BOOK II

ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION

569–1258

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE

570–632:

Mohammed

610:

Mohammed’s vision

622:

His Hegira to Medina

630:

Mohammed takes Mecca

632–4:

Abu Bekr caliph

634–44:

Omar caliph

635:

Moslems take Damascus

637:

and Jerusalem & Ctesiphon

641:

Moslems conquer Persia & Egypt

641:

Moslems found Cairo (Fustat)

642:

Mosque of Amr at Cairo

644–56:

Othman caliph

656–60:

Ali caliph

660–80:

Muawiya I caliph

660–750:

Umayyad caliphate at Damascus

662:

Hindu numerals in Syria

680:

Husein slain at Kerbela

680–3:

Yezid I caliph

683–4:

Muawiya II caliph

685–705:

Abd-al-Malik caliph

691–4:

Al-Aqsa Mosque and Dome of the Rock at Jerusalem

693–862:

Moslem rule in Armenia

698:

Moslems take Carthage

705–15:

Walid I caliph

705f:

Great Mosque of Damascus

711:

Moslems enter Spain

715–17:

Suleiman I caliph

717–20:

Omar II caliph

720–4:

Yezid II caliph

724–43:

Hisham caliph

732:

Moslems turned back at Tours

743:

The Mshatta reliefs

743–4:

Walid II caliph

750:

Abu’l-Abbas al-Saffah founds Abbasid caliphate

754–75:

Al-Mansur caliph; Baghdad becomes capital

755–88:

Abd-er-Rahman I emir of Cordova

757–847:

The Mutazilite philosophers

760:

Rise of the Ismaili sect

775–86:

Al-Mahdi caliph

786f:

Blue Mosque of Cordova

786–809:

Harun al-Rashid caliph

780–974:

Idrisid dynasty at Fez

803:

Fall of the Barmakid family

803f:

Al-Kindi, philosopher

808–909:

Aghlabid dynasty at Qairuan

809–10:

Moslems take Corsica and Sardinia

809–77:

Hunain ibn Ishaq, scholar

813–33:

Al-Mamun caliph

820–72:

Tahirid dynasty in Persia

822–52:

Abd-er-Rahman II emir of Cordova

827f:

Saracens conquer Sicily

830:

“House of Wisdom” at Baghdad

830:

Al-Khwarizmi’s Algebra

844–926:

Al-Razi, physician

846:

Saracens attack Rome

870–950:

Al-Farabi, philosopher

872–903:

Saffarid dynasty in Persia

873–935:

Al-Ashari, theologian

878:

Mosque of Ibn Tulun at Cairo

909f:

Fatimid caliphate at Qairuan

912–61:

Abd-er-Rahman caliph at Cordova

915:

fl. al-Tabari, historian

915–65:

Al-Mutannabi, poet

934–1020:

Firdausi, poet

940–98:

Abu’l Wafa, mathematician

945–1058:

Buwayhid ascendancy in Baghdad

951:

d. of al-Masudi, geographer

952–77:

Ashot III and 990–1020: Gagik I: Golden Age of Medieval Armenia

961–76:

Al-Hakam caliph at Cordova

965–1039:

Al-Haitham, physicist

967–1049:

Abu Said, Sufi poet

969–1171:

Fatimid dynasty at Cairo

970:

Mosque of el-Azhar at Cairo

973–1048:

Al-Biruni, scientist

973–1058:

Al-Ma’arri, poet

976–1010:

Al-Hisham caliph at Cordova

978–1002:

Almanzor prime minister at Cordova

980–1037:

Ibn Sina (Avicenna), philosopher

983f:

Brethren of Sincerity

990–1012:

Mosque of al-Hakim at Cairo

998–1030:

Mahmud of Ghazna

1012:

Berber revolution at Cordova

1017–92:

Nizam al-Mulk, vizier

1031:

End of Cordova caliphate

1038:

Seljuq Turks invade Persia

1038–1123:

Omar Khayyam, poet

1040–95:

Al-Mutamid, emir and poet

1058:

Seljuqs take Baghdad

1058–1111:

Al-Ghazali, theologian

1059–63:

Tughril Beg sultan at Baghdad

1060:

Seljuq Turks conquer Armenia

1063–72:

Alp Arslan sultan

1071:

Turks defeat Greeks at Manzikert

1072–92:

Malik Shah sultan

1077–1327:

Sultanate of Roum in Asia Minor

1088f:

Friday Mosque at Isfahan

1090:

“Assassin” sect founded

1090–1147:

Almoravid dynasty in Spain

1091–1162:

Ibn Zohr, physician

1098:

Fatimids take Jerusalem

1100–66:

Al-Idrisi, geographer

1106f:

fl. Ibn Bajja, philosopher

1107–85:

Ibn Tufail, philosopher

1117–51:

Sanjar, Seljuq sultan

1126–98:

Ibn Rushd (Averroës), phil’r

1130–1269:

Almohad dynasty in Morocco

1138–93:

Saladin

1148–1248:

Almohad dynasty in Spain

1162–1227:

Jenghiz Khan

1175–1249:

Ayyubid dynasty

1179–1220:

Yaqut, geographer

1181f:

Alcazar of Seville

1184–1291:

Sa’di, poet

1187:

Saladin defeats Crusaders at Hattin & takes Jerusalem

1188:

fl. Nizami, poet

1196:

Giralda tower at Seville

1201–73:

Jalal-ud-Din Rumi, poet

1211–82:

Ibn Khallikan, biographer

1212:

Christians defeat Moors at Las Navas de Toledo

1218–38:

Al-Kamil sultan at Cairo

1219:

Jenghiz Khan invades Transoxiana

1245:

Mongols take Jerusalem

1248f:

The Alhambra

1250–1517:

Mamluk rule in Egypt

1252:

Moorish rule in Spain confined to Granada

1258:

Mongols sack Baghdad; end of Abbasid caliphate

1260:

Mamluks repel Mongols at Ain-Jalut

1260–77:

Baibars Mamluk sultan

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