccaccio, Decameron, trans. G. H. McWilliam (London: Penguin, 1972), p. 6.

104 Clerical deaths: Aliberto B. Falsini, “Firenze dopo il 1349; le Consequenze della Pestra Nera,” Archivo Storico Italiano 130 (1971): p. 437.

104 “plague lasted”: Giovanni Villani in Schevill, History of Florence, p. 240.

105 “Dear ladies”: Boccaccio, Decameron, pp. 14–16.

105 “two pigs”: Ibid., p. 6.

106 “dropped dead”: Ibid., p. 11.

106 “one citizen avoiding another”: Ibid., pp. 8–9.

106 “Countless numbers”: Ibid., p. 9.

106 “a practice”: Ibid., p. 9.

106 “A great many people”: Ibid.

107 “once been the custom”: Ibid., pp. 9–10.

107 “rare for bodies”: Ibid., p. 10.

108 “Such was the multitude of corpses”: Ibid., p. 12.

108 “nothing was more senseless”: Giulia Calvi, Storie di anno di peste . . . (Milan: Bompiani, 1984), pp. 108–9.

108 “public and heroic event”: Caroline Walker Bynum, “Disease and Death in the Middle Ages,” Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 9 (1985): 97–102.

109 “Some people”: Boccaccio, Decameron, p. 7.

109 “a middle course”: Ibid., p. 8.

109 “Some again”: Ibid.

109 chronicle of another Florentine: Marchione di Coppo Stefani, Cronica fiorentino, ed. Niccolo Rodolico, RIS, xxx/1 (Città di Castello, 1903), pp. 229–32.

110 dinner parties: Ibid., p. 230.

110 “They could not”: Stefani, pp. 229–32.

111 “cost of things grew”: Ibid., p. 231.

111 death rate: Anne G. Carmichael, Plague and the Poor in Renaissance Florence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), p. 60.

111 “public order held”: Falsini, “Firenze dopo il 1349,” p. 439.

111 two buboes: Giovanni Villani, in Schevill, History of Florence, p. 240.

111 even chickens being stricken: Stefani, Cronica florentino, p. 230.

111 “must not deceive”: Quote in Cohn, The Black Death Transformed, p. 14.

112 Travel rates: Graham Twigg, The Black Death: A Biological Reappraisal (London: Batsford Academic and Educational, 1984), p. 139.

112 plague ward: Cohn, The Black Death Transformed, pp. 27–28.

112 “aerial spirit”: J. Michon, Documents inédits sur la grande peste de 1348 (Paris: J.-B. Baillère et Fils, 1860), p. 46.

112 produced symptoms uncommon: Francis Aidan Gasquet, The Black Death of 1348 and 1349 (London: George Bell and Sons, 1908), pp. 8–9.

112 dead within three days: Giovanni Villani, in Schevill, History of Florence, p. 240.

113 never exceeded 3 percent: Cohn, The Black Death Transformed, p. 2.

113 possibly anthrax: Twigg, Black Death, pp. 220–21. See also: Susan Scott and Christopher Duncan, Biology of Plagues: Evidence from Historical Populations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001) pp. 7, 14, 362–63.

113 DNA from Y. pestis: Didier Raoult et al., “Molecular Identification by ‘Suicide’ PCR of Yersinia pestis as the Agent of Medieval Black Death,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97, no. 7 (Nov. 2000): 12800–03.

114 “La mortalita”: Agnolo di Tura, Cronaca senese, ed. Alessandro Lisini and F. Iacometti (Bologna, 1931–1937), p. 555.

114 rough countrymen: “The Impact of the Black Death upon Sienese Government and Society,” Speculum 29 (1) (January 1964), p. 14.

115 coastal village called Talamone: William Bowsky, A Medieval Italian Commune: Siena Under the Nine, 1287–1355 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981), p. 6.

115 “grown in population”: Agnolo di Tura, Cronaca senese, p. 413.

115 “enlargement of the city cathedral”: Ibid., p. 490.

116 “more beautiful”: Ibid., p. 525.

116 gifts Agnolo bought: Bowsky, “Impact of the Black Death,” p. 4.

117 so many houses are listed: Ibid., p. 4n.

117 official Sienese reaction: Ibid., pp. 14–15.

117 “Rooms were constructed”: Agnolo di Tura, Cronaca senese, p. 488.

118 “parts of Siena”: Ibid., p. 555.

118 “they put in the same trench”: Ibid.

118 “members of a household”: Ibid.

118 “some of the dead”: Ibid.

119 “And I, Agnolo”: Ibid.

119 “52,000 persone”: Bowsky, “Impact of the Black Death,” p. 17.

119 preplague population: Ibid., p. 10.

119 cathedral renovation: Philip Ziegler, The Black Death (New York: Harper & Row, 1969), p. 58.

119 Cola di Rienzo: Ferdinand Gregorovius, History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages, trans. by A. Hamilton (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971), pp. 350–55.

120 “Great God”: Ibid., p. 306.

120 “It is better to die”: Morris Bishop, Petrarch and His World (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1963), p. 264.

120 X-rated libido: Diana Wood, Clement VI: The Pontificate and Ideas of an Avignon Pope (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), p. 7.

120 “met a God”: Bishop, Petrarch and His World, p. 257.

120 population had fallen: Christopher Hibbert, Rome: The Biography of a City (New York: Viking Press, 1985), p. 92.

120 pilfered marble: Bishop, Petrarch and His World, p. 119.

121 cow pastures: Ibid., p. 122.

121 “no one to govern”: Gregorovius, History of the City of Rome, p. 245.

122 fantasy version of himself: Ibid., p. 270.

122 “Love and I”: Francesco Petrarch, quoted in Bishop, Petrarch and His World, p. 152.

122 “You say”: Ibid., p. 68.

123 Laura de Sade: Ibid., p. 64.

123 “sanctified conversation”: Ibid., p. 257.

123 dressed in full knight’s armor: Ibid., p. 259.

123 remarkable oration: Gregorovius, History of the City of Rome, p. 274.

124 “O Tribune”: Bishop, Petrarch and His World, p. 260.

124 dressed in scarlet: Ibid., p. 261.

125 St. Peter’s Basilica: Gregorovius, History of the City of Rome, p. 250.

125 “Forgive us our trespasses”: Ibid., p. 289.

126 dipped it in Colonna’s blood: Ibid., p. 308.

126 “A long farewell”: Bishop, Petrarch and His World, p. 265.

126 “can’t go on”: de’ Mussis, “Historia de Morbo,” in The Black Death: Manchester Medieval Sources, trans. and ed. by Rosemary Horrox (Manchester: University of Manchester Press, 1994), p. 23.

Chapter Six: The Curse of the Grand Master

128 “Crimes that defile”: Malcolm Barber, The Trial of the Templars (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978), p. 45.

128 Geoffroi de Charney: Ibid., p. 3.

128 hauled off to royal prisons: Ibid, p. 45.

128 “a bitter thing”: Ibid.

129 the king’s peace: Jonathan Sumption, The Hundred Years War: Trial by Battle, vol. 1 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991), p. 23.

129 largest treasury: Barbara W. Tuchman, A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century (New York: Ballantine Books, 1978), p. 42.

129 Gerard de Pasagio: Barber, Trial of the Templars, p. 56.

129 Bernard de Vaho: Ibid.

130 Templars were in tatters: Tuchman, A Distant Mirror, p. 43.

130 “burned to death”: Guillaume de Nangis, “Chronique latine de Guillaume de Nangis de 1113 à 1300, avec les continuations de cette chronique de 1300 à 1368,” in Société de l’histoire de France, ed. by H. Géraud, vol. 1 (Paris: J. Renouard et Cie, 1843), pp. 402–03.

130 called down a curse: Tuchman, A Distant Mirror, p. 44.

130 Villani mentions it: Barber, Trial of the Templars, p. 242.

130 “gorged, contented and strong”: Jean Froissart, The Chronicle of J. Froissart, ed. by S. Luce, trans. by Sir John Bourchier and Lord Berners (London: D. Nutt, 1901–1903), p. 117.

130 “prating Frenchmen”: “Summa curiae regis,” Archiv für kunde österreichiche Geschichtsquellen, vol. 14, ed. by H. Stebbe (Vienna: K. K. Hofund Statsdruckerei, 1855), p. 362.

130 “government of the earth”: Jean de Jandun, “Traite des louanges de Paris,” in Paris et ses historiens aux XIVe et XVe siècles; documents et écrits originaux recueillis et commentés par Le Roux de Lincy, ed. by Le Roux de Lincy (Paris: Imprimerie impériale, 1867), p. 60.

130 –31Description of France: Sumption, The Hundred Years War, pp. 12–26.

131 French culture: Ibid., p. 14.

131 Death of Philip the Fair’s sons: Tuchman, A Distant Mirror, pp. 44–46.

132 population: Daniel Lord Smail, “Mapping Networks and Knowledge in Medieval Marseille, 1337–1362,” unpublished Ph.D. thesis (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1994), p. 6.

133 Place des Accoules: Ibid.

133 Madame Gandulfa’s wandering drainpipe: Ibid., p. 5.

134 notary named Jacme Aycart: Ibid., p. 53.

134 November 1: Jean-Noël Biraben, Les hommes et la peste en France et dans les pays européens et méditerranéens, vol. 1 (Paris: Mouton & Co., 1975), pp. 49–55.

134 “were infected”: Heyligen, “Breve Chronicon Clerici Anonymi,” in The Black Death: Manchester Medieval Sources, trans. and ed. by Rosemary Horrox (Manchester: University of Manchester Press, 1994), p. 42.

135 three galleys: Ibid.

135 “The infection that these galleys”: Ibid., p. 15.

135 “four of five”: Ibid., p. 43.

135 “unbelievable”: Gilles li Muisis, “Receuil des chroniques de Flandre,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 46.

136 Jacme de Podio: Smail, “Mapping Networks and Knowledge in Medieval Marseille,” p. 52.

136 man who had spent hours: Ibid., p. 55.

137 “residents accommodated the effects”: Daniel Lord Smail, “Accommodating the Plague in Medieval Marseille,” Continuity and Change 11, no. 1 (1996): p. 12.

137 Jewish moneylender: Ibid., p. 30.

137 “If the plague had”: Ibid, p. 13.

138 residents of Toulon: J. Shatzmiller, “Les Juifs de Provence pendant la Peste noire,” Revue des Études Juives 133 (1974): 457–80.

138 “throw their children”: Jean de Venette, “Chronique Latin de Guillaume de Nangis avec les continuations de cette chronique,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 56.

138 “There is no one left”: Shatzmiller, “Les Juifs de Provence,” p. 471.

139 described in meticulous detail: “Strassburg Urkundenbuch,” in Horrox, The Black Death, pp. 211–19.

140 interrogation oath: Jacob R. Marcus, The Jew in the Medieval World: A Source Book, 315–1791 (New York: JPS, 1938), pp. 49–50.

140 “Jewish” tortures: Ibid.

141 every Jew between Bordeaux and Albi: Tuchman, A Distant Mirror, p. 41.

141 Mediterranean heritage of tolerance: Shatzmiller, “Les Juifs de Provence,” pp. 475–80.

141 seven churches: T. Moore, Historical Life of Joanna of Sicily, Queen of Naples and Countess of Provence, vol. 1 (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1824), p. 304.

141 eleven houses of ill repute: Morris Bishop, Petrarch and His World (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1963), p. 48.

142 powdered remains: Tuchman, A Distant Mirror, p. 43.

142 French mistress: Ibid., p. 26.

142 Dispensations: Ibid., p. 27.

143 “The simple fishermen”: Iris Origo, The Merchant of Prato (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1957), p. 8.

143 dinner party Clement V gave: Eugene Müntz, “L’argent et le luxe à la cour pontificate d’Avignon,” Revue des Questions Historiques 66 (1899): 403.

143 ninety-six tons: Bishop, Petrarch and His World, p. 42.

143 country walkabout: Ibid, p. 45.

144 “No sovereign exceeded”: F. Moore, Historical Life of Joanna of Sicily, p. 365.

144 magnificent papal palace: Diana Wood, Clement VI: The Pontificate and Ideas of an Avignon Pope (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989), pp. 54, 55.

144 –45Operation of palace: Bishop, Petrarch and His World, p. 45. See also: Tuchman, A Distant Mirror, pp. 27–29.

145 “my predecessors”: G. Mollat, The Popes at Avignon, 1305–1378 (New York: Harper & Row, 1963), p. 38.

145 New England town: Bishop, Petrarch and His World, p. 48.

145 “the most dismal”: Francesco Petrarch, Prosa, ed. by G. Martelloti, P. G. Ricci, and E. Carrara (Milan and Naples: Riccardi, 1955), p. 120.

145 “Avenio, cum vento”: Bishop, Petrarch and His World, p. 48.

145 lack of adequate infrastructure: Ibid., p. 47.

146 “A field full of”: St. Birgitta in Tuchman, A Distant Mirror, p. 29.

146 “Babylon of West”: Ibid.

146 “good looks”: Francesco Petrarch, “Letter to Posterity,” in Petrarch: The First Modern Scholar and Man of Letters, trans. James Harvey Robinson (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1898), p. 15.

146 “There is no peace”: Petrarch in Bishop, Petrarch and His World, p. 155.

147 “Watching a woman undress”: St. Clair Baddeley, Queen Joanna I of Naples, Sicily and Jerusalem, Countess of Provence, Forcalquier and Piedmont: An Essay on Her Times (London: W. Heinemann, 1893), p. 85.

147 de Sades are a prominent Avignon family: Bishop, Petrarch and His World, p. 64.

147 “cannot have taken”: Ibid., p. 83.

147 Louis Heyligen: Un ami de Petrarque: Louis Sanctus de Beringen (Paris/Rome, 1905). See also: Andries Welkenhuysen, “La Peste en Avignon (1348), décrite par un témoin oculaire, Louis Sanctus de Beringen” in Pascua mediaevalia: Studies voor Prof. Dr. J. M. de Smet, ed. by R. Lievens et al. (Louvain: 1983), pp. 452–92.

148 Guy de Chauliac: E. Nicaise, La Grande Chirurgie de Gui de Chauliac (Paris: Ancienne Librairie Germer Baillière, 1890), introduction. See also: Jordan D. Haller, “Guy de Chauliac and His Chirurgia Magna,” Surgical History 55 (1964): 337–43.

149 “Plague!”: Albert Camus, The Plague, trans. by Stuart Gilbert (New York: Vintage, 1991), p. 40.

150 “outlying districts”: Ibid., p. 58.

150 “They say”: Heyligen, “Breve Chronicon Clerici Anonymi,” in Horrox, The Black Death, pp. 41, 42.

151 “powders or unguents”: Guy de Chauliac, in Anna M. Campbell, The Black Death and Men of Learning (New York: Columbia University Press, 1931), p. 3.

151 Avignon’s pigs: J. Enselme, “Glosse sur le passage dans la ville Avignon,” Revue Lyonnaise de Médecine 18, no. 18 (Nov. 1969): p. 702.

151 “small still flame”: Camus, The Plague, p. 90.

151 “infected lungs”: Heyligen, “Breve Chronicon Cleric Anonymi,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 42.

152 “Priests do not”: Ibid., pp. 42–44.

152 “Laura”: Francesco Petrarch, quoted in R. Crawfurd, Plague and Pestilence in Literature and Art (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1914), pp. 115, 116.

153 “She closed her eyes”: Quoted in Bishop, Petrarch and His World, p. 275.

153 “attended by 2,000”: Heyligen, “Breve Chronicon Clerici Anonymi,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 44.

153 “None of us”: Camus, The Plague, p. 181.

154 “fair and noble”: Moore, Historical Life of Joanna of Sicily, p. 302.

154 “Her figure”: Ibid., p. 312.

154 wonders of the medieval world: Baddeley, Queen Joanna I of Naples, p. 110.

155 “great harlot”: Louis of Hungary in Thomas Caldecot Chubb, The Life of Giovanni Boccaccio (Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1969), p. 130.

155 Andreas’s murder: Baddeley, Queen Joanna I of Naples, pp. 50–52.

156 “in name only”: Ibid., p. 43.

156 “she-wolf”: Chubb, Life of Giovanni Boccaccio, p. 131.

156 “Your former ill faith”: Louis of Hungary in Baddeley, Queen Joanna I of Naples, p. 61.

156 “quietly triumph”: Ibid., p. 85.

157 court assembled: Moore, Historical Life of Joanna of Sicily, p. 310.

157 “Queen of Naples”: Ibid., p. 315.

157 “came pale and slowly”: Baddeley, Queen Joanna I of Naples, pp. 88–89. See also: Moore, Historical Life of Joanna of Sicily, pp. 309–11.

158 “above suspicion”: Moore, Historical Life of Joanna of Sicily, p. 313.

158 “beloved daughter”: Clement VI in Baddeley, Queen Joanna I of Naples, p. 91.

158 purchased Avignon: Ibid., pp. 92–93.

159 “They say that my lord”: Heyligen, “Breve Chronicon Clerici Anonymi,” in Horrox, The Black Death: Natural and Human Disaster in Medieval Europe (New York: Free Press, 1982), p. 45.

159 twenty-four million: Robert S. Gottfried, The Black Death: Natural and Human Disaster in Medieval Europe (New York: Free Press, 1983), p. 77.

159 two roaring fires: Philip S. Ziegler, The Black Death (New York: Harper & Row, 1969), p. 67.

160 “avoid infamy”: Guy de Chauliac, in Campbell, The Black Death and Men of Learning, p. 3.

160 “The mortality”: Ibid., p. 2.

161 in the 50 percent range: Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 66.

161 unacceptably high: Herman Kahn, On Thermonuclear War (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1961), p. 30.

Chapter Seven: The New Galenism

163 In Paris: Cornelius O’Boyle, “Surgical Texts and Social Concepts: Physicians and Surgeons in Paris, c. 1270 to 1430,” in Practical Medicine from Salerno to the Black Death, ed. by L. Garcia-Ballester, Roger French, Jon Arrizabalaga, and Andrew Cunningham (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), p. 158.

164 formal medical schools: Michael McVaugh, “Bedside Manners in the Middle Ages,” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 71, no. 2 (1997): 203.

164 “within a week”: Ibid.

164 “Nowhere a better”: Geoffrey Chaucer, “The Physician,” in the prologue to The Canterbury Tales (New York: Penguin Books, 2003).

165 reinterpretation and expansion: Luis Garcia-Ballester, Introduction, in Garcia-Ballester, et. al., Practical Medicine from Salerno to the Black Death, p. 10.

165 William the Englishman: McVaugh, “Bedside Manners in the Middle Ages,” p. 204.

165 “Avicenna, Averroes”: Chaucer, “The Physician.”

166 based on the New Galenism: McVaugh, “Bedside Manners in the Middle Ages,” p. 204.

166 licensure: O’Boyle, “Surgical Texts and Social Concepts,” pp. 163–64.

166 patients came forward to testify: Pearl Kibre, “The Faculty of Medicine at Paris, Charlatanism, and Unlicensed Medical Practices in the Later Middle Ages,” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 27, no. 1 (Jan.–Feb. 1953): 9.

167 John of Padua: Ibid., p. 8.

167 medical pecking order: O’Boyle, “Surgical Texts and Social Concepts,” p. 163.

168 medical etiquette: McVaugh, “Bedside Manners in the Middle Ages,” p. 208.

168 “Your visit means”: Ibid., p. 210.

168 “that may do some good”: Ibid., p. 214.

168 theory of the four humors: Edward J. Kealey, Medieval Medicus: A Social History of Anglo-Norman Medicine (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981), p. 16.

169 “health is primarily”: Mark D. F. Shirley, “The Mediaeval Concept of Medicine,” www.durenmar.de/articles/medicine.html, accessed June 26, 2004. See also: Hippocratic Writings, ed. by G. E. R. Lloyd (London: Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1978), p. 262.

169 Contagion: Paul Slack, “Responses to Plague,” from In Time of Plague, Arlen Mack, ed. (New York: New York University Press, 1991), p. 115.

169 “the first cause”: “The Report of the Paris Medical Faculty, October 1348,” in The Black Death: Manchester Medieval Sources, trans. and ed. by Rosemary Horrox (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1994), pp. 159–60.

170 “many of the vapors”: Ibid., p. 161.

170 “seasons have not succeeded”: Ibid., pp. 161–62.

170 twenty-four plague tracts: Dominick Palazotto, “The Black Death and Medicine: A Report and Analysis of the Tractaes,” unpublished Ph.D. thesis (Lawrence: University of Kansas, 1973), p. 28.

171 “an acute disease”: Anna M. Campbell, The Black Death and Men of Learning (New York: Columbia University Press, 1931), p. 78.

171 defense against plague: Ibid., pp. 65–66.

172 Ibn Khatimah and his fellow Spanish Arab: Ibid., p. 27.

172 aromatic substances: Ibid., pp. 67, 68.

172 “where bodies have open pores”: Bengt Knutsson, “A Little Book for the Pestilence,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 175.

173 antidotes: Campbell, The Black Death and Men of Learning, p. 71.

173 good diet: Ibid., pp. 72, 74.

174 “accidents of the soul”: Ibid., p. 77.

175 “deed of arms”: Barbara Tuchman, A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century (New York, Ballantine Books, 1978), p. 82.

175 D-day beaches: Jonathan Sumption, The Hundred Years War: Trial by Battle, vol. 1 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991), p. 500.

175 “could be seen by anyone”: Jean de Venette, The Chronicle of Jean de Venette, trans. by Jean Birdsall, ed. by Richard A. Newhall (New York: Columbia University Press, 1953), p. 41.

176 personal combat: Jonathan Sumption, The Hundred Years War: Trial by Battle, Vol. 1 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991), p. 519.

176 “My good people”: Jean Froissart, Stories from Froissart, ed. by Henry Newbolt (New York: Macmillan, 1899), p. 16.

176 “in our neighborhood”: Peter Damouzy, excepted in Histoire Littéraire de la France, ed. by A. Coville, vol. 37 (Paris: 1938), pp. 325–27.

176 “led to their own cemetery”: Norman F. Cantor, In the Wake of the Plague: The Black Death and the World It Made (New York: Free Press, 2001), p. 157.

177 “In August”: de Venette, Chronicle of Jean de Venette, p. 51.

178 Hôtel-Dieu: Michel Félibien, Histoire de la Ville de Paris, vol. 1 (Paris: Chez G. Desprez et J. Desessartz, 1725), pp. 380–95.

178 Notre Dame: Ian Robertson, Paris and Versailles (New York: Blue Guides, W. W. Norton, 1989), pp. 60–70.

178 university faculty: Campbell, The Black Death and Men of Learning, pp. 156–57.

178 Philip VI: Raymond Cazelles, La Société politique et la crise de la Royauté sous Philippe de Valois (Paris: Librairie de Agencies, 1958).

179 building fund: M. Mollat, “La Mortalité à Paris,” Moyen Age 69 (1963): 502–27.

180 “For a considerable period”: de Venette, “Chronique Latin de Guillaume de Nangis,” in Horrox, The Black Death, pp. 55–56.

180 mortality figures into question: Philip Ziegler, The Black Death (New York: Harper & Row, 1969) p. 79.

180 –181estimates of other contemporaries: Samuel K. Cohn, Jr., The Black Death Transformed: Disease and Culture in Early Renaissance Europe (London: Arnold, 2002), pp. 89, 90.

181 Richard the Scot: Ibid., p. 89.

181 “Nothing like it”: de Venette, “Chronique Latin de Guillaume de Nangis,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 55.

181 “they no longer know or care”: George Deaux, The Black Death, 1347 (New York: Weybright & Talley, 1969), p. 71.

182 plague flag: L. Porquet, La Peste en Normandie (Vive: 1898), p. 77.

182 “marvelously great”: Augustin Thierry, Recueil des Monuments inédits de l’Histoire du Tiers Etat, vol. 1, p. 544.

182 “Master Jean Haerlebech”: Gilles li Muisis, “Receuil des chroniques de Flandre,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 48.

Chapter Eight: “Days of Death Without Sorrow”

183 “a yeoman”: Ralph Higden, in Maurice Collis, The Hurling Time (London: Faber & Faber, 1958), p. 42.

183 “dress in clothes”: John of Reading, “Chronica Johannis de Reading et Anonymi Cantuariensis 1346–1367,” in The Black Death: Manchester Medieval Sources, trans. and ed. by Rosemary Horrox (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1994), p. 131.

184 Edward II: Michael Prestwich, The Three Edwards: War and State in England, 1272–1377 (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980), pp. 53–99.

184 “Good son”: Ibid., p. 113.

184 “new sun”: Thomas Walsingham, p. 20; “Rank to Rank,” J. Froissart, in Collis, The Hurling Time, p. 29.

185 eight million sheep: R. A. Pelham, “The Fourteenth Century,” in An Historical Geography of England Before 1800, ed. by H. C. Darby (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951), p. 240.

185 industrial economy: Christopher Dyer, Making a Living in the Middle Ages (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2002), p. 215. See also R. A. Pelham, “The Fourteenth Century,” pp. 249, 258.

185 “no woman”: Walsingham, in Collis, Hurling Times, p. 40.

185 Frenchman was effeminate: Prestwich, The Three Edwards, p. 211.

185 “scarcely a day”: Higden, “Polychronicon,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 62.

186 “The life of men”: William Zouche, Archbishop of York, Historical Letters and Papers from the Northern Registers, in Horrox, The Black Death, pp. 111–12.

186 “neighboring kingdom”: Ralph of Shrewsbury, “Register of Bishop Ralph of Shrewsbury,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 112.

186 “One news”: John Ford, The Broken Heart (London, 1633), Act V, scene III.

186 perhaps 50 percent: Dyer, Making a Living in the Middle Ages, p. 272.

186 “Waiting among the dead”: John Clynn, “Annalieum Hibernae Chronicon,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 84.

187 historical evidence points to Melcombe: Grey Friar’s Chronicle, “A Fourteenth Century Chronicle from the Grey Friars at Lynn,” English Historical Review 72 (1957): 274; Malmesbury Abbey, “Polychronicon,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 63.

187 Description of Melcombe: Victoria County History, Dorset, vol. 2 (London: Constable; 1908), p. 123.

188 requisitioning twenty ships: Victoria County History, Dorset, vol. 2, p. 186.

188 Six Burghers: Jean le Bel, in Collis, The Hurling Times, p. 37.

189 “English ladies”: Walsingham, in Collis, The Hurling Times, p. 41.

189 “so depopulated”: Francis Aidan Gasquet, The Black Death of 1348 and 1349 (London: George Bell and Sons, 1908), p. 83.

189 “offer a fuller picture”: Philip S. Ziegler, The Black Death (New York: Harper & Row, 1969), p. 125.

190 plague’s initial assault: Ibid., p. 137.

191 Dorset had to fill: Gasquet, The Black Death of 1348 and 1349, pp. 90, 91.

191 pointing out the Baiter: Ibid., p. 92.

191 Bridport doubled its normal complement of bailiffs: Ibid.

192 “Cruel death”: Knighton, “Chronicon Henrici Knighton,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 77.

192 “The plague raged”: Reverend Samuel Seyer, Memoirs Historical and Topographical of Bristol and Its Neighbourhood; from the Earliest Period Down to the Present Time (Bristol: 1823, printed for the author by J. M. Gutch, 1821–23 [1825]), p. 143.

192 municipal death rate: Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 135.

192 Christmas of 1348: Gasquet, The Black Death of 1348 and 1349, p. 195.

193 in Gloucester: Geoffrey le Baker, “Chronicon Galfridi le Baker,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 81.

193 “Wishing, as is our duty”: Ralph of Shrewsbury, “Register of Bishop Ralph of Shrewsbury,” in Horrox, The Black Death, pp. 112–13.

194 half its normal complement of priests: Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 128.

194 holy relics: W. M. Ormrod, “The English Government and the Black Death of 1348–9,” in England in the Fourteenth Century: Proceedings of the 1985 Harlaxton Symposium, ed. by Boydell and Brewer (Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press, 1986), p. 176.

194 “Certain sons of perdition”: Ralph of Shrewsbury, The Register of Ralph of Shrewsbury, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 1329–1363, ed. by Thomas Scott Holmes (Somerset Record Society, 1896), p. 596.

195 “go around the parish church”: Ibid., p. 598.

195 Tilgarsley: Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 139.

195 Woodeaton: Ibid., p. 140.

195 “university is ruined”: Anna M. Campbell, The Black Death and Men of Learning (New York: Columbia University Press, 1931), p. 162.

195 “ye University of Oxenford”: Richard Fitzralph, in F. D. Shrewsbury, Bubonic Plague in the British Isles (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970), p. 81.

195 “houses in the country retired”: Anthony Wood, History and Antiquities of the University of Oxford, vol. 1 (Oxford: Printed for the editor, 1792–96), p. 449.

196 “In the same year”: Knighton, “Chronicon Henrici Knighton,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 77.

196 In Uzbekistan: Samuel K. Cohn, Jr., The Black Death Transformed: Disease and Culture in Early Renaissance Europe (London: Arnold, 2002), p. 132.

196 enjoy better health: Prestwich, The Three Edwards, p. 137.

197 According to one estimate: Dyer, Making a Living in the Middle Ages, p. 272.

197 “Scepter and Crown”: Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 132.

197 Joan Plantagenet: Norman F. Cantor, In the Wake of the Plague: The Black Death and the World It Made (New York: Free Press, 2001), pp. 32–39.

198 On September 2, Princess Joan: Ibid., p. 44.

198 Bishop of Carlisle: Ibid., p. 48.

198 “No fellow human being”: “Letter of Edward III,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 250.

199 Southampton: Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 138.

199 ecclesiastical death in Southampton: Gasquet, The Black Death of 1348 and 1349, p. 131.

199 “A voice has been heard in Rama”: Bishop William Edendon, “Vox in Rama,” in Horrox, The Black Death, pp. 116, 117.

200 James de Grundwell: Gasquet, The Black Death of 1348 and 1349, pp. 189, 190.

200 “Supreme pontiff”: Ibid., p. 127.

200 attacked a monk: W. L. Woodland, The Story of Winchester (London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1932), p. 114.

201 fined forty pounds: Richard Britnell, “The Black Death in English Towns,” Urban History 21, part 2 (Oct. 1994): 204.

201 clerical mortality rates: George Gordon Coulton, Medieval Panorama: The English Scene from Conquest to Reformation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1938–39), p. 496.

201 town of Winchester: Josiah Cox Russell, British Medieval Population (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1948), p. 285.

201 four thousand: Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 146.

201 Crawley: Norman Scott Brien Gras and Ethel Culbert Gras, The Economic and Social History of an English Village (Crawley, Hampshire) A.D. 909–1928 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1930), p. 153.

201 contemporary records indicate: Shrewsbury, Bubonic Plague in the British Isles, p. 91.

201 “Since the greater part”: Edward III, in Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 146.

202 “death without sorrow”: John of Reading, “Chronica Johannis de Reading,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 74.

202 “With his friends”: Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 133.

203 crop yields: Dyer, Making a Living in the Middle Ages, p. 238.

204 manor rolls for 1348: E. Robo, “The Black Death in the Hundred of Farnham,” English Historical Review 44, no. 176 (Oct. 1929): 560–72.

204740 people died: Ibid., p. 562.

204 more than a third: Ibid., p. 571.

205 “A man could have”: Knighton, “Chronicon Henrici Knighton,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 78.

205 amounted to 305 pounds: Robo, “The Black Death in the Hundred of Farnham,” p. 565.

205 Forty times: Ibid., p. 566.

206 “No workman or laborer”: “Chronicle of Cathedral Priory of Rochester,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 78.

206 dairymaid’s output: Robo, “The Black Death in the Hundred of Farnham,” p. 567.

206 twenty-two shillings: Ibid., p. 568.

Chapter Nine: Heads to the West, Feet to the East

210 “among the noble cities”: William FitzStephen, in R. A. Pelham, “The Fourteenth Century,” in Historical Geography of England Before 1800, ed. by H. C. Darby (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951), p. 222.

210 Cheapside, London’s premier commercial district: A. R. Myers, London in the Age of Chaucer (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1972), pp. 17–23. See also: Christopher Dyer, Making a Living in the Middle Ages: The People of Britain, 850–1520 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2002), pp. 119, 217.

210 “citizens of London”: FitzStephen, in Pelham, “The Fourteenth Century,” p. 222.

210 John Rykener: David Lorenzo Boyd and Ruth Mazo Karras, “‘Ut cum muliere’: A Male Transvestite Prostitute in Fourteenth-Century London,” in Premodern Sexualties, ed. by Louise Fradenburg and Carl Freccero (London: Routledge, 1996), pp. 99–116.

211 “They drive me to death”: Myers, London in the Age of Chaucer, p. 23.

211 Richard the Raker: Philip S. Ziegler, The Black Death (New York: Harper & Row, 1969), p. 154.

211 “city is very much corrupted”: B. Lambert, The History and Survey of London and Its Environs from the Earliest Period to the Present Time, vol. 1 (London: Printed for T. Hughes and M. Jones by Dewick and Clarke, 1806), p. 241.

211 “To this city”: FitzStephen, in Pelham, p. 222.

212 Southwark, a squalid little suburb: Myers, London in the Age of Chaucer, pp. 110–11.

212 Edward’s initial response: W. M. Ormrod, “The English Government and the Black Death of 1348–1349,” in England in the Fourteenth Century: Proceedings of the 1985 Harlaxton Symposium, eds. Boydell and Brewer (Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press, 1986), pp. 175, 176.

213 epidemic spreads eastward: le Baker, “Chronicon Galfridi le Baker,” in The Black Death: Manchester Medieval Sources, trans. and ed. by Rosemary Horrox (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1994), p. 81.

213 infected before the surrounding countryside: Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 156. See also Horrox, The Black Death, p. 10.

213 Descriptions of pestilential London: Thomas Vincent and Daniel Defoe, quoted in “A Curse on All Our Houses,” BBC History Magazine 5, no. 10 (October 2004): 36.

214 mixture of caskets: Britnell, “Black Death in English Towns,” p. 204. See also: Duncan Hawkins, “The Black Death and the New London Cemeteries of 1348,” Antiquity 54 (1990): 640.

214 Sir Walter Manny: Hawkins, “The Black Death and the New London Cemeteries,” p. 637.

214 “grew so powerful”: Robert of Avesbury, “Robertus de Avesbury de Gestis Mirabilibus Regis Edwards Text,” in Horrox, The Black Death, pp. 63–64.

215 “A great plague raging”: John Stow, “A Survey of London,” in Horrox, The Black Death, pp. 266–67.

215 London’s overall mortality: Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 157–58.

215 egalitarian abandon: Ibid., p. 159.

216 population of the postplague capital: Josiah Russell, British Medieval Population (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1948), p. 285. See also: Pelham, “The Fourteenth Century,” p. 233.

216 “forgetful of their profession”: John of Reading, “Chronica Johannis de Reading,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 75.

216 “wasted their goods”: Knighton, “Chronicon Henrici Knighton,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 130.

216 “both in the East and West”: Ibn Khaldun, in Robert S. Gottfried, The Black Death: Natural and Human Disaster in Medieval Europe (New York: Free Press, 1983), p. 41.

216 “Objective studies indicate”: Herman Kahn, On Thermonuclear War (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1961), p. 21.

217 “sights that haunt”: in Lord Dufferin, “Black Death of Bergen,” Letters from High Latitudes (London: Oxford University Press, 1910), p. 38.

217 “superficial yet fevered gaiety”: James Westfall Thompson, “The Aftermath of the Black Death and the Aftermath of the Great War,” American Journal of Sociology 26 (1920–21): 23.

217 unpromising environment blossom: Dyer, Making a Living in the Middle Ages, p. 167.

218 Norwich: Ibid., p. 190.

219 “year ending 1350”: Reverend Augustus Jessop, “The Black Death in East Anglia,” in The Coming of the Friars, and Other Historic Essays (London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1894), pp. 206–07.

219 “was in the most flourishing state”: Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 170.

219 “Most . . . of the dwelling places”: Francis Aidan Gasquet, The Black Death of 1348 and 1349 (London: George Bell and Sons, 1908), p. 152.

219 peasants of Conrad Pava: Jessop, “The Black Death in East Anglia,” p. 200.

220 twenty-one families: Ibid., p. 201.

220 Emma Goscelin’s life: Ibid., p. 202.

220 “threading [through] the filthy alleys”: Ibid., p. 219.

220 “Tumbrels discharging”: Ibid., p. 211.

221 “times of plague”: G. B. Niebuhr, in Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 259.

221 One-Day Priest: Jessop, “The Black Death in East Anglia,” p. 231.

221 Alice Bakeman: Ibid., p. 232.

221 Catherine Bugsey: Ibid., p. 234.

221 “Whether by chance”: Gasquet, The Black Death of 1348 and 1349, p. 251.

222 In the city: Hamilton Thompson, “The Registers of John Gynwell, Bishop of Lincoln for the years 1347–1350,” Archeological Journal 68 (1911): 326.

222 “Almighty God”: Ralph of Shrewsbury, The Register of Ralph of Shrewsbury, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 1329–1363, ed. Thomas Scott Holmes (Somerset Record Society, 1896), p. 596.

222 “O ye of little faith”: Johannes Nohl, The Black Death: A Chronicle of the Plague Compiled from Contemporary Sources, trans. by C. H. Clarke (London: 1926), p. 231.

223 “Let us look”: Thomas Brinton, Bishop of Rochester, “The Sermons of Thomas Brinton,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 141.

223 “And a good job, too!”: Knighton, “Chronicon Henrici Knighton,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 76,

223 “And no wonder”: John of Reading, “Chronica Johannis de Reading,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 133.

223 “before the pestilence”: Knighton, “Chronicon Henrici Knighton,” in Horrox, The Black Death, pp. 78, 79.

223 Norwich, where sixty clerks: Gasquet, The Black Death of 1348 and 1349, p. 238.

224 “the monastic orders”: Ibid., p. 251.

224 “The picture one forms”: Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 261.

224 population of almost eleven thousand: Russell, British Medieval Population, p. 142.

225 “Almighty God”: William Zouche, Archbishop of York, “Historical Letters and Papers from the Northern Registers,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 111.

225 Clerical losses: Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 181.

225 Abbey of Meaux: Friar Thomas Burton, “Chronica Monasterii de Melsa,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 68.

225 Siamese twins: Ibid., p. 70.

225 seven tax collectors: Ormrod, “English Government and the Black Death,” p. 178.

225 “Considering the waste”: Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 183.

226 ten local parishes: Ibid., p. 184.

226 Wakebridge family’s brush with annihilation: Horrox, The Black Death, pp. 250, 251.

226 William of Liverpool: Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 184.

226 refusing to pay fines: Ibid., p. 185.

227 mad, lone peasant: Ibid., p. 186.

227 “Laughing at their enemies”: Knighton, “Chronicon Henrici Knighton,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 78.

227 “Within a short space of time”: Ibid.

227 A third of Scotland: Ziegler, The Black Death, pp. 190, 191.

227 “We see death”: Jeuan Gethin, “The Black Death in England and Wales as Exhibited in Manorial Documents,” ed. by W. Rees, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 16, part 2 (1920): 27.

228 Madoc Ap Ririd: Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 192.

228 “cut down the English”: le Baker, “Chronicon Galfridi le Baker,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 82.

228 Irish historian: Maria Kelly, A History of the Black Death in Ireland (Stroud, Glouchestershire: Tempus, 2001), p. 38.

228 plague seems to have landed: Ibid., pp. 21–42.

228 death rate: Ibid., p. 41.

229 “And Here it seems”: in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 82.

Chapter Ten: God’s First Love

232 “anyone suffering the effects”: Confession of Barber Surgeon Balavigny, “Strassburg Urkundenbuch,” in The Black Death: Manchester Medieval Sources, trans. and ed. by Rosemary Horrox (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1994), p. 214.

232 “on pain of excommunication”: Ibid.

232 surgeon’s transcript: “Strassburg Urkundenbuch,” Ibid., pp. 212–14.

233 “it has been brought”: Pope Clement VI, “Bull: Sicut Judeis,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 221.

233 “No human condition”: Primo Levi, Survival in Auschwitz: The Nazi Assault on Humanity, trans. Stuart Woolf (New York: Collier Books, 1961), p. 23.

234 “this is the spring”: Balavigny Confession, “Strassburg Urkundenbuch,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 214.

234 “We Go”: Friedrich Heer, God’s First Love: Christians and Jews over Two Thousand Years, trans. by Geoffrey Skelton (New York: Weybright and Talley, 1967), p. 5.

234 Jewish casualty figures in uprising: Paul Johnson, A History of the Jews (New York: Harper & Row, 1987).

234 Dio Cassius and Tacitus: Ibid., p. 148.

234 “a sad people”: Ibid., p. 143.

235 Benjamin of Tudela: The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela, ed. by A. Adler (London: 1840).

235 from eight million: Johnson, A History of the Jews, p. 171.

235 Ashkenazi community: German-Jewish History in Modern Times, ed. by Michael A. Meyer and Michael Brenner (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996), vol. 1: Tradition and Enlightenment 1600–1780, by Mordechai Breuer and Michael Graetz, p. 17.

235 skilled, nonnational elite: Amy Chua, World on Fire: How Exporting Free Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability (New York: Doubleday, 2003).

236 “By virtue of their experience”: Breuer and Graetz, Tradition and Enlightenment, p. 13.

236 “Jews and other merchants”: Ibid.

236 “greatest misfortune”: Letters of Medieval Jewish Traders, trans. by S. D. Goitein (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973), p. 207.

236 “the term ‘dark early’”: Breuer and Graetz, Tradition and Enlightenment, p. 13.

236 Aaron of Lincoln: James Parkes, The Jew in the Medieval Community (New York: Hermon Press, 1976).

237 Abraham of Bristol: Heer, God’s First Love, p. 85.

237 Adversus Judaeos: Dan Cohn-Sherbok, Anti-Semitism: A History (Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing, 2002), pp. 36–39.

238 Mention of Jews in gospel: Elaine Pagels, The Origin of Satan (New York: Vintage, 1995), pp. 99–105.

238 “May the minim”: Cohn-Sherbok, Anti-Semitism, p. 45.

238 orthodox establishment also disparaged Christ: Heer, God’s First Love, p. 33.

238 “I know that many people”: John Chrysostom in James Carroll, Constantine’s Sword (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001), p. 213.

238 Bodo, father-confessor: Heer, God’s First Love, p. 60.

239 “Now he lives in”: Ibid., p. 60.

239 expelled and their goods confiscated: Johnson, A History of the Jews, p. 213.

239 policy of expulsion: Max L. Margolis and Alexander Marx, A History of the Jewish People (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1927), pp. 399–400.

239 “wild with grief”: Augustine of Hippo, The Confessions, book 5, ch. 8, trans. by R. S. Pine-Coffin (New York: Penguin, 1961), p. 100.

240 “lovely brainwave”: Mendelssohn in Carroll, Constantine’s Sword, p. 219.

240 “Judaism endured”: Neusner in Carroll, Constantine’s Sword, p. 218.

240 Ashkenazi settlements: Breuer and Graetz, Tradition and Enlightenment, p. 15.

241 “We depart to wage war”: Ibid., p. 21.

241 “In a great voice”: “Chronicle of Solemon bar Simson,” The Jews and the Crusaders: The Hebrew Chronicles of the First and Second Crusades, trans. and ed. by Shlomo Eidelberg (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977), pp. 30–31.

241 “Hear, O Israel”: Ibid., pp. 23–24.

241 pretty young Jewess taunted: Carroll, Constantine’s Sword, p. 247.

242 Civitas Dei: Jeremy Cohen, The Friars and the Jews: The Evolution of Medieval Anti-Judaism (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1982), p. 241.

242 “hateful to Christ”: Geoffrey Chaucer, in Philip S. Ziegler, The Black Death (New York: Harper & Row, 1969), p. 99.

242 blood libel: Johnson, A History of the Jews, p. 209.

243 hemorrhoidal suffering: Ibid., p. 210.

243 “Wherefore the leaders and rabbis”: Marc Saperstein, Moments of Crisis in Jewish-Christian Relations (Philadelphia: Trinity Press International, 1989), p. 22.

243 “Jews and Saracens”: Cohen, The Friars and the Jews, p. 266.

243 English Jews: Cohn-Sherbok, Anti-Semitism, p. 56.

243 petty degradations: Johnson, A History of the Jews, p. 214.

244 “That the Jews were victims”: Norman Cantor, In the Wake of the Plague (New York: Free Press, 2001), pp. 151–52.

244 “most of our people”: Rabbi Solomon, in Cohen, The Friars and the Jews, p. 54.

245 “not every Louis”: Ibid., p. 70.

245 “have partnerships with Christians”: Johnson, A History of the Jews, p. 218.

246 “One would be accusing God”: Heer, God’s First Love, p. 68.

246 The Treasure and the Law: Rudyard Kipling, in James Parkes, The Jew in the Medieval Community, p. 345.

247 lender could charge: Ibid., p. 373.

247 Guillaume, Lord of Drace: Ibid, p. 355.

247 “One should not”: Johnson, A History of the Jews, p. 174.

247 “Jewish moneylenders”: Norman Rufus Colin Cohn, Pursuit of the Millennium (Fair Lawn, N.J.: Essential Books, 1957), p. 124.

248 Jewish moneylenders: Johnson, A History of the Jews, p. 174.

248 Attacks on Minna and Jacob Tam: Margolis and Marx, A History of the Jewish People, p. 366.

248 major outbreaks: Breuer and Graetz, Tradition and Enlightenment, p. 24.

249 lepers of France were exterminated: Carlo Ginzburg, Ecstasies: Deciphering the Witches’ Sabbath, trans. by Raymond Rosenthal (New York: Pantheon, 1991), p. 33.

249 “You see how the healthy Christians”: Ibid., p. 41.

249 Pregnant lepers: Ibid., pp. 33, 34.

249 “Beware the friendship”: Ibid., p. 38.

250 secret covenant: Ibid., p. 45.

251 Around Narbonne: Ibid., p. 46.

251 Pedro the Ceremonious: David Nirenberg, Communities of Violence: Persecution of Minorities in the Middle Ages (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996), p. 237.

252 “some wretched men”: Heyligen, “Breve Chronicon Clerici Anonymi,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 45.

252 In Cervera: Nirenberg, Communities of Violence, p. 238.

252 “Without any reason”: Ibid., pp. 245, 240.

252 “rivers and fountains”: Barbara W. Tuchman, A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century (New York: Ballantine Books, 1978), p. 109.

252 tried for contaminating local wells: Ginzburg, Ecstasies, p. 65.

253 “it cannot be true”: Pope Clement VI, “Bull: Sicut Judeis,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 222.

253 Marrying the Jews to the well poisonings: Ginzburg, Ecstasies, p. 65.

253 “poison which killed the Jews”: Margolis and Marx, A History of the Jewish People, p. 406.

253 Belieta’s interrogation: Belieta, “Strassburg Urkundenbuch,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 215.

254 Aquetus told his interrogators: Aquetus, in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 216.

254 turning point in the pogroms: Cantor, In the Wake of the Plague, p. 154.

254 “forbids his wife and family”: Balavigny Confession, “Strassburg Urkundenbuch,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 213.

254 another plotter: Ibid., pp. 214–19.

255 notion of conspiracy: Ibid., pp. 215–17.

255 “Within the revolution of one year”: Heinrich Truchess, “Fontes Rerum Germanicarum,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 208.

256 “The people of Speyer”: Cantor, In the Wake of the Plague, p. 156.

256 pogroms reached Strassburg: Alfred Haverkamp, “Zur Geschichte Der Juden Im Deutschland Des Spaten Mittelalters Und Der Fruhen Newzeils,” in Judenverflogugen zur Zeil des Schwarzen Todes im Gesellschaftsgefuge deutscher Stadte (Stuttgart: Hiersmann, 1981), pp. 62–64.

256 half of Strassburg’s Jewish population: Cantor, In the Wake of the Plague, p. 157.

257 A few weeks later: Johannes Nohl, The Black Death: A Chronicle of the Plague Compiled from Contemporary Sources, trans. C. H. Clarke (London: 1926), pp. 184–94.

257 “They were burnt”: Truchess, “Fontes Rerum Germanicarum,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 209.

257 “Not a single one”: Jizchak Katzenelson, in Heer, God’s First Love, p. 12.

Chapter Eleven: “O Ye of Little Faith”

259 arrive in force in Central Europe: Jean-Noël Biraben, Les hommes et la peste en France (Paris: Mouton, 1975), pp. 75–76.

260 Balkans infected: Ole J. Benedictow, The Black Death, 1346–1353: Complete History (Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press, 2004), p. 72. See Also: Francis Aidan Gasquet, The Black Death of 1348–49 (London: George Bell & Sons, 1908), pp. 68–69.

260 condolence to survivors: Gasquet, The Black Death of 1348–49, p. 68.

260 Muhldorf misdating: Benedictow, The Black Death, 1346–1353, p. 189.

260 Description of plague encirclement of Germany: Ibid., pp. 186–200.

261 Mortality in German cities: Philip S. Ziegler, The Black Death (New York: Harper & Row, 1969), pp. 84–86.

262 “small children”: Johannes Nohl, The Black Death: A Chronicle of the Plague Compiled from Contemporary Sources, trans. C. H. Clarke (London: 1926), pp. 34, 35.

262 “race without a head”: Henrici de Hervordia, “Chronicon Henrici de Hervordia,” in The Black Death: Manchester Medieval Sources, trans. and ed. by Rosemary Horrox (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1994), p. 150.

262 “naked and covered in blood”: Norman Cohn, Pursuit of the Millennium (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970), p. 124.

263 “Your hands above”: Nohl, The Black Death, p. 229.

263 walked in a circle: Ibid., p. 230.

263 position of the particular sin: Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 89.

264 “iron spikes”: de Hervordia, in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 150.

264 “Come here for penance”: Nohl, The Black Death, p. 228.

264 Heavenly Letter: Ibid., p. 231.

265 enthusiastic self-floggers: Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 87.

265 appease divine wrath: Ibid.

265 origins of Flagellants: Cohn, Pursuit of the Millennium, pp. 124–30.

265 German wing: Ibid., pp. 127, 129, 137.

266 “gigantic women from Hungary”: Nohl, The Black Death, p. 227.

266 spiritual home in Germany: Cohn, Pursuit of the Millennium, pp. 124–27.

266 “now laughing now weeping”: Thomas Walsingham, Historia Anglicana 1272–1422, in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 154.

266 rules of Flagellant 'margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:18.5pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-13.5pt;line-height:normal'>267 changing demographic: Ziegler, The Black Death, pp. 94–95.

267 in Frankfurt: Ibid., p. 93.

267 In 1349 Strassburg: Cohn, Pursuit of the Millennium, p. 130.

267 less enthusiastic: Ibid., pp. 139–40.

268 “Pope took part”: Heyligen, “Breve Chronicon Clerici Anonymi,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 44.

268 “Already the Flagellants”: Nohl, The Black Death, p. 239.

268 King Casimir: Norman F. Cantor, In the Wake of the Plague (New York: Free Press, 2001), p. 163.

268 the plague in Spain: Benedictow, The Black Death, 1346–1353, pp. 77–82.

269 King Alfonso: Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 114.

269 stopped at a little country inn: Li Muisis, “Recueil de Chroniques de Flandres,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 47.

270 the plague in Poland: Benedictow, The Black Death, 1346–1353, pp. 218–21.

270 the plague in Bohemia: Ibid., pp. 221, 224.

271 regional data from the Netherlands: W. P. Blockmans, “The Social and Economic Effects of the Plague in the Low Countries, 1349–1500,” Revue Belge de Philologie et d’Histoire 58, 833–63. See also Benedictow, The Black Death, 1346–1353, pp. 203–6.

271 Flanders, which had: David Nicholas, Medieval Flanders (London: Longman, 1992), p. 226.

Chapter Twelve: “Only the End of the Beginning”

273 –74Norway infected: Ole J. Benedictow, The Black Death, 1346–1353: The Complete Story (Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press, 2004), pp. 153, 154.

274 “People did not live”: Ole J. Benedictow, “Plague in the Late Medieval Nordic Countries,” Epidemiological Studies (1992): p. 44.

274 point to bubonic plague: Ibid.

274 two recent outbreaks: Wendy Orent, Plague: the Mysterious Past and Terrifying Future of the World’s Most Dangerous Disease (New York: Free Press, 2004), p. 57.

275 sole surviving cleric in the diocese of Drontheim: Aidan Gasquet, The Black Death of 1348 and 1349 (London: George Bell & Sons, 1908), p. 77.

275 Rype: Philip S. Ziegler, The Black Death (New York: Harper & Row, 1969), p. 112.

275 “struck the world”: Gasquet, The Black Death of 1348 and 1349, p. 78.

276 reentered Russia: David Herlihy, Black Death and the Transformation of the West (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1997), p. 25.

276 Survivors drank intoxicatingly: Matteo Villani, in Herlihy, Black Death and the Transformation of the West, pp. 46–47.

276 “There are three things”: Robert S. Gottfried, The Black Death: Natural and Human Disaster in Medieval Europe (New York: Free Press, 1983), p. 81.

276 “It was thought”: Matteo Villani, in Herlihy, Black Death and the Transformation of the West, p. 65.

277 “No one could”: Agnolo di Tura, Cronaca senese, ed. Alessandro Lisini and F. Iacometti (Bologna, 1931–1937), p. 566.

277 “The life we lead”: Petrarch, “Letter from Parma,” in The Black Death: Manchester Medieval Sources, trans. and ed. by Rosemary Horrox (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1994), p. 249.

277 “In 1361, a grave pestilence”: John of Reading, “Chronica Johannes de Reading,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 86.

278 second pestilence: Gottfried, The Black Death, p. 130.

278 “Children’s Plague”: Knighton, “Chronicon Henrici Knighton,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 85.

278 “a multitude of boys”: John Hatcher, Plague, Population and the English Economy, 1348–1530 (London: Macmillan, 1977), p. 30.

278 Modern scientific opinion: Ibid., p. 59.

278 In the Netherlands: Gottfried, The Black Death, p. 133.

278 differed from its predecessor: Orent, Plague, pp. 144–45.

279 “The Black Death became”: Ibid., p. 138.

279 “There is no doubt”: Ibid., p. 138.

279 plague foci: Dr. Ken Gage, Chief Plague Division, U.S. Centers for Disease Control, personal communication.

280 Piers Plowman: Hatcher, Plague, Population and the English Economy, p. 40.

280 outbreak of smallpox: Christiane Klapisch-Zuber, “Plague and Family Life,” in The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 6 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), p. 13.

280 Statistics on infectious disease: “Plagues,” in The Dictionary of the Middle Ages, ed. Joseph Strayer (New York: Scribner, 1982), p. 680.

281 “Many a man”: Ibid., p. 683.

281 from 30 to 40 percent: M. Levi-Bacci, A Concise History of World Population (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), pp. 31, 53.

281 as high as 60 to 75 percent: “Plagues,” in The Dictionary of the Middle Ages, p. 681.

281 Florence shrank: Anne G. Carmichael, Plague and the Poor in Renaissance Florence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), pp. 60, 66.

281 England by perhaps as much: Hatcher, Plague, Population and the English Economy, p. 38.

281 Eastern Normandy: David Herlihy, The Black Death and the Transformation of the West, ed. Samuel K. Cohn, Jr. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1997), p. 35.

281 “women conceived”: Jean de Venette, “The Chronicle of Jean de Venette,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 57.

282 would have replaced: Hatcher, Plague, Population and the English Economy, p. 40.

282 killed their caregivers: Carmichael, Plague and the Poor, pp. 93–94.

282 “birth dearth”: Klapisch-Zuber, “Plague and Family Life,” pp. 138–42.

282 “life expectancies were”: Herlihy, Black Death and the Transformation of the West, p. 43.

282 twelve-year-old peasant boy: Christopher Dyer, Making a Living in the Middle Ages: The People of Britain, 850–1520 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002), p. 275.

283 English peer: Klapisch-Zuber, “Plague and Family Life,” p. 136.

283 median age on the continent: Economist, Nov. 25, 2003, p. 28.

283 Florence had the same percentage: Herlihy, Black Death and the Transformation of the West, p. 43.

283 convent of Longchamp: Klapisch-Zuber, “Plague and Family Life,” p. 137.

284 “The roof of an old house”: Dyer, Making a Living in the Middle Ages, p. 265.

284 “serving girls . . . want”: Matteo Villani, Chronica di Matteo Villani, ed. by I. Moutier, book 1, ch. 5 (Florence: Magheri, 1825), p. 11.

284 “all essentials”: Knighton, “Chronicon Henrici Knighton,” in Horrox, The Black Death, p. 80.

284 “For many have certainly”: Herlihy, Black Death and the Transformation of the West, p. 41.

284 “No man now alive”: Dyer, Making a Living in the Middle Ages, p. 266.

285 winners and losers: Ibid., p. 278.

285 “The common people”: Matteo Villani, Chronica di Matteo Villani, book 1, ch. 4, p. 10.

285 “workers of the land”: Gottfried, The Black Death, p. 148.

285 often prosperous enough: Ibid., p. 140.

286 “Take this job and shove it”: Dyer, Making a Living in the Middle Ages, p. 279.

286 Joan Edwaker: Ibid., p. 267.

286 “The world”: Ibid., p. 210.

287 “the ruling groups”: Ibid., p. 28.

287 there were insurrections: Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 275.

287 industrial Europe: Gottfried, The Black Death, p. 140.

287 technological innovation: Herlihy, The Black Death and the Transformation of the West, pp. 50–51; Gottfried, The Black Death, pp. 142–43.

288 innovations in the medical profession: Gottfried, The Black Death, pp. 117–223.

289 hospital also began to move: Ibid., p. 121.

289 birth of public health: Ibid., pp. 123–24.

289 theory of contagion: Herlihy, The Black Death and the Transformation of the West, p. 72.

289 medieval higher education: Ibid., p. 70.

290 “privatization of Christianity”: Norman F. Cantor, In the Wake of the Plague: The Black Death and the World It Made (New York: Free Press, 2001), p. 205.

290 “About what can you preach”: Henry Charles Lea, A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, vol. 1 (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1882–88), p. 290.

291 “Parsons and parish priests”: William Langland in Ziegler, The Black Death, p. 264.

291 Lollards: Cantor, In the Wake of the Plague, p. 207.

291 “no other epoch”: Johan Huizinga, The Waning of the Middle Ages: A Study of the Forms of Life, Thought and Art in France and the Netherlands in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries (Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications, 1999), p. 12.

292 tomb of Cardinal Jean de Lagrange: John Aberth, From the Brink of the Apocalypse: Confronting Famine, War, Plague, and Death in the Later Middle Ages (New York: Routledge, 2001), pp. 230–31.

292 The Three Living and the Three Dead: Ibid., pp. 196–205.

293 Dance of Death: Ibid., pp. 205–15.

293 “A more diversified economy”: Herlihy, The Black Death and the Transformation of the West, pp. 50–51.

Afterword: The Plague Deniers

295 Plague Deniers: Cohn, Samuel K., The Black Death Transformed: Disease and Culture in Early Renaissance Europe (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003); Graham Twigg, The Black Death: A Biological Reappraisal (New York: Schocken, 1985); Susan Scott and Christopher J. Duncan, The Biology of Plagues: Evidence from Historical Populations (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001).

296 Anthrax: Twigg, The Black Death, p. 200.

296 Disease X: Cohn, The Black Death Transformed, p. 247.

296 hemorrhagic plague: Scott and Duncan, The Biology of Plagues, pp. 107–8, 385, 388.

297 Gasquet’s symptom list: Francis Aidan Gasquet, The Black Death of 1348 and 1349 (London: George Bell and Sons, 1908), pp. 8–9.

297 “Breath spread the infection”: da Piazza, “Bibliotheca Scriptorum,” in The Black Death: Manchester Medieval Sources, trans. and ed. by Rosemary Horrox (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1994), p. 36.

297 “The disease is threefold”: Heyligen, “Breve Chronicon Clerici Anonymi,” in Horrox, The Black Death, pp. 42–43.

298 list of symptoms: Cohn, The Black Death Transformed, pp. 41–54; Scott and Duncan, The Biology of Plagues, pp. 107–9; Twigg, The Black Death, pp. 202–10.

298 describe the bubo differently: Cohn, The Black Death Transformed, pp. 64–65.

298 Rat die-offs: Philip Ziegler, The Black Death (New York: Harper & Row, 1969), p. 27; Norman F. Cantor, In the Wake of the Plague: The Black Death and the World It Made (New York: Free Press, 2001), p. 172.

299 In Vietnam: Wendy Orent, Plague: The Mysterious Past and Terrifying Future of the World’s Most Dangerous Disease (New York: Free Press, 2004), p. 57.

299 during the Third Pandemic: Jeremy Cohen, The Friars and the Jews (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1982), p. 176.

299 immune to climatic effects: Scott and Duncan, The Biology of Plagues, p. 364.

300 finding DNA: Raoult et al., “Molecular Identification by Suicide ‘PCR’ of Yersinia pestis,” PNAS 97: 12800–12803.

300 marmot version of the cough: Orent, Plague, pp. 56–57.

301 the human flea: Ibid., p. 138.

301 evolutionary terms: Dr. Robert R. Brubaker, Professor of Microbiology at Michigan State University, personal communication.

301 “By the late nineteenth century”: Ibid.

301 “Indian Plague Commissioners”: Anne G. Carmichael, “Plagues and More Plagues,” Early Science and Medicine 8, no. 3 (2003): 7.

302 nutrition and decent nursing care: Ibid.

302 “fatigue, destitution”: Ibid.

303 human flea as a plague vector: Dr. Ken Gage, Chief Plague, U.S. Centers for Disease Control, personal communication.

303 south of the Alps: Cohn, The Black Death Transformed.

303 “There may have been”: Anne G. Carmichael, personal communication.

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