Post-classical history

NOTES

1Translation of the Register of Charterhouse in St John Hope 1925, 7.

2Benedictow 2004; Cohn 2002.

3Röhrkasten 2001; Megson 1998.

4Sharpe 1889, 1890.

5CHW,Vol. 1, xiv; xxii: The wills related only to property in the city, setting a benchmark for those enrolling them; furthermore, enrolment of each cost 15s 10d – a significant sum in itself.

6The widest review of the wills is that of Weetman 2004, analysing trends from 1259–1370. Röhrkasten 2001 represents the most detailed review of the evidence for the period from 1348–1400. Other studies have included Cohn 2003, 197; Benedictow 2004, 136.

7Freemen citizens and their families were a much smaller group than the entire resident population of London; it has been estimated that they made up slightly more than a quarter of the total population (CPMR, Vol. 2, xlvii–liv).

8Röhrkasten 2001, 176–7; Megson 1998, 129.

9From 1327–47, an average of twenty-eight wills were drawn up, and 27.2 enrolled per annum, ranging between a minimum of sixteen wills and fifteen enrolments (in 1344) and a maximum of forty-nine wills and fifty-two enrolments (in 1328): CHW,Vol. 1.

10Estimates for 80,000 by about 1300 are provided in Keene 1984; a lower figure of 60,000 is argued in Nightingale 1996. The famine years of the early fourteenth century saw a national population drop of perhaps 10 to 15 per cent (e.g. Nightingale 2005, 44). The issue of whether the population subsequently rose or remained static between then and 1348 is unclear (Barron 2004, 239). I have elected to assume a population of 60,000 in 1348.

11Between 1347 and 1375, women were responsible for just 13.8 per cent of all Husting wills, a figure that dropped to 12.1 per cent between 1375 and 1400.

12Wood 2003.

13VCH Middx 2, Appendix 1, 102–3.

14Weetman 2004, 40–51.

15Röhrkasten 2001, 180.

16TNA SC 2/191/60.

17DNB, 2, 378.

18The disease was known to medieval people as the great mortality, pestilence or epidemic: the term ‘Black Death’ was not coined until much later.

19Cohn 2003, 154; Riley 1863, 252; Martin 1996. Knighton was a canon of Leicester Abbey. An epidemic also visited Florence in March to June of 1340, causing many deaths (Henderson 1988, 253). This killed 34 per cent of men, 34 per cent of women and 32 per cent of children, buried by the Company of Roast Chestnuts in the parish of San Frediano.

20CPMR, Vol. 1, 143–64.

21Although in 1341 there had been forty-five wills drawn, compared to an average since 1327 of twenty-eight, and a figure of just twenty-one for 1343 itself: CHW,Vol. 1.

22Tuchmann 1989, 91.

23Carlin 1996, 143.

24Blatherwick and Bluer 2009, 60–75.

25Phillpotts 1999.

26Rosser 1989, 167–70.

27Benedictow 2004.

28Benedictow 2004, 96–109.

29Hardy 1869, Vol. 1, 361.

30CPL, Vol. 3, 37–8.

31Horrox 1994, 221.

32CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 142.

33Hamilton-Thompson 1914, 102; Horrox 1994, 111–12.

34Horrox 1994, 112.

35Horrox 1994, 114.

36CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 147.

37CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 146–7.

38CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 144. The twenty-four ‘poor’ knights were, of course, the Order of the Garter.

39Wilson et al. 1986, 82–3.

40Ashbee 2007, Chapter 7.

41CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 149.

42CCR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 559.

43CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 151.

44CCR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 588.

45CLB F, 183.

46CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 183.

47Hardy 1869, Vol. 1, 363.

48CCR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 585.

49CCR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 588.

50CAN, DD, no 416.

51CAN, DD, no 417.

52CHW, Vol. 1, 505–632.

53CPL, Vol. 3, 286, 310.

54TNA SC 2/191/60.

55Infectious diseases have an incubation stage and an infectious stage; the duration of these may vary from hours to weeks. For a short review of the debates over the nature of the plague, and how the London evidence can contribute, see the Appendix.

56See Appendix. This proposition would clearly mean a later arrival and faster spread. If it is right, there is no obvious explanation for the number of chroniclers setting the date as July or August for the plague’s arrival. It remains the case that the combined evidence of discrete manorial courts and Episcopal institutions provides a sounder basis for analysis than chronicles.

57Hardy 1869, Vol. 1, 359.

58Horrox 1984, 250.

59TNA E 403/345 m1 (payment is dated Wednesday 1 October 1348). Perhaps a scribal error is to blame.

60Horrox 1994, 113–14; Philip Ziegler (1977, 122 n5) referenced this erroneously as evidence that London was already being ravaged by this date.

61Horrox 115; Parry 1912, 137.

62Giles 1847, 189; Horrox 1994, 81; Luard 1866, 475.

63CHW, Vol. 1, 506–7.

64TNA SC 2/191/60 m1–2.

65Johnson 1948, Vol. 2; CCRBL, 134 (l).

66CLB F, 185.

67Foedera, Vol. 5, 643, 646.

68CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 193.

69CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 202.

70Horrox 1994, 115–16.

71Duffy 1992, 293.

72Barron 2004, 330.

73CPL, Vol. 3, 272.

74Thompson 1889, 406–7; Horrox 1994, 65.

75CPL, Vol. 3, 309.

76Foedera,Vol. 5, 649.

77Mortimer 2008, 262.

78CCR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 606–7.

79Gentleman’s Magazine,Vol. 1 (new series), 1834, January–June, 217; the location in the retro-choir of the slab is discussed in Divers et al. 2009, 67, monument L438. I am grateful to Nathalie Cohen for drawing my attention to this work.

80CHW,Vol. 1, 518, 526, 609.

81CLB F, 185.

82TNA SC 2/191/60 m4.

83Hockey 1987, 25.

84Horrox 1994, 74.

85Horrox 1994, 22–3.

86Horrox 1994, 81.

87Horrox 1994, 64, 74, 81.

88Horrox 1994, 28–30.

89Horrox 1994, 194–203.

90Horrox 1994, 52–3.

91Hurston 1856. The original document is lost and undated, however, so could as easily refer to the 1361 or even later outbreaks.

92VCH Middx 2, 61–70.

93Hockey 1986, nos 331–2, 345, 354, 363. The dates of institution, often several weeks later than the vacancies themselves, were recorded in the register on 22 and 14 January, and 2, 15 and 20 February respectively.

94TNA SC 2/205/12 m9d.

95CHW, Vol. 1, 608.

96CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 177–9.

97Horrox 194, 81; Bernard d’Espaygne, a wine merchant, was beheaded at Nomanneslond in 1326 for treason (Riley 1863, 266); BL Ms Nero E vi; MOSJ MS K/12, 28.

98Kingsford 1908, Vol. 2, 81–2.

99So named in the Cartulary of the Knights Hospitaller; BL Ms Nero E vi; MOSJ MS K/12, p. 36, charter dated to 1432.

100Tyler 1998, 118–19, fig. 5.

101Horrox 1994, 64–5.

102Horrox 1994, 53.

103Harvey 1993, 115–16.

104CCR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 615; Horrox 1994, 71.

105Foedera, Vol. 5, 655.

106Mortimer 2008, 262.

107Ziegler 1977, 72–5; Riley 1868, 264–5.

108Horrox 1994, 74, quoting John of Reading.

109CPL, Vol. 3, Gilbert Palmer and his wife Alice, and William Blod and his wife Joan.

110CHW, Vol. 1, 518, 524–5, 528–30, 571, 640–1, 647, 661.

111CHW, Vol. 1, 600; 602.

112CHW, Vol. 1, 517.

113CHW, Vol. 1, 514, 519.

114CHW, Vol. 1, 515.

115CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 218, 254; CHW,Vol. 1, 512; Hockey 1986 (ed.), no 404.

116TNA SC 2/191/60 m6–m12d.

117Horrox 1994, 32.

118TNA LR 2/61, translated by W. St John Hope 1925, 7–8.

119Levillain 2002, 1,221.

120Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: www.oxforddnb.com/index/17/101017985/; CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 332.

121St John Hope 1925, 7–8; Pugh 1969, 159.

122CPP, Vol. 22, 234.

123St John Hope 1925, 7.

124CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 266.

125Horrox 1994, 81.

126Horrox 1994, 65; a garbling of this has led to a miscalculation of 2,000 burials in one cemetery between 2 February and 2 April 1348 (Gottfried 1983, 64; Naphy and Spicer 2004, 31).

127Horrox 1994, 70, quoting the Historia Roffensis attributed to William of Dene.

128Barber and Thomas 2002, 13–14.

129PRO C 54 185 m27, translated by Dr Jeremy Ashbee.

130CLPA, nos 65, 68. This should be placed in the context of twenty-four such alleged violent dispossessions between 1340 and 1450 (with breaks in the sequence).

131CLB F, 203.

132CLB G, 30–31.

133TNA SC 2/191/60 m9–m12d; SC 2/205/12 m10.

134CCR, Ed III, Vol. 9, 8–9.

135CCR, Ed III, Vol. 9, 54. The search encompassed many other English ports, too.

136MOSJ MS K/12, Baildon transcript of Cotton MS Nero E vi, fo 15d.

137LMA Husting Rolls 77/49, 77/126 (information courtesy of Tony Dyson, Nick Holder and Nathalie Cohen).

138CHW, Vol. 1, 534, 537.

139TNA SC 2/191/60 esp m13–m15d; Riley 1868, liii.

140TNA SC 2/191/60 m21; CHW, Vol. 1, 535.

141CHW, Vol. 1, 531–2.

142CHW, Vol. 1, 556.

143CHW, Vol. 1, 558; detail of will transcribed from microfilm at LMA by Dr Jeremy Ashbee.

144St John Hope 1925, 7.

145Grimes 1968, 175–80.

146CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 331; CAN, no 437; Grainger and Phillpotts 2011, 75; TNA E 40/2643.

147Hodgett 1971, no 951.

148Hodgett 1971, no 958.

149CHW, Vol. 1, 651, 679; detail transcribed from LMA microfiche by Dr Jeremy Ashbee.

150TNA E 210/6811.

151TNA E 326/2310.

152CHW, Vol. 1, 597.

153Foedera,Vol. 5, 658, transcribed by Dr Jeremy Ashbee.

154IPM, Ed III, Vol. 9, nos 368, 428.

155CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 261.

156CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 271.

157CCR, Ed III, Vol. 9, 62–4.

158CPMR, Vol. 1, 224.

159CLB F, 191.

160CLB F, 186.

161CHW, Vol. 1, 567, 581, 599; Hist Gaz, St Pancras Soper Lane no 145/36.

162Her guardianship was assigned on 13 June 1353 to Thomas de Staundone, cofferer, and she claimed her property at full age in 1362 (CLB G, 8, 145).

163CHW, Vol. 1, 558, 576.

164CHW, Vol. 1, 543, 563.

165CLB F, 189.

166CHW, Vol. 1, 598.

167CLB G, 11–12; CAD, C 6871.

168CHW, Vol. 1, 552.

169CHW, Vol. 1, 562–3.

170Barron 1985, 23–5.

171CHW, Vol. 1, 540, 542, 547, 565, 679; see Chapter 5 for further consideration of fraternities.

172CPR, Ed III, Vol. 4, 105.

173CHW, Vol. 1, 552; CPL,Vol. 3, 289.

174CHW, Vol. 1, 675.

175CHW, Vol. 1, 544, 590; see also Redstone and Redstone 1937.

176CHW, Vol. 1, 618, 619.

177Westlake 1923, Vol. 1, 110.

178CPL, Vol. 3, 274.

179CHW, Vol. 1, 569.

180TNA LR 15/163.

181CAD, Vol. 4 (1902), A 7378.

182CLB F, 221.

183TNA SC 2/191/60 m16–m19d.

184CHW, Vol. 1, 652.

185CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 277.

186CCR, Ed III, Vol. 9, 65.

187CHW, Vol. 1, 564.

188TNA SC 2/191/60 m16d.

189CHW, Vol. 1, 569; CLB F, 188, 191.

190CLB F, 191.

191Jones 1964, 20–2.

192Horrox 1994, 64–5, after Thompson 1889, 406–7.

193Sporley’s History of the abbots of Westminster, written c. 1450 (BL Cotton MS Claud A viii), quoted by Dugdale, 1817, Monasticon, Vol. 1, 275, translated by Dr Jeremy Ashbee.

194Cal Hust Wills, Vol. 1, 578.

195CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 285, 286. Reasons for vacancy could include death, resignation, exchange or cessation; dates of presentation to a vacant benefice could be anywhere from a few days to several weeks after vacancy. Actual institution might follow days, weeks or months after the presentation (see Aberth 1995). The dates here suggest deaths in April or May.

196CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 285, 291.

197CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 287; CHW, Vol. 1, 559.

198CPL, Vol. 3, 273–4.

199CPL, Vol. 3, 285.

200CPL, Vol. 3, 330; CPP, Vol. 1, 165.

201VCH London 1, 542–6; CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 348.

202CHW, Vol. 1, 568, 580, 595.

203Harvey 2000, 18, quoting WAM 19331; John of Reading is described as ‘tunc infirmario’ (‘then the infirmarer’) on 15 March 1350, presumably appointed following the death of John de Ryngestede during the plague.

204Ahl 2002, 18–19.

205CHW, Vol. 1, 586; Kingsford 1915, 101.

206CHW, Vol. 1, 571.

207TNA SC 2/191/60 m20–m22d.

208CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 295, 298.

209CAN, no 617: the complaint was brought following the reconstruction of the forge in May 1377.

210CFR, Ed III, Vol. 6; CHW,Vol. 1, 577.

211CPMR, Vol. 1, A6, m1b.

212CAN, Roll DD, no 418. Hardyngham was litigious, see note 50.

213Sutton 2005, 96.

214Pugh 1968, 280.

215TNA E 101 471/3, translated by Dr Jeremy Ashbee.

216Gask 1926, 15.

217CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 298.

218Foedera, Vol. 5, 662, transcribed by Dr Jeremy Ashbee.

219CLPA, no 67.

220CHW, Vol. 1, 691; Vol. 2, 70.

221CHW, Vol. 1, ix.

222CHW, Vol. 1, 603, 649–51.

223CCR, Vol. 9, 163.

224Barron 2004, 39.

225CFR, Ed III, Vol. 6, 140; CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 303.

226CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 309, 332.

227CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 305.

228CLB F, 192.

229CLB F, 192; Horrox 1994, 287–9.

230CLB F, 192.

231CPMR, Vol. 1, A6, m1b.

232CLB G, ix.

233CHW, Vol. 1, 608, 610; Vol. 2, 80.

234CHW, Vol. 1, 607.

235CHW, Vol. 1, 607–8.

236CHW, Vol. 1, 600, 602.

237CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 347, 354.

238CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 388, 355.

239Ormrod 1989, 856.

240TNA SC 2/191/61 m20–24d.

241CHW, Vol. 1, 641.

242Riley 1868, 244–7.

243CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 389.

244CHW, Vol. 1, 567; CLB F, 193.

245CLB F, 216; CHW, Vol. 1, 596.

246CPMR, Vol. 1, A6, m2; CLB F, 199.

247CPMR, Vol. 1, A6, m2b. This had a happy ending since on 13 April 1372, ‘Juliana, daughter of John Sellyng, acknowledged a loan of £3 2s 4d from John Lytlyngton, to be repaid out of 100s rents assigned to her by William de Stoke, tailor, that amount being in the latter’s keeping as her guardian’ (CPMR, Vol. 2, A17, m4b).

248CHW, Vol. 1, 512, 524; CLB G, 57. De Northerne could not be found, so his properties and goods were seized.

249CLB F, 207; CHW, Vol. 1, 535, 616.

250Horrox 1994, 72.

251CIPM, Ed III, Vol. 9, 302.

252CPL, Vol. 3, 327.

253Naphy and Spicer (2004, 32), following Gottfried (1983, 64), claim that 290 deaths per day were recorded between June and September 1349, but no basis for this figure has been found.

254Horrox 1994, 153–4.

255CPL, Vol. 3, 42.

256CHW, Vol. 1, ix: the court was suspended for harvest time, and this clearly included the whole of August and September each year.

257CHW, Vol. 1, 608–9, 611, 614, 618.

258CHW, Vol. 1, 616; CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 455.

259CLB F, 110.

260Röhrkasten 2001, 189.

261CLPA, nos 66–68.

262CLPA, no 57.

263CHW, Vol. 1, 555, 572, 621–2.

264Luard 1866, 412.

265CLB F, 199.

266CPMR, Vol. 1, A6, m3b.

267CLB F, 199.

268CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 459; CLB F, 210.

269Horrox 1994, 118.

270CHW, Vol. 1, 626.

271CHW, Vol. 1, 625. Richard survived until 1363 but his little sister is not mentioned in his will (CHW, Vol. 2, 77).

272TNA E 101/472, translated and summarised by Dr Jeremy Ashbee.

273St Paul’s by 1345, Salisbury Cathedral by February 1349 and Hereford by July 1349: CPL, Vol. 3, 184, 293, 319.

274Sharpe 1885, 9.

275Riley 1868, 251–2. De Hethe was apparently afterwards imprisoned for impersonating the Pope’s secretary. Though pardoned in 1352 by the king, he was again accused of impersonation four years later, his role this time that of a canon of Hereford Cathedral (Parry 1912, 244).

276TNA E 40/2645; CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 484.

277Platt 1997 (3rd imp.), 6.

278The averaged figure is consistent with the results from the pestis secunda, where the average from seven individuals (about 5 per cent of the sample) indicates death at a point 27 per cent of the way through the same period.

279I am very grateful to Penny Tucker for sharing her analysis of the Husting court sessions with me.

280TNA CP 40. I am very grateful to Graham Dawson for sharing his preliminary evidence with me.

281Barber and Thomas 2002, 12–13; Museum of London Archaeology Service unpublished evaluation report site code GLY01.

282Grainger et al. 2008, 12.

283The provision of age and sex to any individual skeleton is not 100 per cent certain (e.g. Chamberlain 2006); demographic data are derived from the Centre for Human Bioarchaeology database at the Museum of London and have been grouped into cohorts and matched to archaeological evidence by the author as part of a study on medieval monastic cemeteries: http://ads.ahds.ac.uk/catalogue/archive/cemeteries_ahrb_2005/index. cfm?CFID=31460&CFTOKEN=63267820

284S.N. DeWitte, 2007 (data from 490 specimens generously supplied by DeWitte and converted into age/sex categories as used in Table 3a/3b).

285Grainger et al. 2008, 33.

286Hatcher 1986, 31.

287Grainger et al. 2008, 55.

288CLB G, 15.

289See, for example, Gottfried 1980, 9: London’s tax returns for 1377 indicate a ratio of men to women of 1.07:1.

290Hollingsworth and Hollingsworth 1971; though this is not true of all episodes of plague analysed: see S. Ell 1985.

291Lomas 1989, 130.

292Laurent 1937, nos 730–865.

293Evans in prep; the burials were dated, by dendrochronology of the remarkably well-preserved coffins, to 1349 in several instances.

294For a discussion of this issue, see Gilchrist and Sloane 2005, Chapter 5.2.

295Gilchrist and Sloane 2005, Table 7.

296Hawkins 1990, 641, for putrefaction; Gilchrist and Sloane 2005, Chapter 5.2; Gilchrist 2008, 144–7.

297Gilchrist and Sloane 2005, 102.

298Horrox 1994, 31–2.

299Dohar 1995, 39.

300Lütgert 2000, 258.

301Horrox 1994, 268–9.

302C. Thomas, personal communication.

303Ziegler 1969 (1997 edn), 124; Naphy and Spicer 2004, 31; Olea and Christakos 2005, 299–300.

304Britnell 1994, 198–9; Röhrkasten 2004, 77.

305See Nightingale 2005, 40–1.

306Megson 1998.

307Hovland 2006, 208–9.

308Hennessey, 1898. I have also included evidence from the Husting wills which augments Hennessey’s original work.

309CPP, 234, 395.

310CPP, 468.

311St John Hope, 25, 7–8; Kingsford 1908, II, 81–2.

312TNA E 328/6.

313Hawkins 1990, 642.

314CLB G, 85.

315Riley 1868, 264–5.

316VCH Middx 5, 49–55.

317Karlsson 1996, 271, quoting lslandske Annaler indtil 1578.

318CHW; Thrupp 1996.

319Oxford: Salter 1912, 29–59; Colchester: Benham 1907, 55–9; Lincoln: Hill 1948, 251–2; York and Norwich: Dunn 2003, 32–3; for an overview, Britnell 1994.

320Britnell 1994, 200.

321Lomas 1989, 129.

322Hatcher 1994, 9.

323Dyer 1980, 237–8; Arthur 2005, 120; Ecclestone 1999.

324CIPM, 176, 190, 202, 204, 222, 230, 390, 664.

325Givry: Benedictow 2004, 105; Orvieto: Cohn 2003, 171; Siena and San Gimignano: Bowsky 1964, 11, 17; Perpignan: Emery 1967, 616.

326PROME, II, 225, m6.

327PROME, II, 224, m4.

328PROME, II, 231, m2.

329Lindley 1996 (2003), 139.

330PROME, II, 227, m4; Horrox 1994, 312–4.

331Putnam 1908, 136–7; CLB G, 115–8.

332Beveridge 1955, 20; table 1. Costs based on ‘decadal’ averages 1340–8 and 1349–59.

333Beveridge 1955, tables 3 and 4.

334Harvey 1993, 172–3; Shaw 2000, 190.

335Hatcher 1994, 7; Munro 2004, 8–9.

336Galloway 2000, 31, 42.

337PROME, II, 260, m32.

338Nightingale 2005, 46–7.

339Glovers by 6 January 1350; shearmen by 15 February 1350; furbishers by 5 July 1350 (CLB F).

340CPMR, Vol. 1, A6 (pp. 224–40), m7.

341Putnam 1915, 23; Dohar 2000, 187.

342William Langland, Piers Plowman: The Prologue, lines 80–3. For a discussion on resignation rates in the diocese of Ely during the pestilence, see Aberth 1995, 281–3.

343Putnam 1908, 91.

344Logan 1996, reviewed by B. Harvey in J Eccles Hist., Vol. 49, No 1, January 1998, 171–2.

345Westlake 1923, Vol. 1, 110;Vol. 2, 395; WAM 50698; there were twenty-eight monks and the abbot in 1381 according to the poll tax collected in that year.

346Harvey 2000, esp. 20–2.

347Westlake 1923, Vol. 2, 297, 341.

348For the Eleanor dole, see Harvey 1993, 27–8; for the abbey almonry, see Rushton 2002, esp. 77.

349Röhrkasten 2004, 77, 79–80; Kingsford 1915, 62.

350TNA E 143/9/14.

351CLB G, 28; CPL 3, 574–5.

352CLB G, 43, 49–50; Sabine 1933, 343.

353Riley 1868, 295–300.

354Hanawalt 1993, 48.

355Hanawalt 1993, 57.

356Thrupp 1996, 203.

357CHW, Vol. 2, 664, 695.

358Röhrkasten 2001, 190.

359Axworthy 2000, 301.

360Norris 1991, 186–7; Badham 2000, 232.

361Lindley 2003, 130–1.

362Martin 1996, 184.

363Gairdner 1876, 67–88.

364Galbraith 1927, 50.

365Gransden 1957, 275.

366CHW,Vol. 2, 13.

367Britnell nd, no 59.

368Gransden 1957, 275.

369Horrox 1994, 85–6.

370Horrox 1994, 86.

371Röhrkasten 2001, 192.

372CLB H, 17.

373CHW, Vol. 2, 17, 26, 18.

374Hardy 1869, 417.

375CHW, Vol. 2, 27.

376St John Hope 1925, 9–10.

377TNA E 326/2315.

378CPR, Ed III, Vol. 12, 2.

379CPR Ed III, Vol. 11, 567.

380CPR Ed III, Vol. 12, 20.

381CCR, Ed III, Vol. 11, 248.

382CLB G, 134–5.

383CHW, Vol. 2, 60–1, 22, 49.

384CHW, Vol. 2, 19; CLB G, 122.

385CPR, Ed III, Vol. 12, 176; CHW, Vol. 2, 22, 37.

386CCR, Ed III, Vol. 9, 181–2.

387Rickert 1952.

388CFR, Vol. 7, 158; CPR, Ed III, Vol. 12, 21, 19.

389Carlin 1996, 286;VCH London 1, 542.

390CPR, Ed III, Vol. 12, 22, 39.

391CHW, Vol. 2, 31.

392Harvey 1993, 84; Harvey 2000, 18 n35; CLB G, 129.

393CHW, Vol. 2, 299; CLB G, 128.

394CAD, Vol. 6, C 6385.

395Harvey 1947; CHW,Vol. 2, 106.

396CHW, Vol. 2, 26.

397CHW, Vol. 2, 23 (qv CHW, Vol. 1, 572).

398CHW, Vol. 2, 24.

399CPR, Ed III, Vol. 12, 25.

400CPR, Ed III, Vol. 12, 42, 80; CHW,Vol. 2, 30, 73.

401CPR, Ed III, Vol. 12, 73.

402Tytler 1845, 36; Reid 1928, 122.

403CPR, Ed III, Vol. 12, 36; CHW,Vol. 2, 38.

404Cohn 2003, 143.

405CPR, Ed III, Vol. 4, 441; Vol. 10, 288; Vol. 13, 194; CCR, Ed III, 291; CHW, Vol. 2, 56.

406CCR, Ed III, Vol. 9, 197–8.

407Horrox 1994, 119.

408CHW, Vol. 2, 44.

409CHW, Vol. 2, 59–60.

410CPR, Ed III, Vol. 12, 53; Fasti,Vol. 5, 66–8.

411CPR, Ed III, Vol. 12, 61–2.

412CAD, Vol. 2, A 2686.

413CHW, Vol. 2, 24; CAD, Vol. 5, A 11790.

414CHW, Vol. 2, 33.

415CLB G, 133.

416CHW, Vol. 2, 46; CPR, Ed III, Vol. 14, 178–9.

417TNA C 241/141/128; CHW, Vol. 2, 61, 63.

418Carlin 1996, 286;VCH London 1, 538–42;VCH Middx 1, 193–204; Harvey 1993, 102; 116 n12; McHardy 1977, 29–38.

419CCR, Ed III, Vol. 9, 370.

420CPR, Ed III, Vol. 9, 488.

421Grainger et al. 2008, 30.

422TNA E 42/447; CHW,Vol. 2, 90.

423CCR, 1422–27, 211; TNA SC 6/917/16.

424At 95 per cent confidence rating. The cemetery went out of use in 1539 so the burial dates to between 1402 and 1539.

425Gilchrist and Sloane 2005, Chapter 8.

426Bolton 1996, 27; Naphy and Spicer 2004, 34.

427Megson 1998, 133.

428CHW,Vol. 1, 608.

429Horrox 1994, 88; Gransden 1957, 277.

430Exceptions are Bridbury 1973, 584; Röhrkasten 2001.

431Cohn 2003, 197; Giles 1845, 173.

432Fitch 1979.

433Röhrkasten 2001, 196, implying approximately 10 per cent mortality during the plague.

434CHW,Vol. 2, 109, 115, 131; Fitch 1979, 398, 424.

435Ormrod 1996, 150.

436CAN, nos 538–44.

437CLB G, 226.

438CLB G, 228.

439CLB G, 230.

440CLB G, 229. I thank Dr Claire Martin for the explanation of this type of guardianship.

441CPR, Ed III, Vol. 14, 272.

442CHW, Vol. 2, 117, 122; Fitch 1979, 178.

443CAD, Vol. 2, A 1927.

444Duncan nd, book 25.

445CPMR, Vol. 2, A13, 84–95.

446CHW, Vol. 2, 112, 129.

447Röhrkasten 2001, 192.

448CHW, Vol. 2, 125, transcribed by Dr Jeremy Ashbee.

449CHW, Vol. 2, 120; CPMR, A14, m2.

450Davis 1993, 56; BL MS Nero E vi, fo 4d.

451Horrox 1994, 88.

452Röhrkasten 2001, 198.

453CHW, Vol. 2, 171, 173, 187.

454Röhrkasten 2001, 198.

455CHW, Vol. 2, 174.

456CPMR, Vol. 2, A21, m5.

457Röhrkasten 2001, 198.

458CHW, Vol. 2, 175, 181.

459John de Norwich does not appear in lists of masters of the hospital in the Victoria County History, or as updated by Barron and Davies. He first appears in 1354 when his estate was ratified by the king (CPR, Ed III, Vol. 10, 74), so he must have replaced William Weston in 1352 or 1353, and his successor was recognised in 1376 (CAD,Vol. 2, A 2334); therefore, he ran the hospital for over twenty-two years.

460CPR, Ed III, Vol. 16, 159.

461Horrox 1994, 120.

462CPMR, Vol. 2, 199.

463CHW, Vol. 2, 225; Harvey 1993, 76.v.

464Röhrkasten 2001, 199–200.

465Riley 1868, 384.

466Röhrkasten 2001, 199–200.

4671377 London and Middlesex Poll Tax: Fenwick 2001 (pt 2), 61–2; Southwark: Carlin 1996, 142–3; Westminster: Rosser 1989, 162; adult population estimates for London: Russell 1948, 285–7.

468Nightingale 1995, 239.

469Hanawalt 2007, 27–8; Carlin 1996, 139; Megson 1996, 25; Gottfried 1980, 9; Goldberg 1990, 212–3.

470Nightingale 1995, 208.

471Holt 1987, 205–6.

472Dunn 2003, 33.

473Gooder 1998, 40–3;VCH Oxford 4, 3–73.

474Martin 1996, 105.

475Keene 1990, 30–8.

476O’Connor 1993, 63, 101–2; Schofield 1995, 55; Carlin 1996, 46–7; Rosser 1989, 68–73.

477Ormrod 1996; Braid in prep; Haddock and Kielsing 2002.

478Riley 1861, 4.

479Riley 1861, 29.

480Cohn 2002, 38–9; Thrupp 1996, 201–6.

481Hovland 2006, 174.

482Hovland 2006, 81: the sums rose again to 6s 6d in 1418.

483Hovland 2006, 51, 136.

484Braid in prep.

485Hovland 2006, 229, 239.

486Badham 2000, 232.

487Blackmore and Pearce 2010, 20.

488Riley 1868, 267; CLBF, 241.

489Horrox 1994, 131–4.

490Riley 1868, 319; Ipswich had one: Twiss 1873, 164–5.

491CLBF, 208; CHW, Vol. 2, 114.

492CLBG, 78, 169, 192, 295; Riley 1861, 508.

493Rushton 2002.

494See Chapter 3.

495For London dormitories, see, for example, Schofield and Lea 2005, 125; Sloane and Malcolm 2004, 92; for hospital and infirmary halls, see, for example, Orme and Webster 1995, 90–1; Prescott 1992, 38–41.

496Miller and Saxby 2007, 86–7, 126; Harvey and Oeppen 2001, 222.

497Harvey and Oeppen 2001, 227–30, 233.

498Weetman 2004, 143, 146, 173, chart 4c; CHW, Vol. 2, 18, 39, 106.

499CCRC, 61.

500Thompson 1965, 186.

501Barron 1985; Weetman 2004, 171.

502Calculated from an analysis of the Husting wills by the author.

503Barron 1985, 25.

504CHW, Vol. 1, 482, 637; Vol. 2, 106, 147, 218.

505Riley 1868, 230, 365, 384, 388.

506Rawcliffe 2006, 282–3.

507Rawcliffe 2006, 109.

508Rawcliffe 2006, 13–47.

509Carlin 1996, 103–4.

510CLB K, 124–6; CCR 40–270.

511Thompson 1965, 185.

512CHW, Vol. 2, 283.

513CHW, Vols 1 and 2; this cannot take account of the missing roll for 1360.

514Weetman 2004, 232.

515Harding 1992, 126.

516CHW, Vol. 2, 187.

517Wood-Legh 1932, 50; Kreider 1979, 72; Rousseau 2003, 27–30; Boldrick 1997, 26.

518Weetman 2004, 89–104; CHW, Vol. 1, 665.

519Gilchrist and Sloane 2005, 94; Gilchrist 2008.

520There are a number of works which summarise the debates, including Theilmann and Cate, 2007, and especially Nutton 2008.

521Benedictow 2004, Chapter 3: a flea biting an infected rat develops a plug of multiplying bacteria blocking its stomach. Starving, it regurgitates parts of the bacterial block as it tries to feed, introducing the disease into the bloodstream of its host. As starving fleas transfer to new rat hosts, the colony suffers an epizootic. As the rats die, the fleas are forced to attack new hosts including humans, introducing the plague to them.

522Cohn 2003, 8.

523Benedictow 2004, 20.

524For bubonic outbreaks, Cohn (2003, 19) quotes 2.68 per cent for Bombay City in 1903; Benedictow (2004, 31) tabulates an overall mortality rate for the Bombay Presidency of 2.38 per cent in 1897–8, but with local figures up to 36 per cent in smaller settlements such as Ibrampur. Thielman and Cate (2007, 385) quote similar ranges from three Manchurian outbreaks in 1910–21 of 2 per cent up to 25 per cent in some villages.

525Temperatures between 18°C and 27°C and a relative humidity of 70 per cent are ideal, whereas temperatures below 7°C are deleterious to all developmental stages except the adult, Duncan and Scott 2005, 316.

526For example, Horrox 2006; Wray 2004.

527Drancourt et al. 1998; Raoult et al. 2000; Wood and DeWitte-Avina 2003; Prentice et al. 2004; Thomas et al. 2004; Drancourt et al. 2007; Haensch et al. 2010.

528Gasquet 1893, 7–8.

529Bean 1963, 426.

530Shrewsbury 1970, 3, 6.

531Ell 1979.

532Siraisi 1982, 11. Siraisi was concerned about the capacity for bacteria to mutate.

533Twigg 1984; reviewed by Wilkinson 1985; Gottfried 1986; Palmer 1987.

534Bean 1982, 26–7.

535Davis 1986; Audoin-Rouzeau 1999; McCormick 2003.

536Karlsson 1996; Steffensen 1974.

537Scott and Duncan 2001; 2004.

538For example, http://scienceblogs.com/aetiology/2008/01/did_yersinia_pestis_really_cau_1.php. For a pro-bubonic review of Scott and Duncan by the director of the King’s Centre for Military Health Research at King’s College London, seewww.guardian.co.uk/books/2004/aug/14/features-reviews.guardianreview

539Cohn 2002; 2003.

540Wood et al. 2003.

541Baillie 2006.

542Eisen et al. 2006.

543Given-Wilson 2004, 1–20.

544For example, Benedictow (1994, 128) bases much on the dates; Ziegler (1969, 92–3) is far more circumspect; Shrewsbury (1970, 38) is non-committal.

545Gasquet 1893, 78; Hamilton-Thompson 1911, 316–7; Benedictow 2004, 124.

546Davis 1989; Woods et al. 2003, 437–41.

547WSA D 1/2/3; Fletcher 1922, 1–14.

548Fletcher, 1922, 6–7; Dorchester (9 miles north of Weymouth) replaced an incumbent on 19 October as did Wool. Blandford, Sturminster Newton and Salisbury (22, 30 and 50 miles north/north-east of Weymouth respectively) replaced clergy between 20 and 28 October.

549Dorchester: CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 185; Bincombe: CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 182; Bradford: CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 186; Tolpuddle and Piddlehinton (Hynpudel): CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 198; Portesham, Abbotsbury, Wareham and Owermoigne (Ogres): CPR, Ed III, Vol. 8, 202–3.

550Dr Mark Forrest, personal communication.

551Chanter 1910, 92–8.

552Rees 1923, 29; Benedictow 2004, 128. Rees references CIPM, Ed III, Vol. 9, no 104 which does not mention pestilence. The only relevant reference is no 353, the inquisition into the holdings of Andrew Braunche held in Frome on 12 August 1349.

553Shrewsbury 1970, 57; CFR, Ed III, Vol. 6, 182, 198; Bere Regis and Charminster lie between 10 and 20 miles north/north-east of Weymouth.

554If the pestilence had begun to kill in early September, it must have actually made (invisible) landfall some time earlier. Benedictow (2004, 124) argues sixteen to twenty-three days (for bubonic plague), Scott and Duncan (2005, 162) suggest thirty-two days (haemorrhagic plague), before symptoms manifest. This would put its biological landfall (not its outward recognition) at around early or mid-August.

555Bowsher et al. 2007, Vol. 1, 155; CD Table 5; CD Table 22.

556Thomas et al. 2006, 92.

557Armitage 2001, 85; Liddle 2007.

558Ainsley 2001, 132; Twigg 1984, 80; Pipe 2007, 88, 95.

559Wilson 2005, 141; Jones et al. 1985, 604; Ayres and Serjeantson 2002, 170.

560Shrewsbury 1970, 35; see also Cohn 2003, 30 for a refutation of this theory.

561Baillie 2006, 34–9; Hallam 1984, 128.

562Benedictow 2004, 135–77.

563Cohn 2003, 192; fig. 8.8.

564Cohn 2003, 205–7.

565DeWitte and Woods 2008.

566Harvey 2000, 22.

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