Post-classical history

Picture Section

Figure

BYZANTIUM IN CRISIS

Alp Arslan and Romanos IV after the battle of Manzikert.

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BYZANTIUM’S GLORY

Christ and the Virgin Mary flanked by the emperors Constantine and Justinian. Mosaic in the south vestibule of Hagia Sophia, late tenth century.

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Reliquary for wood from the True Cross, c.950.

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The walls of Constantinople, first built by the emperor Theodosius in the fifth century.

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THE CALL FROM THE EAST

The hope of Byzantium: Emperor Alexios I Komnenos.

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Coin issued by Alexios, depicting Christ giving a blessing (left) and the emperor himself (right).

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THE RESPONSE FROM THE WEST

Pope Urban II arrives at the council of Clermont.

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Emperor Alexios receives Peter the Hermit.

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THE EXPEDITION TO THE HOLY LAND

The Crusaders at Nicaea, 1097.

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The siege of Antioch, 1097–8.

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Crusaders massacring the inhabitants of Antioch, 1098.

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The siege of Jerusalem, 1099.

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LIBERATING THE HOLY CITY

The looting of Jerusalem, 1099.

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