Post-classical history

Notes

Introduction

1. Fulcher of Chartres, I.2.i, pp. 62–3.

2. Robert the Monk, I.1, p. 79.

3. Ibid., pp. 79–80.

4. Fulcher of Chartres, I.3.iv, p. 66.

5. Baldric of Dol, IV.1, p. 15.

6. Robert the Monk, I.1, pp. 79–80.

7. All the main accounts of Urban’s speech were written at the start of the twelfth century, after the Crusade. For some comments on the significance, see below, Chapter Twelve, pp. 200–1.

8. Guibert of Nogent, I.1, p. 87; also Fulcher of Chartres, I.3.v–viii, pp. 66–7; Robert the Monk, I.2, p. 81; R. Somerville, The Councils of Urban II: Decreta Claromontensia (Amsterdam, 1972), p. 74.

9. Robert the Monk, I.2, pp. 81–2; Fulcher of Chartres, I.4.iv, p. 68; Guibert of Nogent, II.5, p. 117.

10. V. Tourneur, ‘Un denier de Godefroid de Bouillon frappé en 1096’, Revue belge de numismatique 83 (1931), pp. 27–30; cf. N. Bauer, ‘Der Fund von Spanko bei St Petersburg’, Zeitschrift für Numismatik 36 (1926), pp. 75–94.

11. See, for example, J. Riley-Smith, The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading (London, 1986), pp. 31ff.

12. For the decree about Jerusalem that was passed at Clermont, see Somerville, Councils of Urban II, pp. 74, 124, and also R. Somerville, Papacy, Councils and Canon Law (London, 1990), pp. 56–65 and 325–37. Also Riley-Smith, First Crusade, pp. 13–30.

13. The letter states that the Crusade force numbered 300,000 as it gathered at Nicaea in 1097, and just over 20,000 at the battle of Ascalon in September 1099, although this figure did not include the garrison at Jerusalem or other towns held at this time by Western knights. Barber and Bate,Letters, pp. 34–5. For the size of the Crusader army, see J. France, Victory in the East: A Military History of the First Crusade (Cambridge, 1993), pp. 122–42.

14. Raymond of Aguilers, I, p. 18; Albert of Aachen, V.40, pp. 392–4.

15. Albert of Aachen, III.28, p. 182.

16. Ralph of Caen, 119, p. 135.

17. See, for example, J. Riley-Smith, The First Crusaders 1095–1131 (Cambridge, 1997); M. Bull, Knightly Piety and the Lay Response to the First Crusade: The Limousin and Gascony (Oxford, 1993); France, Victory in the East; T. Asbridge, The First Crusade: A New History (London, 2004). For surveys of the Crusades in general, C. Tyerman, God’s War: A New History of the Crusades (London, 2006), J. Phillips, Holy Warriors: A Modern History of the Crusades (London, 2010).

18. J. Nesbitt, ‘The rate of march of crusading armies in Europe: a study and computation’, Traditio 19 (1963), pp. 167–82; A. Murray, ‘The army of Godfrey of Bouillon 1096–9: Structure and dynamics of a contingent on the First Crusade’, Revue Belge de Philologie et d’Histoire 70 (1992), pp. 301–29; B. Bachrach, ‘Crusader logistics: From victory at Nicaea to resupply at Dorylaion’, in J. Pryor (ed.), Logistics of Warfare in the Age of the Crusades (Aldershot, 2006), pp. 43–62.

19. For example, S. Edgington, ‘Albert of Aachen reappraised’, in A. Murray (ed.), From Clermont to Jerusalem: The Crusades and Crusader Societies (Turnhout, 1998), pp. 55–67; J. France, ‘The use of the anonymous Gesta Francorum in the early twelfth century sources for the First Crusade’, in ibid., pp. 29–42; J. Rubenstein, ‘What is the Gesta Francorum and who was Peter Tudebode?’, Revue Mabillon 16 (2005), pp. 179–204.

20. A. Vauchez, ‘Les composantes eschatologiques de l’idée de croisade’, in A. Vauchez (ed.), Le Concile de Clermont de 1095 et l’appel à la Croisade (Rome, 1997), pp. 233–43; H. Möhring, Der Weltkaiser der Endzeit: Entstehung Wandel und Wirkung einer tausendjahrigen Weissagung(Stuttgart, 2000), and B. E. Whalen, Dominion of God: Christendom and Apocalypse in the Middle Ages (Cambridge, Mass., 2009).

21. J. Bliese, ‘The motives of the First Crusaders: A social psychological analysis’, Journal of Psychohistory 17 (1990), pp. 393–411; G. Anderson, R. Ekelund, R. Herbert and R. Tollinson, ‘An economic interpretation of the medieval crusades’, Journal of European Economic History 21 (1992), pp. 339–63.

22. C. Ottoni, F-X. Ricaut, N. Vanderheyden, N. Brucato, M. Waelkens and R. Decorte, ‘Mitochondrial analysis of a Byzantine population reveals the differential impact of multiple historical events in South Anatolia’, European Journal of Human Genetics 19 (2011), pp. 571–6.

23. A. Johansen and D. Sornett, ‘Finite time singularity in the dynamics of the world population and economic indices’, Physica A 294.3–4 (2001), pp. 465–502, citing J. DeLong’s University of California, Berkeley ‘Estimating World GDP’ project.

24. Bernold of Constance, p. 520.

25. Anna Komnene, XIII.6, p. 373.

26. Ia. Liubarskii, ‘Ob istochnikakh “Aleksiady” Anny Komninoi’, Vizantiiskii Vremennik 25 (1965), pp. 99–120; for Anna’s sources, actual and possible, see J. Howard-Johnston, ‘Anna Komnene and the Alexiad’, in M. Mullett and D. Smythe (eds.) Alexios I Komnenos – Papers (Belfast, 1996), pp. 260–302.

27. R. Bedrosian (tr.) Aristakes Lastivertc’i’s History (New York, 1985), p. 64.

1 Europe in Crisis

1. Gregory VII, Register, I.1, p. 1.

2. Ibid., I.25, p. 30.

3. See here U-R. Blumenthal, The Investiture Controversy: Church and Monarchy from the Ninth to the Twelfth Century (Philadelphia, 1988); G. Tellenbach, The Western Church from the Tenth to the Early Twelfth Century (Cambridge, 1993); H. Cowdrey, Pope Gregory VII, 1073–1085(Oxford, 1998).

4. Gregory VII, Register, III.6, p. 181; III.10a, pp. 192–3.

5. Hugh of Flavigny, II, p. 458; Lampert, Annales, pp. 258, 264–5; Berthold, p. 284; Bonizo of Sutri, Liber, 8, p. 609.

6. Gregory VII, Register, VII.14, pp. 342–4.

7. Benzo of Alba, Ad Henricum, VI, Preface, p. 502.

8. C. Erdmann (ed.), Die Briefe Heinrichs IV (Leipzig, 1937), 18, p. 28.

9. P. Kehr, ‘Due documenti pontifici illustranti la storia di Roma negli ultimi anni del secolo XI’, Archivio della Società Romana di storia patria 23 (1900), pp. 277–83.

10. Bernold of Constance, p. 508.

11. Urban introduced the prospect of remission from sin for knights who went to fight in Spain, which was to have an important bearing on spiritual rewards available for would-be Crusaders. The Pope’s offer in Spain, however, had little impact on the knighthood of Europe as a whole. See J. von Pflugk-Hartung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita, 3 vols. (Leipzig, 1880–8), 2, pp. 142–3; Urban II, Epistolae et Privilegia, in Patrologia Latina 151, cols. 288, 302–3, 332–3. Also A. Becker, Papst Urban II, 2 vols. (Stuttgart, 1964–88), 1, pp. 246ff.

12. F. Liebermann, ‘Lanfranc and the antipope’, English Historical Review 16 (1901), pp. 330–2.

13. P. Kehr, ‘Papsturkunden in Rom: Erster Bericht’, Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Phil-hist. Kl. (1900), pp. 148–9.

14. Only the reply to Clement III’s messages survives. A. Pavlov, ‘Otryvki grecheskago teksta kanonicheskikh otvetov russkago mitropolita Ioanna II’, Zapiski Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk, 22.5 (1873), pp. 169–86.

15. Imperial heirs were often crowned co-emperor at or soon after birth – hence spaces for two names in the formula. De Cerimoniis aulae Byzantinae libri duo, ed. J. Reiske, 2 vols. (Bonn, 1829–30), 48, vol. 2, pp. 686–92; 46, vol. 2, p. 679.

16. C. Will, Acta et scripta quae de controversiis Ecclesiae Graecae et Latinae (Leipzig, 1861), pp. 150–4.

17. J. Mansi (ed.), Sacrorum Concilium Amplissima Collectio, 31 vols. (Florence, 1759–98), 20, cols. 507–8; Gregory VII, Register, VI.5b, p. 281. Alexios’ excommunication is mentioned by Bernold of Constance, pp. 479–80.

18. William of Apulia, IV, p. 230; cf. Anna Komnene, I.13, p. 40.

19. The most reliable material here comes from the canons agreed at the council, six letters sent by the Pope to Flanders, Tuscany and Spain, and also contemporary accounts of sermons preached by Urban in France after Clermont, such as in Angers in February 1096. Somerville, Councils of Urban II, pp. 74, 124; Hagenmeyer, Epistulae, pp. 136, 137–8; W. Wiederhold, ‘Papsturkunden in Florenz’, Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Phil-hist. Kl. (1901), pp. 313–14; P. Kehr,Papsturkunden in Spanien. I Katalonien (Berlin, 1926), pp. 287–8; L. Halphen and R. Poupardin, Chronique des comtes d’Anjou et des seigneurs d’Amboise (Paris, 1913), pp. 237–8.

20. Geoffrey Malaterra, IV.13, p. 92; W. Holtzmann, ‘Die Unionsverhandlungen zwischen Kaiser Alexios I und Papst Urban II im Jahre 1089’, Byzantinische Zeitschrift, 28 (1928), pp. 60–2.

21. Anna Komnene, V.9, p. 151.

22. Holtzmann, ‘Unionsverhandlungen zwischen Kaiser Alexios I und Papst Urban II’, pp. 60–2.

23. Ibid.

24. Ibid., pp. 62–4.

25. Theophylact of Ohrid, Peri egkalountai Latinon, in P. Gautier (ed. and tr.), Theophylacti Achridensis Opera (Thessaloniki, 1980), p. 249.

26. Ibid., pp. 251–61.

27. Ibid., pp. 271–9.

28. H. Seyffert (ed.), Benzo von Alba. Sieben Bücher an Kaiser Heinrich IV (Hanover, 1996), I.14–17, pp. 140–54.

29. Geoffrey Malaterra, IV.13, pp. 92–3.

30. R. Somerville, Pope Urban II, the Collectio Britannica, and the Council of Melfi (1089) (Oxford, 1996), pp. 175–80.

31. His comments appear in a letter sent to the patriarch of Constantinople, Nicholas III. Holtzmann, ‘Unionsverhandlungen zwischen Kaiser Alexios I und Papst Urban II’, pp. 64–7.

32. Thus Becker, Papst Urban II, 2, pp. 80ff.

33. Ibid., p. 60.

34. Ibid., pp. 59–60.

35. Pavlov, ‘Otryvki grecheskago teksta’, pp. 169–86.

36. Anna Komnene, IV.1, p. 109.

37. E.g. Regii neapolitani archivi: monumenta edita ac illustrata, 6 vols. (Naples, 1845–61) 5, no. 457, pp. 146–7; no. 458, pp. 148–52; no. 462, pp. 157–9; no. 467, pp. 174–8; Codice Diplomatico Barese, 6 vols. (Bari, 1897–1902), 3, no. 24, pp. 39–40; no. 35, p. 41; no. 36, p. 42; no. 27, p. 43; no. 28, pp. 44–5; no. 29, pp. 45–6; no. 30, pp. 46–7; D. Morea (ed.), Il chartularium del monastero (Montecassino, 1892), p. 136.

38. Bernold of Constance, pp. 470–80.

39. G. Spata, Le pergamene greche esistenti nel grande archivio di Palermo (Palermo, 1861), pp. 163–6, 173–5, 179–82; S. Cusa, I diplomi greci ed arabi di Sicilia pubblicati nel testo originale, 2 vols. (Palermo, 1868–82), 2, p. 391.

40. Bernold of Constance, p. 483; Anna Komnene, VIII.5, p. 224.

41. F. Sisic (ed.), Letopis Popa Dukljanina (Belgrade, 1928), pp. 413–16; P. Frankopan, ‘Co-operation between Constantinople and Rome before the First Crusade: A study of the convergence of interests in Croatia in the late 11th Century’, Crusades 3 (2004), pp. 1–13.

42. Fulcher of Chartres, I.5.xi, p. 71.

43. Bernold of Constance, pp. 458, 462.

44. Herrand of Halberstadt, Epistola de causa Heinrici regis, MGH Libelli, 2, p. 288.

45. MGH Constitutiones et acta publica imperatorum et regum, 2 vols. (Hanover, 1893), 1, p. 564; Bernold of Constance, p. 520.

46. Bernold of Constance, p. 520.

47. Geoffrey Malaterra, IV.23, p. 101; Bernold of Constance, p. 463.

48. For the proceedings at Piacenza, see R. Somerville, Pope Urban II’s Council of Piacenza (Oxford, 2011).

2 The Recovery of Constantinople

1. C. Mango and R. Parker, ‘A Twelfth-Century Description of St Sophia’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 14 (1960), pp. 235–40.

2. E. Legrand, ‘Constantin le Rhodien: Description des œuvres d’art et de l’église des Saints Apôtres, suivie d’un commentaire par Th. Reinach’, Revue des Etudes Grecques 9 (1896), pp. 32–65.

3. The rules and regulations of trade in Constantinople are set out in a text known as the Book of the Eparch. J. Koder, Das Eparchenbuch Leons des Weisen (Vienna, 1991).

4. K. Ciggaar, ‘Une description de Constantinople dans le Tarragonensis 55’, Revue des Etudes Byzantines 53 (1995), pp. 117–40.

5. Fulcher of Chartres, I.9.i, p. 79.

6. The Saga of the People of Laxardal (Laxdaela Saga), tr. K. Kunz in The Sagas of Icelanders (London, 1997), 72, p. 410.

7. Michael Psellos, ed. and tr. E. Theanauld, Michel Psellos. Chronographie, 2 vols. (Paris, 1926), VII.25, 2, p. 97,

8. Laxdaela Saga, 77, p. 419.

9. Snorri Sturulson, Haralds Saga, tr. L. Hollander, in Heimskringla: History of the Kings of Norway (Austin, TX, 1964), 3–6, pp. 579–82.

10. R. Savage (ed.), La Chronique de Sainte-Barbe-en-Auge (Caen, 1906), pp. 23, 57–8.

11. K. Ciggaar, ‘L’émigration anglaise à Byzance après 1066’, Revue des Etudes Byzantines 32 (1974), pp. 338–41.

12. Ciggaar, ‘Description de Constantinople’, p. 119; Gesta Francorum Iherusalem expugnantium, in RHC, Occ., 3, p. 494; J. Zepos and P. Zepos (eds.), Jus Graeco-Romanorum, 8 vols. (Athens, 1931–62) 1, p. 317; Miklosich and Müller, 6, p. 44; P. Lemerle, N. Svoronos, A. Guillou, D. Papachryssanthou (eds.), Archives de l’Athos: Actes de Lavra (Paris, 1970), no. 48, 1, pp. 258–9.

13. Actes de Lavra, no. 35, 1, pp. 233–5.

14. M. English Frazer, ‘Church doors and the Gates of Paradise: Byzantine bronze doors in Italy’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 27 (1973), pp. 147–8.

15. P. Lemerle, ‘Le testament d’Eustathios Boïlas (Avril 1059)’, Cinq études sur le XIe siècle byzantin (Paris, 1977), pp. 24–5.

16. For the battle of Manzikert and its place in Turkish identity, see C. Hillenbrand, Turkish Myth and Muslim Symbol: The Battle of Manzikert (Edinburgh, 2007).

17. Tabula S. Basilii, in RHC, Occ., 5, pp. 295–8; J. Darrouzès, ‘Le mouvement des fondations monastiques au XIe siècle’, Travaux et Mémoires 6 (1976), p. 173.

18. C. Morrisson, ‘La dévaluation de la monnaie byzantine au XIe siècle’, Travaux et Mémoires 6 (1976), pp. 3–29.

19. Michael Attaleiates complains bitterly about rising taxes, p. 284; for the chronic inflation in the price of wheat, ibid., pp. 201–4.

20. T. Smiciklas (ed.), Codex diplomaticus regni Croatiae, Dalmatiae et Slavoniae (Zagreb, 1905), 1, pp. 139–41; Gregory VII, Register, 5.12, p. 258; P. Stephenson, Byzantium’s Balkan Frontier, 900–1204 (Cambridge, 2000), p. 144.

21. Anna Komnene, II.3, pp. 54–5.

22. Michael Attaleiates, p. 215; Nikephoros Bryennios, III.16, p. 241.

23. Michael Attaleiates, p. 306.

24. Anna Komnene, III.11, pp. 103– 4.

25. Anna Komnene, VI.11, p. 176.

26. Anna Komnene, XV.10, p. 463.

27. Anna Komnene, I.1, p. 9.

28. Anna Komnene, III.2, pp. 82–3.

29. Nikpehoros Bryennios, IV.29, p. 299.

30. W. Wroth, Catalogue of Imperial Byzantine Coins in the British Museum, 2 vols. (London, 1908), 2, p. 539; G. Zacos and A. Veglery, Byzantine Lead Seals (Basel, 1972), nos. 99 (a & b), 100; J. Nesbitt, N. Oikonomides et al. (eds.), Catalogue of Byzantine Seals at Dumbarton Oaks, 7 vols. (Washington, DC, 1991–), 6, no. 86.1.

31. Anna Komnene, II.9, p. 70.

32. Alexios’ appointment is not mentioned in the Alexiad – unsurprisingly given his decision to turn against the capital, rather than take on the Normans. However, see here Romuald of Salerno, Chronicon, RIS, NS, 7, 1, p. 192. Also, Dandolo, Chronica per extensum descripta, RIS, NS, 12, p. 216, and Michael the Syrian, p. 176.

33. Anna Komnene, II.10, pp. 72–3; John Zonaras, XVIII.20, 3, pp. 727–8.

34. Anna Komnene, III.5, pp. 89–90.

35. John Zonaras, XVIII.20, 3, p. 729.

36. Anna Komnene, II.12, p. 78.

37. Anna Komnene, III.1, p. 79.

38. De Cerimoniis, I.38, 1, pp. 191–6.

39. Anna Komnene, II.4, p. 58; IV.4, p. 114; III.9, pp. 100–1.

40. Anna Komnene, III.4, p. 87, John Zonaras, XVIII.21, 3, p. 732.

41. Geoffrey Malaterra, III.41, p. 82. For the Normans and Byzantium, see W. McQueen, ‘Relations between the Normans and Byzantium 1071–1112’, Byzantion 56 (1986), pp. 427–76; H. Taviani-Carozzi, La Terreur du monde – Robert Guiscard et la conquête normande en Italie (Paris, 1997); G. Loud, The Age of Robert Guiscard: Southern Italy and the Norman Conquest (Singapore, 2000).

42. Gregory Pakourianos, p. 43. The scale of the victory was enormous, with Pakourianos lavishly rewarded by the emperor because of his success. The general was mistaken about how his success would be remembered; it was quickly forgotten, and remained so for nearly a thousand years. P. Frankopan, ‘A victory of Gregory Pakourianos against the Pechenegs’, Byzantinoslavica 57 (1996), pp. 278–81.

43. Theophylact of Ohrid, p. 111.

44. Anna Komnene, VIII.5, pp. 225–6.

45. Anna Komnene, VIII.6, pp. 227–8; John Zonaras, XVIII.22, 3, p. 741.

46. For example, leading figures from previous regimes were brought on campaign against the Normans in 1081 – many of whom were killed in battle at Dyrrakhion in 1081. Anna Komnene, IV.6, p. 122.

47. Anna Komnene, IV.4, pp. 114–15.

48. Michael Psellos, II.1–2, 1, p. 25; II.7, 1, p. 29.

49. John the Oxite, p. 31.

50. Nikephoros Bryennios, II.7, pp. 154–5.

51. Anna Komnene, XV.11, p. 464.

52. Anna Komnene, XIV.7, p. 423.

53. Nikephoros Bryennios, II.7, pp. 154–5; John the Oxite, pp. 37–9; A. Lavriotes (ed.), ‘Historikon zetema ekklesiastikon epi tes basileias Alexiou Komnenou’, Ekklesiastike Aletheia 20 (1900), p. 412.

54. Anna Komnene, III.5, p. 89. For her foundation, Miklosich and Müller, 6, pp. 27–8, 33.

55. Anna Komnene, III.5, pp. 90–1; V.2, pp. 130–2; V. Grumel, ‘L’affaire de Léon de Chalcédoine, le Chrysobulle d’Alexis Ier sur les objets sacrés’, Revue des Etudes Byzantines 2 (1944), pp. 126–33; Anna Komnene, III.8, p. 96.

56. J. Darrouzès, Georges et Dèmètrios Tornikès – Lettres et Discours (Paris, 1970), pp. 234–5.

57. Manuel Straboromanos, pp. 182–3.

58. John Zonaras, XVIII.29, 3, pp. 765–6.

59. Anna Komnene, XIV.4, pp. 411–13.

60. R. Romano (ed.), Nicola Callicle, Carmi (Naples, 1980), pp. 101–2; P. Magdalino and R. Nelson, ‘The Emperor in Byzantine art of the 12th Century’, Byzantinische Forschungen 8 (1982), pp. 123–6.

61. Anna Komnene, III.3, p. 93. For his lisp, I.8, p. 26. The two known images of Alexios appear in manuscripts held in the Vatican Library in Rome, Vaticanus Gr. 666, f. 2r.; 666, f. 2v.

3 Stability in the East

1. I. Mélikoff (ed.), La geste de Melik Danismend, 2 vols. (Paris, 1960).

2. When Alexios was sent to reassert the emperor’s authority over Balliol in the mid-1070s, the inhabitants of Amaseia booed and jeered him when he took the Norman prisoner. Anna Komnene, I.2, pp. 11–13.

3. Matthew of Edessa, II.72, p. 144.

4. J-C. Cheynet and D. Theodoridis, Sceaux byzantins de la collection D. Theodoridis (Paris, 2010), pp. 26–8.

5. Nikephoros Palaiologos still held this position in 1081. Nikephoros Bryennios, III.15, p. 239.

6. J-C. Cheynet and J-F. Vannier, Etudes Prosopographiques (Paris, 1986), pp. 57–74; Cheynet and Theodoridis, Sceaux byzantins, pp. 54– 6; C. MacEvitt, The Crusades and the Christian World of the East: Rough Tolerance (Philadelphia, 2008), pp. 41–2.

7. For example, Michael Angold, The Byzantine Empire 10251204 (London, 1984), pp. 112–13; France, Victory in the East, pp. 155–6; J. Flori, La Première Croisade: l’Occident chrétien contre l’Islam aux origines des idéologies occidentales (Paris, 2001), p. 64; P. Magdalino, ‘The Medieval Empire (780–1204)’ in C. Mango (ed.), The Oxford History of Byzantium, p. 185; J. Harris, Byzantium and the Crusades (London, 2003), pp. 47, 55. Phillips, Holy Warriors, p. 15.

8. Anna Komnene, III.9, p. 100.

9. Ibid.

10. Anna Komnene, II.6, p. 65.

11. Anna Komnene, II.3, pp. 54–5.

12. J. Darrouzès, Notitiae episcopatuum ecclesiae constantinopolitanae (Paris, 1981), pp. 123–4, 134–5.

13. J-C. Cheynet, ‘La résistance aux Turcs en Asie Mineure entre Mantzikert et la Première Croisade’, in Eupsykhia: Mélanges offerts à Hélène Ahrweiler, 2 vols. (Paris, 1998), 1, pp. 131–47.

14. For Alexios’ fears about his own troops in 1081, Anna Komnene, II.9, p. 71; for the circumstances behind the belated coronation of Alexios’ wife, Eirene, III.2, pp. 81–4.

15. Anna Komnene, III.5, pp. 89–91.

16. Anna Komnene, III.11, p. 104.

17. For example, Nikephoros Bryennios, III.16, p. 241; IV.2, p. 259.

18. Nikephoros Bryennios, IV.4, p. 265; IV.10–13, pp. 275–9.

19. J. Darrouzès (ed.), Georges et Dèmètrios Tornikès – Lettres et Discours (Paris, 1970), pp. 234–5.

20. Orderic Vitalis, X.12, 5, p. 274.

21. For the capture of Tatikios’ father, Anna Komnene, IV.4, p. 115.

22. Anna Komnene, III.11, p. 105.

23. Anna Komnene, V.5.ii, p. 140.

24. Anna Komnene, IV.4, p. 115; IV.6, p. 123; V.6.iv, p. 159; William of Apulia, IV, pp. 222, 226.

25. Anna Komnene, VI.12, p. 177.

26. Matthew of Edessa, II.78, pp. 147–8.

27. Bar Hebraeus, ed. and tr. E. Budge, The Chronography of Gregory Abul Faraj, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1932), 2, p. 227.

28. De Administrando Imperio, ed. and tr. G. Moravcsik and R. Jenkins, (Washington DC, 1967).

29. Nikephoros Bryennios, IV.31, p. 301.

30. P. Frankopan, ‘The Fall of Nicaea and the towns of western Asia Minor to the Turks in the later 11th Century: The curious case of Nikephoros Melissenos’, Byzantion 76 (2006), pp. 153–84, and below, p. 82.

31. For the empress’s commissioning of Nikephoros’ history, Nikephoros Bryennios, pp. 71–3; Anna Komnene, Prologue, p. 5.

32. After 1081, he is referred to as the ‘emir’ (i.e. governor) of Nicaea. Anna Komnene, VI.9, pp. 169–70. Anna also states that his quarters in Nicaea were those of the emperor, though in Turkish they were called those of the sultan, III.11, p. 104. Michael Attaleiates, writing at the very end of the 1070s, does not refer to him with a title, calling him a Turkish leader, p. 266. Nikephoros Bryennios avoids using a title when writing about Sulayman for the period before 1081, e.g. III.16, p. 241.

33. The two exceptions are the Alexiad, and the Epitome Historion of John Zonaras. A third author writing in the twelfth century, Michael Glykas, covers Alexios’ reign, though this is copied verbatim from Zonaras’ work.

34. See P. Magdalino, ‘Aspects of twelfth-century Byzantine Kaiserkritik’, Speculum 58 (1983), pp. 326–46.

35. Albert of Aachen, II.28, p. 108.

36. Ekkehard of Aura, p. 200.

37. See J-C. Cheynet, ‘The duchy of Antioch during the second period of Byzantine rule’, in K. Ciggaar and D. Metcalf (eds.), East and West in the Medieval Eastern Mediterranean: Antioch from the Byzantine Reconquest until the End of the Crusader Principality(Leiden, 2006), pp. 1–16.

38. Michael Attaleiates, p. 301.

39. Lead seals belonging to Philaretos that attest to him as protosebastos and commander of the armies of the eastern provinces, must date to after 1081, as the title of protosebastos was first introduced by Alexios. This in turn shows that the emperor looked to Philaretos in the east, and rewarded him with greater status. J-C. Cheynet, C. Morrisson and W. Seibt, Les Sceaux byzantins de la collection Henri Seyrig (Paris, 1991), no. 192; Cheynet and Theodoridis, Sceaux byzantins, pp. 54–6. Other dignities from this period show how he was courted, for example, J-C. Cheynet, ‘Sceaux byzantins des Musées d’Antioche et de Tarse’, Travaux et Mémoires 12 (1994), no. 56.

40. Anna Komnene, VI.9, pp. 169–70.

41. Matthew of Edessa, II.60, p. 137.

42. Anonymi Auctoris Chronicon ad Annum Christi 1234 Pertinens, tr. A. Abouna and J-M. Fiey, Chronicle of the Unknown Edessan (Paris, 1974), p. 39.

43. J-C. Cheynet, ‘Les Arméniens de L’Empire en Orient de Constantin Xe à Alexis Comnène (1059–1081)’, L’Arménie et Byzance (Paris, 1996), p. 76.

44. Michael the Syrian, 3, p. 178.

45. Matthew of Edessa, II.78, p. 147; also Anna Komnene, VI.9, p. 170.

46. Ibn al-Ahtir, AH 477/Dec. 1084–Dec. 1085, p. 218; Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, Mir’at al-Zaman fi Ta’rikh al-A’yan, ed. A. Sevim (Ankara, 1968), p. 229.

47. Ibn al-Athir, quoting the poet al-Abirwardi, AH 477/Dec. 1084– Dec. 1085, p. 218.

48. Ibid., pp. 218–19.

49. Ibn al-Athir, AH 479/Dec. 1086–Dec. 1087, p. 223.

50. Ibn al-Athir, AH 477/Dec. 1084–Dec. 1085, p. 224; Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, p. 229.

51. Anna Komnene, VI.10, p. 171.

52. The History of the Seljuk Turks from the Jami’ak-Tawarikh, tr. K. Luther (Richmond, 2001), pp. 62, 60–1.

53. Anna Komnene, VI.12, pp. 177–8. The letter was written following the Byzantine defeat of Robert Guiscard’s attack on Epirus, and before the major Pecheneg invasion of 1087.

54. Anna Komnene, VI. 9, pp. 170–1. Anna splits the report of the sultan’s proposal in two.

55. Anna Komnene, VI.12, p. 178.

56. Anna Komnene, VIII.3, p. 220.

57. Anna Komnene, VI.9, p. 171.

58. Bar Hebraeus, 2, p. 229.

59. Ibn al-Athir, AH 485/Dec. 1091–Dec. 1092, p. 259.

60. Anna Komnene, VI.12, p. 177.

61. Matthew of Edessa, II.86, p. 153.

62. Ibid.

63. The reply to the sultan’s queries survives. P. Gautier, ‘Lettre au sultan Malik-Shah rédigée par Michel Psellos’, Revue des Etudes Byzantines 35 (1977), pp. 73–97.

64. Matthew of Edessa, II.86, p. 153.

65. Little is known about the kouropalates T’oros, or Gabriel, governors of Edessa and Melitene respectively in this period, or about whether they accepted (or were induced to accept) the authority of Malik-Shah. However, given Matthew of Edessa’s scathing comments about Philaretos Braakhamios, and his decision to join the sultan and turn to Islam, we might expect the same vilification in his chronicle had these two men defected to the Turks. Matthew of Edessa, II.85, pp. 152–3. Gabriel seems to have hedged his bets, however, issuing a seal attesting to him with both Byzantine and Arabic titles. J-C. Cheynet, Sceaux de la collection Zacos se rapportant aux provinces orientales de l’Empire byzantine (Paris, 2001), no. 41.

66. Anna Komnene, VI.10, p. 172.

67. Anna Komnene, VI.13, pp. 180–2.

68. Ibid., p. 181; VI.14, pp. 183–4. Humbertopoulos’ transfer to the west dates the recovery of the town.

69. Anna Komnene, VI.13, pp. 180–2.

70. Theophylact of Ohrid, pp. 113–14. Theophylact’s comments were delivered in a speech to the emperor made just over a year later.

71. Ibid., p. 111.

4 The Collapse of Asia Minor

1. Miklosich and Müller, 6, pp. 57–8, 40–4.

2. Anna Komnene, VII.6, p. 199.

3. Ibid.

4. Anna Komnene, VII.7, p. 202; VIII.3, p. 220.

5. Anna Komnene, VI.10, p. 174.

6. Michael the Syrian, 3, pp. 172ff; Mélikoff, Danismend, 2, p. 88.

7. Anna Komnene, VII.8, p. 202.

8. Anna Komnene, VIII.3, p. 220.

9. R. Macrides, ‘Poetic justice in the Patriarchate: murder and cannibalism in the provinces’, in L. Burgmann, M. Fögen, A. Schmink (eds.), Cupido Legum (Frankfurt, 1985), pp. 144–5. There is no detailed internal evidence to help date the poem more precisely than on stylistic grounds to the eleventh/twelfth centuries. However, the references to chronic food shortage, severe winter and the desperate measures of the population certainly resonate with the early 1090s.

10. Anna Komnene, VII.8, pp. 202–3.

11. Anna Komnene, VIII.3, p. 220.

12. John the Oxite, p. 35. Also P. Frankopan, ‘Where Advice meets Criticism in 11th Century Byzantium: Theophylact of Ohrid, John the Oxite and their (re)presentations to the Emperor’, Al-Masaq 20 (2008), pp. 71–88.

13. John the Oxite, p. 35.

14. Ibid., pp. 29–35.

15. J. Shepard, ‘How St James the Persian’s head was brought to Cormery: A relic collector around the time of the First Crusade’, in L. Hoffmann (ed.), Zwischen Polis, Provinz und Peripherie. Beiträge zur byzantinsichen Geschichte und Kultur (Wiesbaden, 2005), p. 298.

16. For example, Robert the Monk, I.1, pp. 79–80.

17. C. Haskins, ‘A Canterbury monk at Constantinople c.1090’, English Historical Review 25 (1910), pp. 293–5; Ciggaar, ‘Description de Constantinople’, pp. 118–20.

18. Hagenmeyer, Epistulae, pp. 133–6.

19. See, most recently, P. Schreiner, ‘Der Brief des Alexios I Komnenos an den Grafen Robert von Flandern und das Problem gefälschter byzantinischer Kaiserschreiben in den westlichen Quellen’, in G. de Gregorio and O. Kresten (eds.), Documenti medievali Greci e Latini. Studi Comparativi(Spoleto, 1998), pp. 111–40; C. Gastgeber, ‘Das Schreiben Alexios’ I. Komnenos an Robert I. von Flandern. Sprachliche Untersuchung’, in ibid., pp. 141–85; C. Sweetenham, ‘Two letters calling Christians on Crusade’, in Robert the Monk’s History of the First Crusade (Aldershot, 2005), pp. 215–18.

20. See, for example, M. de Waha, ‘La lettre d’Alexis Comnène à Robert Ier le Frison’, Byzantion 47 (1977), pp. 113–25; J. Shepard, ‘Aspects of Byzantine attitudes and policy towards the West in the 10th and 11th centuries’, Byzantinische Forschungen 13 (1988), pp. 106–12.

21. Hagenmeyer, Epistulae, p. 132.

22. Ibid.

23. Hagenmeyer, Epistulae, p. 141; John the Oxite, pp. 37–47.

24. Anna Komnene, X.5, pp. 273–4.

25. Shepard, ‘How St James the Persian’s head was brought to Cormery’, p. 299.

26. Miklosich and Müller, 6, pp. 19–21, 34–8, 42–4, 57–8, 81.

27. Ibid., pp. 84–90.

28. Ibid., p. 81.

29. For the Turk’s footwear, Anna Komnene, IX.1, p. 237.

30. Miklosich and Müller, 6, pp. 82–3.

31. Anna Komnene, VIII.3, p. 220.

32. Matthew of Edessa, II.90, pp. 157–8.

33. Anna Komnene, VI.12, p. 179.

34. Jami’al-Tawarikh, p. 62.

35. Al-Fath ibn ‘Ali al-Bundari, Zubdat al-nusra wa-nukhbat al-‘ursa, ed. M. Houtsma (Leiden, 1889), p. 63.

36. Ibn al-Atir, AH 485/1092–1093, pp. 258–9.

37. Gautier, ‘Synode des Blachernes’, pp. 218–19.

38. Jus Graeco-Romanum, 1, pp. 35–61.

39. P. Gautier, ‘Jean l’Oxite, patriarche d’Antioche: notice biographique’, Revue des Etudes Byzantines 22 (1964), pp. 136–8.

40. The towns were taken by the Turks fourteen years after Alexios became emperor. Michael the Syrian, VI.6, vol. 3, pp. 178ff.

41. Gesta Francorum, IV, p. 25.

42. Ibid., p. 26.

43. William of Tyre, III.1, 1, p. 197.

44. Anna Komnene, XI.2, p. 300.

45. John the Oxite, p. 35.

46. Anna Komnene, VIII.7, p. 229.

47. Anna Komnene, VI.10, pp. 172–3.

48. Ibid., p. 172; Ibn al-Athir, AH 487/Dec. 1093–Dec. 1094, p. 271.

49. Anna Komnene, VI.11, p. 176.

50. Ibid.

51. Anna Komnene, VI,11, p. 177.

52. See, for example, J. Haldon, ‘Theory and practice in tenth-century military administration. Chapters 11, 44 and 45 of the Book of Ceremonies’, Travaux et Mémoires 13 (2000), pp. 201–352.

53. Anna Komnene, VI.10, p. 175.

54. Ibid.

55. Anna Komnene, VI.12. ii–iii, p. 178.

56. Anna Komnene, VI.12, p. 180.

57. Ibid.

58. For the size of Kilidj Arslan’s army in 1097, see, for example, Fulcher of Chartres, I.11. vi, p. 85.

59. Fulcher of Chartres, I.9.iv–v, p. 80.

60. Gesta Francorum, II, p. 14.

61. For example, H. Ahrweiler, ‘L’administration militaire de la Crète byzantine’, Byzantion 31 (1961), pp. 217–28; P. Gautier, ‘Défection et soumission de la Crète sous Alexis Ier Comnène’, Revue des Etudes Byzantines 35 (1977), pp. 215–27; A. Savvides, ‘Can we refer to a concerted action among Rapsomates, Caryces and the emir Tzachas between ad 1091 and 1093?’, Byzantion 70 (2000), pp. 122–34.

62. Anna Komnene states that her uncle had been governor of Dyrrakhion for eleven years before he was recalled to lead an expedition against western Asia Minor, VII.8, p. 206. Given that Dyrrakhion fell to the Normans in 1082 and was only recovered the following year, the soonest Doukas can have been given command of the efforts against Çaka was 1094. See P. Frankopan, ‘The imperial governors of Dyrrakhion during the reign of the emperor Alexios I Komnenos’, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 26 (2002), pp. 89–90.

63. Miklosich and Müller, 6, pp. 82–3.

64. Anna Komnene, VII.8, pp. 202–6; IX.1, pp. 238–40; IX.3, pp. 242–4; XI.5, pp. 309–12.

65. Anna Komnene, XI.5, p. 309.

66. Richard of Cluny, Chronicon, in L. Muratori (ed.), Antiquitates Italicae, 4, col. 1250.

5 On the Brink of Disaster

1. John the Oxite, pp. 29, 35.

2. John Zonaras, XVIII.29, 3, pp. 766–7. Zonaras himself fell foul of the Komnenoi, being exiled in the mid-twelfth century after being the highest-ranked judge in the empire.

3. For the grants to Melissenos, Anna Komnene, III.4, p. 87; John Zonaras, XVIII.21, 3, p. 732; also N. Oikonomides (ed.), Archives de l’Athos: Actes de Docheiariou (Paris, 1984), p. 76. For Adrian, Actes de Lavra, 1, pp. 247–51.

4. L. Petit, ‘Typikon du monastère de la Kosmosoteira près d’Aenos’, Izvestiya Russkogo Arkheologicheskogo Instituta v Konstantinopole 13 (1908), pp. 19–75.

5. Frankopan, ‘Imperial governors of Dyrrakhion’, pp. 65–103.

6. Anna Komnene, VI.9, p. 171.

7. Michael Taronites and Nikephoros Melissenos, two more of the emperor’s brothers-in-law, were also awarded high titles and honours, as were many members of the Doukas family. Anna Komnene, III.4, p. 87. These awards are well attested in other sources, not least the lead seals issued by these individuals, e.g. Zacos and Veglery, Byzantine Lead Seals, nos. 2698 and 2720 (d). For the Doukas family, see D. Polemis, The Doukai (London, 1968). For the full prosopography of the Komnenoi, see K. Barzos, He Genealogia ton Komnenon, 2 vols. (Thessaloniki, 1984).

8. See, for example, A. Kazhdan, L’aristocracia bizantina dal principio dell’ XI alla fine del XII secolo (Palermo, 1997), pp. 141–6; J.-C. Cheynet, Pouvoir et contestations à Byzance 9631210 (Paris, 1990), pp. 359ff; P. Magdalino, ‘Innovations in Government’, in M. Mullett and D. Smythe (eds.), Alexios I Komnenos – Papers (Belfast, 1996), pp. 146–66.

9. P. Frankopan, ‘Kinship and the distribution of power in Komnenian Byzantium’, English Historical Review 495 (2007), pp. 10–13.

10. Anna Komnene, IV.4, p. 114. For his small stature, II.4, p. 58.

11. Ibid., p. 115; VI.13, pp. 181–2.

12. Anna Komnene, V.5, pp. 140–1.

13. Actes de Lavra, 1, nos. 44–5, 48–9 (1083; 1084; 1086; 1089).

14. For Aliphas, Anna Komnene IV.6, pp. 122–3.

15. Theophylact of Ohrid, p. 114; Anna Komnene, VI.13, p. 182.

16. Manuel Straboromanos, pp. 183–5.

17. Diegesis merike ton epistolon Alexiou basileios kai Nicholaou Patriarchou genomene kata diaphorous kairous, in P. Meyer (ed.), Die Haupturkunden für die Geschichte der Athos-Klöster (Leipzig, 1894), p. 172.

18. John Zonaras, XVIII.22, 3, p. 738.

19. Anna Komnene, III.10, p. 102.

20. Anna Komnene, V.2, pp. 131–2. J. Stephanou, ‘Le procès de Léon de Chalcédoine’, Orientalia Christiana Periodica 9 (1943), pp. 5–64; V. Grumel, ‘L’affaire de Léon de Chalcédoine, le Chrysobulle d’Alexis Ier sur les objets sacrés’, Revue des Etudes Byzantines 2 (1944), pp. 126–33.

21. John the Oxite, p. 33.

22. John Zonaras, VIII.22, 3, p. 732.

23. John the Oxite, esp. p. 33; also pp. 29, 31, 35.

24. Actes de Lavra, I, no. 50; Actes de Docheiariou, no. 2; D. Papachryssanthou (ed.), Actes de Xénophon (Paris, 1986), no. 2; J. Lefort, N. Oikonomides and D. Papachryssanthou (eds.), Actes d’Iviron, 2 vols. (Paris, 1985–90), 2, pp. 28–9.

25. Anna Komnene, IX.2, pp. 240–1. The cause of the revolt can be deduced from the appointment of an official with specific tax responsibilities after authority was eventually restored. Anna Komnene, IX.2, p. 242. See P. Frankopan, ‘Challenges to imperial authority in Byzantium: Revolts on Crete and Cyprus at the end of the 11th Century’, Byzantion 74 (2004), pp. 382–402.

26. Anna Komnene, VII.8, p. 206; VIII.7, p. 229.

27. Anna Komnene, IV.2, p. 111.

28. For example, Dandolo, Chronica brevis, p. 363; L. Lanfranchi (ed.), Famiglia Zusto (Venice, 1955), 6, 9, nos. 1–2.

29. Although the two oldest copies of the original grant state that concessions were awarded in May 1092, modern scholars have dismissed this on the grounds that a date in the mid-1080s seems to them more appropriate – although the palaeographic, textual and contextual grounds for this are highly questionable. Great store too is set by the positioning of the report of the grant in the Alexiad, even though this is clearly misplaced. For a full discussion here, see T. Madden, ‘The chrysobull of Alexius I Comnenus to theVenetians: The date and the debate’, Journal of Medieval History28 (2002), pp. 23–41, and P. Frankopan, ‘Byzantine trade privileges to Venice in the eleventh century: The chrysobull of 1092’, Journal of Medieval History 30 (2004), pp. 135–60.

30. M. Pozza and G. Ravegnani, I Trattati con Bisanzio 992–1198 (Venice, 1993), pp. 38–45.

31. Ibid., pp. 39–40.

32. Ibid., p. 43.

33. Ibid, pp. 40–3.

34. Dandolo, Chronica per extensum descripta, p. 217. Dandolo does not say why the patriarch was in Constantinople in 1092, only that he died there from fever.

35. Anna Komnene, VI.7, pp. 166–7; VI.3, p. 156.

36. Anna Komnene, VII.3, p. 194.

37. Pozza and Ravegnani, Trattati con Bisanzio, pp. 42–3.

38. Katakalon Kekaumenos, 81, p. 278.

39. Anna Komnene, III.10, p. 103.

40. For the birth of Alexios’ heir, John II, as well as the emperor’s other children, A. Kazhdan, ‘Die Liste der Kinder des Alexios I in einer Moskauer Handschrift (UBV 53/147)’, in R. Stiehl and H. Stier (eds.), Beiträge zur alten Geschichte und deren Nachleben, 2 vols. (Berlin, 1969–70), 2, pp. 233–7. John’s coronation, and its date, can be deduced from A. Spinelli (ed.), Regii neapolitani archivi monumenta edita ac illustrata, 6 vols. (Naples, 1845–61), 5, nos. 457–8, 462, 464–7.

41. Anna Komnene, VIII.7–8, pp. 229–32.

42. Anna Komnene, VI.8, p. 168.

43. Geoffrey Malaterra, III.13, p. 64; Michael the Syrian, 3, p. 176; Bar Hebraeus, 1, p. 227.

44. Anna Komnene, IX.6, p. 248.

45. Ibid., p. 250.

46. Anna Komnene, IX.5, p. 247.

47. Anna Komnene, IX.7, p. 252.

48. Anna Komnene, IX.8, pp. 253–4.

49. Ibid., p. 253, and III.2, p. 81.

50. Anna Komnene, IX.6, p. 254.

51. Adrian and Nikephoros reminisced about this when the former was sent to investigate the rumours that Diogenes was plotting against the emperor. Anna Komnene, IX.7, pp. 252–3.

52. Adrian had become a monk and went by the name of John when he died. B. de Montfaucon, Paleographia Graeca (Paris, 1708), p. 47. For his role in the conspiracy, and the consequences for his family, Frankopan, ‘Kinship and the distribution of power’, pp. 1–34.

53. For example, Anna Komnene, VIII.3, p. 219; VIII.8, p. 232. For Melissenos, see Frankopan, ‘The Fall of Nicaea’, pp. 153–84.

54. Melissenos appears only once again before his death, on campaign against the Cumans: Anna Komnene, X.2, p. 264. Alexios often preferred not to leave his rivals in Constantinople but to take them on expedition with him – so he could keep a close eye on them. Almost all the leading figures in Byzantium accompanied the emperor against the Normans in 1081; and of course they were with him during his mission against the Serbs in 1094.

55. Anna Komnene, III.4, p. 87.

56. Anna Komnene, XI.10, p. 325; XIII.1, p. 357.

57. Anna Komnene, IX.8, p. 254.

58. Ibid.

59. Anna Komnene, IX.6, p. 250.

60. Anna Komnene, IX.8, p. 254.

61. Anna Komnene, IX.9, pp. 255–6.

62. Ibid., p. 256.

63. Ibid., pp. 256–7.

64. Ibid., p. 257. The author is coy about whether her father ordered the blinding of Nikephoros Diogenes.

65. Anna Komnene, IX.1, p. 237.

66. Anna Komnene, XV.11, p. 465.

67. Anna Komnene, IX.2, p. 242; E. Sargologos, La Vie de saint Cyrille le Philéote, moine byzantin (Part 1110) (Brussels, 1964), pp. 35.i–viii, 146–53.

68. For their careers, see B. Skoulatos, Les personnages byzantins de l’Alexiade: analyse prosopographique et synthèse (Louvain, 1980), pp. 160–1, 85–7.

69. Anna Komnene, X.9, pp. 286–8; John Zonaras, XVIII.22, 3, p. 739.

70. Gesta Francorum, IV, pp. 25–6.

71. Anna Komnene, XI.10, p. 323.

72. Anna Komnene, XI.3, p. 305.

73. Anna Komnene, XI.3, pp. 304–5; XI.5, pp. 309–12.

74. Anna Komnene, VII.8, p. 203; IX.1, p. 238; IX.3, p. 242.

75. Anna Komnene, X.2, p. 264. For Melissenos’ death, Peter Lambecius, Commentariorum de Augustissima Biblioteca Caesarea Vindobonensi, 8 vols. (Vienna, 1665–79), 5, col. 537. Also see D. Papachryssanthou, ‘La date de la mort du sébastokrator Isaac Comnène’, Revue des Etudes Byzantines 21 (1963), p. 252.

76. Anna Komnene, X.2–4, pp. 262–73; The Russian Primary Chronicle, tr. S. Cross, and O. Sherbowitz-Wetzor (Cambridge, Mass., 1953), p. 180.

77. Anna Komnene, XI.2, p. 300.

6 The Call from the East

1. J-C. Cheynet, ‘Les Sceaux byzantins de Londres’, Studies in Byzantine Sigillography 8 (2003) pp. 85–100; also J-C. Cheynet, ‘Le rôle des Occidentaux dans l’armée byzantine avant la Première Croisade’, in E. Konstantinou (ed.), Byzanz und das Abendland im 10. und 11. Jahrhundert(Cologne 1997), pp. 111–28.

2. For example, V. Laurent, Le Corpus des sceaux de l’empire byzantin II: L’administration centrale (Paris 1981), no. 469 (Bulgarian); G. Zacos, Byzantine Lead Seals II, compiled and ed. J. Nesbitt (Bern, 1984), no. 706 (interpreter to the English); ibid. (Anglo-Saxon); Laurent, Le Corpus des sceaux de l’empire byzantine, no. 991 (interpreter of the fleet).

3. F. Schmitt (ed.), S. Anselmi Cantuariensis archiepiscopi opera omnia, 6 vols. (Edinburgh, 1938–61), 3, pp. 252–5.

4. See, for example, J. Shepard, ‘The uses of the Franks in 11th Century Byzantium’, Anglo-Norman Studies 15 (1992), pp. 275–305.

5. John Skylitzes, p. 486; Michael Attaleiates, pp. 122–5, Matthew of Edessa, II.19, p. 101.

6. Patrologia Latina, 150, col. 737.

7. Ekkehard of Aura, pp. 133–4.

8. Gilbert of Mons, Chronique Hanoniense, tr. L. Napran (Woodbridge, 2005), 23, p. 25.

9. Hagenmeyer, Epistulae, pp. 134–5. For some comments on this letter, above, pp. 60–1.

10. Shepard, ‘How St James the Persian’s head was brought to Cormery’, p. 299.

11. Narratio Floriacensis de captis Antiochia et Hierosolyma et obsesso Dyrrachio, RHC, Occ., 5, p. 356, Gilbert of Mons, 23, p. 25. Also Becker, Urban II, 2, p. 180, and above all J. Shepard, ‘Cross-purposes: Alexius Comnenus and the First Crusade’, in J. Phillips (ed.), The First Crusade: Origins and Impact (Manchester, 1997), pp. 107–29

12. Ekkehard of Aura, pp. 134–6.

13. Guibert of Nogent, I.5, pp. 102–3.

14. Baldric of Dol, I, p. 14.

15. Fulcher of Chartres, I.3.ii–iii, pp. 65–6.

16. William of Apulia, IV, p. 212.

17. Sibt al-Jawzi, p. 244; Bar Hebraeus, 1, pp. 230–1.

18. Raymond of Aguilers, XIII, pp. 108–9; William of Tyre, I.7, 1, pp. 116–17; Albert of Aachen, VI.31, p. 442.

19. S. Goitein, A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish communities of the Arab world as portrayed in the documents of the Cairo Geniza, 6 vols. (Princeton, 1967–93), pp. 308–14. Also see here S. Goitein, ‘Jerusalem in the First Arabic period’, in Jewish Settlements in Palestine in the Beginning of the Islamic and the Crusade Period, in the Light of the Geniza (Jerusalem, 1980); M. Gil, ‘Political History of Jerusalem’, in J. Prawer (ed.), Book of Jerusalem, The First Islamic Period, 638–1099 (Jerusalem, 1991).

20. See, for example, S. Gat, ‘The Seljuks in Jerusalem’, in Y. Lev (ed.), Town and Material Culture in the Medieval Middle East (Leiden, 2002), pp. 4–40.

21. C. Cahen, ‘La chronique abrégée d’al-Azimi’, Journal Asiatique 230 (1938), p. 369.

22. Ibn al-Athir, AH 491/Dec. 1097–Dec. 1098, pp. 13–14.

23. See C. Morris, The Sepulchre of Christ in the Medieval West (Oxford, 2005), esp. pp. 134–9; however also note J. France, ‘The Destruction of Jerusalem and the First Crusade’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 47 (1996), pp. 1–17.

24. Guibert of Nogent, II.10, pp. 125–6.

25. Below, pp. 118–19

26. J. Vaissète, C. Devic and A. Molinier (eds.), Histoire générale de Languedoc, 3rd edition, 16 vols. (Toulouse, 1872–1904), 5, cols. 737–8.

27. J. Venier (ed.), Chartres de l’abbaye de Jumièges, 2 vols. (Paris, 1916), 1, pp. 121–3.

28. R. Bautier, M. Gilles and M. Bautier (eds.), Chronicon S. Petri Vivi Senonensis (Paris, 1979), p. 140.

29. Gregory Pakourianos, p. 131.

30. Letopis Popa Dukljanina, 27, p. 413.

31. Hagenmeyer, Epistulae, p. 136.

32. Robert the Monk, I.1, p. 79.

33. See, for example, T. Head and R. Landes (eds.), Peace of God: Social violence and religious response in France around the year 1000 (Cambridge, 1992).

34. Ivo of Chartres, Panormia, VIII.147, in Patrologia Latina, 161, col. 1343 AC.

35. See Vauchez, ‘Composantes eschatologiques’, pp. 233–43; J. Rubenstein, ‘How or How Much, to Re-evaluate Peter the Hermit’, in S. Ridyard (ed.), The Medieval Crusade (Woodbridge, 2004), pp. 53–69; J. Flori, L’Islam et la fin des temps. L’interprétation prophétique des invasions musulmanes dans la chrétienté médiévale (Paris, 2007), pp. 111–47; and more generally, Möhring, Weltkaiser der Endzeit and Whalen, Dominion of God.

36. Lupus, Annales, MGH, SS, 5, p. 62.

37. Gilbert of Mons, 23, p. 25.

38. Theodore Skutariotes, Synopsis Khronike, in K. Sathas, Biblioteca Graeca Medii Aevi, 7 vols. (Paris, 1872–94), 7, pp. 184–5.

39. For these and other fake relics, Guibert of Nogent, De pigneribus sanctorum, ed. R. Huygens (Turnhout, 1993), I, pp. 98, 88.

40. Gesta Episcoporum Tullensium, in MGH, SS, 8, p. 647.

41. Anna Komnene, III.10, p. 103.

42. F-J. Schmale and I. Schmale-Ott (eds.), Frutolfs und Ekkehards Chroniken (Darmstadt, 1972), p. 96; Ekkehard of Aura, Chronicon Universale, in MGH, SS 6, p. 205. For the gifts recorded by Anna, Alexiad, III.10, p. 103.

43. G. Constable (ed. and tr.), The Letters of Peter the Venerable, 2 vols. (Cambridge, Mass., 1967), 2, p. 209.

44. Hagenmeyer, Epistulae, pp. 135–6.

45. Guibert of Nogent, I.5, p. 103.

46. Below, p. 106.

47. Miracula S Augustini episcopi Cantuariensis, in Acta Sanctorum, May, 6, p. 410.

48. Anna Komnene III.10, p. 102.

49. Hagenmeyer, Epistulae, p. 141.

50. Shepard, ‘How St James the Persian’s head was brought to Cormery’, p. 299.

51. Hagenmeyer, Epistulae, p. 136.

52. Ibid., p. 142.

53. Alexios had developed a great sense of trust for Robert, according to Guibert of Nogent, I.5, pp. 100–1.

54. Hagenmeyer, Epistulae, p. 133.

55. Guibert of Nogent, I.5, p. 101.

56. Bernold of Constance, p. 483.

57. Anna Komnene, VIII.5, p. 224.

58. Ekkehard of Aura, p. 136.

59. Otto of Freising, Chronicon, in MGH, SS 20, VII, p. 248.

60. Gregory VII, Register, I.18, p. 20. The original letter sent by the emperor does not survive.

61. Gregory VII, Register, I.46, p. 51.

62. Gregory VII, Register, I.49, pp. 54–5.

63. Gregory VII, Register, II.31, pp. 122–3.

64. Gregory VII, Register, II.37, pp. 127–8.

65. Gregory VII, Register, II.3, p. 95.

66. Gregory VII, Register, I.46, p. 51.

67. Michael Psellos, Michaelis Pselli scripta minora magnam partem adhuc inedita, ed. E. Kurtz, 2 vols. (Milan, 1936–41), 1, pp. 329–34.

68. Gregory VII, Register, II.3, p. 95. See here H. Cowdrey, ‘Pope Gregory VII’s “Crusading” plans of 1074’, in B. Kedar, H. Mayer and R. Smail (eds.), Outremer: Studies in the history of the Crusading kingdom of Jeruslalem (Jerusalem, 1982), pp. 27–40, and Becker, Papst Urban II, 2, pp. 294–300.

69. Bernold of Constance, p. 520.

70. Ibid.

71. Fulcher of Chartres, I.1.iii, p. 62.

7 The Response of the West

1. See Riley-Smith, First Crusade, pp. 1330; Tyerman, God’s War, pp. 58–89.

2. For Urban’s itinerary, Becker, Papst Urban II, vol. 2, pp. 435–58.

3. Gregory VII, Register, 1.46, p. 50; Devic and Vaissete, Histoire générale de Languedoc, 3, p. 465

4. Devic and Vaissete, Histoire générale de Languedoc, 5, pp. 747–8.

5. Gregory VII, Register, 1.46, p. 50; 8.16, pp. 381–2.

6. Patrologia Latina, 151, col. 562.

7. Annales Besuenses, MGH, SS, 2, p. 250; Annales S. Benigni Divionensis, MGH, SS, 5, p. 43.

8. Patrologia Latina, 150, col. 1388; 151, col. 422.

9. Robert the Monk, I.1 pp. 80–1.

10. Robert the Monk, I.2, pp. 81–2; Fulcher of Chartres, I.4.iv, p. 68; Guibert of Nogent, II.5, p. 117. Although the main narrative accounts of the speech at Clermont were written several years later, the message of the sufferings in the east is captured in the contemporary sources, for example, Hagenmeyer, Epistulae, pp. 136, 137–8; Wiederhold, ‘Papsturkunden in Florenz’, pp. 313–14; Kehr, Papsturkunden in Spanien, pp. 287–8; Halphen and Poupardin, Chronique des comtes d’Anjou, pp. 237–8.

11. Baldric of Dol, IV, pp. 15–16.

12. Hagenmeyer, Epistulae, pp. 136–7

13. Baldric of Dol, IV, p. 16.

14. Baldric of Dol, Vita Beati Roberti de Arbisello, Patrologia Latina 162, cols. 1050–1.

15. Hugh of Flavigny, Chronicon, MGH, SS, 8, pp. 474–5.

16. Bull, Knightly Piety, pp. 250–81.

17. For Urban’s instructions, Baldric of Dol, I, p. 15.

18. S. d’Elbenne and L-J. Dennis (eds.), Cartulaire du chapitre royal de Saint-Pierre de la Cour du Mans (Paris, 1903–7), no. 11, p. 15.

19. J. Richard, ‘Le Cartulaire de Marcigny-sur-Loire 1045–1144. Essai de reconstitution d’un manuscript disparu’, Analecta burgundica (1957), 119, p. 87.

20. B. de Broussillon, Cartulaire de Saint-Aubin d’Angers (1903), 1, no. 354, p. 407.

21. Hagenmeyer, Epistulae, p. 136.

22. Ibid., pp. 137–8.

23. Chronica Monasterii Casinensis, IV.11, p. 475. For the spiritual rewards on offer, Riley-Smith, First Crusade, pp. 13–30.

24. Kehr, Papsturkunden in Spanien, p. 287.

25. H. Cowdrey, ‘Martyrdom and the First Crusade’, in Edbury, Crusade and Settlement, pp. 45–56; J. Flori, ‘L’example de la Première Croisade’, Cahiers de civilisation médiévale 34 (1991), pp. 121–39; C. Morris, ‘Martyrs of the field of battle before and during the First Crusade’, Studies in Church History 30 (1993), pp. 93–104.

26. Guérard, Cartulaire de l’abbaye de Saint-Victor de Marseilles, 1, pp. 167–8.

27. C. Métais, Cartulaire de l’abbaye de la Sainte Trinité de Vendôme, 4 vols. (Paris, 1893–1900), 2, p. 39; V. Thuillier (ed.), Ouvrages posthumes de D. Jean Mabillon et D. Thierri Ruinart, 3 vols. (Paris, 1724), 3, pp. 387–90; P. Jaffé (ed.), Regesta Pontificum Romanorum, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1885–8), 1, nos. 5656, 5649; 5647.

28. Gesta Francorum, I, p. 2; Hagenmeyer, Epistulae, p. 137.

29. H. Klein, ‘Eastern Objects and Western Desires: Relics and Reliquaries between Byzantium and the West’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 58 (2004), pp. 283–314.

30. Halphen and Poupardin, Chronique des comtes d’Anjou, pp. 237–8.

31. A. Gieysztor, ‘The Genesis of the Crusades: The Encyclical of Sergius IV’, Medievalia et Humanistica 5 (1949), pp. 2–23 and 6 (1950), pp. 3–34. However, also see H. Schaller, ‘Zur Kreuzzugsenzyklika Papst Sergius IV’, in H. Mordek (ed.), Papsttum, Kirche und Recht im Mittelalter. Festschrift für Horst Fuhrmann (Tübingen, 1991), pp. 135–54.

32. Recueil des chartes de Cluny, 5, no. 3703.

33. Ibid., nos. 3737, 3755.

34. Ibid., no. 3712.

35. R. Juënin, Nouvelle histoire de l’abbaie royale et collégiale de Saint Filibert, 2 vols. (Dijon, 1733), 2, p. 135.

36. Robert the Monk, I.2, p. 82; Fulcher of Chartres, I.4.iv, p. 68; Guibert of Nogent, II.5, p. 117; Gesta Francorum, I, p. 7.

37. C. Chevalier, ‘Cartulaire de l’abbaye de St. Chaffre du Monastier’, in Collection de cartulaires dauphinois (Paris, 1869–1912), 8, pp. 139–41. For these, and many other examples, Riley-Smith, First Crusade, pp. 31ff.

38. E. Poncelet (ed.), Cartulaire de l’Eglise St Lambert de Liège, 5 vols. (Brussels, 1869), 1, p. 47.

39. Orderic Vitalis, IX.3, 5, pp. 26, 32; Hugh of Flavigny, II, pp. 474–5.

40. Guibert of Nogent, II, 17, pp. 133–4.

41. For Philip’s excommunication, Somerville, Councils of Urban II, pp. 87, 97, 98. For no one having a kind word about Bertrada, Chronica de gestis consulum Andegavorum, in Halphen and Poupardin, Chronique des comtes d’Anjou, p. 67; for Philip abandoning his wife, Bertha of Holland, because of her stoutness, William of Malmesbury, 3.257, p. 474.

42. Guibert of Nogent, II.17, pp. 133–4; Mansi, Sacrorum Concilium Amplissima Collectio 20, col. 937; J. Verdon (ed.), Chronique de Saint-Maixent (Paris, 1979), p. 154; Somerville, Councils of Urban II, p. 90.

43. Gesta Francorum, I, p. 7.

44. Robert the Monk, II.3, pp. 91–2.

45. Codice Diplomatico Barese, 5, p. 41.

46. Anna Komnene, XIII.11, pp. 383–4.

47. Anna Komnene, V.6, p. 144.

48. According to one Arabic author, Roger refused to have anything to do with the Crusade and ‘raised his leg to let out a loud fart’ when he heard the initial plans – which Ibn al-Athir states involved northern Africa, rather than Jerusalem. This colourful story gives an idea of Roger’s unwillingness to antagonise Muslim traders who played a vital role in making Sicily enormously wealthy. AH 491/Dec. 1097–Dec. 1098, p. 13.

49. Jaffe, Regesta pontificum Romanorum, no. 5608; Hagenmeyer, Epistulae, p. 136.

50. Guérard, Cartulaire de Saint-Victor, p. 802.

51. Anna Komnene, X.7, pp. 279–80.

52. Albert of Aachen, I.23, p. 96; Guibert of Nogent, VII.31, p. 328.

53. Barber and Bate, Letters, p. 22.

54. Patrologia Latina, 157, col. 162B.

55. Robert the Monk, I.2, pp. 81–2.

56. Recueil des chartes de l’abbaye de Cluny, 5, p. 51.

57. Wiederhold, ‘Papsturkunden’, pp. 313–14.

58. Hagenmeyer, Epistulae, p. 137.

59. Devic and Vaissete, Histoire générale de Languedoc, 5, pp. 757–8.

60. Bernold of Constance, p. 520.

61. For example, Fulcher of Chartres, I.4, p. 68; Baldric of Dol, I, pp. 15–16.

62. Robert the Monk, II.2, p. 82.

63. For example, at Marmoutier and Tours in the spring of 1096. Halphen and Poupardin, Chronique des comtes d’Anjou, pp. 237–8; O. Guillot, Le Comte d’Anjou et son entourage au XIe siècle (Paris, 1972), p. 242.

64. See, for example, W. Purkiss, Crusading Spirituality in the Holy Land and Iberia, c.1095–c.1187 (Woodbridge, 2008), esp. pp. 120–38.

65. Anna Komnene XI.1, p. 297. Also Gesta Francorum, II, p. 16; Albert of Aachen, I.15, pp. 283–4.

66. For the date of the foundation of the monastery, see J. Gay, ‘L’abbaye de Cluny et Byzance au début du XII siècle’, Echos d’Orient 30 (1931), pp. 84–90, but also J. Shepard, ‘The “muddy road” of Odo of Arpin from Bourges to La Charité sur Loire’, in P. Edbury and J. Phillips (eds.), The Experience of Crusading: Defining the Crusader Kingdom (Cambridge, 2003), p. 23.

67. Anna Komnene, X.5, p. 276.

68. Albert of Aachen, II.7, p. 70.

69. Albert of Aachen, II.17, p. 86.

70. Albert of Aachen, II.7, pp. 70–2.

71. Robert the Monk, II.11, p. 95.

72. Raymond of Aguilers, I, pp. 16–17.

73. Raymond of Aguilers, I, p. 17.

74. Raymond of Aguilers, I, p. 17.

75. For estimates of numbers taking part, France, Victory in the East, pp. 122–42; B. Bachrach, ‘The siege of Antioch: A study in military demography’, War in History 6 (1999), pp. 127–46; J. Riley-Smith, ‘Casualties and the number of knights on the First Crusade’, Crusades 1 (2002), pp. 13–28.

76. Fulcher of Chartres, I.6.ix, p. 73.

77. Fulcher of Chartres, I.13.iv, p. 88.

78. Anna Komnene, X.5, p. 274.

79. Anna Komnene, X.5.vi, p. 275.

8 To the Imperial City

1. Robert the Monk, I.5, p. 83.

2. Albert of Aachen, I.2, pp. 2–4; Guibert of Nogent, II, p. 121.

3. William of Tyre, I.3, 1, p. 108; Albert of Aachen, I.2–3, p. 4; Anna Komnene, X.5, p. 275. For Peter the Hermit, see J. Flori, Pierre l’Eremite et la Première Croisade (Paris, 1999).

4. Albert of Aachen, I.3, pp. 4–6; Guibert of Nogent, II.8, p. 142.

5. For example, J. Flori, ‘Faut-il réhabiliter Pierre l’Eremite’, Cahiers de civilisation médiévale 38 (1995), pp. 35–54.

6. Albert of Aachen, I.26–8, pp. 50–2. See B. Kedar, ‘Crusade Historians and the Massacres of 1096’, Jewish History 12 (1998), pp. 11–31; R. Chazan, God, Humanity and History: The Hebrew First Crusade Narratives (Berkeley, 2000) and also id., ‘“Let Not a Remnant or a Residue Escape”: Millenarian Enthusiasm in the First Crusade’, Speculum 84 (2009), pp. 289–313. Also here see M. Gabriele, ‘Against the Enemies of Christ: The Role of Count Emicho in the Anti-Jewish Violence of the First Crusade’, in M. Frassetto (ed.), Christian Attitudes towards the Jews in the Middle Ages: A Casebook (Abingdon, 2007), pp. 61–82.

7. Albert of Aachen, I.26–7, pp. 50–2. Also Chronicle of Solomon bar Simson, tr. S. Eidelberg, The Jews and the Crusaders (Madison, 1977), pp. 28ff.

8. Solomon bar Simson, pp. 24–5.

9. For example, Siegebert of Gembloux, in MGH, SS, 6, p. 367; Richard of Poitiers, Cruce signato, in M. Bouquet et al. (eds.), Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France, 24 vols. (Paris, 1737–1904), 12, p. 411.

10. Hugh of Flavigny, Chronicon Virdunensi, in Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France, 13, p. 623. For many other examples here, N. Golb, The Jews in Medieval Normandy (Cambridge, 1998), pp. 119–27.

11. Guibert of Nogent, II.9, p. 123.

12. Anna Komnene, X.5, p. 274.

13. Albert of Aachen, I.29, p. 54.

14. Albert of Aachen, I.6, pp. 10–12, and Orderic Vitalis, IX.4, 5, p. 30.

15. Albert of Aachen, I.9, p. 18.

16. Anna Komnene, X.5, pp. 275–6; John Zonaras, XVIII.23, 3, p. 742.

17. Gesta Francorum, I, p. 3.

18. Anna Komnene, X.6, p. 277.

19. Gesta Francorum, I, p. 3; Robert the Monk, I.7, p. 85.

20. Gesta Francorum, I, pp. 3–4.

21. Albert of Aachen, I.21, p. 42.

22. Gesta Francorum, I, p. 4.

23. Robert the Monk, I.9, p. 86.

24. Gesta Francorum, I, pp. 4–5; Robert the Monk, I.12, p. 87.

25. Gesta Francorum, I, p. 4; Anna Komnene, X.6, p. 278.

26. Anna Komnene, X.6, p. 279.

27. Guibert of Nogent, II.10, p. 124.

28. Gesta Francorum, I, p. 5. For the importance of the first accounts of the Crusade, and of the Gesta Francorum in particular in early twelfth-century Europe, see J. France, ‘The Anonymous Gesta Francorum and the Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalemof Raymond of Aguilers and the Historia de Hierosolymitano itinere of Peter Tudebode: An analysis of the textual relationship between primary sources for the First Crusade’, in J. France and W. Zajac (eds.), The Crusades and their Sources. Essays presented to Bernard Hamilton (Aldershot, 1998), pp. 39–69, and also Rubenstein, ‘What is the Gesta Francorum?’, pp. 179–204.

29. Anna Komnene, X.7, p. 279.

30. Ibid., p. 280.

31. Ibid.

32. Anna Komnene, X.8, p. 281.

33. Fulcher of Chartres, I.6, p. 72; Anna Komnene, X.7, pp. 279–80.

34. Albert of Aachen, II.7, pp. 70–2.

35. Hagenmeyer, Epistulae, p. 143; C. de Coussemaker, ‘Documents relatifs à la Flandre maritime. Extraits du cartulaire de l’abbaye de Watten’, Annales du comité flamand de France, 10 vols. (Paris, 1860), 5, p. 359.

36. Fulcher of Chartres, I.8.i–ix, pp. 76–8.

37. Gesta Francorum, II, p. 11; Albert of Aachen, II.18, p. 88; Historia Belli Sacri, RHC, Occ., 3, p. 177.

38. Anna Komnene, X.8, pp. 281–4.

39. Raymond of Aguilers, II, p. 21.

40. Gesta Francorum, II, p. 10.

41. Gesta Francorum, I, p. 8.

42. Nesbitt, ‘Rate of march’, pp. 167–82.

43. Gesta Francorum, II, p. 10.

44. Raymond of Aguilers, I, p. 18; J. Shepard, ‘“Father” or “Scorpion”? Style and substance in Alexios’ diplomacy’, in M. Mullett and D. Smythe (eds.), Alexios I Komnenos – Papers (Belfast, 1996), pp. 80–2.

45. Anna Komnene, X.9, p. 285.

46. Ibid.

47. Anna Komnene, X.7, p. 280; X.11, p. 292; Gesta Francorum, I, pp. 5–6; II, p. 11.

48. Raymond of Aguilers, II, p. 22.

49. Barber and Bate, Letters, p. 16.

50. Ibid., pp. 15–16.

51. Fulcher of Chartres, I.9.iii, p. 80.

52. Ralph of Caen, 18, p. 42.

53. De Cerimoniis, II.15, 2, p. 597.

54. P. Chiesa (ed.), Liudprandi Cremonensis. Antapodosis; Homelia paschalis; Historia Ottonis; Relatio de Legatione Constantinopolitana (Turnhout, 1997), Relatio, I.1, pp. 238–9.

55. Ibid., Antapodosis, VI.5, pp. 197–8.

56. Anna Komnene, X.10, pp. 291– 2. For Alexios’ methods, Shepard, ‘“Father” or “Scorpion”?’, pp. 60–132.

57. Anna Komnene, XIII.10, pp. 383–4.

58. Anna Komnene, X.11, p. 292.

59. Ibid., pp. 292–3.

60. Ibid., p. 293.

61. Ibid., pp. 293–4.

62. Barber and Bate, Letters, pp. 15–16.

63. Albert of Aachen, II.17, p. 86.

64. Anna Komnene, XIV.4, p. 411.

65. Anna Komnene, X.9, pp. 285–6.

66. Robert the Monk, II.9, p. 94; Albert of Aachen, II.12–14, pp. 78–82; Anna Komnene, X.9, pp. 286–8.

67. Albert of Aachen, I.12, p. 78.

68. Albert of Aachen, II.12, p. 78.

69. Albert of Aachen, II.16, p. 84.

70. Ibid.

71. Ibid., pp. 84–6.

72. Fulcher of Chartres, I.9.iii, p. 80.

73. Gesta Francorum, II, p. 12.

74. Fulcher of Chartres, I.8.ix, p. 78.

75. Anna Komnene, X.9, p. 285.

76. Michael the Syrian, XV.6, 3, p. 179.

77. Anna Komnene, X.9, pp. 285–6.

78. Albert of Aachen, II.10, p. 74.

79. Anna Komnene, X.9, p. 285.

80. Ekkehard of Aura, pp. 166–7.

81. Albert of Aachen, II.16, pp. 84–6. Also see here, E. Patlagean, ‘Christianisation et parentés rituelles: le domaine de Byzance’, Annales ESC 33 (1978), pp. 625–36; R. Macrides, ‘Kinship by arrangement: The case of adoption’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 44(1990), pp. 109–18.

82. S. Reynolds, Fiefs and Vassals: The Medieval Evidence Reinterpreted (Oxford, 1994).

83. Anna Komnene, XIII.12, p. 386. For the oaths, see J. Pryor, ‘The oath of the leaders of the Crusade to the emperor Alexius Comnenus: Fealty, homage’, Parergon New Series 2 (1984), pp. 111–41.

84. Gesta Francorum, II, pp. 11–12.

85. Fulcher of Chartres, I.9.iii, p. 80.

86. Gesta Francorum, II, p. 12.

87. Anna Komnene, X.11, pp. 294–5.

88. J. Shepard, ‘When Greek meets Greek: Alexius Comnenus and Bohemund in 1097–8’, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 12 (1988), pp. 185–277.

89. Anna Komnene, X.9, p. 289.

90. Raymond of Aguilers, II, p. 23.

91. Ibid., p. 24. Also Gesta Francorum, II, p. 13.

92. Gesta Francorum, II, p. 12.

93. Raymond of Aguilers, II, p. 24.

94. Anna Komnene, X.9, p. 289.

95. Ibn a-Qalanisi, AH 490/Dec. 1096–Dec. 1097, p. 43

96. Ibn al-Athir, AH 491/Dec. 1096–Dec. 1097, p. 14.

97. Gesta Francorum, II, p. 11.

98. Anna Komnene, XI.2, p. 300.

9 First Encounters with the Enemy

1. Barber and Bate, Letters, p. 16.

2. For example, Gesta Francorum, II, p. 14; Albert of Aachen, II.29, p. 110.

3. Albert of Aachen, I.15, p. 30.

4. Albert of Aachen, II.28, p. 110.

5. Raymond of Aguilers, III, p. 26; Constable, Letters of Peter the Venerable, 2, p. 209; P. Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 1143– 80 (Cambridge, 1993), p. 44. Also see J. Shepard, ‘Cross-purposes: Alexius Comnenus and the First Crusade’, in Phillips (ed.), The First Crusade, p. 120, and n. 65.

6. Anna Komnene, XI.2, p. 300.

7. Gesta Francorum, II, p. 15.

8. Raymond of Aguilers, III, p. 25. For Nicaea’s fortifications, A. Schneider and W. Karnapp, Die Stadtmauer von Iznik-Nicea (Berlin, 1938); C. Foss and D. Winfield, Byzantine Fortifications (Pretoria, 1986), pp. 79–121; R. Rogers, Latin Siege Warfare in the 12th Century (Oxford, 1992), pp. 17– 25.

9. Gesta Francorum, II, p. 15.

10. Albert of Aachen, II.29, p. 110–12; II.22, p. 96.

11. Albert of Aachen, II.33, pp. 116–18.

12. Matthew of Edessa, II.108, p. 163; Anna Komnene, VI.12, p. 179.

13. Albert of Aachen, II.34, pp. 118–20; Fulcher of Chartres, I.10.vii, p. 82.

14. Anna Komnene, XI.1, p. 298.

15. Ibid., p. 299.

16. Ibid.

17. Ibid., pp. 297–8.

18. Albert of Aachen II.25–6, pp. 102–4.

19. Anna Komnene XI.2, p. 300.

20. Ibid., p. 301.

21. Anna Komnene, XI.2.vi, p. 327.

22. Ibn al-Qalanisi, AH 490/Dec. 1096–Dec. 1097, p. 41.

23. C. Foss, ‘Byzantine responses to Turkish Attacks: Some sites of Asia Minor’, in I. Sevcenko and I. Hutter, Aetos: Studies in Honour of Cyril Mango (Stuttgart, 1998), pp. 155–8.

24. Barber and Bate, Letters, p. 19.

25. Anna Komnene, XI.2, pp. 303–4.

26. Anna Komnene, XI.3, p. 304: Fulcher of Chartres, I.10.x, p. 83.

27. Barber and Bate, Letters, p. 19. Later writers also focus on the fate of Nicaea as a turning point in attitudes to Alexios, e.g. Orderic Vitalis, IX.8, 5, p. 56.

28. Anna Komnene, XI.3, p. 304.

29. Ralph of Caen, 10, pp. 31–2.

30. Anna Komnene, XI.3, pp. 304–5; Ralph of Caen, 18, p. 42.

31. Guibert of Nogent, IV.10, p. 81.

32. Anna Komnene, XI.3, p. 304.

33. Raymond of Aguilers, II, p. 23.

34. Anna Komnene, X.2, p. 264.

35. Fulcher of Chartres, I.11.i, p. 83.

36. Anna Komnene, XI.5, pp. 309–12.

37. Fulcher of Chartres, I.13.i, p. 87; Shephard, ‘“Father” or “Scorpion”’, p. 88.

38. Anna Komnene, XI.2, p. 301; XI.5, pp. 309–10.

39. Anna Komnene, XI.5, pp. 309–12.

40. This episode is misplaced by Anna Komnene – Çaka’s death evidently took place after the Byzantine recovery of Smyrna, and not beforehand. Anna Komnene, IX.3, pp. 243–4.

41. Ibid., p. 244.

42. Fulcher of Chartres, I.11.vi, p. 85.

43. Gesta Francorum, III, p. 18; Ralph of Caen, 40, p. 65; Fulcher of Chartres, I.11.ix, pp. 85–6.

44. Fulcher of Chartres, I.11.viii, p. 85.

45. Gesta Francorum, III, pp. 19–20.

46. Fulcher of Chartres, I.12.iv–v, p. 87.

47. Gesta Francorum, III, p. 21.

48. Albert of Aachen, II.22, p. 94. Albert also refers to Kilidj Arslan as ‘magnificent’, I.16, p. 32; the same praise is given to another Turk further east, Danishmend, whom Albert also says is ‘worthy of praise’, IX.33, p. 680.

49. Anna Komnene, X.10, pp. 291–2.

50. Gesta Francorum, IV, p. 24.

51. Ibn al-Qalanisi, AH 490/Dec. 1096–Dec. 1097, p. 42.

52. Gesta Francorum, IV, p. 26.

53. Ibid., p. 25.

54. Albert of Aachen, III.10, pp. 152–4.

55. Albert of Aachen, III.3, p. 140; Ralph of Caen, 23, p. 47.

56. Albert of Aachen, III.3–18, pp. 140–66.

57. Anna Komnene, X.10, p. 291.

58. Raymond of Aguilers, IV, p. 37.

59. Matthew of Edessa, II.104–8, pp. 161–4; II.117–18, pp. 168–70; Fulcher of Chartres, I.14.i–xv, pp. 88–92; Albert of Aachen, II.19–24, pp. 169–77.

60. Fulcher, I.14.xi, p. 91.

61. W. Saunders, ‘The Greek inscription on the Harran gate at Edessa: Some further evidence’, Byzantinsche Forschungen 21 (1995), pp. 301–4.

62. Albert of Aachen, III.19, p. 168.

63. Guibert of Nogent, VII.39, pp. 338–9.

64. For example, Albert of Aachen, IV.9, p. 262; VII.31, p. 528; Guibert of Nogent, VII.39, p. 338; Orderic Vitalis, IX.11, 5, pp. 118–20.

65. Thus Guibert of Nogent, VII.37, p. 335.

66. Albert of Aachen, III.31, p. 361.

67. Rogers, Latin Siege Warfare, pp. 25–39.

68. Fulcher of Chartres, I.15.ii, p. 92.

69. Gesta Francorum, V, p. 28.

70. Raymond of Aguilers, VI, p. 49.

71. Anna Komnene, XI.7, p. 317. For the appointment of Eumathios Philokales on Cyprus, IX.2, p. 242.

72. Ibn al-Qalanisi, AH 490/Dec. 1096–Dec. 1097, p. 242.

73. Fulcher of Chartres, I.16.ii, p. 96.

74. Albert of Aachen, III.46, pp. 208–10.

75. Albert of Aachen, V.1, p. 338.

76. Matthew of Edessa, II.114, pp. 167–8.

77. Fulcher of Chartres, I.16.iii, p. 96.

78. Gesta Francorum, V, pp. 30–1.

79. Raymond of Aguilers, VI, p. 39.

80. Gesta Francorum, V, pp. 36–7.

81. Ibid., p. 37.

82. Ibid.

10 The Struggle for the Soul of the Crusade

1. Raymond of Aguilers, IV, p. 36.

2. Guibert of Nogent, V.6, p. 206.

3. Gesta Francorum, VI, p. 33.

4. Guibert of Nogent, V.14, p. 217.

5. Albert of Aachen, IV.39, pp. 308–10; Gesta Francorum, IX, p. 59.

6. Raymond of Aguilers, IV, p. 35; Gesta Francorum, V, p. 30.

7. Gesta Francorum, IX, p. 63; Ralph of Caen, 58, p. 84; Albert of Aachen, IV.13, pp. 266–8.

8. Ralph of Caen, 58, p. 84.

9. Guibert of Nogent, II.16, pp. 132–3.

10. Kemal ad-Din, ‘La Chronique d’Alep’, RHC, Or., p. 578; Anonymi Florinensis brevis narratio Belli sacri, RHC, Occ., 5, p. 371; Ralph of Caen, 58, p. 84.

11. Caffaro, De liberatione civitatum orientis, in RHC, Occ., 5, p. 66. For supply from Cyprus, also see Baldric of Dol, p. 65; Raymond of Aguilers, VII, p. 54; Ralph of Caen, 58, p. 84.

12. Hagenmeyer, Epistulae, p. 166.

13. Gesta Francorum, VI, pp. 34–5; Raymond of Aguilers, IV, p. 37.

14. Albert of Aachen, IV.40, pp. 310–12.

15. Raymond of Aguilers, IV, p. 37. J. France, ‘The departure of Tatikios from the Crusader army’, Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 44 (1971), pp. 137–47.

16. Gesta Francorum, VI, pp. 34–5.

17. Hagenmeyer, Epistulae, pp. 165–6; Ralph of Caen, 58, p. 84.

18. This found echoes in later accounts of the Crusade with other episodes. Orderic Vitalis, for example, claims that the first seeds of hatred of Alexios were sown at Nicaea, where his capture of the city paled in comparison to the costs incurred, provisions used and blood shed by the Crusaders. IX.8, 5, p. 56.

19. Shepard, ‘When Greek meets Greek’, pp. 188–277.

20. Gesta Francorum, VIII, pp. 44–5; Albert of Aachen, IV.15, p. 270; Ralph of Caen, 64–5, pp. 89–90; William of Tyre, IV.24, pp. 267–8; cf. Anna Komnene, XI.4, pp. 307–8.

21. Gesta Francorum, V, p. 45; Fulcher of Chartres, I.19.i, p. 101; Anna Komnene, XI.6, p. 312. Also Barber and Bate, Letters, p. 28; Matthew of Edessa, II.119, p. 170.

22. Gesta Francorum, VI, p. 44; Fulcher of Chartres, I.17, p. 98; Matthew of Edessa, II.120, p. 170; Ibn al-Qalanisi, AH 491/Dec. 1097–Dec. 1098, p. 45. Firouz is identified as a Turk, Raymond of Aguilers, VI, p. 47; Albert of Aachen, III.61, p. 234. Ibn al-Athir talks of the role played by Firouz (Rudbah) and the offer made to him, AH 491/Dec. 1097–Dec. 1098, pp. 14–15; Kemal ad-Din, p. 580.

23. Anna Komnene, V.6, p. 144.

24. Raymond of Aguilers, IV, p. 37.

25. Gesta Francorum, VIII, p. 45; Albert of Aachen, IV.14–15, pp. 270–2; Ralph of Caen, 65, p. 654.

26. Gesta Francorum, VIII, p. 46.

27. Raymond of Aguilers, VI, p. 47.

28. Albert of Aachen, IV.20, p. 278.

29. Raymond of Aguilers, VI, p. 47; Albert of Aachen, IV.21, p. 280.

30. Gesta Francorum, VII, p. 47.

31. Gesta Francorum, VIII, p. 48.

32. Albert of Aachen, IV.26, p. 286.

33. Gesta Francorum, IX, p. 62.

34. Albert of Aachen, IV.34, pp. 298–300; Raymond of Aguilers, VIII, p. 59; Ibn al-Athir, AH 491/Dec. 1097–Dec. 1098, p. 16.

35. Fulcher of Chartres, I.19.iii, p. 101.

36. For the discovery of the Holy Lance and its consequences on the Crusade, see T. Asbridge, ‘The Holy Lance of Antioch: Power, devotion and memory on the First Crusade’, Reading Medieval Studies 33 (2007), pp. 3–36.

37. Albert of Aachen, IV.46, p. 320.

38. Fulcher of Chartres, I.22.ii, p. 104; Gesta Francorum, IX, pp. 67–8.

39. Fulcher of Chartres, I.22.v, p. 105.

40. Raymond of Aguilers, VIII, p. 61.

41. Fulcher of Chartres, I.23.iv–v, p. 106.

42. Raymond of Aguilers, VIII, pp. 63–4.

43. Gesta Francorum, IX, pp. 69–70.

44. Albert of Aachen, IV.53, pp. 330–2.

45. Ibn al-Athir, AH 491/Dec. 1097–Dec. 1098, pp. 16–17.

46. Raymond of Aguilers, IX, p. 65.

47. Robert the Monk, II.2, p. 90.

48. Albert of Aachen, V.15, p. 396.

49. Albert of Aachen, IV.9, pp. 260–2; Raymond of Aguilers, X, pp. 73–4.

50. Albert of Aachen, V.15, p. 357; Gesta Francorum, X, pp. 73–4.

51. Raymond of Aguilers, X, p. 75.

52. Gesta Francorum, IX, p. 63.

53. Anna Komnene, XI.6, p. 313.

54. Raymond of Aguilers, IV, p. 37.

55. Gesta Francorum, X, p. 72; Fulcher of Chartres, I.23.viii, p. 107.

56. Albert of Aachen, V.3, pp. 340–2.

57. Raymond of Aguilers, IX, pp. 67–8.

58. Ralph of Caen, 51, p. 77.

59. S. Duparc-Quioc (ed.), La Chanson d’Antioche, 2 vols. (Paris, 1976), 1, laisse 175.

60. Raymond of Aguilers, IV, p. 34.

61. Raymond of Aguilers, IX, p. 84.

62. Barber and Bate, Letters, pp. 32–3.

63. Ibid., p. 33; also Fulcher of Chartres, I.24.xiii–xiv, pp. 111–12.

64. Ibid. Fulcher does not include this final paragraph, below, p. 203

65. Raymond of Aguilers, X, pp. 74–5; Gesta Francorum, X, pp. 75–6, 80–1.

66. Gesta Francorum, X, pp. 75–6.

67. Raymond of Aguilers, X, p. 80.

68. Gesta Francorum, X, p. 80; Fulcher of Chartres, I.25.ii, p. 112.

69. Gesta Francorum, X, pp. 82, 86; Raymond of Aguilers, XI, pp. 87, 91.

70. Raymond of Aguilers, XIII, p. 105.

11 The Crusade Unravels

1. Albert of Aachen, V.45, p. 402.

2. Ralph of Caen, 120, pp. 136–7; Baldric of Dol, IV.12, p. 100; Albert of Aachen, VI.2, p. 406.

3. Raymond of Aguilers, XIV, p. 119.

4. Gesta Francorum, X, pp. 88–9; Albert of Aachen, VI.5, p. 410; Raymond of Aguilers, XIV, pp. 119–20.

5. France, Victory in the East, pp. 122–42.

6. Fulcher of Chartres, I.27.iv, p. 119.

7. Albert of Aachen, VI.6, pp. 410–12. Also Gesta Francorum, X, p. 89; Raymond of Aguilers, XIV, p. 118.

8. Fulcher of Chartres, I.26.i, p. 116.

9. Gesta Francorum, X, p. 89.

10. Raymond of Aguilers, XIII, p. 114.

11. Albert of Aachen, VI.8, pp. 412–14.

12. Gesta Francorum, X, p. 90; Raymond of Aguilers, XIV, p. 124.

13. Raymond of Aguilers, XIV, pp. 124–5; Ralph of Caen, 125, pp. 140–2; Gesta Francorum, X, p. 90.

14. Albert of Aachen, VI.10, p. 416; Ralph of Caen, 124, pp. 139–40.

15. Gesta Francorum, X, pp. 91–2; Ibn al-Athir, AH 492/Dec. 1098–Dec. 1099, p. 21.

16. Gesta Francorum, X, pp. 79–80.

17. Raymond of Aguilers, XIV, p. 127.

18. Gesta Francorum, X, p. 92.

19. Fulcher of Chartres, I.27.xiii, p. 122.

20. B. Kedar, ‘The Jerusalem Massacre of July 1099 in the Western Historiography of the First Crusade’, Crusades 3 (2004), pp. 15–75.

21. Ibn al-Athir, AH 492/Dec. 1098–Dec. 1099, p. 21.

22. S. Goitein, ‘Contemporary letters on the capture of Jerusalem’, Journal of Jewish Studies 3 (1952), pp. 162–77.

23. Fulcher of Chartres, I.28.i, p. 122.

24. Fulcher of Chartres, I.29.i, p. 123.

25. S. Goitein, ‘Tyre–Tripoli–‘Arqa: Geniza documents from the beginning of the Crusade period’, Jewish Quarterly Review 66 (1975), pp. 69–88.

26. Raymond of Aguilers, XIV, p. 128, citing Isaiah 65:17, Psalms 118:24.

27. Naser-e Khusraw’s Book of Travels (Safarnama), tr. W. Thackston (New York, 1986), p. 21. Many pilgrim guides were written in this period for Muslim visitors to Jerusalem, a good example being that of Ibn al-Murajja, written in the first part of the eleventh century. E. Amikam, Medieval Jerusalem and Islamic Worship (Leiden, 1995), pp. 68–78.

28. M. Gil, A History of Palestine, 634–1099 (Cambridge, 1997), p. 191, n. 67.

29. M-L. Favreau-Lilie, Die Italiener im Heiligen Land vom ersten Kreuzzug bis zum Tode Heinrichs von Champagne (1098–1197) (Amsterdam, 1988).

30. Barber and Bate, Letters, p. 24; William of Tyre, IV.24, 1, pp. 267–8. Also note Gesta Francorum, VI, pp. 37–8; Raymond of Aguilers, V, pp. 40–1.

31. Fulcher of Chartres, I.31.i–xii, pp. 125–8; P. Tudebode, pp. 146–7; Albert of Aachen, VI.45–50, pp. 464–70.

32. Barber and Bate, Letters,, pp. 37–8.

33. For the expedition of 1101, Riley-Smith, First Crusade, pp. 120–34.

34. Albert of Aachen, VII.20, p. 512; Fulcher of Chartres, I.36.i, p. 136; Matthew of Edessa, II.132, p. 176.

35. Bohemond’s capture, Fulcher of Chartres, I.35.iii, p. 135; Albert of Aachen, VII.29, p. 526; Matthew of Edessa, II.134, p. 177.

36. See. A. Murray, ‘Daimbert of Pisa, the Domus Godefridi and the Accession of Baldwin I of Jerusalem’, in From Clermont to Jerusalem, pp. 81–102.

37. Albert of Aachen, X.30, p. 528.

38. William of Tyre, VI.23, I, p. 340. For John’s flight, ibid.; Orderic Vitalis, X.24, 5, p. 356.

39. Fulcher of Chartres, II.3.xiii, p. 143.

40. Albert of Aachen, VII.43, p. 550. For Godfrey’s burial, VII.21, p. 516.

41. Albert of Aachen, VII.46–51, pp. 554–60.

42. Albert of Aachen, VII.57, p. 566; for his service to the emperor, IX.6, p. 644. Also see here Shepard, ‘The “muddy road” of Odo Arpin’, pp. 11–28.

43. Albert of Aachen, IX.1–6, pp. 638–44; Fulcher of Chartres, II.15.i–vi, pp. 163–4; Anna Komnene, XI.7, p. 316.

44. The patriarch was dismissed on charges of embezzlement. Albert of Aachen, VII.62–63, p. 574. It is significant that these were made by envoys sent by Roger of Sicily, erstwhile supporter of the papacy, and of its reconciliation with Constantinople in the 1090s. This suggests that the axis of Rome–Sicily–Constantinople was working together once again.

45. Albert of Aachen, VIII.45, p. 634.

46. Albert of Aachen, VIII.45–48, pp. 634–6.

47. Anna Komnene, XI.7, p. 318; Ralph of Caen, 143–4, pp. 158–60. For the chronology here see R-J. Lilie, Byzantium and the Crusader States 1096–1204, tr. J. Morris and J. Ridings (Oxford. 1993), pp. 259–76 and Ia. Liubarskii, ‘Zamechaniya k khronologii XI knigi ‘Aleksiada’ Anny Komninoi’, Vizantiiskii Vremennik 24 (1964), pp. 47–56.

48. Anna Komnene, XI.7, p. 318; Ralph of Caen, 145, p. 160.

49. Ralph of Caen, 147, pp. 163–4.

50. Kemal ad-Din, p. 591.

51. Anna Komnene, XI.9, pp. 320–1.

52. Fulcher of Chartres, II.27.vii–viii, pp. 178–9.

53. Ibn al-Athir, AH 497/Dec. 1103–Dec. 1104, pp. 79–80; Ibn al-Qalanisi, p. 60. Also here Fulcher of Chartres, II.27.i–viii, pp. 177–9; Matthew of Edessa, III.18, pp. 192–3; Albert of Aachen, IX.39; Ralph of Caen, 148, pp. 164–5.

54. Ibn al-Qalanisi, p. 61.

55. For Tancred taking possession of Edessa, Albert of Aachen, IX.42, p. 694; Fulcher of Chartres, II.27.5, p. 178; II.28, p. 180; Ralph of Caen, 151, p. 167; Matthew of Edessa, III.20, p. 194. For the Byzantine gains of 1104, Anna Komnene, XI.9–11, pp. 321–9.

56. Albert of Aachen, IX.46, p. 700–2.

57. Ralph of Caen, 152, pp. 168–9.

58. Anna Komnene, XI.12, pp. 329–31.

12 The Consequences of the First Crusade

1. For songs being sung in France, Orderic Vitalis, X.21, 5, p. 342. For the song cycles, see S. Edgington and C. Sweetenham (eds.), The Chanson d’Antioche: An Old-French Account of the First Crusade (Aldershot, 2011).

2. E. de Marneffe (ed.), Cartulaire de l’abbaye d’Afflighem (Louvain, 1894), pp. 19–21.

3. For many examples, see Riley-Smith, The First Crusaders, p. 150.

4. E.g. De genere comitum Flandrensium notae Parisienses, MGH, SS, 13, p. 259.

5. Suger of St Denis, p. 38; also see Riley-Smith, First Crusade, pp. 122–3.

6. Guy of Trousseau deserted at Antioch according to the Gesta Francorum, IX, pp. 55–6. His relationship through marriage with the king presumably explains sympathetic comments about him in a source close to the royal house of France. Suger of St Denis, p. 36.

7. Guibert of Nogent, VI.11, p. 243.

8. For Stephen’s death, Albert of Aachen, IX.6, p. 644. For an example of his treatment in the song cycles, Chanson d’Antioche, pp. 285–6.

9. France, Victory in the East, pp. 141–2.

10. Gilbert of Mons, 27, p. 30. See William of Tyre, I, p. 298; Albert of Aachen, IX.52, p. 716.

11. Orderic Vitalis, X.24, 5, pp. 358–76.

12. Ibid., p. 354.

13. France, ‘The Anonymous Gesta Francorum’, pp. 39–69 and above all, Rubenstein, ‘What is the Gesta Francorum and who was Peter Tudebode?’, pp. 179–204.

14. Fulcher of Chartres, I.33. v–xxi, pp. 129–32; Albert of Aachen, VII.6, p. 494.

15. R. Hiestand (ed.), Papsturkunden für Kirchen im Heiligen Lande (Göttingen, 1985), p. 102; for several other examples, Codice Diplomatico Barese, 5, pp. 83–102.

16. Suger of St Denis, p. 44.

17. Romuald of Salerno, p. 203; Ekkehard of Aura, p. 293; William of Tyre, XI.1, 1, p. 460.

18. Bartulf of Nangis, Gesta Francorum expugnantium Iherusalem, 65, p. 538; Chronica Monasterii Casinensis, IV, p. 493; Suger of St Denis, p. 48; Hiestand, Papsturkunden für Kirchen, p. 7, n. 2; Codice Diplomatico Barese, 5, pp. 79–80.

19. Albert of Aachen, VIII.48, p. 636.

20. See, for example, W. Whalen, ‘God’s Will or Not? Bohemond’s campaign against the Byzantine Empire (1105–1108)’, in T. Madden, J. Naus and V. Ryan (eds.) Crusades – Worlds in conflict (Farnham, 2010), pp. 115–23.

21. For Bohemond’s itinerary, see L. Russo, ‘Il viaggio di Boemundo d’Altavilla in Francia’, Archivio storico italiano 603 (2005), pp. 3–42.

22. Orderic Vitalis, XI.12, 6, pp. 70–2.

23. Ibid., p. 70.

24. See for example W. Holtzmann, ‘Zur Geschichte des Investiturstreites’, Neues Archiv der Gesellschaft für ältere deutsche Geschichtskunde 50 (1935), pp. 280–2.

25. Orderic Vitalis, XI.12, 6, p. 68; William of Malmesbury, IV.407, p. 736.

26. J. Stevenson (ed.), Chronicon Monasterii de Abingdon, 2 vols. (London, 1858), 2, p. 46. There is no indication of date or the motivation of the embassy to England.

27. For example, Shepard, ‘The “muddy road” of Odo Arpin’, pp. 11–28.

28. Anna Komnene, XIII.12, p. 385.

29. Ibid., p. 386.

30. Ibid., pp. 392–4.

31. Ibid., p. 387; p. 389.

32. Ibid., p. 392.

33. Ibid.

34. Orderic Vitalis, X.24, 5, p. 356; William of Tyre, VI.23, 1, p. 340.

35. Anna Komnene, XIV.1, p. 397.

36. Anna Komnene, XIII.12, p. 395.

37. Ibid., p. 394.

38. Fulcher of Chartres, I.32, p. 128; Orderic Vitalis, X.12, 5, p. 276.

39. Anna Komnene, XI.7, p. 316; XII.1, pp. 332–3; Orderic Vitalis, X.23, 5, p. 350; X.24, p. 354.

40. Gesta Francorum, I, p. 5.

41. Ibid., p. 6; II, p. 10.

42. Gesta Francorum, II, p. 11.

43. Ibid., p. 17.

44. Raymond of Aguilers, I, pp. 18– 19; II, p. 22.

45. Raymond of Aguilers, II, pp. 26–7.

46. Ibid., p. 23.

47. Gesta Francorum, II, p. 12.

48. Robert the Monk, VII.20, p. 176.

49. Barber and Bate, Letters, p. 20.

50. Ibid., pp. 22–5.

51. Matthew of Edessa, II.114, p. 167. For the Black Mountain, see Regulations of Nikon of the Black Mountain, in J. Thomas and A. Constantinides Hero (eds.), Byzantine Monastic Foundation Documents, 5 vols. (Washington, DC, 2000), pp. 377–424. Also seeTypikon of Nikon of the Black Mountain for the Monastery and Hospice of the Mother of God tou Roidiou in ibid., pp. 425–39.

52. Ralph of Caen, 54, p. 80.

53. Raymond of Aguilers, XI, p. 88.

54. Hagenmeyer, Epistulae, p. 153.

55. Barber and Bate, Letters, p. 21.

56. Gesta Francorum, X, p. 72; Fulcher of Chartres, I.23.viii, p. 107; cf. Albert of Aachen, V.3, pp. 340–2.

57. Barber and Bate, Letters, pp. 30–3.

58. Ibid., p. 33.

59. Fulcher of Chartres, I.24.i–xiv, pp. 107–12.

60. Raymond of Aguilers, II, p. 23.

61. Ibid., pp. 22–3.

62. Gesta Francorum, X, p. 75.

63. Raymond of Aguilers, X, pp. 74–5.

64. Robert the Monk, VII.20, p. 176; William of Tyre, IX.13, 1, p. 437.

65. Robert the Monk, VI.16, p. 160.

66. Guibert of Nogent, I.5, p. 104.

67. William of Malmesbury, History of the English Kings, ed. R. Thomson, R. Mynors and M. Winterbottom (Oxford, 1999), III.262, pp. 482–4.

68. Roger of Hoveden, Rerum Anglicarum Scriptores post Bedam (repr. Farnborough, 1970), p. 710.

69. William of Malmesbury, II.225, p. 412.

70. William of Tyre, X.12, 1, p. 467.

71. Edward Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, ed. J. Bury, 7 vols. (London, 1909–14) 6, p. 335.

72. Anna Komnene, XIV.2, p. 401.

73. Albert of Aachen, IX.43, p. 696.

74. A. Wharton Epstein, ‘The date and significance of the Cathedral of Canosa in Apulia, Southern Italy’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 37 (1983), pp. 85–6.

75. M. Ogle and D. Schullian (eds.) Rodulfi Tortarii Carmina (Rome, 1933), pp. 298–316.

76. See N. Paul, ‘A warlord’s wisdom: Literacy and propaganda at the time of the First Crusade’, Speculum 85 (2010), pp. 534–66. Another source from this period also reports Bohemond as having got the better of the emperor, rather than the other way round.Narratio Floriacensis, pp. 356–62.

77. Barber and Bate, Letters, pp. 30–3.

78. Gesta Francorum, I, pp. 1–2.

79. Erdmann, Die Briefe Heinrichs IV, pp. 38–9.

80. Ekkehard of Aura, pp. 182–4; Annales Hildesheimensis, MGH, SS, 3, pp. 50–1.

81. Erdmann, Die Briefe Heinrichs IV, pp. 39–40.

82. Patrologia Latina, 163, cols. 108a–c.

83. Erdmann, Die Briefe Heinrichs IV, pp. 39–40.

84. For the treaty, Anna Komnene, IX.3, p. 244, and above, p. 146. For the stable and seemingly positive relations between Alexios and Kilidj Arslan, see, for example, Albert of Aachen, IX.34, pp. 680–2.

85. For Fulcher’s emollient attitude to Byzantium, see L. Ní Chléirigh, ‘The impact of the First Crusade on Western opinion towards the Byzantine Empire: The Dei Gesta per Francos of Guibert of Nogent and the Historia Hierosolymitana of Fulcher of Chartres’, in C. Kostick (ed.), The Crusades and the Near East: Cultural Histories (Abingdon, 2011), pp. 161–88.

86. Albeit reaching rather different conclusions, note M. Carrier, ‘L’image d’Alexis Ier Comnène selon le chroniqleur Albert d’Aix’, Byzantion 78 (2008), pp. 34–65.

87. Anna Komnene, XI.8, p. 320.

88. Anna Komnene, XIV.2, pp. 402–3; Albert of Aachen, XI.4, p. 776.

89. P. Maas, ‘Die Musen des Kaisers Alexios I’, Byzantinische Zeitschrift 22 (1913), ll. 312–51.

90. H. Hoffmann (ed.), Die Chronik von Montecassino (Hanover, 1980), IV.46, p. 514.

91. Lilie, Byzantium and the Crusader States, p. 162.

92. Anna Komnene, XIV.4, p. 411.

93. Anna Komnene, X.2, p. 262.

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!