Post-classical history

Notes

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Introduction: The Demon and Her Heirs

1   Lord Macaulay, The History of England, 4 vols (London, 1849), vol. 1, p. 13.

2   O. Guillot, Le Comte d’Anjou et son entourage aux XIme siècle (Paris, 1972), p. 25.

3   Gerald of Wales, Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, 8 vols, ed. J. S. Brewer et al., Rolls Series (London, 1861–9), viii, p. 301.

4   Walter Map, De Nugis Curialium: Courtiers’ Trifles, ed. and trans. M. R. James, revised C. N. L. Brooke and R. A. B. Mynors (Oxford, 1983), p. 346.

5   Gerald of Wales, Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, viii, p. 301.

6   J. Buchan, The Path of the King (London, 1921), p. 10.

1. The First Plantagenets

1.   J. R. Green, History of the English People, 4 vols (London, 1877), i, p. 148.

2.   Chroniques des Comtes d’Anjou et des Comtes d’Amboise, ed. L. Halphen and R. Poupardin (Paris, 1913).

3.   W. Stubbs, Select Charters (Oxford, 1900), p. 84.

4.   William of Malmesbury, Historia Novella: The Contemporary History, ed. E. King, trans. K. R. Potter, Oxford Medieval Texts (Oxford, 1998), pp. 32–3.

5.   The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, trans. and ed. G. N. Garmonsway (London and New York, 1954), p. 263.

6.   Henry of Huntingdon, Historia Anglorum: The History of the English People, Oxford Medieval Texts (Oxford, 1996), p. 724.

7.   Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, p. 263.

8.   Henry of Huntingdon, Historia Anglorum, p. 734.

9.   Henry of Huntingdon, Historia Anglorum, p. 720.

10.   Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, pp. 264–5.

2. The Eagle – Henry II

1.   Gerald of Wales, Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, viii, p. 295.

2.   William FitzStephen, Vita Sanctae Thomae, in J. C. Robertson, Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, Rolls Series, 3 vols (London, 1877) vol. iii p. 65.

3.   E. King, King Stephen (New Haven and London, 2010), pp. 262–4.

4.   Gesta Stephani, ed. and trans. K. R. Potter, with new intro and notes by R. H. C. Davis (Oxford, 1976), p. 261.

5.   Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, p. 267.

6.   Richard of Devizes, quoted in Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, Henry II and Richard I, ed. R. Howlett, Rolls Series, 4 vols (London, 1884–90), iii, p. 402.

7.   Chronicle of Robert de Torigni in Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen etc., iv, pp. 165–6.

8.   William of Malmesbury, Historia Novella, i, pp. 277–8.

9.   J. Gillingham, The English in the Twelfth Century (Woodbridge, 2000), p. 140.

10.   William of Newburgh, The History of English Affairs: Book II, ed. G. H. Walsh and M. J. Kennedy, Aris & Phillips Classical Texts (Oxford, 2007), p. 15.

11.   N. Barratt, ‘Finance and Economy in the Reign of Henry II’, in C. Harper-Bill and N. Vincent (eds), Henry II: New Interpretations (Woodbridge, 2007).

12.   R. Barber, Henry Plantagenet (Woodbridge, 2001).

13.   Gerald of Wales, Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, viii, p. 316.

14.   William FitzStephen, Vita Sanctae Thomae, iii, pp. 103–6.

15.   Adam of Eynsham, Magna Vita Sancti Hugonis, ed. D. L. Douie and H. Farmer, 2 vols (Clarendon Press: Oxford, 1985), vol. 1, p. 117.

16.   Walter Map, De Nugis Curialium, pp. 476–86.

17.   Chronicon Monasterii de Bello, ed. J. S. Brewer (London, 1846), pp. 105–9 (cit. W. L. Warren, Henry II (London, 1973), p. 327).

18.   Warren, Henry II, p. 132.

19.   N. Vincent, ‘The Court of Henry II’, in Henry II: New Interpretations, pp. 306–8.

20.   J. Southworth, Fools and Jesters at the English Court (Stroud, 1998), p. 339.

21.   Warren, Henry II, p. 630.

22.   J. Gillingham, The Angevin Empire (Arnold: London, 2001), p. 230.

23.   Gerald of Wales, Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, viii, p. 159.

24.   The Chronicle of Battle Abbey, ed. and trans. E. Searle (Oxford, 1980), p. 186.

25.   A. J. Duggan, ‘Henry II, the English Church and the Papacy’, in Henry II: New Interpretations, p. 168.

26.   William FitzStephen, Vita Sanctae Thomae, iii, p. 45.

27.   William FitzStephen, Vita Sanctae Thomae, iii, p. 430.

28.   R. Barber, Thomas Becket (London, 1986), p. 273.

29.   Ralph de Diceto, Historical Works, ed. W. Stubbs, Rolls Series, 2 vols (London, 1876), i, p. 33.

30.   Roger of Howden, Gesta Henrici II et Riccardi I, ed. W. Stubbs, Rolls Series, 2 vols (London, 1867), i, p. 292.

31.   Walter Map, De Nugis Curialium, p. 282.

32.   K. Norgate, England and the Angevin Empire, 2 vols (London, 1889), ii, p. 231.

33.   Histoire de Guillaume le Maréchal, ed. P. Meyer, 3 vols (Paris, 1891–1901), i, lines 8831–50.

34.   Gerald of Wales, Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, viii, p. 296.

3. The Lionheart – Richard I

1.   Poetria Nova of Geoffrey de Vinsauf, trans. M. F. Nims (Toronto, 1967), pp. 28–31; quoted by J. Gillingham, Richard I (New Haven and London, 1998).

2.   William of Newburgh, The History of English Affairs: Book IV.

3.   Howden, Gesta Henrici II, ii, pp. 146–7.

4.   Gillingham, Richard I, p. 263.

5.   Eynsham, Magna Vita, ii, p. 105.

6.   Beha ed-Din, What Befell Sultan Yusuf, trans. C. W. Wilson, Palestine Pilgrims; Text Society, 13 vols (London, 1897), xiii, pp. 375–6.

7.   Beha ed-Din, What Befell Sultan Yusuf, xiii, pp. 375–6.

8.   Howden, Gesta Henrici II, iii, p. 216.

9.   Howden, Gesta Henrici II, iii, p. 142.

10.   Howden, Gesta Henrici II, ii, p. 245.

11.   History of William Marshal, ed. A. J. Holden and trans. S. Gregory (Anglo-Norman Text Society: London, 2002–6), ii, lines 110409– 110411.

12.   K. Norgate, Richard the Lion Heart (London, 1924), p. 322.

13.   Howden, Gesta Henrici II, iv, pp. 58–9.

14.   Howden, Gesta Henrici II, iv, pp. 82–3.

15.   Eynsham, Magna Vita, ii, p. 136.

16.   Howden, Gesta Henrici II, iv, p. 84.

17.   History of William Marshal, ii, line 11766.

18.   J. France, Western Warfare in the Age of the Crusades 1100–1300 (London, 1999), p. 142.

4. The Madman – John

1.   Macaulay, History of England, i, p. 15.

2.   Chronica Majora, ed. H. R. Luard, 7 vols, Rolls Series (London, 1872), ii, p. 669.

3.   J. Gillingham, ‘Historians without Hindsight: Coggeshall, Diceto and Howden on the Early Years of John’s Reign’, in King John: New Interpretations, ed. S. D. Church (Boydell Press: Woodbridge, 1999), pp. 1–26.

4.   History of William Marshal, ed. A. J. Holden, trans. S. Gregory, 3 vols (Anglo-Norman Text Society: London, 2004–6), ii, lines 11904–7.

5.   Annals of Barnwell Priory, in Memoriale Walteri de Coventeria, ed. W. Stubbs, Rolls Series (London, 1872–3), ii, p. 196.

6.   The Historical Works of Gervase of Canterbury, ed. W. Stubbs, Rolls Series, 2 vols (London, 1879–90), ii, pp. 92–3.

7.   Chronica Rogeri de Wendover liber qui dicitur Flores Historiarum, ed. H. G. Hewlett, 3 vols, Rolls Series (London, 1886–9), ii, pp. 48–9.

8.   D. Power, ‘King John and the Norman Aristocracy’, in King John: New Interpretations, pp. 135–6.

9.   Chronica Rogeri de Wendover, i, pp. 316–17.

10.   Radulphi de Coggeshall, Chronicon Anglicanum, ed. J. Stevenson, Rolls Series (London, 1875), p. 144.

11.   Gervase of Canterbury, ii, pp. 97–8.

12.   W. L. Warren, King John (Eyre & Spottiswoode: London, 1961), p. 125.

13.   Gillingham, The Angevin Empire, p. 85.

14.   Howden, Gesta Henrici II, iii, p. 198.

15.   Gervase of Canterbury, ii, p. lix.

16.   S. Painter, The Reign of King John (Johns Hopkins Press: Baltimore, 1949), pp. 231–2.

17.   Chronica Majora, ii, pp. 560–3.

18.   N. Vincent, ‘Isabella of Angoulême’, in King John: New Interpretations, p. 166.

19.   Adam of Eynsham, Magna Vita, ii, pp. 143–4.

20.   Adam of Eynsham, Magna Vita, ii, p. 141.

21.   Adam of Eynsham, Magna Vita, ii, p. 185.

22.   C. Harper-Bill, ‘John and the Church of Rome’, in King John: New Interpretations, p. 306.

23.   R. V. Turner, ‘John and Justice’, in S. D. Church (ed.), King John: New Interpretations, p. 319.

24.   Chronica Rogeri de Wendover, ii, p. 50.

25.   S. Duffy, ‘John and Ireland, the Origin of England’s Irish Problem’, in King John: New Approaches, p. 242.

26.   Annals of Barnwell Priory, ii, p. 203.

27.   Chronica Rogeri de Wendover, ii, p. 248.

28.   Painter, The Reign of King John, pp. 249–50.

29.   Warren, King John, p. 191.

30.   Chronica Rogeri de Wendover, ii, p. 263.

31.   Holt, Magna Carta, quoted by Turner in King John: New Interpretations, p. 320.

32.   Harper-Bill, ‘King John and the Church of Rome’, in King John: New Interpretations, p. 310.

33.   Chronica Majora, ii, p. 559.

34.   N. Vincent, Peter des Roches: An Alien in English Politics 1205– 1238 (Cambridge, 1996).

35.   Chronica Rogeri de Wendover, ii, p. 155.

36.   Ralph of Coggeshall, [Radulphi of Coggeshall] Chronicon Anglia-canum, ed. J. Stevenson, Rolls Series (London, 1875), i, p. 172.

37.   Chronica Majora, ii, p. 611.

38.   Chronica Rogeri de Wendover, iii, pp. 320, 321.

39.   Chronica Majora, ii, pp. 641–2.

40.   Chronica Rogeri de Wendover, iii, p. 384.

5. The Aesthete – Henry III

1.   F. W. Maitland, The Constitutional History of England (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1908), p. 70.

2.   Histoire de Guillaume le Maréschal, ii, lines 1891–1901.

3.   Stubbs, Select Charters, ii, pp. 102–3.

4.   M. Powicke, The Thirteenth Century, 1216–1307 (Clarendon Press: Oxford, 1963), p. 19.

5.   Chronica Rogeri de Wendover, iv, p. 263.

6.   Chronica Majora, iii, p. 272.

7.   D. A. Carpenter, ‘King, Magnates and Society: The Personal Rule of Henry III’, in The Reign of Henry III (Hambledon Press: London and Rio Grande, 1996), pp. 75–106.

8.   Chronica Majora, ii, p. 334.

9.   P. Binski, Westminster Abbey and the Plantagenets (Yale University Press: New Haven and London, 1995), p. 45.

10.   D. A. Carpenter, ‘Matthew Paris and Henry III’s Speech at the Exchequer in October 1256’, in The Reign of Henry III, pp. 137–50.

11.   Chronica Majora, iv, pp. 181–4.

12.   N. Vincent, ‘Isabella of Angoulême: John’s Jezebel’, in King John: New Interpretations, p. 210.

13.   Chronica Majora, iv, pp. 209–12.

14.   Henry III: letter to Emperor Frederick II, September 1242, Close Rolls, 1237–1242, pp. 530–2.

15.   D. A. Carpenter, ‘What Happened in 1258?’, in The Reign of Henry III, p. 183.

16.   Chronica Majora, v, p. 601.

17.   Annals of Barton, p. 399.

18.   Chronica Majora, v, p. 457.

19.   Carpenter, ‘What Happened in 1258?’, p. 183.

20.   Annals of Tewkesbury in Annales Monastici, ed. H. R. Luard, Rolls Series, 5 vols (London, 1864–9), i, pp. 163–4.

21.   Chronica Majora, v, p. 696.

22.   Annals of Barton, p. 429.

23.   Annals of Tewkesbury, i, p. 164.

24.   Stubbs, Select Charters, ii, p. 103.

25.   Chronica Majora, v, p. 706.

26.   The Chronicle of William de Rishanger of the Barons’ War, ed. J. Halliwell (Camden Society: London, 1840), pp. 32–34.

27.   Chronica de Mailros, ed. J. Stevenson (Bannatyne Club: Edinburgh, 1835), p. 200.

28.   Narratio de Bellis, p. 6.

29.   Annals of Osney, in Annales Monastici, iv, p. 160.

30.   Stubbs, Select Charters, iv, p. 160.

31.   J. S. Hamilton, The Plantagenets, History of a Dynasty (Continuum: London and New York, 2010), p. 22.

32.   Powicke, The Thirteenth Century, p. 19.

6. The Hammer – Edward I

1.   Powicke, The Thirteenth Century, p. 228.

2.   The Chronicle of Pierre de Langtoft, ed. T. Wright, 2 vols (London, 1868), ii, p. 354.

3.   H. G. Robinson and G. Sayes, ‘The Scottish Parliaments of Edward I’, Scottish Historical Review, 25, pp. 311–16.

4.   T. F. Tout, Edward I (London, 1896), p. 88.

5.   Maitland, Constitutional History, p. 19.

6.   Stubbs, Select Charters, ii, p. 104.

7.   Nicolai Triveti Annales, ed. T. Hogg (London, 1845), p. 282.

8.   M. Prestwich, Edward I (London, 1988), p. 123.

9.   Chronicle of Walter of Guisborough, ed. H. Rothwell (London, 1957), p. 216.

10.   J. E. Morris, The Welsh Wars of Edward I (Oxford, 1901), pp. 110–48.

11.   Langtoft, ii, p. 169.

12.   Langtoft, ii, p. 177.

13.   M. Prestwich, Plantagenet England 1225–1361 (Oxford, 2005), p. 163.

14.   Maitland, Constitutional History, p. 69.

15.   ‘Peter Langtoft’s Chronicle’, trans. Robert Mannyng, in The Works of Thomas Hearne (London, 1810), iv, p. 252.

16.   Langtoft, ii, p. 199.

17.   Langtoft, ii, p. 316.

18.   Chaplais, ‘Some Private Letters of Edward I’, English Historical Review, 77 (1962), p. 85.

19.   Langtoft, ii, p. 289.

20.   Chronicle of Walter of Guisborough, pp. 289–90.

21.   Stubbs, Select Charters, ii, p. 141.

22.   Prestwich, Edward I, p. 257.

23.   Langtoft, ii, pp. 266–7.

24.   Chronicon de Lanercost 1272–1346, ed. Sir H. Maxwell (Glasgow, 1913), p. 190.

25   Powicke, The Thirteenth Century, p. 229.

26.   G. W. S. Barrow, Robert the Bruce and the Community of the Realm of Scotland (London, 1965), pp. 181–2.

27.   Chronicle of Walter of Guisborough, pp. 382–3.

28.   Langtoft, ii, p. 326.

29.   Prestwich, Edward I, p. 156.

30.   T. F. Tout, The Place of Edward II in History (Manchester, 1936), pp. 33–4.

7. The Changeling – Edward II

1.   T. F. Tout, ‘The Captivity and Death of Edward of Caernarvon’, in Collected Papers of Thomas Frederick Tout (Manchester, 1934), iii, p. 146.

2.   Sir Thomas Gray, Scalachronica, trans. Sir H. Maxwell (Glasgow, 1907), p. 69.

3.   Chronicon de Lanercost, pp. 247–8.

4.   Stubbs, Select Charters, ii, p. 328.

5.   Tout, The Place of Edward II, p. 11.

6.   R. M. Haines, King Edward II (Montreal and Kingston, 2003), p. x.

7.   Vita Secundi, the life of Edward the Second, ed. W. R. Childs (Clarendon Press: Oxford, 2005).

8.   Annales Paulini, in Chronicles of the Reigns of Edward I and Edward II, ed. W. Stubbs, 2 vols (London, 1882), i, p. 262.

9.   Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden monachi Cestrensis, 9 vols, Rolls Series (London, 1864–6), vii, pp. 299–301.

10.   H. Johnstone, ‘The Eccentricities of Edward II’, English Historical Review, 48 (1933), p. 265.

11.   Prestwich, Plantagenet England, p. 181.

12.   Tout, Place of Edward II, p. 156.

13.   Tout, Place of Edward II, pp. 14–17.

14.   Vita, p. 16.

15.   Vita, p. 48.

16.   Vita, p. 62.

17.   Hamilton, The Plantagenets, p. 119.

18.   J. J. Norwich, Shakespeare’s Kings and Queens (London, 1999), p. 16.

19.   Tout, Place of Edward II, p. 17.

20.   Vita, p. 148.

21.   Vita, p. 176.

22.   P. Doherty, Isabella and the Strange Death of Edward II (London, 2003), p. 66.

23.   Vita, pp. 164, 166.

24.   Vita, pp. 194, 196.

25.   Tout, Place of Edward II, p. 135.

26.   Vita, p. 194.

27.   Vita, p. 230.

28.   Vita, p. 230.

29.   Tout, Place of Edward II, p. 143.

30.   Oeuvres de Froissart: Chroniques, ed. J. Kervyn de Lettenhove, 28 vols (Brussels, 1867–77), ii, p. 88.

31.   Robert of Reading, Flores Historiarum, 3 vols, Rolls Series (London, 1890), iii, p. 229.

32.   Doherty, Isabella, p. 101.

33.   A. Weir, Queen Isabella: Treachery, Adultery and Murder in Medieval Books (New York, 2006), p. 14.

34.   Vita, p. 242.

35.   Vita, p. 242.

36.   Vita, pp. 244–6.

37.   Annales Paulini, i, p. 317.

38.   R. Fabyan, New Chronicles of England and France, ed. H. Ellis (London, 1811), p. 430.

39.   Doherty, Isabella, pp. 115–25.

40.   Chronicon Galfredi le Baker de Swynebroke, ed. E. M. Thompson (Oxford, 1889), p. 33.

41.   Haines, King Edward II, pp. 221–2.

42.   Tout, Edward I, p. 225.

43.   Hamilton, The Plantagenets, p. 133.

8. The Paladin – Edward III

1.   The Brut or The Chronicles of England, ed. F. W. D. Brie, 2 vols (London, 1908), ii, p. 333.

2.   Oeuvres de Froissart, v, pp. 260–1.

3.   Stubbs, Select Charters, ii, p. 394.

4.   W. M. Ormrod, Edward III (London and Newhaven, 2011), p. 577.

5.   Scalacronica: The Reigns of Edward I, Edward II and Edward III as Recorded by Sir Thomas Gray, trans. Sir H. Maxwell (Glasgow, 1907), p. 85.

6.   Scalacronica, p. 86

7.   Galfridus le Baker de Swynebroke, p. 46.

8.   Haines, Edward II, p. 347.

9.   The Brut, quoted by C. J. Rogers, in The Wars of Edward III, Sources and Interpretations (Woodbridge, 1999), p. 38.

10.   Rotuli Parliamentarum, quoted by Rogers, in The Wars of Edward III, pp. 83–4.

11.   R. Horrox, The Black Death (Manchester, 1994), p. 147.

12.   M. McKisack, The Fourteenth Century 1307–1399 (Oxford, 1959).

13.   The St Albans Chronicle: The ‘Chronica Majora’ of Thomas Walsingham, ed. J. Taylor, W. R. Childs and I. Watkiss (Oxford, 2003), i, p. 43.

14.   W. M. Ormrod, ‘Who was Alice Perrers?’, Chaucer Review, 40 (2006), pp. 219–29.

15.   St Albans Chronicle, i, p. 57.

16.   St Albans Chronicle, i, p. 11.

17.   St Albans Chronicle, i, p. 102.

18.   Ormrod, Edward III, p. 6.

9. The Absolutist – Richard II

1.   Maitland, Constitutional History, pp. 197–9.

2.   St Albans Chronicle, i, p. 137.

3.   Oeuvres de Froissart, ix, p. 386.

4.   St Albans Chronicle, i, p. 441.

5.   McKisack, The Fourteenth Century, p. 420.

6.   A. Steel, Richard II (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1941), pp. 41–2, 203–4.

7.   N. Saul, Richard II (Yale University Press: New Haven and London, 1997), p. 465.

8.   J. Harvey, The Plantagenets (London, 1948), p. 96.

9.   A. Strickland, The Lives of the Queens of England, 12 vols (London, 1840–8), ii, p. 430.

10.   Strickland, Lives of the Queens of England, ii, p. 430.

11.   Knighton’s Chronicle, ed. and trans. G. H. Martin (Oxford, 1995), p. 360.

12.   Oeuvres de Froissart, x, p. 235.

13.   Saul, Richard II, p. 123.

14.   Knighton’s Chronicle, p. 531.

15.   Oeuvres de Froissart, xvi, p. 5.

16.   Strickland, Lives of the Queens of England, ii, p. 430.

17.   Oeuvres de Froissart, xvi, pp. 2–5.

18.   Oeuvres de Froissart, xvi, p. 136.

19.   Oeuvres de Froissart, xvi, pp. 15–16.

20.   The Chronicle of Adam of Usk 1377–1421, trans. C. Given-Wilson (Oxford, 1977), p. 28.

21.   Oeuvres de Froissart, xvi, p. 83.

22.   M. V. Clarke and V. H. Galbraith, ‘The Deposition of Richard II’, Bulletin of the John Ryland Library, 14 (1930), pp. 163–4, cited in Saul, Richard II, p. 394.

23.   Chronicle of Adam of Usk, p. 48.

24.   Saul, Richard II, pp. 385–7.

25.   K. B. McFarlane, Lancastrian Kings and Lollard Knights (Oxford, 1972), p. 46.

26.   Saul, Richard II, p. 403.

27.   Oeuvres de Froissart, xvi, pp. 156–9.

28.   Chronicle of Adam of Usk, p. 52.

29.   Oeuvres de Froissart, xvi, pp. 173, 175.

30.   Oeuvres de Froissart, xvi, pp. 196–7.

31.   Chronicle of Adam of Usk, p. 64.

32.   Oeuvres de Froissart, xvi, pp. 202–3.

33.   St Albans Chronicle, ii, p. 206.

34.   Chronicle of Adam of Usk, p. 78.

35.   Oeuvres de Froissart, xvi, pp. 235–6.

10. The Usurper – Henry IV

1.   McFarlane, Lancastrian Kings, p. 7.

2.   E. de Monstrelet, La Cronique d’Enguerrand de Monstrelet, ed. L. Drouët d’Arcq, 4 vols (Paris, 1857–60), ii, p. 338.

3.   M. Bennett, ‘Henry IV, the Royal Succession and the Crisis of 1406’, in The Reign of Henry IV: Rebellion and Revival (York, 2008), p. 14.

4.   Chronicle of Adam of Usk, p. 136.

5.   Stubbs, Select Charters, iii, p. 9.

6.   Oeuvres de Froissart, xvi, p. 229.

7.   Oeuvres de Froissart, xvi, p. 232.

8.   C. J. Neville, ‘Scotland, the Percies and the Law in 1400’, in The Reign of Henry IV: The Establishment of the Regime 1399– 1406, ed. G. Dodd and D. Biggs (York Medieval Press 2003), p. 89.

9.   St Albans Chronicle, ii, p. 334.

10.   C. Given-Wilson, ‘The Quarrels of Old Women: Henry IV, Louis of Orleans and Anglo-French Chivalric Challenges in the Early Fifteenth Century’, in The Reign of Henry IV: The Establishment of the Regime 1399–1406, ed. G. Dodd and D. Biggs (York Medieval Press, 2003), pp. 32–6.

11.   Stubbs, Select Charters, iii, p. 7.

12.   Stubbs, Select Charters, iii, p. 8.

13.   McFarlane, Lancastrian Kings, p. 2.

14.   J. Capgrave, The Chronicle of England, ed. F. C. Hingeston, Rolls Series (London, 1858), p. 291.

15.   Stubbs, Select Charters, iii, p. 39.

16.   McFarlane, Lancastrian Kings, p. 23.

17.   H. C. Hingeston, Royal and International Letters during the Reign of Henry IV (London, 1860), i, p. 149.

18.   St Albans Chronicle, ii, p. 338.

19.   J. Nuttall, ‘“Vostre Humble Matatyas”: Culture, Politics and the Percys’, in The Fifteenth Century, vol. 5: Of Mice and Men: Image, Belief and Regulation in Late Medieval England, ed. L. Clark (Boydell Press, 2005), pp. 79–83.

20.   The Brut, i, pp. 75–6.

21.   W. M. Ormrod, ‘The Rebellion of Archbishop Scrope and the Tradition of Opposition to Royal Taxation’, in The Reign of Henry IV: Rebellion and Survival, 1403–1413, ed. G. Dodd and D. Biggs (York, 2008), p. 162.

22.   Capgrave, Chronicle of England, p. 291.

23.   St Albans Chronicle, ii, p. 326.

24.   A. J. Pollard, Introduction to Henry IV: Rebellion and Survival, p. 4.

25.   D. Biggs, ‘The Politics of Health: Henry IV and the Long Parliament of 1406’, in The Reign of Henry IV: The Establishment of the Regime, 1399–1406, p. 199.

26.   J. L. Kirby, Henry IV of England (London, 1970), pp. 202–4.

27.   St Albans Chronicle, ii, p. 534.

28.   Chronicle of Adam of Usk, p. 242.

29.   Royal Wills: A Collection of All the Wills Known to be Extant of the Kings and Queens of England, ed. J. Nichols (London, 1780; New York, 1969), p. 203.

30.   The First English Life of King Henry the Fifth, ed. C. L. Kingsford (Oxford, 1911), p. 14

31.   St Albans Chronicle, ii, pp. 608–10.

32.   St Albans Chronicle, ii, pp. 612, 614.

33.   The Brut, ii, p. 207.

34.   Capgrave, Chronicle of England, pp. 302–3.

11. The ‘Gleaming King’ – Henry V

1.   The First English Life, p. 131.

2.   Stubbs, Select Charters, iii, p. 77.

3.   McFarlane, Lancastrian Kings, p. 133.

4.   Chronique du Réligieux de Saint-Denys 1380–1422, ed. F. Bellaguet, 6 vols (Paris, 1839–54), iv, p. 770.

5.   T. B. Pugh, Henry V and the Southampton Plot of 1415 (Southampton, 1988), p. 80.

6.   St Albans Chronicle, ii, p. 636.

7.   Pugh, Henry V and the Southampton Plot, p. 162.

8.   McFarlane, Lancastrian Kings, p. 131.

9.   E. F. Jacob, The Fifteenth Century 1399–1485 (Oxford, 1961), p. 121.

10.   Chronique du Réligieux de Saint-Denis, vi, p. 381.

11.   The First English Life, p. 5.

12.   The First English Life, p. 14.

13.   The First English Life, p. 17.

14.   Capgrave, Chronicle of England, p. 311.

15.   Capgrave, Chronicle of England, p. 311.

16.   The First English Life, p. 51.

17.   The Brut, ii, p. 378.

18.   Chronique de Jean Lefevre, Seigneur de Saint-Rémy, ed. F. Morand, 2 vols (Paris, 1876–8), pp. 245–6, 251.

19.   The Chronicle of John Hardyng, ed. H. Ellis (London, 1812), p. 375.

20.   E. Halle, The Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Families of Lancastre and Yorke (London, [1548] 1809), p. 70.

21.   Chronicle of Adam of Usk, p. 262.

22.   Chronicle of Adam of Usk, p. 258.

23.   J. Page, ‘The Siege of Rouen’, in The Historical Collections of a Citizen of London (Camden Society: London, 1876), pp. 4–5.

24.   The First English Life, pp. 131–2.

25.   J. Waurin, Recueil des croniques et des anchiennes istoires de la Grant Bretaigne, ed. W. Hardy, 5 vols, Rolls Series (London, 1864–91), ii, p. 429.

26.   Chronicle of Adam of Usk, p. 270.

27.   J. Juvénal des Ursins, Histoire de Charles VI, ed. J. A. C. Buchon (Paris, 1836), p. 561.

28.   St Albans Chronicle, ii, p. 772.

29.   Vita et Gesti Henrici Quinti, ed. T. Hearn (Oxford, 1727), p. 334.

30.   St Albans Chronicle, ii, p. 772.

12. The Holy Fool – Henry VI

1.   Philippe de Commynes, Mémoires, ed. J. Calmette, 3 vols (Paris, 1924–5).

2.   Henry the Sixth: A Reprint of John Blacman’s Memoir, trans. M. R. James (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1919), pp. 26, 37.

3.   B. Wolfe, Henry VI (Eyre Methuen: London, 1985), pp. 3–21.

4.   T. S. Freeman, ‘“Ut Verus Christus Sequetur”: John Blacman and the Cult of Henry VI’, in The Fifteenth Century, vol. 5: Of Mice and Men, p. 142.

5.   A. H. Nicholas, A Chronicle of London (London, 1827), pp. 111–2.

6.   G. Harriss, Cardinal Beaufort (Clarendon Press: Oxford, 1988), p. 209.

7.   The Paston Letters, ed. G. Gairdner (Sutton: Gloucester, 1986), ii, p. 131.

8.   J. M. Harvey, Jack Cade’s Rebellion 1450 (Oxford, 1991), pp. 188–9.

9.   Gregory’s Chronicle, in The Historical Collections of a Citizen of London in the Fifteenth Century, ed. J. Gairdner (Camden Society: London, 1876), pp. 190–4.

10.   Henry the Sixth: A Reprint of John Blacman’s Memoir, p. 15.

11.   M. Hicks, The Wars of the Roses (Yale University Press: New Haven and London, 2010), pp. 77–82.

12.   G. Harriss, Shaping the Nation: England 1360–1461 (Clarendon Press: Oxford, 2005), p. 611.

13.   B. André, ‘Historia Regis Henrici VII’, in Memorials of King Henry VII, ed. J. Gairdner, Rolls Series (London, 1858), x.

14.   Wolfe, Henry VI, pp. 134–5.

15.   R. A. Griffiths, The Reign of King Henry VI (University of California Press: Berkeley, 1981), p. 242.

16.   Henry the Sixth: A Reprint of John Blacman’s Memoir, pp. 15–16.

17.   Sir J. Harington, Nugae Antiquae, ed. T. Park (London, 1804).

18.   Harriss, Shaping the Nation, p. 260.

19.   Hicks, The Wars of the Roses, p. 118.

20.   Paston Letters, iii, p. 270.

21.   Paston Letters, iii, p. 322.

22.   Hicks, The Wars of the Roses, p. 78.

23.   An English Chronicle 1377–1461: A New Edition, ed. W. Marx (Boydell Press: Woodbridge, 2003), p. 78.

24.   Rotuli Parliamentorum, 6 vols (London, 1767), v, pp. 375–9.

25.   Henry the Sixth: A Reprint of John Blacman’s Memoir, p. 22.

26.   Harriss, Shaping the Nation, p. 649.

27.   Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts existing in the Archives and Collections of Milan, ed. A. B. Hinds (HMSO: Hereford, 1912), p. 58.

28.   Henry the Sixth: A Reprint of John Blacman’s Memoir, p. 18.

29.   J. Warkworth, A Chronicle of the First Thirteen Years of the Reign of King Edward IV, ed. J. O. Halliwell, Camden Society 10 (London, 1839), p. 11.

30.   Hicks, The Wars of the Roses, p. 82.

31.   P. Vergil, Three Books of Polydore Vergil’s English History, ed. H. Ellis, Camden Society 29 (London, 1844), p. 135.

32.   Warkworth, A Chronicle of the First Thirteen Years, p. 21.

33.   Shakespeare, The Life and Death of King Richard III, Act I, scene i.

34.   Stubbs, Select Charters, iii, pp. 134–5.

35.   A. F. Gasquet, The Religious Life of King Henry VI (London, 1923).

13. The Self-Made King – Edward IV

1.   Green, History of the English People, ii, p. 28.

2.   Stubbs, Select Charters, iii, p. 226.

3.   Sir Thomas More, The History of King Richard the Third, ed. R. S. Sylvester (London and New Haven, 1963), pp. 4–5.

4.   E. Hall, Chronicle, ed. H. Ellis (London, 1809).

5.   C. Ross, The Wars of the Roses: A Concise History (London, 1976), p. 140.

6.   Commynes, Mémoires, i, p. 202.

7.   G. Goodwyn, Fatal Colours: Towton 1461 – England’s Most Brutal Battle (London, 2010), pp. 198–9.

8.   Rotuli Parliamentorum, v, pp. 462–3.

9.   Calendar of State Papers . . . Milan, pp. 74–7.

10.   Stubbs, Select Charters, iii, p. 289.

11.   A. J. Pollard, Late Medieval England 1399–1485 (Harlow, 1988), p. 274.

12.   D. Mancini, The Usurpation of Richard III, trans. and ed. C. A. J. Armstrong (Oxford, 1938), p. 80.

13.   The Great Chronicle of London, ed. A. H. Thomas and I. D. Thornley (London, 1938), p. 223.

14.   More, History of King Richard the Third, p. 64.

15.   More, History of King Richard the Third, p. 53.

16.   Ingulf’s Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland, trans. and ed. H. R. Riley (London, 1854), pp. 469–70.

17.   Paston Letters, iii, p. 400.

18.   Warkworth, A Chronicle of the First Thirteen Years, p. 12.

19.   Historie of the Arrivall of Edward IV in England and the finall Recovery of his kingdomes from Henry VI, ed. J. A. Bruce (Camden Society: London, 1838), p. 38.

20.   S. B. Chrimes, ‘The only imp now left of Henry VI’s brood?’, in Henry VII (London, 1972), p. 18.

21.   The Works of Sir John Fortescue, Knight, Chief Justice, Lord Chancellor to King Henry the Sixth of England, ed. Lord Clermont, 2 vols (London, 1869), ii, p. 474.

22.   Ingulf’s Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland, pp. 469–70.

23.   Calendar of State Papers . . . Milan, p. 189.

24.   More, History of King Richard the Third, pp. 5–6.

25.   Mancini, Usurpation of Richard III, p. 82.

26.   Mancini, Usurpation of Richard III, p. 72.

27.   D. Grummitt, The Wars of the Roses (London, 2013), pp. 112, 130.

28.   More, History of King Richard the Third, pp. 5–6.

14. The Suicide – Richard III

1.   Stubbs, Select Charters, iii, p. 232.

2.   More, History of King Richard the Third, p. 10.

3.   Mancini, Usurpation of Richard III, p. 100.

4.   Stubbs, Select Charters, iii, p. 232.

5.   C. Ross, Richard III (London, 1981), p. 22.

6.   Ross, Richard III, p. 27.

7.   M. Hicks, ‘The Last Days of Elizabeth, Countess of Oxford’, in Richard III and his Rivals (London and Rio Grande, 1991), pp. 97–316.

8.   Ingulf’s Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland, p. 407.

9.   Stubbs, Select Charters, iii, p. 231.

10.   Whitelaw’s speech in George Buck, The History of King Richard the Third, ed. A. N. Kincaid (Gloucester, 1979), p. 206.

11.   British Library Harleian Manuscript 433, ed. R. Horrox and P. W. Hammond. 4 vols (Richard III Society, 1979–82), 2, p. 71.

12.   More, History of King Richard the Third, p. 55.

13.   Quoted in A. Hanham, Richard III and his Early Historians (Oxford, 1975), p. 50.

14.   H. Ellis, Original Letters Illustrative of English History, 11 vols (London, 1824–46), 2nd series, pp. 159–60.

15.   Ross, Richard III, p. xliii.

16.   Ingulf’s Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland, pp. 496–7.

17.   Grummit, Wars of the Roses, p. 103.

18.   More, History of King Richard the Third, p. 90.

19.   R. Horrox, Richard III (Cambridge, 1989), p. 278.

20.   Ingulf’s Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland, p. 498.

21.   Ingulf’s Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland, p. 499.

22.   Acts of Court of the Mercers’ Company 1453–1577, ed. F. Lyell and F. Watney (Cambridge, 1936), pp. 173–4.

23.   C. Halsted, Richard III as Duke of Gloucester and King of England (London, 1844), p. 556.

24.   G. Foard, ‘Bosworth Uncovered’, BBC History Magazine (March 2010).

25.   Ingulf’s Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland, p. 504.

26.   Three Books of Polydore Vergil’s English History, p. 14.

27.   The Great Chronicle of London, p. 238.

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