Post-classical history

Chronology

c.400

Augustine of Hippo outlines a Christian theory of just war

638

Jerusalem is captured by the Arabs under Caliph Umar

800

Charlemagne the Frank is crowned Roman Emperor of the West

9th century

Holy wars proclaimed against Muslim invaders of Italy

11th century

Peace and Truce of God movements in parts of France mobilize arms bearers to protect the Church

1053

Leo IX offers remission of sins to his troops fighting the Normans of southern Italy

1050s–70s

Seljuk Turks invade Near East

1071

Seljuk Turks defeat Byzantines at Manzikert; they overrun Asia Minor and establish a capital at Nicaea

1074

Pope Gregory VII proposes a campaign from the west to help Byzantium and liberate the Holy Sepulchre

1095

Byzantine appeal to Pope Urban II for military aid against the Turks; Urban II’s preaching tour of France (ends 1096); Council of Clermont proclaims Crusade

1096–9

First Crusade

1101 onwards

Smaller crusades to Holy Land

1104

Acre captured

1107–8

Crusade of Bohemund of Taranto against Byzantium

1109

Tripoli captured

c.1113

Order of the Hospital of St John in Jerusalem recognized; militarized by c.1130

1114 onwards

Crusades in Spain

1120

Order of the Temple founded in Jerusalem to protect pilgrims

1123

First Lateran Council extends Jerusalem privileges to Spanish Crusades

1144

Edessa captured by Zengi of Aleppo

1145–9

Second Crusade

1149 onwards

Further crusades in Spain and the Baltic; a few to the Holy Land

1154

Nur al-Din of Aleppo captures Damascus

1163–9

Franks of Jerusalem contest control of Egypt

1169

Saladin succeeds as ruler of Egypt

1174

Death of Nur al-Din; Saladin begins to unify Syria with Egypt

1187

Battle of Hattin; Saladin destroys army of Kingdom of Jerusalem; Jerusalem falls to Saladin

1188–92

Third Crusade

1193

Saladin dies

1193–1230

Crusades to Livonia in the Baltic

1198

Foundation of Teutonic Knights in Acre; Pope Innocent III proclaims Fourth Crusade

1199

Church taxation instituted for the Crusade; Crusade against Markward of Anweiler in Sicily

1201–4

Fourth Crusade

13th century

Crusades in the Baltic by Teutonic Knights (Prussia), Sword Brothers (Livonia), Danes (Prussia, Livonia, Estonia), and Swedes (Estonia and Finland); Crusades against German peasants and Bosnians

1208–29

Albigensian Crusade

1212

Children’s Crusade; Almohads defeated by Spanish Christian coalition at Las Navas de Tolosa

1213

Innocent III proclaims Fifth Crusade and extends crusade privileges to those who contribute but do not go on crusade

1215

Fourth Lateran Council authorizes regular crusade taxation

1217–29

Fifth Crusade

1231

onwards Crusades against the Byzantines to defend western conquests in Greece

1239–68

Crusades against Hohenstaufen rulers of Germany and Sicily

1239–41

Crusades to Holy Land of Theobald, Count of Champagne, and Richard, Earl of Cornwall; crusaders defeated at Gaza (1239)

1242

Teutonic Knights defeated by Alexander Nevsky at Lake Chud

1244

Jerusalem lost to Muslims; Louis IX of France takes the cross

1248–54

First Crusade of Louis IX of France

1250

Mamluks take rule in Egypt (to 1517)

1251

First Shepherds’ Crusade

1260

Mamluks repulse Mongols at Ain Jalut; Baibars becomes sultan of Egypt (to 1277)

1261

Greeks recover Constantinople

1267

Louis IX takes cross again

1268

Fall of Antioch to Baibars of Egypt

1269

Aragonese Crusade to Holy Land

1270

Louis IX’s Crusade ends at Tunis, where he dies

1271–2

Crusade to Holy Land of Lord Edward, later Edward I of England

1272–91

Small expeditions to Holy Land

1282–1302

Wars of the Sicilian Vespers; include French crusade to Aragon (1285)

1289

Fall of Tripoli

1291

Fall of Acre to al-Ashraf Khalil of Egypt and evacuation of mainland Outremer

1306–1522

Hospitallers rule island of Rhodes

1307–14

Trial and suppression of Templars

14th century

Papal crusades in Italy; crusading continues against heretics in Italy; Moors in Spain; pagans in the Baltic (to 1410)

1309

Popular Crusade; Teutonic Knights move headquarters from Venice to Prussia

1320

Second Shepherds’ Crusade

1330s onwards

Naval leagues against Turks in Aegean

1350s onwards

Ottoman Turks established in Balkans; soon establish overlordship over Byzantine emperors

1365–6

Crusade of Peter of Cyprus; Alexandria sacked (1365)

1366

Crusade of Count Amadeus of Savoy to Dardanelles

1383

Crusade of Bishop Despenser of Norwich against supporters of Pope Clement VII in Flanders

1390

Christian expedition to Mahdia in Tunisia

1396

Christian expedition against the Ottomans defeated at Nicopolis on the Danube (September)

15th century

Numerous small crusading forays against the Ottomans in eastern Mediterranean and east/central Europe

1420–71

Crusades against the Hussite heretics in Bohemia

1444

Crusaders defeated at Varna in Bulgaria (November)

1453

Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Turks under Mehmed II

1456

Belgrade successfully defended from Ottoman Turks with help of crusaders under John of Capistrano

1460–4

Abortive crusade of Pope Pius II

1480

Turks besiege Rhodes

1492

Granada falls to Spanish monarchs

16th century

More crusades against Turks in Mediterranean and central Europe; from 1530s crusades threatened against heretics (Protestants)

1522

Rhodes falls to Turks

1525

Secularization of Teutonic Order in Prussia

1529

Turks besiege Vienna

1530–1798

Hospitallers rule Malta

1560s–90s

French Wars of Religion; some Catholics receive crusade privileges

1561–2

Secularization of Teutonic Order in Livonia

1565

Turks fail to conquer Malta

1571

Holy League wins a naval battle against the Turks at Lepanto; Cyprus falls to Turks

1578

King Sebastian of Portugal defeated and killed at Alcazar on crusade in Morocco

1588

Spanish Armada attracts crusade privileges for Spanish

1669

Crete falls to Turks

1683

Turks besiege Vienna

1684–97

Holy League begins to reconquer Balkans from Turks

1798

Hospitallers surrender Malta to Napoleon Bonaparte

1898

Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany visits Jerusalem and Damascus

1914–18

First World War; Ottoman Turkey allies with Germany which encourages proclamation of jihad against the Turks’ enemies

1917

British under General Allenby take Jerusalem

1919

Versailles Peace Treaty negotiations confirm mandates for Britain and France in Syria, Palestine, Iraq, and the Lebanon

1948

Creation of the State of Israel (defended in wars 1948, 1967, 1973)

1982

Israeli invasion of Lebanon

1990

Gulf War

2001

Al-Qaeda attack on United States

2003–4

Iraq War

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