Post-classical history

Timeline

image

1152

Henry Fitz-Empress marries Eleanor of Aquitaine

1153

Treaty of Wallingford – King Stephen recognizes Henry as heir to the English throne

HENRY II

1162

Thomas Becket becomes Archbishop of Canterbury

1164

Constitutions of Clarendon

Thomas Becket goes into exile

1166

Assize of Clarendon

1170

Murder of Thomas Becket

1172

Henry conquers Ireland

1173

Rebellion of Henry’s son, the ‘Young King’

1174

Defeat of the Young King’s rebellion

1187

Henry quarrels with his son and heir, Richard

1189

Richard openly rebels, aided by Philip II of France – death of Henry II

RICHARD I

1190–2

Richard on Crusade

1193

Richard, a captive of the emperor

1194

Richard’s return to England

1194–9

Richard’s war in France against Philip II

1199

Death of Richard I

JOHN

1203

John murders his nephew, Arthur of Brittany

1204

Philip II conquers Normandy, Anjou, Maine and most of Poitou

1205

English barons refuse to help John reconquer his lands in France

1207

Stephen Langton made Archbishop of Canterbury – John refuses to accept him

1208

Pope Innocent III places England under an interdict

1210

John campaigns in Ireland

1211

John subdues Llewelyn ap Iorwerth in north Wales – Llewelyn counter-attacks

1212

English barons plot to murder John

1213

John becomes the pope’s vassal

1214

John’s campaign in France wrecked by his German allies’ defeat at Bouvines

1215

John forced to grant Magna Carta

1216

Civil war between John and the barons, who invite Louis of France to replace him

1216

Death of John

HENRY III

1216

Henry crowned at Gloucester

1217

William Marshal routs the barons and the French at Lincoln

Louis of France concedes defeat

1219

Hubert de Burgh becomes justiciar

1230

Henry’s unsuccessful campaign in France

1231

Systematic attacks on papal tax collectors in England

1232

Dismissal of Hubert de Burgh

Stephen de Segrave becomes justiciar – government run by Peter des Roches

1234

Henry rules as his own first minister

1242

Henry’s defeat at Taillebourg

1255

Henry accepts the crown of Sicily for his son Edmund

1258

The Provisions of Oxford

1264

The Mise of Amiens – Louis IX decides in favour of Henry

Simon de Montfort refuses to accept Louis’s decision

Henry defeated at Lewes by Simon, who rules

England as Lord Steward

1265

The Lord Edward defeats and kills Simon de Montfort at Evesham

1270

Edward goes on Crusade

1272

Death of Henry III

EDWARD I

1275

First Statute of Westminster

1277

Defeat of Llewelyn ap Gruffydd

1279

Statute of Mortmain

1282

Final conquest of Wales

1285

Statute of Merchants

1290

Expulsion of the Jews

1291

Parliament of Norham to discuss Scottish succession

1294

Philip IV invades Gascony

Rebellion of Madog ap Llewelyn

1296

Edward conquers Scotland

1297

William Wallace defeats the English at Stirling

Barons refuse to fight in Gascony

1298

Edward destroys Wallace’s army at Falkirk

1304

All Scotland submits to Edward

1306

Robert the Bruce revolts against English rule

1307

Death of Edward I

EDWARD II

1308

Exile of Edward II’s favourite, Piers Gaveston

1312

Murder of Gaveston

1314

Scots defeat the English at Bannockburn

1318

Edward accepts ordinances limiting his power

1322

Earl of Lancaster defeated at Boroughbridge and executed

1322

Edward defeated by Scots at Old Byland

1322

Despensers’ tyranny

1326

Queen Isabella and Mortimer invade – fall of the Despensers

1327

Edward II abdicates

EDWARD III

1329

Treaty of Northampton recognizes Scottish independence

1330

Edward III overthrows Mortimer

1333

English archers annihilate the Scots at Halidon Hill

1337

Edward claims the French crown

1340

Edward defeats the French fleet at Sluys

1346

English defeat the French at Crécy

English defeat the Scots at Neville’s Cross

1347

English capture Calais

1348

Black Death

1349

Ordinance of Labourers

1355

Black Prince’s campaign in France

1356

Black Prince defeats the French at Poitiers, capturing King John II

1360

Treaty of Brétigny gives Aquitaine to the English

1369

Charles V ‘confiscates’ Aquitaine

1372

Castilians defeat English fleet off La Rochelle

1373

Failure of John of Gaunt’s campaign – loss of Aquitaine

1376

Death of the Black Prince

1377

Death of Edward III

RICHARD II

1381

The Peasants’ Revolt

1387

Royal army defeated by Lords Appellant at Radcot Bridge

1388

The Merciless Parliament purges Richard’s supporters

1389

Richard regains control

Peace with France

1394

Richard’s Irish campaign

1397

Murder of Thomas, Duke of Gloucester

Richard’s revenge on the Lords Appellant

1398

Richard’s despotism

Gaunt’s son, Bolingbroke, is exiled

1399

Gaunt dies and his estates are confiscated

Richard’s new campaign in Ireland

Bolingbroke seizes the throne

HENRY IV

1400

Owain Glyndwr’s revolt

1403

Henry defeats the Percys at Shrewsbury

1405

Archbishop Scrope’s rebellion

Henry struck down by disease

1407

French invade Gascony, unsuccessfully

1408

Northumberland and Lord Bardolf defeated and killed at Bramham Moor

1409

Surrender of Harlech Castle – defeat of Owain Glyndwr

1411

English expedition to help Burgundians against Armagnacs

1412

Henry quarrels with his heir, Prince Henry

1413

Death of Henry IV

HENRY V

1414

Lollard plot

1415

Southampton plot

Battle of Agincourt

1417

Henry invades Normandy

1419

Rouen falls to Henry

John, Duke of Burgundy, assassinated – Burgundians ally with England

1420

Treaty of Troyes – Charles VI recognizes Henry as ‘Heir and Regent of France’

English occupy Paris

1422

Death of Henry V

HENRY VI

1424

Duke of Bedford, Regent of France, routs the Dauphinists at Verneuil

1429

Joan of Arc relieves Orléans

1431

Joan of Arc burned at Rouen

Coronation at Paris of Henry VI as King of France

1435

Treaty of Arras – Burgundians abandon alliance with England

1436

French recapture Paris

1444

Truce of Tours between French and English

1445

Henry marries Margaret of Anjou

1447

Death of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester

1448

English surrender Maine

1449

French invade Normandy – Rouen falls

1450

English defeat at Formigny – loss of Normandy Jack Cade occupies London

1451

English lose Gascony

1452

Duke of York’s rising

Lord Talbot reoccupies Gascony

1453

Talbot defeated at Castillon – Gascony finally lost Henry VI goes insane

Birth of Henry’s son, Henry of Lancaster

1454

Duke of York becomes Lord Protector

King Henry regains his sanity

1455

First Battle of St Albans, won by York York’s second protectorate

1456

End of York’s second protectorate

1459

‘Rout of Ludford’ – York and his allies flee from England

1460

Yorkist victory at Northampton

Parliament recognizes York as heir to the throne York defeated and killed at Wakefield

1461

Yorkist victory at Mortimer’s Cross

Lancastrian victory at second Battle of St Albans

Edward, Earl of March, proclaimed king in London

EDWARD IV

1461

Edward IV wins a decisive victory at Towton

1462

Surrender of last Lancastrian garrisons in Northumberland

1464

Edward IV marries Elizabeth Wydeville

Duke of Somerset’s rebellion defeated at Hexham

1465

Capture of Henry V in Lancashire

1469

Edward survives plot by the Earl of Warwick and the Duke of Clarence

1470

Warwick’s reconciliation with Margaret of Anjou

1470

Flight of Edward IV and restoration of Henry VI

1471

Edward defeats and kills Warwick at Barnet
Edward defeats last Lancastrian army at Tewkesbury
Murder of Henry VI

1475

Edward invades France but makes peace with Louis XI

1478

Murder of the Duke of Clarence

1483

Death of Edward IV – Duke of Gloucester becomes Protector

EDWARD V

1483

Deposition of Edward V

RICHARD III

1483

Gloucester becomes Richard III

Failure of Buckingham’s rebellion

1485

Richard III killed at Bosworth

1499

Execution of the Earl of Warwick, last male Plantagenet

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!