Notes

Full titles of works referred to will be found in the Bibliography. Capital Roman numerals, except at the beginning of a note, indicate volumes, followed by page numbers; small Roman numerals indicate “books” (divisions of a text), followed by chapter or verse numbers.

CHAPTER I

1. Ammianus Marcellinus, xxi, 16.

2. Philostorgius, ii, 9, in Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, II, 78.

3. Sozomen, Ecclesiastical History, ii, 3.

4. Lot, Ferdinand, End of the Ancient World, 71; Bury, J. B., History of the Later Roman Empire, I, 87.

5. Cambridge Medieval History, IV, 748.

6. Ibid., I, 593.

7. Munro and Sellery, Medieval Civilization, 87, says 30,000; Bury, op. cit., says 70,000.

8. Dudden, F. H., Gregory the Great, I, 129.

9. Duchesne, L., Early History of the Christian Church, II, 127.

10. Socrates, Ecclesiastical History, i, 37-8.

11. Ibid., ii, 7-11.

12. Boissier, G., La Fin du paganisme, I, 68; Duchesne, II, 250.

13. Boissier, op. cit., I, 82.

14. Eunapius, Lives of the Sophists, 487.

15. Capes, W. W., University Life in Ancient Athens, 66.

16. Boissier, I, 178.

17. Wright, W. C., Introd. to Eunapius, p. 333.

18. Cf. Inge, W. R., Philosophy of Plotinus, I, 11.

19. In Murray, A. S., History of Greek Sculpture, I, 100.

20. In Boissier, I, 96.

21. Ammianus, xxii, 5; Duchesne, II, 262.

22. Boissier, I, 102.

23. Socrates, iii, 1.

24. Julian, Letter to the Athenians, 278D-280C; Ammianus, xvi, 11-12.

25. Ammianus, xvi, 53; Duchesne, II, 199.

26. Ammianus, xviii, 1.

27. Ibid., xvi, 10.

28. Boissier, I, 107.

29. Ammianus, xxv, 4.

30. Julian, Misopogon, 338B.

31. Socrates, iii, I; Ammianus, xxii, 4.

32. Misopogon, 340B.

33. Ammianus, xvi, 1.

34. Gardner, Alice, Julian, Philosopher and Emperor, 260.

35. Ammianus, xxii, 7.

36. Eunapius, 477.

37. Julian, Letter 441, in Works, III, 7.

38. Julian, To Edicius, 23, in Works, III.

39. Julian, Against the Galileans, 89A-94A, 106DE, 168B, 351D, 238A, 319D.

40. Julian, To the Cynic Herakleios, 205C.

41. Ibid., 217B.

42. Ibid., 237B.

43. Ammianus, xxii, 12.

44. Lucian, Panegyric, in Boissier, I, 140.

45. Julian, Letter to a Priest, 305B; To Arsacius.

46. Julian, To the High Priest Theodorus, 16.

47. Letter to a Priest, 290D.

48. Ammianus, xxii, 10.

49. Sozomen, v, 5, 18; Julian, Works, III, 41n.

50. In Boissier, I, 122.

51. Julian, Letter 10; Boissier, I, 127.

52. Julian, Misopogon, 368C.

53. Ammianus, xxii, 13.

54. Sozomen, vi, 2.

55. Ammianus, xxv, 3.

56. Milman, H. H., History of Latin Christianity, I, 112; Sihler, E. G., From Augustus to Augustine, 217.

57. Theodoret, iii, 28, in Lecky, W. E. H., History of European Morals, II, 261.

58. Duchesne, II, 268.

CHAPTER II

1. Dopsch, A., Economic and Social Foundations of European Civilization, 89.

2. William of Malmesbury, Chronicle of the Kings of England, i, 4.

3. Lea, H. C., Superstition and Force, 451.

4. Boissier, II, 180.

5. Rostovtzeff, M., Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire, 479.

6. Dill, S., Roman Society in the Last Century of the Roman Empire, 297.

7. Jordanes, Gothic History, #247.

8. In Thompson, J. W., Economic and Social History of the Middle Ages, 106.

9. Jordanes, #26f; Gibbon, III, 38.

10. Ammianus, xxxi, 13.

11. Socrates, iv, 31.

12. Broglie, Duc de, St. Ambrose, 120-4.

13. Gibbon, III, 168.

14. Bury, J. B., History of the Later Roman Empire, I, 129; Gibbon, III, 175.

15. Pirenne, H., Medieval Cities, 36.

16. Louis, Paul, Ancient Rome at Work, 231.

17. Boissier, I, 417; Dill, op. cit., 228, 272.

18. Salvianus, De Gubernatione Dei, v, 28, in Frank, T., Economic Survey of Ancient Rome, III, 260.

19. Boissier, II, 416.

20. Ibid.

21. Louis, Paul, 235.

22. In Hodgkin, T., Italy and Her Invaders, I, 423.

23. Cf. Augustine, Ep. 232.

24. Salvian, iv, 15; vii, passim; and excerpts in Heitland, W. E., Agricola, 423, Boissier, II, 410, 420, and Bury, Later Roman Empire, 307.

25. In Dill, 56.

26. Symmachus, Ep. vi, 42; ii, 46; in Dill, 150.

27. Friedländer, L., Roman Life and Manners under the Early Empire, II, 12.

28. Lot, 178; Dill, 58; Friedländer, II, 29.

29. Ammianus, xiv, 6.

30. Symmachus, Ep. iii, 43.

31. Ammianus, xxii, 10.

32. Ibid., xxi, 1; Thorndike, L., History of Magic and Experimental Science, I, 285.

33. Ammianus, xvi, 1.

34. Macrobius, Opera accedunt integrae, Saturnalia, ad fin.

35. Ibid., i, 11.

36. Claudian, Poems, “On the Consulate of Stilicho,” iii, 130.

37. Voltaire, Works, XIII, 77.

38. Boissier, II, 180.

39. In Shotwell, J. T., and Loomis, R., The See of Peter, 675.

40. Symmachus, Ep. x, 3, in Boissier, II, 224.

41. In Boissier, II, 280.

42. Jordanes, 167f.

43. Procopius, History of the Wars, iii, 3.25.

44. Jordanes, #168.

45. Procopius, iii, 5.

46. Jordanes, #181.

47. Ibid., #254f.

48. Procopius, iii, 4.

49. Gibbon, III, 461; Sihler, 302.

CHAPTER III

1. Paul, I Cor. vii, 32.

2. Gibbon, II, 318; Lecky, History of European Morals, II, 49; Duchesne, II, 189.

3. Robertson, J. M., Short History of Free Thought, 242; Bury, History of the Eastern Roman Empire, 352f..

4. Hefele, C. J., History of the Christian Councils, III, 12.

5. Milman, I, 28If.

6. Davis, H. W. C., Medieval England. 128.

7. Ammianus, xxvii, 3.

8. Gibbon, II, 485n.

9. Ammianus, xxvii, 3; Duchesne, II, 364.

10. Cutts, E. L., St. Jerome, 30f.

11. Jerome, Letters, xxii, 30.

12. Ibid., xxxviii, 3; xxii, 13, 27.

13. Ep. cxvii, 7.

14. Ep. xxii, 14.

15. Ibid.

16. Ep. cvii, 3.

17. Ep. xxii, 21.

18. Ep. xxiii.

19. Adv. Jovin., i, 2.

20. Ep. xxii, 25.

21. Duchesne, III, 74.

22. Ibid., 446.

23. Cutts, 150.

24. Jerome, Ep. lx, 17.

25. Socrates, iv, 30.

26. Broglie, 10-13.

27. Augustine, Confessions, ix, 7.

28. In Davis, W. S., and West, W. M., Readings in Ancient History, II, 297.

29. Guizot, F., History of Civilization, I, 341.

30. Gregory of Tours, History of the Franks, 15.

31. Guizot, History of Civilization, II, 69.

32. Duchesne, II, 391.

33. Lecky, Morals, II, 107.

34. Cutts, 137.

35. Lecky, l.c.

36. Ibid., 210.

37. Ibid., 107, 158.

38. Boissier, II, 55.

39. Jerome, Ep. cxxv, 11.

40. Lecky, II, 115.

41. Ibid., 109.

42. Sozomen, vi, 33.

43. Lecky, II, 110; Nöldeke, Th., Sketches from Eastern History, 212f.

44. Lecky, II, 118.

45. Taylor, H. O., Classical Heritage of the Middle Ages, 78.

46. Ibid.; Glover, T. R., Life and Letters in the Fourth Century, 349.

47. In Gibbon, III, 75.

48. Socrates, vi, 3.

49. Bury, Later Roman Empire, I, 138-9.

50. Socrates, vi, 4-5.

51. In Clapham and Power, 116.

52. McCabe, J., St. Augustine and His Age, 228.

53. Ibid., 3c.

54. Augustine, Confessions, ii, 3.

55. Ibid., vi, 3.

56. Augustine, City of God, ii, 14.

57. Confessions, v, 8.

58. Encylopaedia Britannica, II, 682.

59. McCabe, Augustine, 254.

60. Catholic Encyclopedia, II, 88; Augustine, Letters, introd., xvi-xviii.

61. Augustine, Ep. 86.

62. Ep. 93.

63. Ep. 173.

64. Ep. 204.

65. Eps. 103, 133.

66. City of God, v, 9; vi, 22, 27.

67. Sermon 289.

68. Sermon 165.

69. Duchesne, III, 143.

70. Sermon 131.

71. Ep. 181A.

72. Comment, in Joan. Evang., xxix, 6; Sermon 43.

73. In Cambridge Medieval History, I, 581.

74. De Trinitate, i, 1.

75. De vera religione, xxiv, 45.

76. Solil. i, 7.

77. Confessions, xiii, 16.

78. City of God, iv, 27.

80. De libero arbitrio, ii, 16.

81. De Gen. ad litt., vii, 28; De Wulf, History of Medieval Philosophy, I, 118; Catholic Encyclopedia, II, 90.

82. In De Wulf, I, 117.

83. Confessions, Book xi.

84. De Trin., x, 10.

85. Ibid., viii, 6; Confessions, x, 6.

86. De bono conjugali, x; Figgis, J. N., Political Aspects of St. Augustine’s City of God, 76; Lea, H. C., Sacerdotal Celibacy, 47.

87. Confessions, x, 30.

88. Ibid., vii, 14; x, 6, 22; xiii, 9.

89. City of God, vi, 9.

90. Philippians, iii, 20; Ephesians, ii, 19.

91. Figgis, 46.

92. Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, iv, 19.

93. City of God, xv, 1.

94. Ibid., i, 34.

95. Ibid., xix, 7; xx, 9.

96. Boissier, II, 331.

97. Augustine, Letters, p. 38.

98. Comm. on Psalm cxxii.

99. Funk, F. X., Manual of Church History, I, 198.

100. Frazer, Sir J. G., Adonis, Attis, Osiris, 315.

101. Ibid., 306.

102. In Boissier, II, 118.

103. Renan, E., Marc Aurèle, 629.

104. Duchesne, III, 11.

105. Ibid., 16.

106. Lecky, Morals, II, 61.

107. Ibid., 72.

108. Ibid., 83.

109. Ibid., 81.

110. Fisher, H. L., The Medieval Empire, I, 14.

111. Guignebert, C., Christianity Past and Present, 151.

112. Ambrose, Ep. 2, in Boissier, II, 424.

CHAPTER IV

1. Cambridge Ancient History, XII, 287.

2. Haverfield, F., The Roman Occupation of Britain, 220; Home, G., Roman Britain, 104.

3. Quennell, M., Everyday Life in Roman Britain, 103.

4. Mommsen, Th., Provinces of the Roman Empire, I, 211.

5. Bede, Ecclesiastical History, v, 24.

6. Gildas, Chronicle, xxiii; Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, p. 25.

7. Bede, i, 15; Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 26.

8. Collingwood, R. G., and Myres, J., Roman Britain, 320.

9. Geoffrey of Monmouth, British History, vii-xi.

10. William of Malmesbury, Chronicle, 11.

11. Collingwood, 324.

12. Joyce, P. W., Short History of Ireland, 123; Hyde, D., Literary History of Ireland, 77.

13. Hyde, 19.

14. Lecky, Morals, II, 253.

15. Joyce, 123.

16. Briffault, R., The Mothers, III, 230, quoting De Jubainville, Le Droit du roi dans l’épopée irlandaise, in Révue archéologique, XLIII, 332f.

17. Hyde, 71.

18. Ibid., 83.

19. From the seventh-century “Voyage of Brand,” in Hyde, 96f.

20. Bede, i, 13; Bury, J. B., Life of St. Patrick, 54.

21. Duchesne, III, 425.

22. Bury, Patrick, 172.

23. Nennius, History of the Britons, 11, in Giles, Six Old English Chronicles, p. 410.

24. Bury, Patrick, 121.

25. Ausonius, Poems, Commemoratio Professorum Burdigalensium.

26. Waddell, H., Medieval Latin Lyrics, 32.

27. Ausonius, Poems, Parentalia, x.

28. Ibid., Ep. xxii, 23f.

29. Stevens, Sidonius Apollinaris, 68-9.

30. Guizot, History of Civilization, I, 343.

31. Dill, Last Century, 206.

32. Stevens, 134-8.

33. Ibid., 160f.

34. Sidonius Apollinaris, Poems and Letters, Ep. i, 2.

35. In Francke, K., History of German Literature, 10.

36. Sidonius in Lacroix, P., Manners, Customs, and Dress, 514.

37. Gibbon, IV, 65.

38. Gregory of Tours, viii, 9.

39. Lea, Superstition and force, 318.

40. Sophocles, Antigone, 11, 264-7.

41. Gibbon, IV, 70.

42. Schoenfeld, Hermann, Women of the Teutonic Nations, 41; Dill, Roman Society in the Merovingian Age, 47.

43. Salic law, xiv and xli, in Ogg, F., Source Book of Medieval History, 63-5.

44. Schoenfeld, 40.

45. Brittain, A., Women of Early Christianity, 203.

46. Lot, 397.

47. Gregory of Tours, ii, 37.

48. Ibid.

49. Id., ii, 40.

50. II, 43.

51. V, 132-6; vi, 165.

52. Dill, Merovingian Age, 279.

53. Gregory of Tours, vii, 178; x, 246.

54. Id., iv, 100.

55. Michelet, J., History of France, I, 107.

56. Gregory, introd., p. xxii.

57. Gregory, i, 5.

58. II, prologue.

59. Gregory, introd., p. xxiv.

60. Guizot, History of Civilization, I, 58.

61. Lecky, Morals, II, 204.

62. Isidore of Seville, Etymologies, in Brehaut, E., An Encyclopedist of the Dark Ages, 215.

63. Dieulafoy, M., Art in Spain and Portugal, 54.

64. Mahaffy, J. P., Old Greek Education, 52.

65. Thompson, J. W., Economic History of the Middle Ages, 120.

66. Cassiodorus, Letters of, Variae, ii, 27.

67. Procopius, v, 1.26.

68. This survives only as a crude abbreviation by Jordanes.

69. Milman, I, 433.

70. Ibid., 439.

71. In Cassiodorus, Variae, ii, 6; iii, 28.

72. Milman, I, 442.

73. Boethius, Consolation of Philosophy, ii, 3.

74. Ibid., 4.

75. Ibid., iii, 10.

76. Procopius, v, 1.

CHAPTER V

1. Justiniani Institutionum libri quattuor, Introd., I, 63.

2. Procopius, Buildings, i, 7.

3. Procopius, Anecdota, viii, 24.

4. John Malalas in Bury, Later Roman Empire, II, 24.

5. Procopius, Anecdota, xv, 11.

6. Id., History of the Wars, i, 24.

7. Id., Buildings, i, 11.

8. Diehl, C., Byzantine Portraits, 58.

9. Procopius, Anecdota, xi.

10. Ibid., ix, 50.

11. Bury, Later Roman Empire, II, 29.

12. Procopius, Anecdota, xvii, 5.

13. Diehl, Portraits, 70.

14. Bouchier, E., Life and Letters in Roman Africa, 107.

15. Procopius, History of the Wars, iv, 6.

16. Ibid., vii, 1.

17. Ibid., 5-8.

18. Lot, 267.

19. Gibbon, IV, 359.

20. Lot, 267.

21. Justiniani Inst., Proemium.

22. Cod. I, xiv, 34.

23. Cod. IV, xliii, 21.

24. Cod. XI, xlviii, 21; lxix, 4.

25. Bury, Later Roman Empire, II, 406; Milman, I, 501.

26. Procopius, History of the Wars, vii, 32.

27. In Gibbon, V, 43.

28. Procopius, Buildings, i, 1.

CHAPTER VI

1. Frank, Economic Survey of Ancient Rome, IV, 152.

2. Rostovtzeff, M., History of the Ancient World, II, 353-4.

3. Procopius, History, viii, 17.

4. Lopez, R. S., in Speculum, XX, i, 3, 7, 19.

5. Ibid., 10-12.

6. Novella 122 in Bury, Later Roman Empire, II, 356.

7. Dalton, O. M., Byzantine Art, 50.

8. Bury, 357.

9. Diehl, C., Manuel d’art Byzantin, 248.

10. Procopius, Anecdota, xvii, 24.

11. Himes, N., Medical History of Contraception, 92-6.

12. Boissier, La fin du paganisme, I, 168.

13. Gibbon, I, 382.

14. Schneider, H., History of World Civilization, II, 640.

15. Castiglione, A., History of Medicine, 252; Garrison, F. H., History of Medicine, 123.

16. Thorndike, L., History of Magic and Experimental Science, I, 147.

17. O’Leary, D., Arabic Thought, 53.

18. Himes, 95.

19. Thorndike, I, 584.

20. Augustine, Confessions, vii, 6.

21. Heath, Sir T., History of Greek Mathematics, II, 528.

22. Socrates, vii, 15.

23. Lecky, Morals, II, 315.

24. Bury, Later Roman Empire, I, 217.

25. Duchesne, III, 210.

26. Socrates, vii, 15.

27. Gregory Nazianzen, Panegyric on St. Basil, in Monroe, P., Source Book of the History of Education for the Greek and Roman Period, 305.

28. Bury, Later Roman Empire, I, 377.

29. Diehl, Manuel, 218.

30. Higham and Bowra, Oxford Book of Greek Verse, 654.

31. Ibid., 665.

32. Socrates, vii, 48.

33. Procopius, History, viii, 32; v, 3.

34. Winckelmann, J., History of Ancient Art, I, 360-1; Finlay, G., Greece under the Romans, 195.

35. Strzygowski, J., Origin of Christian Church Art, 4-6.

36. Procopius, Buildings, i, 10.

37. Ibid., i, 1.

38. Ibid.

39. Ibid., i, 3.

40. Dalton, 258.

41. Lot, 143.

42. Diehl, Manuel, 249; Dalton, 579; Lot, 146.

43. Boethius, ix.

CHAPTER VII

1. Ammianus, xxii, 6.

2. Ibid.

3. Dhalla, M. N., Zoroastrian Civilization, 371.

4. Rawlinson, G., Seventh Great Oriental Monarchy, 29.

5. Procopius, Persian War, ix, 19.

6. Bury, Later Roman Empire, I, 92.

7. Ammianus, xxiii, 6.

8. Talmud, Berachoth, 8b.

9. Dhalla, 301f.

10. Ameer Ali, Spirit of Islam, 188.

11. Macrobius, Saturnalia, vii, 1.

12. Gottheil, R. J., Literature of Persia, I, 159.

13. Firdousi, Epic of the Kings, retold by Helen Zimmern, 191; Sykes, Sir P., History of Persia, I, 466.

14. Gottheil, I, 166.

15. Dhalla, 377.

16. Ibid., 305.

17. Browne, E. G., Literary History of Persia, I, 107.

18. Sarton, G., Introd. to the History of Science, I, 435.

19. Browne, E. G., Arabian Medicine, 23.

20. Dhalla, 354.

21. Ibid., 362.

22. Ibid., 274; Bury, Later Roman Empire, I, 91.

23. Rawlinson, G., Seventh Great Oriental Monarchy, 636.

24. Bright, W., Age of the Fathers, I, 202.

25. Sykes, I, 414.

26. Lowie, R. H., Are We Civilized?, 37.

27. Pope, A. U., Survey of Persian Art, I, 755.

28. Dhalla, 356.

29. Pope, 761.

30. Baron, S. W., Social and Religious History of the Jews, I, 256.

31. Ammianus, xxiii, 6.

32. Pope, 716.

33. Browne, Literary History, I, 127.

34. Ibn Khaldun, Prolégomènes, I, 80. Rawlinson, 61, attributes this saying to Ardashir I.

35. Eunapius, #466.

36. Cambridge Ancient History, XII, 112.

37. Sykes, I, 403.

38. Rawlinson, 141.

39. Browne, Literary History, I, 171. Sykes, I, 449, places this massacre in the early years of Khosru I.

40. Pope, 755.

41. Procopius, History of the Wars, ii, 9.

42. Nöldeke, Th., Geschichte der Perser … aus Tabari, 160, in De Vaux, Les Penseurs de l’Islam, I, 92.

43. Rawlinson, 446.

44. Sykes, I, 460.

45. Procopius, History, i, 26.

46. Mommsen, Provinces, II, 47.

47. Graetz, H., History of the Jews, III, 18.

48. Sykes, I, 480f.

49. Pope, 524.

50. Creswell, K. A., Early Muslim Architecture, I, 101.

51. Dieulafoy, Art in Spain, 13.

52. Ibid.; Pope, A. U., Iranian and Armenian Contributions to the Beginnings of Gothic Architecture, 130.

53. Theophylactus Simocatta in Rivoira, G. T., Moslem Architecture, 114. Herzfeld thought the Ctesiphon palace the work of Shapur I.

54. Gottheil, I, 167.

55. Arnold, Sir T., Painting in Islam, 62.

56. Pope, Survey, I, 717; Dieulafoy, 21.

57. Ackerman, P., in Bulletin of the Iranian Institute, Dec, 1946, p. 42.

58. Pope, A. U., Introd. to Persian Art, 144, 168.

59. Sykes, I, 465.

60. Pope, A. U., Masterpieces of Persian Art, 182.

61. Pope, Introd., 64.

62. Fenollosa, E., Epochs of Chinese and Japanese Art, I, 21.

63. Riefstahl, R. M., The Parish-Watson Collection of Mohammedan Potteries, p. viii; Pope, Survey, I, 779; Lot, 141.

64. Sir Percy Sykes in Hammerton, J. A., Universal History of the World, IV, 2318.

65. Examples in Sarre, F., Die Kunst des alten Persien, 143.

66. Pope, Introd., 100.

67. Pope, Survey, I, 775.

68. Dhalla, 273.

69. Sykes, I, 490.

70. Browne, Literary History, I, 194.

71. Sykes, I, 490.

72. Ibid., 498.

CHAPTER VIII

1. Burton, Sir R. F., ed., Thousand Nights and a Night, I, vii.

2. Hell, J., The Arab Civilization, 7; Dawson, Christopher, The Making of Europe, 136.

3. Encyclopaedia Britannica, II, 184.

4. Doughty, Chas., Travels in Arabia Deserta, I, xx.

5. Margoliouth, D. S., Mohammed and the Rise of Islam, 29; Nöldeke, Sketches, 7.

6. Burton, R. F., Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to al-Medinah and Meccah. II, 93.

7. Blunt, Lady A. and Sir W.S., The Seven Golden Odes of Pagan Arabia, 43.

8. Ibid.

9. Koran, ix, 98; tr. and ed. Pickthall, The Meaning of the Glorious Koran. Pickthall’s numbering of the verses differs occasionally from that of other translations.

10. Sale, G., in Wherry, E. M., Commentary on the Qur’an, with Sale’s tr., I, 43.

11. Herodotus, iii, 8.

12. Ali Tabari, Book of Religion and Empire, Prologue, ix; Margoliouth, Mohammed, 59; Muir, Sir W., Life of Mohammed, 512.

13. Browne, E. G., Literary History of Persia, I, 261.

14. al-Tabari, Abu Jafar Muhammad, Chronique, Part III, ch. xlvi, p. 202.

15. Pickthall, p. 2.

16. Browne, Literary History, I, 247.

17. Tisdall, W. S., Original Sources of the Koran, 264, quoting Ibn Ishaq; Lane-Poole, S., Speeches and Table Talk of the Prophet Mohammed, xxiv.

18. Nicholson, R. A., Translations of Eastern Poetry and Prose, 38-40. Cf. Koran, xcvi.

19. Muir, Life, 51.

20. Koran, xliii, 3; lvi, 76; lxxxv, 22.

21. II, 91.

22. Lxxxvii, 6.

23. Ali, Maulana Muhammad, The Religion of Islam, 174.

24. Macdonald, D. B., Religious Attitude and Life in Islam, 42.

25. Margoliouth, Mohammed, 45.

26. Dozy, R., Spanish Islam, 15.

27. Hell, 19.

28. Sale in Wherry, I, 80.

29. al-Baladhuri, Abu-l Abas, Origins of the Islamic State, i, 1.

30. Ameer Ali, Syed, Spirit of Islam, 54.

31. Muir, Life, 214, 234.

32. Ibid., 236.

33. Ibid., 238, quoting traditions.

34. Ibid.

35. Andrae, Tor, Mohammed, 206; Muir, 245f, quoting Ibn Hisham and al-Tabari.

36. Ameer Ali, Spirit of Islam, 58f.

37. Muir, 252f.

38. al-Baladhuri, i, 2.

39. Ibid., i, 4.

40. Ameer Ali, 94.

41. Andrae, 238.

42. Koran, ii, 100; Macdonald, D. B., Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence, and Constitutional Theory, 69.

43. Koran, xli, 6.

44. XXXIII, 37.

45. Andrae, 267.

46. Koran, xxxiii, 51.

47. Muir, 77, 244.

48. Koran, xxxiii, 51.

49. Muir, 201.

50. Bukhsh, S. K., Studies, Indian and Islamic, 6.

51. Muir, 511.

52. Lane-Poole, Speeches, xxx.

53. Ameer Ali, Spirit of Islam, 110.

54. Bukhsh, Studies, 6.

55. Irving, W., Life of Mahomet, 238.

56. Margoliouth, 105; Irving, 231.

57. Koran, xxxi, 19.

58. Sa’di, Gulistan, ii, 29.

59. Margoliouth, 458.

60. Gibbon, V, 254.

61. Margoliouth, 466.

CHAPTER IX

1. E.g., sura lv.

2. Lane-Poole, Speeches, 180.

3. Koran, xliv, 53; xxxv, 33.

4. XLVII, 15, lxxvi, 14-15.

5. LV, 56-8, lxxviii, 33; xxxvii, 48.

6. LVI, 17; lxxvii, 19.

7. Margoliouth, 69.

8. Koran, xvii, 35; Lane-Poole, 157.

9. Ibid., 158.

10. Ali, Maulana M., Religion of Islam, 587.

11. Lane-Poole, 161, 163.

12. Ibid., 162.

13. Ibid.

14. Ali, Maulana, 390.

15. Koran, lv, 10; iv, 31-2.

16. Ali, Maulana, 655.

17. Koran, xxxiii, 53.

18. Ali, 602.

19. Koran, ii, 232; Ali, 632.

20. Ibid., 684.

21. Pickthall, p. 594n.

22. Lane-Poole, 161.

23. Koran, xxxi, 14; xlvi, 15.

24. Ameer Ali, 183.

25. Lane-Poole, 167.

26. Quoted in Muir, Life, 520.

27. Lane-Poole, 159.

28. Ibid.

29. Sale in Wherry, I, 122.

30. E.g., Deut. xviii, 15-18; Hag. ii, 7; Song of Songs, ii, 3, xxi, 7; John xvi, 12-13.

31. Talmud, Pirke Aboth, ii, 18.

32. Nöldeke, Sketches, 44.

33. Cf. Koran, v, 35 with Talmud, Sanh., ii, 5; Koran, ii, 183 with Ber., i, 2; and Nöldeke, 31.

34. Lane-Poole, xl.

35. Bevan, E. R., Legacy of Israel, 147; Hitti, P. K., History of the Arabs, 125.

36. Baron, S. W., Social and Religious History of the Jews, I, 335-7.

37. Hurgronje, C. S., Mohammedanism, 65

CHAPTER X

1. Cambridge Medieval History, II, 331.

2. Burton, Personal Narrative, I, 149.

3. Finlay, G., Greece under the Romans, 367.

4. Muir, Sir W., The Caliphate, 56.

5. Ibid., 57.

6. Ibid., 198.

7. Hitti, 176.

8. Gibbon, V, 296.

9. Macdonald, Development of Muslim Theology, 23.

10. Hitti, 197.

11. Sykes, Sir P., History of Persia, I, 538.

12. Hell, J., 59-60.

13. Muir, Caliphate, 376; Hitti, 222.

14. Dozy, 161; Hitti, 227.

15. Muir, Caliphate, 428-37; Hitti, 285.

16. Nöldeke, 132.

17. Sa’di, Gulistan, i, 3.

18. Burton, Sir R. F., The Thousand Nights and a Night, I, 186.

19. Palmer, E. H., The Caliph Haroun Alraschid, 30, 78.

20. Arnold, Sir T. W., Painting in Islam, 16.

21. Abbott, Nabia, Two Queens of Baghdad, 183.

22. Muir, Caliphate, 482.

23. Palmer, 221.

24. Ibid., 35; Abbott, 113.

25. Palmer, 81f.

26. Ibn Khaldun, Les Prolégomènes, I, 26.

27. Hitti, 300.

28. Eginhard, Life of Charlemagne, xvi, 3.

29. Palmer, 121.

30. Nicholson, R. A., Translations of Eastern Poetry and Prose, 64.

31. Utbi, Abul-Nasr Muhammad, Historical Memoirs of the Emir Sabaktagin and Mahmud of Ghazni, ch. 50, p. 466.

32. Saladin, H., et Migeon, G., Manuel d’art musulman, I, 441.

CHAPTER XI

1. Lestrange, G., Palestine under the Moslems, quoting Masudi, ii, 438.

2. Hitti, 351.

3. Milman, H. H., History of Latin Christianity, III, 65n.

4. Lane, E. W., Arabian Society in the Middle Ages, 117.

5. Usher, A. P., History of Mechanical Inventions, 128-9.

6. De Vaux, Baron Carra, Les Penseurs d’Islam, I, 8.

7. Barnes, H. E., Economic History of the Western World, 111.

8. Renard, G., Life and Work in Prehistoric Times, 113.

9. Hitti, 344.

10. Thompson, J. W., Economic and Social History of the Middle Ages, 373.

11. Ibn Khaldun, Les Prolégomènes, 416.

12. Hitti, 348.

13. Muir, Caliphate, 501.

14. Hitti, 344.

15. Hurgronje, 128.

16. Browne, E. G., Literary History, I, 323.

17. Ibid., 318.

18. Dawson, 158.

19. Browne, I, 323; Muir, Caliphate, 510.

20. Nöldeke, 146-75.

21. Arnold, Painting in Islam, 104.

22. Guillaume, A., The Traditions of Islam, 13.

23. Ibid., 134-8; Becker, C. H., Christianity and Islam, 62.

24. Guillaume, 47-52, 77.

25. Margoliouth, Mohammed, 80.

26. Guillaume, 80.

27. Sykes, I, 521.

28. Andrae, 101.

29. Sale in Wherry, I, 172.

30. Ali, Maulana, 730.

31. Philby, H., A Pilgrim in Arabia, 40.

32. Doughty, I, 59.

33. Burton, Pilgrimage, I, 325.

34. Ali, Maulana, 522.

35. Burton, Pilgrimage, II, 63; Sale in Wherry, I, 185.

36. Graetz, H., History of the Jews, III, 87; Hitti, 234.

37. Lestrange, Palestine, 212; Arnold, Sir T., and Guillaume, A., The Legacy of Islam, 81.

38. Baron, S. W., History, I, 319.

39. Guillaume, 132.

40. Catholic Encyclopedia, VIII, 459.

41. Becker, 32.

42. Hitti, 685; Sarton, G., Introduction to the History of Science, Vol. II, Part I, 80.

43. Westermarck, E., Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas, II, 476.

44. Kremer, A. von, Kulturgeschichte des Orients unter den Khalifen, 52.

45. Abbott, 98.

46. Lane, E. W., Arabian Society, 219-20.

47. Bukhsh, S. K., Studies, 83.

48. Hitti, 239.

49. Ali, Maulana, 390.

50. Lane-Poole, S., Saladin, 247.

51. Macdonald, D. B., Aspects of Islam, 294; Ameer Ali, Spirit of Islam, 362.

52. Müller-Lyer, F., Evolution of Modern Marriage, 42.

53. Lane-Poole, Saladin, 217.

54. Ibid., 251; Sumner, W. G., Folkways, 353.

55. Lane, E. W., Arabian Society, 221.

56. Ibid., 223.

57. Hitti, 342.

58. Bukhsh, Studies, 88.

59. Abbott, 137, 149.

60. Bukhsh, 84.

61. al-Ghazzali, Abu Hamid, Kimiya’e Saadat, tr. as The Alchemy of Happiness by C. Field, 93.

62. Himes, N. E., Medical History of Contraception, 136.

63. Lane-Poole, Saladin, 415.

64. Guillaume, Traditions, 115.

65. Westermarck, Moral Ideas, I, 94.

66. Sale in Wherry, I, 168.

67. Hitti, 338.

68. De Vaux, II, 272f; Chardin, Sir J., Travels in Persia, 198.

69. Muir, Caliphate, 374.

70. Ibid., 519.

71. Lane, Saladin, 285.

72. Bury, J. B., History of the Eastern Roman Empire, 236.

73. Hurgronje, 98.

74. Macdonald, Muslim Theology, 84; Guillaume, 69; Burton, Personal Narrative, I, 148, 167.

75. Arnold and Guillaume, Legacy, 305.

76. Macdonald, Theology, 66.

77. Muir, Caliphate, 170.

78. Lestrange, Palestine, 24.

79. Hitti, 236f.

80. In Lestrange, 120.

81. Ibid., 342.

82. Ibid, 301.

83. Ibid., 295-301, 342, 348, 353, 361, 377.

84. Ibid., 265.

85. Ibid., 237.

86. Creswell, K. A. C., Early Muslim Architecture, I, 137; Rivoira, G. T., Moslem Architecture, 110.

87. Yaqub, ii, 587, in Lestrange, 262.

88. Lane, Saladin, 184.

89. Ameer Ali, Spirit of Islam, 339.

90. Baron, I, 320.

91. Abulfeda, in Rowbotham, J. F., The Troubadours and the Courts of Love, 16n.

92. Lestrange, G., Baghdad during the Abbasid Caliphate, 253.

93. Lane, E. W., Arabian Society, 203.

94. Lane-Poole, S., Studies in a Mosque, 185.

CHAPTER XII

1. In Ameer Ali, Spirit of Islam, 331.

2. Lane, Saladin, 86.

3. Lane-Poole, S., Cairo, 183.

4. Hitti, 409.

5. Macdonald, Aspects of Islam, 289, 301.

6. Bukhsh, Studies, 195.

7. Carter, T. F., The Invention of Printing in China, introduction and p. 85; Thompson, Sir E. M., Introduction to Greek and Latin Palaeography, 34; Barnes, Economic History, 113.

8. Bukhsh, 49-50.

9. Ibid., 197.

10. Gibbon, V, 411.

11. Browne, Literary History, I, 275.

12. Pope, Masterpieces of Persian Art, 151.

13. Sarton, I, 662.

14. Gibbon, V, 298.

15. al-Tabari, Chronique, i, 1.

16. Ibid., i, 17.

17. Ibid., i, 118.

18. Sarton, I, 637.

19. De Vaux, I, 78.

20. Ibn Khaldun, I, 78.

21. Sarton, I, 530.

22. Arnold and Guillaume, Legacy, 385.

23. Sarton, I, 602.

24. Bukhsh, 168.

25. De Vaux, II, 76.

26. Ibid., 78.

27. al-Biruni, Abu Rayhan Muhammad, Chronology of Ancient Nations, introd., xiii.

28. al-Biruni, India, I, 3.

29. In Boer, T. J. de, History of Philosophy in Islam, 146.

30. De Vaux, II, 217; Arnold and Guillaume, 395.

31. al-Biruni, India, I, 198.

32. Bukhsh, 181.

33. Sarton, I, 707.

34. Ibid., 693.

35. Lane, Arabian Society, 54n.

36. Ibn Khaldun, III, 250-5.

37. Thompson, J. W., Economic and Social History, 358.

38. Grunebaum, G. von, Medieval Islam, 331.

39. Ameer Ali, Spirit of Islam, 392.

40. Kellogg, J. H., Rational Hydrotherapy, 1928, 24.

41. Ibid.

42. Lane, Arabian Society, 56.

43. Garrison, F., History of Medicine, 1929, 137.

44. Arnold and Guillaume, 336.

45. Bukhsh, 197.

46. Hitti, 364.

47. Ibid.

48. Campbell, D., Arabian Medicine, 66f.

49. Sarton, I, 609.

50. Ibn Khallikan, Muhammad, Biographical Dictionary, I, 440.

51. Ibid., 443.

52. In Draper, J. W., History of the Intellectual Development of Europe, I, 411.

53. John, i, 1-3.

54. Bukhsh, 59.

55. Boer, 101; Arnold and Guillaume, 255.

56. Aristotle, De Anima, iii, 5.

57. Macdonald, Muslim Theology, 150.

58. Barhebraeus in Grunebaum, 182; Hitti, 353; Muir, Caliphate, 521.

59. In Ameer Ali, Spirit of Islam, 408.

60. Dawson, 155.

61. Ibn Khallikan, III, 308.

62. O’Leary, DeL., Arabic Thought and Its Place in History, 153.

63. Ueberweg, F., History of Philosophy, I, 412.

64. De Vaux, IV, 12-18.

65. Boer, 123.

66. Ibid., 81f.

67. Husik, I., History of Medieval Jewish Philosophy, xxxix.

68. Salibu, D., Étude sur la metaphysique d’Avicenne, 21.

69. Ibid., 106, 114, 121, 151; Hastings, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, XI, 275-6; Boer, 136.

70. Salibu, 170; Gruner, O. C., Treatise on the Canon of Medicine of Avicenna, introd., p. 9.

71. Boer, 138-42.

72. Salibu, 208.

73. In Ameer Ali, 395.

74. Boer, 144.

75. al-Baladhuri, i, 6; Bacon, Roger, Opus Maius, tr. R. B. Burke, Vol. I, p. 15.

76. Salibu, 27.

77. Arnold and Guillaume, 311.

78. Avicennae Canon Medicinae, p. 118.

79. In Nicholson, R. A., Mystics of Islam, 7.

80. Ibn Khaldun, III, 106.

81. Browne, Literary History, I, 426.

82. In Hitti, 435.

83. Nicholson, R. A., Studies in Islamic Mysticism, 4-5.

84. Macdonald, Religious Attitude, 169-71; Nicholson, Studies in Mysticism, 78.

85. Ibid., 25.

86. Arnold and Guillaume, 219.

87. Hitti, 438.

88. Browne, II, 261.

89. Nicholson, Studies in Mysticism, 6-21.

90. Id., Translations of Eastern Poetry. 98-100.

91. In Browne, II, 265.

92. Nicholson, Mysticism, 28-31, 38.

93. Browne, I, 404; Dawson, 158.

94. Hitti, 443.

95. Browne, I, 404.

96. al-Masudi, Abu-l Hasan, Meadows of Gold, French tr., IV, 89.

97. Lane-Poole, Cairo, 154.

98. Nicholson, Studies in Islamic Poetry, 48.

99. Id., Translations, 33.

100. Nicholson, R. A., Literary History of the Arabs, 295; Ibn Khallikan, I, 393.

101. De Vaux, IV, 252.

102. Browne, I, 369.

103. Nicholson, Islamic Poetry, 133-7.

104. Rihani, A. F., The Quatrains of Abu’l ’Ala (al-Ma‘arri), vii.

105. Nicholson, Literary History, 319.

106. Id., Islamic Poetry, 148.

107. Ibid., 102, 145; Rihani, 120.

108. Nicholson, Islamic Poetry, 108-10.

109. Ibid., 191-2.

110. Ibid., 121.

111. Id., Translations, 102.

112. Id., Islamic Poetry, 150.

113. Ibid., 160.

114. Ibid., 161-5.

115. Id., Translations, 102.

116. Id., Islamic Poetry, 119.

117. Ibid., 127.

118. Id., Translations, 102.

119. Id., Islamic Poetry, 140.

120. In Browne, II, 120.

121. In Firdousi, The Epic of Kings, retold by Helen Zimmern, 4.

122. Firdousi, The Shah Nameh, in Gottheil, R. J., ed., The Literature of Persia, I, 54.

123. Ibid., 156, tr. Jas. Atkinson. Matthew Arnold has retold the story in Sohrab and Rustum.

124. In Pope, Survey of Persian Art, II, 975.

125. Cf. “The Nazarene Broker’s Story” in Burton, Thousand Nights and a Night, I, 270.

126. Pope, Survey, II, 1439.

127. Lane-Poole, Saladin, 29.

128. Lane, Arabian Society, 54-61.

129. Pope, II, 927; Hell, 109.

130. Creswell, I, 329.

131. In Lane, Arabian Society, 58.

132. Pope, II, 975.

133. Pope, IV, 317-28.

134. Pope, Arthur U., Introduction to Persian Art, 200.

135. Arnold and Guillaume, 117.

136. Pope, II, 1447.

137. Fenollosa, E. F., Epochs of Chinese and Japanese Art, I, 21; Pope, Survey, I, 2.

138. Pope, II, 1468.

139. Guillaume, 128.

140. Encyclopaedia Britannica, XV, 654.

141. Ibid.; Hitti, 420.

142. Arnold, Painting in Islam, 85.

143. Ibid., 21.

144. Lane, Arabian Society, 117.

145. Ibid., 15.

146. Hitti, 274.

147. Farmer, H. G., in Arnold and Guillaume, 358.

148. Sa’di, Gulistan, ii, 26.

149. In Arnold and Guillaume, 359.

150. Farmer in Arnold and Guillaume, 367.

151. Ibid., 372.

152. Ibid., 361; Farmer, H. G., History of Arabian Music, 154.

153. Farmer in Arnold and G., 359.

154. Hitti, 214.

155. Farmer, 31.

156. Ibid., 112.

157. Ibid., 60-4; Lane-Poole, Cairo, 156.

158. Farmer, 120.

159. Ibid., 124.

160. Lane, Arabian Society, 172-6.

CHAPTER XIII

1. Gibbon, V, 344.

2. Sarton, I, 466; II (ii), 599.

3. Ueberweg, I, 409.

4. Tarn, W. W., Hellenistic Civilization, 217; Sarton, I, 466.

5. Gibbon, V, 346.

6. Munro, D. C., and Sellery, G. C., Medieval Civilization, 170.

7. Lane-Poole, Cairo, 65.

8. Browne, II, 223.

9. Hitti, 625.

10. Browne, II, 223; Margoliouth, D. S., Cairo, Jerusalem, and Damascus, 46.

11. Nöldeke, 3.

12. Hitti, 626.

13. Arnold and Guillaume, 163.

14. Pope, Arthur U., Iranian and Armenian Contributions to the Beginnings of Gothic Architecture, 237.

15. Lane, Arabian Society, 54f.

16. Lane-Poole, Cairo, 44, 60.

17. Pope, II, 1488.

18. Arnold and Guillaume, 116.

19. Dimand, M. S., Handbook of Muhammadan Art, 255; Arnold, Painting in Islam, 127.

20. Margoliouth, Cairo, 69.

21. Arnold and Guillaume, 333.

22. Arnold, Sir T. W., The Preaching of Islam, 102.

23. Pirenne, Henri, Mohammed and Charlemagne, 160f.

24. Hitti, 605.

25. Waern, Cecilia, Medieval Sicily, 20.

26. Arnold and Guillaume, 241.

27. Waern, 25.

28. Calvert, A. F., Moorish Remains in Spain, 239.

29. al-Maqqari, Ahmed ibn Muhammad, History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain, ii, 146.

30. Ibid., vi, 6.

31. Ibid.

32. Dozy, 458-65.

33. Maqqari, vii, 1.

34. Dozy, 516.

35. Ibid., 522; Calvert, A. F., Seville, 11.

37. Lane-Poole, S., Story of the Moors in Spain, 43.

38. Dozy, 633, 689.

39. Cf. Maqqari, vi, 3.

40. Dozy, 234.

41. Gibbon, V, 376.

42. Chapman, C. E., History of Spain, 50.

43. Ibid., 41; Dozy, 236; Lane-Poole, Moors, 50.

44. Chapman, 41.

45. Clapham, J. H., and Power, E., Cambridge Economic History of Europe, 136; Barnes, Economic History, 114.

46. Clapham, 354-5; Thompson, J. W., Economic and Social History, 547.

48. Cambridge Medieval History, III, 432.

49. Pirenne, Jacques, Les grands courants de l’histoire universelle, II, 117.

50. Ibid., 19.

51. Arnold, Preaching, 134; Dozy, 235.

52. Chapman, 49, 58.

53. Dozy, 268.

54. Ibid.

55. Arnold, Preaching, 144.

56. Dozy, 235; Lane-Poole, Moors, 47.

57. Rivoira, Moslem Architecture, 240.

58. Dozy, 278.

59. Ibid., 286.

60. Arnold, Preaching, 141.

61. Dozy, 534.

62. Maqqari, iii, 1.

63. Thompson, J. W., Economic and Social History, 549.

64. Maqqari, iii, 2.

65. Ibid., iii, 1.

66. Calvert, Moorish Remains, 189.

67. Calvert, A. F., Cordova, 107.

68. Maqqari, Vol. II, 139-200.

69. Dozy, 455; Chapman, 50.

70. Pirenne, J., II, 20.

71. Maqqari, II, 3.

72. In Dozy, 576.

73. Sarton, I, 713.

74. Dozy, 281.

75. Maqqari, vii, 1.

76. Arnold and Guillaume, 186.

77. Dozy, 326.

78. Ibid.

79. Tr. by Dulcie Smith in Van Doren, Mark, Anthology of World Poetry, 99.

CHAPTER XIV

1. Browne, II, 176.

2. Ibid., 177; Gibbon, V, 17.

3. Browne, II, 190.

4. Marco Polo, Travels, i, 24.

5. Ameer Ali, Spirit of Islam, 313.

6. Hitti, 446.

7. Thompson, J. W., Economic and Social History, 391; Arnold, Preaching, 96.

8. William of Tripoli in Lane-Poole, Cairo, 84.

9. Hitti, 679.

10. Adams, Brooks, Law of Civilization and Decay, 128.

11. In Lane-Poole, Cairo, 27.

12. Irving, W., The Alhambra, 47.

13. Lane-Poole, Moors, 225.

14. Pope, Introduction, 30; Pope, Survey, II, 1043.

15. Cf. Migeon, G., Les arts musulmans, II, 11.

16. Fry, Roger, in Persian Art: Souvenir of the Exhibition of Persian Art at Burlington House, xix.

17. Dillon, E., Glass, 165.

18. Lane, Arabian Society, 200.

19. Pope, Masterpieces, 65.

20. Dimand, Handbook, 280.

21. Time Magazine, Jan. 23, 1939.

22. Arnold, Painting, 127.

23. N. Y. Times Book Review, May 19, 1940, p. 2.

24. Bukhsh, 96.

25. Nicholson, Translations, 116.

26. Ibn Khaldun, III, 438.

27. Ibid., 426.

28. Browne, II, 375.

29. Ibid., 392.

30. Sarton, I, 759.

31. Ibid., II (i), 8.

32. Ibid., I, 760.

33. Browne, II, 246.

34. Nicholson, Islamic Poetry, 4-5.

35. Weir, T. H., Omar Khayyam the Poet, 21.

36. Nicholson, Islamic Mysticism, 1.

37. Browne, II, 108.

38. Ibid., 256.

39. Heron-Allen, Edw., in Houtsma, M., ed., Encyclopedia of Islam, III (ii), 988.

40. Weir, 16; Nicholson, Islamic Poetry, 5.

41. Browne, II, 249.

42. Quatrain cxv of the Bodleian MS. in Weir, 36.

43. Weir, 71.

44. In Browne, II, 247.

45. Smith, Margaret, ed., The Persian Mystics: Attar, 20-7.

46. Jalal ud-Din Rumi, Selected Poems from the Divani Shamsi Tabriz, ed. and tr. by R. A. Nicholson, 107.

47. Ibid., 71.

48. Ibid., 47.

49. Sarton, II (ii), 872.

50. Browne, II, 521.

51. Sa’di, Rose Garden, 12.

52. Sa’di, Gulistan, ii, 7.

53. Ibid., iii, 19.

54. In Browne, II, 530.

55. Gulistan, ii, 30.

56. Bustan in Grousset, R., The Civilizations of the East, Vol. I: The Near and Middle East, 272.

57. Gulistan, i, 12.

58. I, 3.

59. II, 27.

60. II, 40.

61. IV, 7.

62. V, 5.

63. V, 4.

64. VII, 2.

65. VII, 4.

66. VIII, 31.

67. VIII, 38.

68. I, 4.

69. V, 8.

70. III, 11.

71. Browne, II, 534.

72. Grunebaum, 39.

73. Sarton, II (i), 12.

74. Ibid., 216.

75. Ibid., 27; II (ii), 632.

76. Ibid., II (i), 31.

77. Margoliouth, Cairo, 220.

78. Sarton, II (ii), 1014.

79. Ibid., II (i), 51; II (ii), 663.

80. Ibid., II (i), 424.

81. Hitti, 686.

82. Sarton, II (i), 232.

83. Garrison, 136.

84. Lestrange, Baghdad, 104.

85. Garrison, 136; Hell, 117; Lane-Poole, Cairo, 34; Margoliouth, Cairo, 124-9; Hitti, 677.

86. Baron, S., ed., Essays on Maimonides, 112.

87. al-Ghazzali, Some Religious and Moral Teachings, 138.

88. al-Ghazzali, Destruction of Philosophy, 155f.

89. Macdonald, Muslim Theology, 239.

90. Asin y Palacios, Miguel, Islam and the Divine Comedy, 273-5.

91. In Sa’di, Gulistan, ii, 25.

92. Muir, Caliphate, 146.

93. Arnold, Painting, 54.

94. Becker, 31.

95. Boer, 175; Duhem, P., Le système du monde, IV, 522, 526; Macdonald, Muslim Theology, 250.

96. Abu Bekr ibn Tufail, History of Hayy ibn Yaqzan, 68.

97. Ibid., 99, 139.

97. In Renan, E., Averroès et l’averroïsme, 16.

99. Sarton, II (i), 305.

100. Averroës, Exposition of the Methods of Argument Concerning the Doctrines of the Faith, 230.

101. Id., A Decisive Discourse on the Relation between Religion and Philosophy, 52.

102. Id., Exposition, 190; Discourse, 50-1; Gilson, E., Reason and Revelation in the Middle Ages, 40f.

103. Averroës, Exposition, 193.

104. Sarton, II (i), 358.

105. Averroës, Discourse, 14.

106. Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics, xii, in Renan, 108.

107. Commentary on Aristotle’s Physics, viii, in Renan, 112; Duhem, IV, 549.

108. De Vaux, IV, 70.

109. Commentary on Aristotle’s De Anima, bk. iii, in Renan, 122; Duhem, IV, 573.

110. Destruction of the Destruction, in Renan, 137n.

111. In Renan, 143.

112. Ibid., 146.

113. Arnold and Guillaume, 277-9; Tornay, S. C., Averroës’ Doctrine of the Mind, Philosophical Review, May, 1943, 282n.; De Vaux, IV, 71; Duhem, IV, 566.

114. Bacon, R., Opus maius, i, 6; De Vaux, IV, 87.

115. Renan, 32.

116. In Browne, II, 440.

117. Ibid., 439.

118. Pope, Survey, II, 1542.

119. Lestrange, Baghdad, 350; Browne, II, 460.

120. Cf. Arnold, Painting, 99.

121. Pope, Survey, II, 1044.

122. Burton, Personal Narrative, 90-2.

123. Arnold and Guillaume, 169.

124. Encyclopaedia Britannica, XVIII, 339.

125. Arnold and Guillaume, 121; Pope, Introduction, 241; Encyclopaedia Britannica, XV, 657.

126. Dennis, Geo., Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria, I, 37.

127. Browne, II, 432.

128. Arnold and Guillaume, 93.

CHAPTER XV

1. Abbott, G. F., Israel in Egypt, 43.

2. Baron, S., Social and Religious History of the Jews, I, 266; Graetz, H., History of the Jews, II, 566.

3. Socrates, Ecclesiastical History, iii, 20; Julian, Works, III, 51.

4. Abbott, 45.

5. Ammianus Marcellinus, Works, xxiii, 1.

6. Jerome, Commentary on Isaiah, vi, 11-13, in Baron, I, 261.

7. Baron, I, 255.

8. Baeder, Gershom, Jewish Spiritual Heroes, III, 46.

9. Talmud, Yebamoth, 37b.

10. Friedländer, L., Roman Life and Manners under the Early Empire, III, 173.

11. Gregory of Tours, History of the Franks, 1916, viii, 1.

12. References to the Mishna will be by tractate, chapter, and section; to the (Babylonian) Gemara by tractate and folio sheet.

13. Baba Kama, 60b.

14. Megilla, 16b.

15. Tanhuma, ed. Buber, Yitro, sect. 7, in Moore, G. F., Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era, II, 242.

16. Menachoth, 99b.

17. Pesikta Rabbati, 10, 4, in Newman, L., and Spitz, S., Talmudic Anthology, 300.

18. Chagiga, 10a.

19. Examples in Moore, I, 259.

20. Berachoth, 6b.

21. Aboda Zara, 3b; Newman, 31.

22. Chagiga, 3b.

23. Succah, 52b.

24. Barachoth, 6a.

25. Aboda Zara, 3b.

26. Mechilta, 65a, on Exod. xix, 18.

27. From Deut. vi, 4.

28. Shebuoth, 77b.

29. Erubin, 18a.

30. Bereshit Rabbah on Gen. xxiii, 9.

31. Berachoth, 6a.

32. Aboda Zara, 5a.

33. Sifre on Deut. 32.

34. Shebuoth, 55a.

35. Midrash Mishle, 28, in Newman, 90.

36. Genesis Rabbah, xlviii, 8.

37. Baba Metzia, 58b.

38. Berachoth, 34a.

39. Ketuboth, 111a.

40. Wayyikra Rabbah, 34, in Newman, 108.

41. Bereshit Rabbah, 44, 1, in Newman, 292.

42. Quoted in Cohen, A., Everyman’s Talmud, 89.

43. Aboda Zara, 20b.

44. Kiddushin, 66d.

45. Shebuoth, 41a.

46. In Cohen, A.. 258.

47. Leviticus xxi, 2-5.

48. Yebamoth, 48b.

49. Ketuboth, 27; Cohen, A., 257.

50. Pesachim, 113a.

51. Shebuoth, 152.

52. Pesachim, 49b.

53. Exod. xxiii, 19; xxiv, 26; Deut. xiv, 21.

54. Nidda, 17.

55. Yoma, 75.

56. Shebuoth, 33.

57. Ibid., 152a.

58. Baba Bathra, 58b.

59. Pesachim, 109a.

60. Berachoth, 55a, 60b.

61. Taanith, 11a.

62. Pesachim, 108.

63. Exod. xii, 13.

64. Megilla on Esther, 7b, in Moore, II, 51.

65. In Oesterley, W. O., and Box, G. H., Short Survey of the Literature of Rabbinical and Medieval Judaism, 149.

66. Kiddushin, 31a; Isaiah vi, 1.

67. Baba Bathra, 8b; Baron, I, 277-8.

68. Berachoth, 10a.

69. Gen. i, 28; Kiddushin, 29b.

70. Genesis Rabbah, lxxi, 6.

71. Yebamoth, 12b; Himes, N. E., Medical History of Contraception, 72.

72. Baba Bathra, 21.

73. Exodus Rabbah, i, 1.

74. Harris, M. H., ed., Hebraic Literature: Translations from the Talmud, Midrashim, and Kabbala, 336.

75. Baba Bathra, 9a.

76. Ketuboth, 50a, 67.

77. Taanith, 22.

78. Ibid., 20b.

79. Graetz, II, 486, 545.

80. Baba Bathra, 9.

81. Gittin, 70a.

82. Chagiga, 16a.

83. Berachoth, 61a.

84. Kiddushin, 29b.

85. Sota, 44a.

86. Taanith, lv, 8.

87. Yebamoth, 63a.

88. Ibid., 65a, 44a.

89. Pesikta Rabbati, 25, 2, in Newman, 3.

90. Berachoth, xxiv, 1.

91. Kiddushin, 4.

92. Yebamoth, xlv, 1; 64b.

93. Gittin, lx, 10.

94. Ketuboth, vii, 6.

95. Cohen, A., 179.

96. Ketuboth, 77a; Neuman, A. A., The Jews in Spain, Philadelphia, 1942, II, 59.

97. Yebamoth, xix, in Baeder, III, 66.

98. Gittin, 90b.

99. Kiddushin, 80b.

100. Nidda, 45.

101. Kiddushin, 49b.

102. Yoma, 83b.

103. Mikvaoth, 9b, in Cohen, A., 170.

104. Hai Gaon in Newman, 540.

105. Yebamoth, 88b.

106. Ketuboth, 47b.

107. Shebuoth, 30b.

108. Erubin, 41b.

109. Baeder, III, 15.

110. Bereshit Rabbah, xvii, 7.

111. Harris, M. H., Hebraic Literature, 340.

112. Pirke Aboth, iv, 1.

113. Ibid., iv, 3.

114. Ibid., i, 17.

115. Ibid., iii, 17.

116. Shemot Rabbah, xxv, 16, in Newman, 397.

117. Menachoth 29b, in Moore, II, 187.

118. Renan, E., Origins of Christianity: The Christian Church, 131; Baron, I, 305-6.

CHAPTER XVI

1. Graetz, III, 308.

2. Abrahams, Israel, Jewish Life in the Middle Ages, 219.

3. Benjamin of Tudela, Travels, in Komroff, M., ed., Contemporaries of Marco Polo, 290.

4. Graetz, III, 90. Others date the Gaonate from 589; cf. Oesterley and Box, 209.

5. Graetz, III, 133.

6. Ibid., 148.

7. Druck, D., Yehuda Halevy, 66.

8. Baron, I, 353.

9. Husik, I., History of Medieval Jewish Philosophy, 35, 42f.

10. Maker, H., Saadia Gaon, 279, 291.

11. Benjamin of Tudela, in Komroff, 310.

12. Baron, I, 318.

13. Friedländer, III, 181.

14. Dill, Sir S., Roman Society in Gaul in the Merovingian Age, 246.

15. Graetz, III, 143, 161, 241, 389.

16. Benj. of Tudela, in Komroff, 260.

17. Ibid., 257.

18. Ameer Ali, Syed, The Spirit of Islam, 260.

19. Druck, 26.

20. Dozy, R., Spanish Islam, 597f.

21. Abbott, G. F., 71.

22. Abrahams, Jewish Life, 366.

23. Dozy, 721.

24. Graetz, III, 617.

25. Neuman, A., Jews in Spain, I, 5.

26. Ibid., 164.

27. Ibid., II, 184.

28. Ibid., II, 221; Graetz, III, 281.

29. Neuman, II, 221.

30. Graetz, III, 360f.

31. Baron, II, 37; Graetz, III, 506.

32. Neuman, II, 149.

33. Ibid., 247.

34. Abrahams, Jewish Life, 67.

35. Sholom Asch in Browne, Lewis, ed., The Wisdom of Israel, 698.

36. Baba Kama, 113a.

37. Pirke Aboth, iii, 2.

38. Baron, II, 17.

39. Ibid., 26.

40. Ibid.

41. Bracton, De Legibus, vi, 51, in Baron, II, 24.

42. Pollock, F., and Maitland, F. W., History of English Law before Edward I, I, 455.

43. Cambridge Medieval History, VII, 643.

44. Rickard, T. A., Man and Metals, II, 602.

45. Abrahams, Jewish Life, 241.

46. Rapaport, S., Tales and Maxims from the Talmud, 147.

47. Graetz, III, 229.

48. Arnold, Sir T., and Guillaume, A., The Legacy of Islam, 102.

49. Pirenne, H., Medieval Cities, 258.

50. Baron, II, 8f.

51. Jewish Encyclopedia, IV, 379.

52. Deut. xxiii, 20.

53. Baba Metzia, v, 1-2, 11.

54. Abrahams, Jewish Life, 110.

55. Baron, II, 120.

56. Pirenne, H., Economic and Social History of Medieval Europe, 134.

57. Cambridge Medieval History, VII, 644.

58. Ibid., 646.

59. Neuman, A., I, 202; Lacroix, P., Manners, Customs, and Dress during the Middle Ages, 451.

60. Coulton, G. G., Medieval Panorama, 352.

61. Abbott, Israel, 113.

62. Lacroix, Manners, 451.

63. Ashley, W. J., Introduction to English Economic History and Theory, 202.

64. Abbott, 117.

65. Pollock and Maitland, 451.

66. Cambridge Medieval History, VI, 226.

67. Abbott, 122.

68. Husik, 508.

69. Abbott, 125; Graetz, III, 588.

70. Abbott, 135; Lacroix, Manners, 445.

71. In Foakes-Jackson, F., and Lake, K., Beginnings of Christianity, I, 76.

72. Baba Bathra, 90.

73. Baba Metzia, iv, 3.

74. Baron, I, 277-8; II, 108.

75. Baron, II, 99.

76. Moore, II, 174-5.

77. Abrahams, Jewish Life, 141, 319, 326, 335; Baron, II, 99.

78. Coulton, Panorama, 357.

79. Abrahams, 277.

80. Ibid., 281.

81. Burton, Sir R. F., The Jew, the Gypsy, and El Islam, 128; Baron, II, 169.

82. Abrahams, 331.

83. Baba Kama, 113b.

84. Abrahams, 106.

85. Ibid., 104.

86. Ibid., 90.

87. Baron, II, 112.

88. Abrahams, 166.

89. Kiddushin, 41a; Neuman, II, 21.

90. Ibid.

91. Moore, II, 22.

92. Abrahams, 117.

94. Burton, The Jew, 43.

95. White, E. M., Woman in World History, 176.

96. Abrahams, 155.

97. Brittain, A., Women of Early Christianity, 10.

98. White, 189.

99. Neuman, II, 63.

100. White, 185.

101. Marcus, J., The Jew in the Medieval World, 313.

102. Abrahams, 32.

103. Neuman, II, 153.

104. Baron, I, 288; II, 97.

105. Abrahams, 126.

106. Brittain, 12.

107. Moore, I, 316.

108. Maimonides, Mishneh Torah, Book I, tr. Moses, Hyamson, 63a.

109. In Waxman, M., History of Jewish Literature, I, 214.

110. Jewish Encyclopedia, IX, 122.

111. Oxford History of Music, introd. volume, 60.

112. Jewish Encyclopedia, III, 453.

112a. In Zeitlin, S., Maimonides, 44.

113. Baron, II, 83.

114. Lacroix, Manners, 439.

115. Baron, II, 35.

116. Abrahams, 411; Moore, II, 74.

117. Deut. vii, 3; Nehemiah xiii, 25.

118. Klausner, J., From Jesus to Paul, 515.

119. Baron, II, 55.

120. Gittin, 61.

121. Abrahams, 413-4.

122. Ibid., 418.

123. Ibid., 424; Baron, II, 40.

124. Baron, II, 36.

125. Abbott, 93.

126. Coulton, Panorama, 352.

127. Ibid.

128. Graetz, IV, 33.

129. Gregory I, Epistle ii, 6, in Dudden, F. H., Gregory the Great, II, 154.

130. Ep. xiii, 15, in Dudden, II, 155.

131. Belloc, H., Paris, 170.

132. Graetz, III, 421.

133. Coulton, Panorama, 352.

134. Thatcher, O. J., and McNeal, E. H., Source Book of Medieval History, 212.

135. Lea, H. C., History of the Inquisition in the Middle Ages, II, 63.

136. Graetz, III, 563.

137. Ibid., 583.

138. Marcus, 151.

139. Baron, II, 85.

140. Abbott, 51; Jewish Encyclopedia, III, 453.

141. Camb. Med. H., VII, 624; Jewish Encyclopedia, IX, 368.

142. Graetz, III, 299.

143. Ibid., 300.

144. Ibid., 301f; Cambridge Medieval History, V, 275f; VII, 641.

145. Graetz, III, 350; Abbott, 88.

146. Jewish Encyclopedia, IV, 379.

147. Graetz, III, 356.

148. Cambridge Medieval History, VII, 642.

149. Graetz, IV, 35; Jewish Encyclopedia, IX, 358.

150. Abbott, 124.

151. Coulton, Panorama, 359.

152. Cunningham, W., Growth of English Industry and Commerce, 204.

153. Jewish Encyclopedia, IV, 379.

154. Lacroix, Manners, 439; Coulton, 352.

155. Graetz, III, 642; Abbott, 130.

156. Abbott, 131.

157. Ibid., 68.

158. Lacroix, Manners, 447.

159. Abbott, 68.

160. Montesquieu, C. Baron de, The Spirit of Laws, I, xii, 5.

161. Joseph ben Joshua ben Meir, Chronicles, I, 197.

162. Marcus, 24.

163. Graetz, III, 570.

164. Villehardouin, G. de, Chronicles of the Crusades, 148.

165. Abbott, 113.

166. Cambridge Medieval History, VII, 641.

CHAPTER XVII

1. Abrahams, Jewish Life, 210.

2. Sarton, G., Introduction to the History of Science, II (i), 295.

3. Abrahams, I., Chapters on Jewish Literature, 116.

4. Waxman, I, 226.

5. Graetz, III, 269.

6. Gabirol, S. ibn, Selected Religious Poems, tr. Israel Zangwill, 52.

7. Ibid., 30.

8. Abrahams, Literature, 109.

9. Abrahams, Jewish Life, 163.

10. In Wilson, E., ed., Hebrew Literature, 383.

11. Sarton, II(i), 188.

12. Halevi, J., Selected Poems, tr. Nina Salaman, 58.

13. Abbott, 72.

14. Druck, 97.

15. Ibid., 94.

16. Wilson, Hebrew Literature, 365-6.

17. Novella 146 in Burton, The Jew, 105.

18. Graetz, III, 573.

19. Sarton, II(ii), 557.

20. Schechter, S., Studies in Judaism, I, 107.

21. Graetz, III, 604.

22. Sarton, II(i), 145.

23. N. Y. Times, June 2, 1937.

24. Sarton, II (i), 145.

25. Cf. Komroff, M., The Contemporaries of Marco Polo.

26. Husik, 24.

27. Munk, S., Mélanges de philosophie juive et arabe, 153.

28. Marcus, 312.

29. Cf. Gabirol, S. ibn, Improvement of the Moral Qualities, tr. Stephen Wise, 4, 27.

30. Gabirol, Fons Vitae, i, 3, in Munk, 6.

31. Halevi, J., Kitab al-Khazari, tr. H. Hirschfeld, i, 116.

32. Ibid., III, 5, 7.

33. Husik, 215.

34. Yellin, D., and Abrahams, I., Maimonides, 11; Zeitlin, Maimonides, 1.

35. Ueberweg, F., History of Philosophy, I, 427.

36. Zeitlin, Maimonides, 5.

37. “Letter of Consolation” in Yellin, 46.

38. Zeitlin, 178.

39. Arnold, Sir T., Preaching of Islam, 421.

40. Baron, S., ed., Essays on Maimonides, 290.

41. Maimonides, Aphorisms, in Thorndike, L., History of Magic and Experimental Science, I, 176.

42. Zeitlin, 172.

43. In Baron, Essays, 288.

44. Zeitlin, 174.

45. Baron, Essays, 284.

46. Maimonides, Mishneh Torah, Introd., 4b.

47. Zeitlin, 214.

48. Mishneh Torah, Introd., 16, 3a.

49. In Baron, Essays, 117.

50. Maimonides, Guide to the Perplexed, tr. M. Friedländer, III, xli.

51. Ibid., III, 35, in Baron, Essays, 139.

52. Guide, III, xxxvii, xli; Deut. xxiii, 17; Exod. xxii, 1; xxxi, 15.

53. Mishneh Torah, 40b.

54. Ibid., 59a.

55. Ibid., 54a.

56. Ibid., 53a.

57. Ibid., 53ab.

58. Ibid., 52b.

59. In Baron, Essays, 110.

60. Zeitlin, 132.

61. Guide, I, Introd.

62. Ibid., II, xix; III, xiv.

63. II, Pt. II, Introd. and Prop. xx.

64. Ibid., xxxvi-xlvi.

65. III, xxii.

66. II, xviif.

67. II, xxx.

68. III, x, xii.

69. III, lxx.

70. Zeitlin, 151.

71. Ibid., 103; Baron, Essays, 143.

72. Guide, II, Pt. II, Introd.

73. Baron, Essays, 119-21; Zeitlin, 209.

74. Marcus, 307-9.

75. Spinoza, Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, xv, 4.

76. Roth, L., Spinoza, Descartes, and Maimonides, 66; Baron, Essays, 7.

77. Husik, 302; Graetz, IV, 23.

78. Ibid., III, 631.

79. Neuman, A., II, 122.

80. Ibid., 118; Graetz, IV, 29-41.

81. Jewish Encyclopedia, III, 457, 479.

82. Sarton, II (i), 366.

83. Graetz, IV, 21.

84. Baron, History, II, 136.

85. Ibid., 142.

86. Abrahams, Jewish Life, 143, 157, 193.

87. In Marcus, 314.

CHAPTER XVIII

1. Thompson, J. W., Economic and Social History, 173.

2. Gibbon, IV, 504.

3. Cambridge Medieval History, II, 289.

4. Ibid., IV, 6; Gibbon, V, 142.

5. In Diehl, Manuel, 335.

6. Cambridge Medieval History, IV, 115f.

7. Voltaire, Works, XIII, 190.

8. Diehl, Portraits, 159; Bury, Eastern Roman Empire, 169.

9. McCabe, J., Empresses of Constantinople, 174.

10. Cambridge Medieval History, IV, 108; Diehl, Portraits, 264.

11. Boissonnade, P., Life and Work in Medieval Europe, 56.

12. Cambridge Medieval History, IV, 750.

13. Diehl, Portraits, 236.

14. Cambridge Medieval History, IV, 745.

15. Komroff, Contemporaries of Marco Polo, 266.

16. Cambridge Medieval History, IV, 760.

17. Ibid.

18. Clapham and Power, 212.

19. Diehl, Portraits, 153; Gibbon, V, 458; Brittain, Women of Early Christianity, 318.

20. Lopez, R. S., in Speculum, Vol. XX, No. 1, pp. 17-18; Boissonnade, 46-7; Cambridge Medieval History, IV, 761.

21. Boissonnade, 50.

22. Ibid., 51.

23. Castiglione, 254.

24. Bury, Eastern Roman Empire, 436; Grunebaum, Medieval Islam, 54.

25. Psellus, Chronographia, vi, 46.

26. Ibid., v, 25-37.

27. Diehl, Manuel, 405.

28. Luitprand in Grunebaum, 29.

29. Cf. Walker Trust Report, The Great Palace of the Byzantine Emperors, plates 24-37 and 57.

30. The judgment of Kondakof in Diehl, Manuel, 580.

31. Diehl, 500.

32. Ibid., 381.

33. Finlay, Greece under the Romans, 21.

34. Thompson, J. W., Feudal Germany, 458.

35. Kluchevsky, V. O., History of Russia, I, 46; Thompson, Feudal Germany, 456.

36. Pokrovsky, M. N., History of Russia, 11; Fustel de Coulanges questioned this—cf. Dopsch, 26.

37. Cambridge Medieval History, IV, 186.

38. Mavor, J., Economic History of Russia, I, 15.

39. Kluchevsky, I, 88.

40. Rambaud, A., History of Russia, I, 84.

CHAPTER XIX

1. Paul the Deacon, History of the Longobards, i, 9.

2. Bury, Later Roman Empire, II, 299.

3. Munro and Sellery, 538.

4. Dante, Eleven Letters, 135.

5. Note by W. D. Foulke in Paul the Deacon, 309.

6. Voltaire, Works, XIII, 80.

7. Molmenti, P., Venice, I, I, 212-4.

8. Cambridge Medieval History, III, 170.

9. Pirenne, Medieval Cities, 110.

10. Ruskin, Stones of Venice, II, 55.

11. Lanciani, R., Ancient Rome, 57.

12. Ibid., 275.

13. Castiglione, 301.

14. Dozy, Spanish Islam, 440.

15. Coulton, G. G., Five Centuries of Religion, I, 174.

16. Hume, M., The Spanish People, 129; Spain, 191; Encyclopaedia Britannica, V, 699.

17. In Guizot, History of France, I, 171.

18. Ibid., 168.

19. Pirenne, Cities, 243; Voltaire, XIII, 131.

20. Freeman, E. A., Historical Essays, First Series, 179.

21. Cambridge Medieval History, II, 613.

22. Guizot, France, I, 229f; Guizot, History of Civilization, II, 193-6.

23. Pollock and Maitland, I, 117; Barnes, H. E., History of Western Civilization, I, 775.

24. Lea, Superstition and Force, 469.

25. Guizot, Civilization, II, 225f.

26. Capitulary of Charlemagne, year 803, #3, in Guizot, Civilization, II, 222.

27. In Pirenne, Cities, 166.

28. Ibid., 58; Cambridge Medieval History, II, 665; Rickard, Man and Metals, II, 510.

29. Cambridge Medieval History, II, 657.

30. Letter of Alcuin in William of Malmesbury, i, 3, p. 66.

31. Eginhard, Life of Charlemagne, 61.

32. Hodgkin, T., Life of Charlemagne, 312.

33. West, A. F., Alcuin, 55.

34. Eginhard, p. 14.

35. Ibid., 62.

36. Ibid., 64.

37. Capitulary of 802 in Bebel, A., Woman under Socialism, 60.

38. Eginhard, 33.

39. Bury, Eastern Empire, 318.

40. Eginhard, 56-8.

41. Raby, F. J., History of Secular Latin Poetry in the Middle Ages, I, 190.

42. Eginhard, 52.

43. Ibid., 48; Russell, C. E., Charlemagne, 262.

44. Guizot, France, I, 241.

45. Morey, C. R., Medieval Art, 207.

46. Ibid., 191.

47. Davis, Medieval England, 266.

48. Guizot, Civilization, II, 375.

49. Erigena, J. S., De divisione naturae, i, 69.

50. In Guizot, Civilization, II, 383.

51. Erigena, #517.

52. Ibid., #443.

53. #518.

54. #896.

55. #919-26, 937-40.

56. #861.

57. Poole, R. L., Illustrations of the History of Medieval Thought, 61.

58. Guizot, Civilization, II, 388.

59. William of Malmesbury, ii, 4.

60. Guizot, France, I, 303.

61. Ibid., 311.

62. Ibid., 329.

63. Ibid., 336.

CHAPTER XX

1. Asser, Alfred the Great, 51.

2. Asser, 66, 78, 85.

3. Alfred, Preface to tr. of Gregory I’s Cura pastoralis, in Ogg, Source Book of Medieval History, 191.

4. Voltaire, Works, XIII, 176.

5. Boissonnade, Life and Work in Medieval Europe, 83.

6. Green, J. R., Conquest of England, 135, 329, 359-60.

7. Stubbs, W., Constitutional History of England, I, 146, 157.

8. Hume, D., History of England, I, 181.

9. Pollock and Maitland, II, 450.

10. William of Malmesbury in Coulton, G. G., Social Life in Britain, 20; Green, J. R., Making of England, 192.

11. Traill, H. D., Social England, I, 204.

12. Hume, D., History of England, I, 188.

13. Briffault, R., The Mothers, II, 419.

14. William of Malmesbury, i, 4.

15. Ibid., i, 2.

16. Ibid., ii, 5.

17. Bede, v, 24.

18. Ibid., i, 15.

19. Ibid., Introd., xvi.

20. Gordon, R. K., Anglo-Saxon Poetry, 81-2.

21. In Ker, W. P., Epic and Romance, 63.

22. Beowulf, xxxvii and xliii, in Gordon, Anglo-Saxon Poetry, 60, 70.

23. Bede, iv, 23.

24. Plummer, Life and Times of Alfred the Great, 14.

25. In Addison, J., Arts and Crafts in the Middle Ages, 4.

26. Aldhelme (c. 709) in Addison, 199.

27. Bede, iv, 18.

28. Freeman, E. A., Norman Conquest, II, 298.

29. William of Malmesbury, iii, 238; Ordericus Vitalis, Historia Ecclesiastic a, 492A; Freeman, Norman Conquest, II, 244.

30. Guizot, France, I, 345; Freeman, Norman Conquest, III, 320.

31. Mabinogion, 1f.

32. Hyde, Literary History of Ireland, 233.

33. Joyce, Short History of Ireland, 39-46.

34. Thompson, J. W., Economic History, 148.

35. Boissonnade, 78.

36. Joyce, 80.

37. Ibid., 163.

38. Ibid., 155, 158.

39. Hyde, 222.

40. Ibid., 239.

41. Ibid., 279f.

42. Thompson, Sir E. M., Introd. to Greek and Latin Palaeography, 374.

43. Joyce, 189-92.

44. Keating in Hyde, 488.

45. Horn, F. W., Literature of the Scandinavian North. 13; Cambridge Medieval History, II, 481.

46. Sturluson, S., Heimskringla, Harald the Fairhaired, ch. 3.

47. Ibid., Haakon the Good, ch. 23.

48. Ibid., Olaf Tryggvesson, ch. 7.

49. Ibid., ch. 92.

50. Ibid., ch. 87.

51. Ibid., St. Olaf, ch. 56, 131.

52. Ibid., ch. 74.

53. Ibid., Appendix to Olaf Tryggvesson’s Saga; Encyclopaedia Britannica, art. Columbus.

54. Beowulf, xxxv.

55. Sturluson, Son of Magnus, ch. 33; Du-Chaillu, P., The Viking Age, II, 370, 379.

56. Saxo Grammaticus, Danish History, I, 23.

57. Hastings, Encyclopedia, III, 499c.

58. DuChaillu, II, 1.

59. Haskins, Normans in European History, 36.

60. DuChaillu, I, 486.

61. Saxo, 25.

62. Thompson, J. W., The Middle Ages, I, 327.

63. Sturluson, Magnus the Good, ch. 16.

64. Sigfusson, Saemund, The Elder Edda, 22-56.

65. Ibid., 23.

66. 59.

67. 66.

68. 14.

69. 84.

70. 102.

71. 81.

72. 65.

73. 73.

74. 121.

75. 58.

76. 55-6.

77. 36.

78. 68.

79. Horn, Literature of the Scandinavian North, 41.

80. Faereyinga Saga in Ker, Epic and Romance, 236.

81. Sturluson, Olaf Tryggvesson’s Saga, ch. 9.

82. Sturluson, Ynglinga Saga, ch. 6. and note; Hodgkin, Charlemagne, 154; Saxo, 44.

83. Milman, III, 216. Milman persuasively defends the credibility of this account, which German historians deny.

84. Cambridge Medieval History, 270.

85. West, Alcuin, 127.

86. Raby, F. J. E., History of Christian Latin Poetry in the Middle Ages, 183.

87. Welch, Alice K., Of Six Medieval Women, 5.

88. Addison, Arts and Crafts, 16.

CHAPTER XXI

1. Cambridge Medieval History, I, 536.

2. In Russell, B., History of Western Philosophy, 379.

3. Rule of St. Benedict, ch. 3, in Ogg, 87.

4. Ch. 2.

5. Ch. 53.

6. Dudden, I, 111.

7. In Maitland, S. R., Dark Ages, 196-8.

8. In Dudden, I, 58.

9. Ibid., 289.

10. Bede, ii, 1.

11. Gregory of Tours, 227.

12. Dudden, I, 245.

13. Thompson, J. W., Middle Ages, I, 178.

14. Dudden, II, 156; McCabe, J., Story of Religious Controversy, 307.

15. Bede, ii, 1.

16. Ibid., 198.

17. Gregory I, Ep. xiii, 45, in Dudden, I, 278.

18. In Abélard, Ouvrages inédits, Quaestio, 1a.

19. Gregory I, Magna Moralia, in Dudden, II, 313.

20. Dialogues, iv, 7, in Dudden, I, 330.

21. Dudden, II, 434f.

22. Ibid., 38.

23. Thompson. T. W., Middle Ages, I, 178.

24. Voltaire, Works, XIII, 90.

25. Cambridge Medieval History, II, 690.

26. Funk, I, 287; Cambridge Medieval History, V, 710.

27. In Milman, III, 25.

28. Gibbon, IV, 82.

29. Sarton, I, 555.

30. Poole, R. L., Illustrations, 20.

31. Taylor, H. O., Medieval Mind, I, 136.

32. Dudden, I, 86.

33. Ibid.

34. Montalembert, Comte de, Monks of the West, I, 553.

35. Guizot, Civilization, II, 113-9; Toynbee, A. J., Study of History, II, 331.

36. Waddell, H., Wandering Scholars, 34.

37. Bede, i, 17.

38. William of Malmesbury, i, 2.

39. Bede, i, 30.

40. Bede, Letter to Egbert.

41. Green, Making of England, 413.

42. Gibbon, V, 534.

43. Coulton, Five Centuries of Religion, I, 222.

44. Ibid., 352.

45. Cambridge Medieval History, V, 662.

46. Ibid., III, 67.

47. Milman, III, 111.

48. Cambridge Medieval History, III, 455.

49. Milman, III, 160; McCabe, Crises in the History of the Papacy, 128f.

50. Ibid., 131, quoting the Liber Pontificalis.

51. Milman, III, 171; Cambridge Medieval History, III, 455.

52. Milman, III, 178.

53. Ibid., 185f.

54. Sandvs, Sir John, Companion to Latin Studies, 847.

55. Vincent of Beauvais, Spec. Hist., in Milman, III, 221.

56. Thorndike, Magic and Experimental Science. T. 704.

57. Cambridge Medieval History, III, 199.

58. Hulme. E. M., Middle Ages, 339; Coulton, G. G., Life in the Middle Ages, I, 1; Sarton. I, 734.

59. Funk, I, 262.

60. Stephens. W. R. W.. Hildebrand, 14; Milman, III. 230: McCabe, Crises, 140.

61. Cambridge Medieval History, 510.

62. Guizot, France, I, 160.

63. Porter, A. K., Medieval Architecture, II, 2.

64. Ibid.

65. Carlvle, R. W., History of Medieval Political Theory in the West, IV, 52.

66. Coulton, Five Centuries of Religion, IV, 187.

67. Coulton, From St. Francis to Dante, a tr. of The Chronicle of Salimbene, 286.

68. Cambridge Medieval History, V, 9-10.

69. Catholic Encyclopedia, I, 156.

70. Cambridge Medieval History, V, 12.

71. Lea, Sacerdotal Celibacy, 210.

72. Lecky, Morals, II, 237.

73. Lea, History of Auricular Confessions, I, 46.

74. Letter to Egbert in Bede, p. 4.

75. Catholic Encyclopedia, III, 486.

76. Cambridge Medieval History, IV, 268.

77. Ibid., 272.

78. Lea, Sacerdotal Celibacy, 194, 223; Thompson, Social and Economic History, 662.

79. Lea, Celibacy, 226.

80. Bryce, Jas., Holy Roman Empire, 158.

81. Cambridge Medieval History, V, 99.

82. Thompson, Social and Economic History, 663.

83. Taylor, Medieval Mind, II, 55.

84. Letter of Gregory VII to William I of England, 1080, in Bryce, 160.

85. Catholic Encyclopedia, X, 871c.

86. Figgis, Political Aspects of St. Augustine’s City of God, 88.

87. Catholic Encyclopedia, X, 871c.

88. Carlyle, R. W., Medieval Political Theory, IV, 64.

89. Stephens, Hildebrand, 116.

90. Thatcher and McNeal, 159.

91. Cambridge Medieval History, V, 74f.

CHAPTER XXII

1. Lot, End of the Ancient World, 125.

2. Dopsch, 283.

3. Seebohm, F., English Village Community, 126f, 179.

4. Seignobos, C., Feudal Regime, 34; Barnes, Economic History, 139.

5. Clapham and Power, 237-8.

6. Letters, iv, 2.

7. Coulton, G. G., Medieval Village, 151.

8. McCabe, Story of Religious Controversy, 325.

9. Thompson, Social and Economic History, 679.

10. Coulton, Medieval Village, 492.

11. Coulton, Medieval Panorama, 322.

12. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, I IIae, xciv, 5.

13. Decree of Fourth Council of Orléans, in Dopsch, 250.

14. Lecky, Morals, II, 70; Sarton, II (ii), 799; but cf. Catholic Encyclopedia, XIV, 38.

15. Ashley, Introd. to English Economic History, II, 276.

16. Coulton, Medieval Village, 59.

17. Westermarck, E., Short History of Marriage, 14; Coulton, Medieval Village, 80.

18. Seignobos, 14; Coulton, Medieval Village, 464.

19. Bebel, 57.

20. Cambridge Medieval History, VII, 721.

21. Coulton, Life in the Middle Ages, III, 123-5.

21a. Cambridge Medieval History, VII, 722.

22. Seignobos, 21.

23. Coulton, Medieval Village, 65.

24. Cram, R. A., Substance of Gothic, 181.

25. Lynn White, Jr., in Speculum, Apr. 1940, p. 151.

26. Taine, H., Ancient Regime, 9; Carlyle, T., Past and Present, 55f.

27. Barnes, Economic History, 145.

28. Cambridge Medieval History, VII, 741.

29. Coulton, Medieval Village, 311-18.

30. Ibid., 21, 243.

31. Coulton, Panorama, 92.

32. Speculum, Apr. 1940, 154.

33. Ibid., 155.

34. Chateaubriand, Vicomte de, The Genius of Christianity, iv, 1.4.

35. Coulton, Medieval Village, 119.

36. Lacroix, Paul, Military and Religious Life in the Middle Ages, 165.

37. Hitti, History of the Arabs, 663; Arnold, Legacy of Islam, 131.

38. Lacroix, Paul, Science and Literature in the Middle Ages, 299f.

39. Beaumanoir in Seignobos, 55.

40. Coulton, Panorama, 50.

41. Voltaire, Works, XIII, 131.

42. Thompson, Feudal Germany, 301.

43. Carlyle, R. W., Medieval Political Theory, 463.

44. Pollock and Maitland, II, 242.

45. Maine, Sir H., Ancient Law, 135.

46. Coulton, Medieval Village, 528.

47. Jenks, E., Law and Politics in the Middle Ages, 23.

48. Coulton, Medieval Village, 187.

49. Lea, Superstition and Force, 286, 297, 314.

50. Coulton, Panorama, 379.

51. Lea, Superstition, 178.

52. Ibid., 140f, 179.

53. Seignobos, 79.

54. Lea, Superstition, 129.

55. Sumner, W. G., Folkways, 522.

56. Barnes, Western Civilization, I, 798.

57. Seignobos, 81.

58. Coulton, Medieval Village, 248.

59. Lacroix, Military Life, 49.

60. Davis, W. S., Life on a Medieval Barony, 176.

61. Coulton, From St. Francis to Dante, 20.

62. Seignobos, 74.

63. Coulton, Chaucer and His England, 199.

64. Coulton, Panorama, 247.

65. Prestage, E., Chivalry, 72.

66. Speculum, Apr. 1930, 189.

67. Thorndike, Magic and Science, II, 31.

68. Hoover, H., and Gibbons, H. A., Conditions of a Lasting Peace, 29.

69. Prestage, 75.

70. Coulton, Panorama, 239.

71. Traill, I, 379.

72. In Briffault, Mothers, III, 383, 394-5.

73. Bebel, 63.

74. Prestage, 9.

75. Rowbotham, 283.

76. Prestage, 98.

77. Davis, Life on a Medieval Barony, 77.

78. Vossler, K., Medieval Culture, I, 299; Taylor, Medieval Mind, II, 562.

79. Miss Amy Kelly in Speculum, Jan. 1937, 5.

80. Rowbotham, 224, 235.

81. Ibid., 249.

82. Ibid., 245.

83. In Vossler, I, 323.

CHAPTER XXIII

1. Thompson, Middle Ages, I, 565.

2. LeStrange, Palestine under the Moslems, 202.

3. Coulton, Panorama, 327.

4. Lacroix, Military and Religious Life, 108.

5. Ogg, 282-8.

6. William of Malmesbury, 358.

7. Chanson de Roland, 11. 848f, in French Classics, Paris, n.d., Lib. Hatier.

8. Munro, D. C., in N. Y. Herald Tribune, Apr. 26, 1931.

9. Thompson, Social and Economic History, 389.

10. Guizot, France, I, 384.

11. Lacroix, P., History of Prostitution, 904.

12. Guizot, France, 388.

13. Cambridge Medieval History, IV, 334.

14. Gibbon, VI, 72.

15. Gesta Francorum, app.

16. Thompson, Social and Economic History, 396.

17. Gibbon, VI, 75.

18. William of Tyre, Siege of Jerusalem, ch. clxi.

19. In Taylor, Medieval Mind, I, 551.

20. Albertus Aquens in Milman, IV, 38n.

21. Thompson, Economic History, 397.

22. Archer and Kingsford, Crusades, 171.

23. Milman, IV, 251.

24. William of Tyre, xxi, 7.

25. Archer, 176.

26. Muir, Caliphate, 578.

27. Guizot, France, 427f; Cambridge Medieval History, V, 307.

28. Adams, B., Law of Civilization and Decay, 94.

29. In Munro and Sellery, 275f.

30. Lane-Poole, Saladin, 175.

31. Ibid., 205f.

32. 232.

33. 246.

34. De Vaux, Carra, Penseurs d’Islam, I, 26.

35. Guizot, France, 439f; Gibbon, VI, 119.

36. Lane-Poole, Saladin, 307.

37. Ibid., 351f.

38. 357.

39. Ibid.

40. De Vaux, I, 27.

41. Lane-Poole, Saladin, 367.

42. Giraldus Cambrensis, Itinerary through Wales, i, 3.

43. Adams, Civilization and Decay, 133.

44. Gibbon, ed. Bury, VI, 528.

45. Villehardouin, Introd:, xvii.

46. Adams, Civilization and Decay, 130.

47. Gibbon, VI, 100.

48. Oman, C. W. C., Byzantine Empire, 280-2.

49. Robert of Clari in Villehardouin, Introd., xxiv.

50. Villehardouin, 31.

51. Jackson, Sir T. C., Byzantine and Romanesque Architecture, I, 101.

52. Diehl, Manuel, 635.

53. Dalton, Byzantine Art, 538.

54. Gibbon, VI, 171.

55. Beard, Miriam, History of the Business Man, 109.

56. Encyclopaedia Britannica, VI, 788; MacLaurin, C., Mere Mortals, II, 215f.

57. Kantorowicz, E., Frederick II, 185f.

58. Villehardouin, 177.

59. Ibid., 220.

60. 320.

61. Day, Clive, History of Commerce, 88.

62. Hitti, 346.

63. Guizot, Civilization, I, 534.

64. Lea, Auricular Confession, III, 152.

65. Speculum, Oct. 1938, 391.

66. In Gibbon, VI, I, 25n.

67. Speculum, Oct. 1938, 403.

68. Hitti, 665.

69. Arnold, Legacy of Islam, 60.

CHAPTER XXIV

1. Day, Commerce, 57; Pirenne, Medieval Cities, 87.

2. Boissonnade, 173.

3. Thompson, Economic History, 577.

4. Speculum, Apr. 1940, 145.

5. Boissonnade, 173.

6. Coulton, Panorama, 325.

7. Ibid., 322.

8. Beard, 79.

9. Zimmern, H., The Hansa Towns, 183.

10. Ibid., 95.

11. Ibid., 152, 200.

12. Thompson, J. W., Economic and Social History of Europe in the Later Middle Ages, 451.

13. Id., Economic and Social History of the Middle Ages, 581.

14. Cambridge Medieval History, VI, 478.

15. Gest, A. P., Roman Engineering, 142.

16. Haskins, C. H., Studies in Medieval Culture, 101.

17. Usher, History of Inventions, 125.

18. Thompson, Later Middle Ages, 504.

19. Hitti, 667.

20. Rickard, Man and Metals, II, 561.

21. Salzman, L. F., English Industries of the Middle Ages, 1.

22. Rickard, II, 595.

23. Ibid., 615.

24. Cambridge Medieval History, VI, 500.

25. Renard, G., Guilds in the Middle Ages, 24.

26. Pirenne, H., Economic and Social History of Medieval Europe, 211.

27. Thompson, J. W., Later Middle Ages, 5.

28. Boissonnade, 187.

29. Ibid., 186.

30. Pirenne, H., Economic History, 113.

31. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 198.

32. Schoenhof, J., History of Money and Prices, 98.

33. Jusserand, J. J., English Wayfaring Life in the Middle Ages, 192.

34. Boissonnade, 221.

35. Coulton, Panorama, 285.

36. Id., Five Centuries of Religion, V, 282.

37. Pirenne, Economic History, 120.

38. Coulton, Panorama, 343.

39. Boissonnade, 167.

40. Pirenne, 128.

41. Pirenne, Cities, 223.

42. Matthew Paris, Historia maior, 1235, I, p. 2.

43. Ashley, English Economic History and Theory, I, 201.

44. Pirenne, Economic History, 130.

45. Ibid., 135.

46. Thompson, Economic History of the Middle Ages, 15.

47. Ibid.

48. Id., Later Middle Ages, 449; Day, 93.

49. Schoenhof, 63.

50. Ibid., 57; Thompson, Later Middle Ages, 432.

51. Adams, Law of Civilization, 167.

52. Lacroix, Manners, Customs, and Dress, 272.

53. Davis, Medieval England, 376.

54. Zimmern, Hansa, 165; Thompson, Later Middle Ages, 449.

55. Molmenti, Venice, Part I, Vol. I, 149; Thompson, Later Middle Ages, 420, 452; Crump, C. G., Legacy of the Middle Ages, 441.

56. Thompson, Economic History of the Middle Ages, 246; Later Middle Ages, 449-50.

57. Aristotle, Politics, i, 10.

58. Luke vi, 34.

59. In Ashley, English Economic History and Theory, I, 126.

60. Ibid., 128.

61. Ibid.

62. 158.

63. 149.

64. 411.

65. Coulton, G. G., Medieval Scene, 146.

66. Ashley, I, 149, 157.

67. Ibid., II, 405.

68. Pirenne, Economic History, 137.

69. Thompson, Economic History of the Middle Ages, 638.

70. Coulton, Medieval Village, 284.

71. Pirenne, Economic History, 129.

72. Ashley, I, 198.

73. Cambridge Medieval History, VI, 491.

74. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, II IIae, lxxviii, 2.

75. Ashley, I, 196; Coulton, Panorama, 336.

76. Boissonnade, 166.

77. Ashley, I, 203.

78. Abbott, G. F., Israel in Egypt, 112.

79. Baron, S., Social and Religious History of the Jews, II, 16.

80. Rivoira, G., Lombardic Architecture, I, 108.

81. Dopsch, 338.

82. Cambridge Medieval History, VI, 484.

83. Thompson, Economic History of the Middle Ages, 792.

84. Lethaby, W., Medieval Art, 145.

85. Richard, E., History of German Civilization, 195; Lacroix, Manners, 271.

86. Saunders, O. E., History of English Art in the Middle Ages, 85.

87. Thompson, Economic History of the Middle Ages, 493.

88. Id., Later Middle Ages, 196.

89. Day, 47.

90. Coulton, Medieval Scene, 92.

91. Walsh, J. J., Thirteenth the Greatest of Centuries, 437.

92. Barnes, Economic History, 184; Renard, Guilds, 37.

93. Ashley, I, 81.

94. Addison, J., Arts and Crafts, 2.

95. Power, Eileen, and Power, R., Cities and Their Stories, 74.

96. Bebel, 59.

97. Villari, P., Two First Centuries of Florentine History, 35.

98. Guibert of Nogent, Autobiography, 6-bis, 7-9.

99. Pirenne, H., History of Europe, 276.

100. Boissonnade, 207; Renard, Guilds, 62; Coulton, Panorama, 293; Schevill, Siena, 68.

101. Barnes, Economic History, 162-3.

102. Day, 51.

103. Headlam, C., Story of Nuremberg, 152.

104. Salzman, 335.

105. Pirenne, Economic History, 213.

106. Coulton, Chaucer, 128; Medieval Village, 329.

107. Boissonnade, 237.

108. Pirenne, Cities, 75.

109. Barnes, Economic History, 163.

110. Clapham and Power, 337.

111. Ibid.

112. Matthew Paris, I, 11, 42, 48, 156, 164, etc.

113. Coulton, Panorama, 456.

114. Porter, Medieval Architecture, II, 149.

115. Thompson, Economic History of the Middle Ages, 801.

116. Guizot, France, I, 614.

117. Beard, 85.

118. In Zimmern, Hansa, 49.

119. Coulton, Social Life in Britain, 101; Schoenhof, 125.

120. Rogers, J. E. T., Six Centuries of Work and Wages, 92; Jusserand, 99; Schoenhof 119.

121. Rogers, 73; Renard, 16.

122. Matthew Paris, 1251; Milman, VI, 57f; Lea, H. C., History of the Inquisition in the Middle Ages, I, 270.

123. Munro and Sellery, 468.

124. Pirenne, Economic History, 203.

125. Ashley, I, 82.

126. Ralph Higben’s Chronicle, viii, 145, in Coulton, Social Life, 356.

127. Beard, 145.

CHAPTER XXV

1. Benjamin of Tudela in Komroff, Contemporaries, 265; Diehl, Manuel, 390.

2. Cambridge Medieval History, IV, 760.

3. Vasiliev, A. A., History of the Byzantine Empire, II, 151.

4. Matt. Paris, Chronica maiora, v, 38; Historia minor, iii, 38-9, in Cambridge Medieval History, IV, 493.

5. Vasiliev, II, 237, 241.

6. Finlay, G., History of Greece, III, 372.

7. Kluchevsky, I, 185; Pokrovsky, 78.

8. Rambaud, I, 96.

9. Vernadsky, G., Kievan Russia, 93-5.

10. Rambaud, I, 129; Kluchevsky, I, 323.

11. Vasiliev, II, 237.

12. Rambaud, I, 154.

13. Affirmed by Karamsin, denied by Soloviev, cf. Rambaud, I, 169.

14. Rambaud, I, 172.

15. Morey, Medieval Art, 158f.

16. Cambridge Medieval History, VI, 468.

17. Lönnrot, E., Kalevala, I, vii.

18. Rambaud, I, 144.

19. Lützow, Bohemia, 44.

20. Cambridge Medieval History, V, 348.

21. Richard, German Civilization, 186; Thompson, Feudal Germany, 161.

22. Richard, 186.

23. Carlyle, R. W., Medieval Political Theory, V, 88; III, 89.

24. Freeman, Norman Conquest, II, 181.

25. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 168.

26. Ibid., 163.

27. Voltaire, Works, XIII, 274.

28. Hume, D., History of England, I, 504.

29. Davis, Medieval England, 355; Milman, IV, 298, 302.

30. Stubbs, Constitutional History, I, 309; Freeman, Norman Conquest, IV, 430.

31. Ibid., 714.

32. Vinogradoff, P., English Society in the Eleventh Century, 472; Coulton, Medieval Village, 11.

33. Stubbs, I, 330.

34. Encyclopaedia Britannica, XI, 432.

35. Cf. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 206-8.

36. Coulton, Life, III, 5-7; Panorama, 229.

37. Pollock and Maitland, I, 104; Freeman, Historical Essays, 2d Series, 114.

38. Text in Rowbotham, 62.

39. Coulton, Panorama, 231.

40. Hume, D., I, 478.

41. Holinshed, Chronicle, 18.

42. Ogg, 304-10

43. Jenks, 35.

44. Pollock and Maitland, I, 138.

45. Encyclopaedia Britannica, VIII, 9a.

46. Draper, Intellectual Development of Europe, II, 81.

47. Pollock and Maitland, I, 465; II, 398.

48. Coulton, Panorama, 379.

49. Home, Roman London, 118.

50. Speculum, Jan. 1937, 20.

51. Coulton, Panorama, 297.

52. Joyce, Ireland, 246-8; Hume, I, 356. Cardinal Gasquet (Monastic Life in the M. Ages, 169) argues unconvincingly against the authenticity of this bull.

53. In Coulton, Panorama, 66.

54. Brown, P. H., History of Scotland, I, 88.

55. Thierry, A., Conquest of England by the Normans, I, 21.

56. Blok, P. J., History of … the Netherlands, I, 230.

57. May, Sir T., Democracy in Europe, I, 338-9.

58. Encyclopaedia Britannica, XXI, 912c.

59. Guizot, France, I, 524.

60. Ibid., 312.

61. 522.

62. Belloc, Paris, 154.

63. Adams, H., Mont St. Michel and Chartres, 177.

64. Joinville, Chronicle, 153.

65. Lacroix, Manners, 32.

66. In Munro and Sellery, 520.

67. Joinville, 308.

68. Cambridge Medieval History, VI, 347.

69. Joinville, 139.

70. Taylor, H. O., Medieval Mind, I, 365.

71. Cambridge Medieval History, VI, 349.

72. Joinville, 149.

73. Ibid., 310; Guizot, France, I, 556; Munro and Sellery, 496.

74. Joinville, 316.

75. Munro and Sellery, 498.

76. Joinville, 148.

77. Munro and Sellery, 493, 500.

78. Guizot, France, I, 543.

79. Joinville, 150.

80. Guizot, Civilization, I, 184; Lacroix, Manners, 234.

81. Coulton, From St. Francis, 140.

82. Guizot, France, I, 452.

83. Thompson, Economic History of the Middle Ages, 44; Porter, Medieval Architecture, II, 264.

84. Thompson, 40.

85. Ibid., 22.

86. Hearnshaw, F., Medieval Contributions to Modern Civilization, 67; Encyclopaedia Britannica, X, 702b; Hearnshaw, Social and Political Ideas of Some Great Medieval Thinkers, 145, 157, 163.

87. Cambridge Medieval History, VI, 409.

88. Thompson, 349.

89. Chapman, C. E., History of Spain, 90; Carlyle, R. W., Political Theory, V, 134.

90. Cambridge Medieval History, VII, 695-702.

91. Pirenne, J., Les grands courants, II, 157.

92. Lea, H. C., History of the Inquisition in Spain, I, 58.

93. Sterling, M. B., Story of Parzival, 20f.

94. Milman, V, 61.

CHAPTER XXVI

1. In Waern, Sicily, 36.

2. Cambridge Medieval History, VI, 131.

3. Sarton, II(1), 119.

4. In Waern, 50f.

5. Bryce, 292.

6. Catholic Encyclopedia, I, 749a.

7. Hazlitt, W. C., Venetian Republic, I, 190f.

8. Molmenti, I(1), 82.

9. Ibid., 84.

10. 145.

11. Thompson, Economic History of the Later Middle Ages, 11.

12. Beard, 107.

13. Ruskin, Stones of Venice, I, 8.

14. Beard, 102-5.

15. Dante, Eleven Letters, 160, letter of March 1314 to Guido da Polenta.

16. Molmenti, I(2), 49, 53.

17. Ibid., 9, 13-15; Sedgwick, H. D., Italy in the Thirteenth Century, II, 200.

18. Molmenti, I(2), 139, 154, 157.

19. Molmenti, I(1), 204.

20. Beard, 146.

21. Coulton, From St. Francis, 215.

22. Ibid.

23. Thompson, Economic History of the Middle Ages, 421.

24. Sedgwick, I, 175.

25. Thompson, 441; Cambridge Medieval History, V, 230.

26. Kantorowicz, 26.

27. Ibid., 30.

28. Cambridge Medieval History, VI, 137.

29. Kantorowicz, 204.

30. Ibid., 219.

31. 282.

32. 310.

33. Cambridge Medieval History, VI, 150.

34. Kantorowicz, 288.

35. Ibid., 529.

36. Pirenne, J., Grands courants, II, 114; Kantorowicz, 311.

37. Ibid., 307.

38. 355.

39. 195.

40. Matt. Paris, 1238, 157.

41. Ibid.

42. Sedgwick, I, 133; Kantorowicz, 308.

43. Ibid., 251.

44. 343.

45. 460.

46. 615.

47. 624-32.

48. Nietzsche, F., Beyond Good and Evil, #200.

49. Kantorowicz, 611.

50. Sedgwick, I, 440; Kantorowicz, 332.

51. Ibid., 292.

52. Milman, VI, 240f.

53. Renard, 24; Cambridge Medieval History, VI, 496.

54. Thompson, Later Middle Ages, 259.

55. Beard, 140.

56. Thompson, Economic History of the Middle Ages, 471.

57. Villari, First Centuries of Florentine History, 178.

58. Ibid., 221.

59. 498.

CHAPTER XXVII

1. In Coulton, Social Life, 15.

2. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, I, lxiv, 4.

3. In Coulton, Five Centuries of Religion, I, 60.

4. Ibid., 31.

5. Gregory I, Dialogues, iv, 30, 35, in Lecky, Morals, II, 220.

6. Ibid., 221.

7. Westermarck, Moral Ideas, I, 723; Coulton, Five Centuries, I, 71.

8. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Supplement, xcvii, 5, 7.

9. Lea, Inquisition in Middle Ages, III, 384.

10. Ibid., 385.

11. Coulton, Five Centuries, I, 40.

12. Gregory I, Dialogues, i, 4, in Dudden, II, 367.

13. Coulton, Five Centuries, I, 445-9; II, 665.

14. Coulton, Panorama, 416.

15. Id., Social Life, 337.

16. Westermarck, Moral Ideas, I, 722.

17. Coulton, Panorama, 416.

18. Cambridge Medieval History, VII, 635.

19. Coulton, Inquisition and Liberty, 19.

20. Id., Panorama, 417.

21. Id., Medieval Village, 241.

22. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, I, xxiii, 7.

23. Coulton, Life, I, 54.

24. Lecky, Morals, II, 220.

25. In Coulton, Inquisition and Liberty, 18.

26. Lea, Auricular Confession, III, 322.

27. Dudden, II, 427.

28. Renan, E., Poetry of the Celtic Races, 177.

29. Coulton, Five Centuries, I, 75.

30. Id., Inquisition and Liberty, 2.

31. John of Salisbury, Metalogicus, vii, 2.

32. In Munro and Sellery, 489.

33. Giraldus Cambrensis, Gemma Ecclesiastica, ii, 24, in Robertson, J. M., Short History of Free Thought, II, 311.

34. Ibid., i, 51, in Robertson, II, 311.

35. Lea, Inquisition in Middle Ages, III, 558.

36. Coulton, Social Life, 218; Five Centuries, 1, 71.

37. Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum Morale, ii, 3.6; ii, 1.11.

38. Coulton, Five Centuries, I, 31.

39. Coulton, The Inquisition, 62.

40. Quoted by Berthold of Regensburg in Coulton, Five Centuries, I, 72.

41. Aucassin et Nicolette, line 22.

42. Coulton, Panorama, 17.

43. Id., Five Centuries, I, 303.

44. Reese, G., Music in the Middle Ages, 110.

45. Wright, Th., The Book of the Knight of La Tour-Landry, prologue, and ch. 35. 174.

46. Coulton, Village, 254.

47. Raby, Christian Latin Poetry, 358.

48. Durand, Rationale divinorum officiorum, in Raby, 357.

49. Raby, 356.

50. Giraldus Cambrensis, Itinerary, i, 2.

51. Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum Historiale, vi, 99, in Coulton, Life, i, 1.

52. Caesar of Heisterbach, ii, 170.

53. Ibid.

54. Milman, III, 242.

55. Coulton, Five Centuries, I, 300.

56. Moore, Judaism, II, 4.

57. Catholic Encyclopedia, I, 634.

58. Voltaire, Works, XIII, 136.

59. In Spengler, O., Decline of the West, II, 295.

60. Voltaire, III, 137.

61. Lea, Auricular Confession, II, 443.

62. Ibid., III, 285.

63. Catholic Encyclopedia, VII, 787.

64. Cambridge Medieval History, VI, 678; Funk, I, 379.

65. Adams, B., Law of Civilization and Decay, 64.

66. Lanfranc, De corpore et sanguine Domini, in Cambridge Medieval History, VI, 678.

66a. Lacroix, Military, 454.

67. Matt, vi, 7.

68. Encyclopaedia Britannica, VI, 795.

69. Montalembert, I, 57.

70. Male, E., L’art religieux du XIIIe siècle en France, 309-11.

71. Coulton, Panorama, 107.

72. Coulton, Life, I, 168.

73. Addison, Arts, 65.

74. Coulton, Five Centuries, IV, 94.

75. Haskins, Renaissance of Twelfth Century, 235.

76. Jusserand, 327.

77. Ibid.

78. Coulton, Five Centuries, IV, 106.

79. Clavijo, G. de, Embassy to Tamerlane, 7, 63, 81.

80. Coulton, Five Centuries, V, 105.

81. Ibid., IV, 120.

82. V, 99.

83. Coulton, Five, IV, 98.

84. Ibid., 116.

85. 111.

86. Haskins, Renaissance, 235.

87. Coulton, Five Centuries, IV, 121.

88. Funk, J, 297.

89. Howard, C., Sex Worship, 78-93; Coulton, Life, IV, 209-10.

90. Davis, Medieval England, 202; Frazer, Sir J., Magic Art, II, 370.

91. Weigall, A., The Paganism in Our Christianity, 131.

92. Adams, H., Mont St. Michel, 91.

93. Coulton, From St. Francis, 119.

94. In Adams, H., 262.

95. Ibid., 93, 254.

96. 259.

97. 258.

98. Funk, I, 296.

99. Catholic Encyclopedia, IX, 791d.

100. Julian Ribera in Thorndike, Short History of Civilization, 350.

101. For tr. of Dies irae cf. Van Doren, M., Anthology, 460.

102. Gibbon, VI, 494f

103. Renard, 42; Brentano in Smith, T., English Guilds, lxxxv.

104. Thompson, Economic History of the Middle Ages, 674; Barnes, Economic History, 164.

105. Catholic Encyclopedia, V, 679.

106. Villari, 161.

107. Coulton, Five Centuries, IV, 333; Medieval Village, 294.

108. Ibid.

109. Maine, Ancient Law, 132.

110. Coulton, Panorama, 172, 293; From St. Francis, 293; Lea, Sacerdotal Celibacy, 283; Matthew Paris, I, 83.

111. Davis, Medieval England, 28.

112. Coulton, Panorama, 137, 154.

113. Id., Medieval Village, 295.

114. Ibid., 303; id., Panorama, 197, 204; Social Life, 213; Life, III, 39.

115. Lecky, Morals, II, 335.

116. Coulton, Panorama, 129.

117. Lea, Inquisition in Middle Ages, I, 3.

118. Thatcher, 165-6.

119. Cambridge Medieval History, VI, 543.

119a. Jewish Encyclopedia, I, 550.

120. Lea, op. cit., I, 13.

121. Cambridge Medieval History, VI, 8.

122. Ibid., 3; Taylor, Medieval Mind, II, 303.

123. Carlyle, R. W., Political Theory, V, 157, 182.

124. Ibid., 162.

125. Encyclopaedia Britannica, II, 370a.

126. Clayton, J., Pope Innocent III, 181.

127. Walsh, J., Thirteenth Century, 370.

128. Cambridge Medieval History, VI, 2.

129. In Lea, Inquisition in Middle Ages, I, 129.

130. Cambridge Medieval History, VI, 694.

131. Encyclopaedia Britannica, XII, 370b.

132. Coulton, From St. Francis, 275.

133. Funk, I, 358.

134. Coulton, From St. Francis, 277.

135. Cambridge Medieval History, VI, 120.

136. Luke Wadding in Coulton, From St. Francis, 277.

137. Ibid., 225.

138. Coulton, Panorama, 165.

139. Thompson, Economic History of the Middle Ages, 688.

140. Voltaire, XIII, 130.

141. Clapham and Power, 189.

142. Lea, Auricular Confession, III, 17.

143. Taylor, Medieval Mind, II, 303; Thompson, Economic Middle Ages, 689.

144. Id., Feudal Germany, 19.

145. Boissonnade, 82, 243.

146. Ibid., Lacroix, Manners, 12.

147. Fisher, H. L., Medieval Empire, II, 64.

148. Thompson, Economic History of the Middle Ages, 692.

149. Ibid., 691.

150. Id., Later Middle Ages, 12.

151. Funk, I, 355.

152. Lea, Inquisition in Middle Ages, III, 624.

153. Lavisse, E., Histoire de France, III, 318.

154. Matthew Paris, I, 50.

155. Coulton, Five Centuries, IV, 522.

156. Coulton, Life, I, 36.

157. Milman, V, 139.

158. Porter, Medieval Architecture, II, 164; Coulton, Social Life, 215.

159. Cf. Lea, Inquisition in Middle Ages, I, 21-30, for many instances of ecclesiastical self-reform.

CHAPTER XXVIII

1. Coulton, From St. Francis, 12.

2. Beer, M., Social Struggles in the Middle Ages, 135, 177.

3. Luchaire in Munro and Sellery, 438.

4. Ibid.; Beer, 133.

5. Encyclopaedia Britannica, XXIII, 288b.

6. Coulton, Panorama, 463.

7. Vacandard, Inquisition, 70.

8. Thompson, Economic History of the Middle Ages, 662.

9. Cambridge Medieval History, VI, 21.

10. Sabatier, Life of St. Francis, 43.

11. Matthew Paris, I, 66.

12. Vacandard, 83.

13. Ibid., 74.

14. 91.

15. Luchaire, 444.

16. Vacandard, 77; Beer, 129-31.

17. Coulton, Inquisition and Liberty, 79; Vacandard, 97; Luchaire, 441.

18. Coulton, Inquisition and Liberty, 70; Vacandard, 73; Morey, Medieval Art, 255.

19. Vacandard, 77.

20. Lea, Inquisition in Middle Ages, 1, 103.

21. Rowbotham, 293.

22. Luchaire, 434.

23. Ibid., 436.

24. Lea, I, 120, 133.

25. Thatcher, 209.

26. Lea, I, 139.

27. Ibid., 141.

28. Ibid.

29. 146.

30. 153.

31. 154.

32. Guizot, France, I, 507; Coulton, Life, I, 68.

33. Lea, I, 162.

34. Thompson, Economic History of the Middle Ages, 490.

35. Lea, 554.

36. Maimonides, Guide to the Perplexed, III, introd., xli.

37. Vacandard, 48.

38. Ibid.

39. 63.

40. 68.

41. Sumner, Folkways, 238.

42. Catholic Encyclopedia, VIII, 28c.

43. Lea, 237.

44. Vacandard, 63.

45. Coulton, Inquisition and Liberty, 49.

46. Vacandard, 37.

47. Lea, 69.

48. Nickerson, H., Inquisition, 61.

49. Thompson, Economic History of the Middle Ages, 689; Jusserand, 280.

50. Lea, 318.

51. Ibid., 321.

52. Coulton, Inquisition and Liberty, 49.

53. Catholic Encyclopedia, VIII, 29a; Vacandard, 52.

54. Ibid., 119.

55. Coulton, Inquisition, 59; Inquisition and Liberty, 66.

56. Vacandard, 61.

57. Sarton, II (2), 546.

58. Vacandard, 183.

59. Ibid., 163.

60. Davis, Medieval England, 406.

61. Thatcher, 309.

62. Lea, 371; Vacandard, 190.

63. Lea, 381.

64. Ibid., 436.

65. 317.

66. Catholic Encyclopedia, VIII, 31d.

67. Lea, 441.

68. Catholic Encyclopedia, VIII, 31c.

69. Lea, 441.

70. Catholic Encyclopedia, VIII, 32b.

71. Ibid., 32d.

72. Ibid.

73. Coulton, Inquisition, 86.

74. Vacandard, 183.

75. Lea, II, 97.

76. Catholic Encyclopedia, VIII, 33d.

77. Cambridge Medieval History, VI, 723; Vacandard, 203.

78. Thompson, Economic History of the Middle Ages, 689.

79. Vacandard, 144, 178.

80. Lea, I, 549.

81. Ibid., 550.

82. Cambridge Medieval History, VI, 723; Vacandard, 196; Lea, I, 551.

83. Ibid., 393.

84. 113.

CHAPTER XXIX

1. Thompson, Economic History of the Middle Ages, 603.

2. Coulton, Five Centuries, IV. 15.

3. Gilson, E., Philosophy of St. Bonaventure, 31.

4. Coulton, Life, IV, 98.

5. In Coulton, From Francis, 70.

6. Coulton, Life, IV, 238.

7. Lea, I, 35.

8. Thompson, Economic History of the Middle Ages, 604.

9. Milman, IV, 259.

10. Coulton, Life, IV, 155.

11. Coulton, Five Centuries, IV, 96, 367-77.

12. In Coulton, Life, IV, 199.

13. Caesar of Heisterbach, i, 249, in Coulton, Five Centuries, I, 377; Jocelyn’s Chronicle, in Carlyle, Th., Past and Present, p. 72.

14. Waddell, H., Wandering Scholars, 210.

15. Taylor, Medieval Mind, I, 268.

16. Ibid., 430.

17. Coulton, Five Centuries, I, 183.

18. Lacroix, Paul, History of Prostitution, 692.

19. Cf. Longfellow’s “Golden Legend.”

20. Cambridge Medieval History, V, 675.

21. Thompson, Economic History of the Middle Ages, 612.

22. Etienne de Bourbon, Anecdotes, in Coulton, Five Centuries, 1, 79.

23. Ogg, 258.

24. Coulton, Five Centuries, I, 308.

25. Ibid., IV, 165.

26. I, 304.

27. Munro and Sellery, 410.

28. In Gilson, É., La philosophie au moyen âge, I, 92.

29. W. B. Yeats, Introd. to Tagore, R., Gitanjali, xviii.

30. Munro and Sellery, 412.

31. Ibid.

32. Coulton, Five Centuries, I, 305.

33. Ibid., 391.

34. 336.

35. 387.

36. Jörgensen, St. Francis, 12.

37. In Sabatier, 149.

38. Jörgensen, 21.

39. Sabatier, 26; Bonaventure, Life of St. Francis, ch. 1.

40. Sabatier, 59f.

41. Mirror of Perfection, ch. 14.

42. Tres Socii, 35, in Sabatier, 74.

43. Mirror, ch. 69.

44. Ibid., ch. 11.

45. Ibid.

46. Coulton, Panorama, 529.

47. Tres Socii, 38-41.

48. Little Flowers of St. Francis, ch. 8.

49. Ibid., ch. 9.

50. Mirror, ch. 61.

51. Ibid., chs. 29-35.

52. Ibid., ch. 114

53. Little Flowers, ch. 22.

54. Ch. 16.

55. Sabatier, 97.

56. Arnold, M., Essays in Criticism, First Series, 155.

57. Little Flowers, ch. 11.

58. Ch. 24.

59. Sabatier, 229.

60. Ibid., 227.

61. Dr. E. F. Hartung in Time, Mar. 11, 1935.

62. Mirror, ch. 116.

63. Ch. 120.

64. Faure, É., Medieval Art, 398.

65. Text of the will in Sabatier, 337.

66. Milman, V, 242.

67. Cambridge Medieval History, VI, 737f.

68. Matt. Paris, ii, 443, in Coulton, Five Centuries, IV, 170.

69. Ibid., 388.

70. Coulton, From Francis, 101-2.

71. Ibid.

72. Funk, I, 370.

73. Crump, 413.

74. Lea, Sacerdotal Celibacy, 105.

75. Power, E., Medieval People, 64.

76. Little Flowers, ch. 33.

77. E.g., Nun’s Rule (Ancren Riwle), 105, 185.

78. Cf. pp. 294-6.

79. Montalembert, II, 703.

80. Ibid.

81. Lea, Celibacy, 264.

82. Taylor, Medieval Mind, I, 492.

83. Coulton, Panorama, 622.

84. Power, Medieval People, 80.

85. Ibid.

86. Lea, Inquisition in Middle Ages, III, 10-17.

87. Lea, I, 272.

88. Cambridge Medieval History, VII, 789.

89. Sabatier, 52.

90. Lea, II, 326.

91. Coulton, Life, III, 54; Kantorowicz, 419.

92. Sabatier, 52; Taylor, Medieval Mind, I, 460.

93. Milman, VI, 123.

94. Coulton, Life, I, 205.

95. Catholic Encyclopedia, II, 662d.

96. Ibid., 663.

97. Thatcher, 311.

98. Cambridge Medieval History, VII, 7-8.

99. Milman, VI, 282; Coulton, Panorama, 212.

100. Guizot, France, I, 591.

101. Catholic Encyclopedia, II, 666c.

102. Ibid., 667c; Ogg, 383-8.

103. Adams, B., Law of Civilization and Decay, 173; Draper, Intellectual Development, II, 83.

104. Guizot, France, I, 596.

105. Cambridge Medieval History, VII, 18.

106. Guizot, 601; Draper, II, 86.

107. Milman, VI, 494f

108. Lea, II, 58.

109. Hume, England, I, 511.

110. Coulton, Five Centuries, IV, 118.

111. Coulton, From Francis, 150.

CHAPTER XXX

1. In Coulton, Five Centuries, I, 176.

2. Id., Medieval Village, 103.

3. Bede, i, 27.

4. Coulton, Life, IV, 160n.

5. In Coulton, From Francis, 18.

6. Benvenuta da Imola in Coulton, From Francis, 416; Lacroix, Prostitution, I, 694.

7. Ibid., 695.

8. 700.

9. 697.

10. II, 908.

11. Wright, ed., Book of the Knight of La Tour-Landry, Prologue and ch. 35.

12. In Briffault, Mothers, III, 417.

13. Lecky, Morals, II, 152.

14. Lacroix, Prostitution, II, 904.

15. Ibid., 905.

16. 904.

17. I, 721.

18. II, 869; Sumner, Folkways, 529; Bebel, 61; Garrison, History of Medicine, 192; Sanger, Wm., History of Prostitution, 98.

19. St. Augustine, De or dine, ii, 4.

20. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, II IIae, x, 11.

21. Encyclopaedia Britannica, XVIII, 598a.

22. Ibid.

23. Lacroix, Prostitution, I, 733-42.

24. Ibid., II, 751; Sanger, 95.

25. Coulton, Panorama, 172.

26. Lecky, Morals, II, 218.

27. Power, E., Medieval People, 118.

28. Pollock and Maitland, II, 387.

29. Coulton, Panorama, 634.

30. Bevan, E., and Singer, C., Legacy of Israel, 102.

31. Crump, 346.

32. Thomas Aquinas, Summa contra Gentiles, iii, 122.

33. Himes, Contraception, 160f.

34. Lacroix, Prostitution, I, 699.

35. Coulton, Medieval Village, 404.

36. Schoenfeld, H., Women of the Teutonic Nations, 122.

37. Freeman, Norman Conquest, II, 166.

38. Wright, Th., History of Domestic Manners and Sentiments, 275.

39. Pollock and Maitland, II, 390; Crump, 297; Butler, P., Women of Medieval France, 30.

40. St. John Chrysostom in James, B., Women of England, 108.

41. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Supplement, lxxxi, 3.

42. Ibid., I, xciii, 4.

43. Supplement, xxxix, 3.

44. II IIae, xxvi, 10.

45. In Coulton, Panorama, 614, quoting Gratian, Decretum, II, xxxiii, 5.

46. Coulton, Life, III, 114; Five Centuries, I, 174.

47. Id., Chaucer’s England, 212.

48. Id., Panorama, 618.

49. Schoenfeld, 41.

50. Davis, Life on a Medieval Barony, 102.

51. James, Women of England, 182.

52. Renard, 20.

53. Cf. James, 116.

54. Wright, T., Domestic Manners, 273-4.

55. Butler, Women of France, 104.

56. Adams, H., Mont St. Michel, 211.

57. Butler, 123.

58. Tout, T. F., Medieval Forgers, in Coulton, Five Centuries, IV, 310.

59. Haskins, Renaissance, 89.

60. Exs. in Coulton, Chaucer’s England, 200; Five Centuries, I, 251.

61. Lacroix, Manners, 41.

62. Coulton, Medieval Village, 72, 344.

63. Id., Panorama, 74, 369.

64. Encyclopaedia Britannica, VIII, 8d.

65. Coulton, Inquisition, 47.

66. Hume, I, 185.

67. Salzman, 309.

68. Ashley, II, 73.

69. Coulton, Chaucer, 131.

70. Coulton, Life, III, 57f.

71. Id., Medieval Village, 30.

72. Thompson, Economic History of the Middle Ages, 571; Porter, Medieval Architecture, II, 159.

73. Coulton, Panorama, 377.

74. Ibid.

75. Lea, Inquisition in Middle Ages, I, 234-5.

76. Coulton, From Francis, 218.

77. Sumner, 472; Jusserand, 212; Boissonnade, 262.

78. Coulton, Social Life, 395.

79. Joinville, 309.

80. Cf. Coulton, From Francis, app. C.

81. Jusserand, 132f.

82. Davis, Medieval England, 425.

83. Zimmern, Hansa, 111.

84. Ibid.

85. Coulton, Social Life, 371, 425.

86. Ashley, II, 328.

87. Bacon, R., Opus maius, ed. Bridges, II, 251.

88. Ashley, II, 307.

89. Ibid., 323.

90. Davis, Life on a Medieval Barony, 95.

91. Traill, I, 484.

92. James, Women, 208.

93. Speculum, Apr. 1940, 148; Encyclopaedia Britannica, IV, 470.

94. In Adams, H., 202.

95. Friedlander, Roman Manners, II, 183.

96. Butler, Women, 147.

97. Dante, Purgatorio, xxiii, 102.

98. Coulton, From Francis, 271.

99. Davis, Life on a Medieval Barony, 96.

100. In Coulton, Life, III, 64.

101. Crump, 431.

102. Beard, 69.

103. Coulton, Life, IV, 173.

104. Speculum, Apr. 1928, 198.

105. Sarton, II(1), 96.

106. Speculum, Jan. 1934, 306.

107. Ibid.

108. Lowie, Are We Civilized?, 75.

109. Lacroix, Manners, 176.

110. Butler, Women, 150.

111. Giraldus Cambrensis, Description of Wales, i, 10.

112. Salzman, 171.

113. Lacroix, P., Arts of the Middle Ages, 13.

114. Rogers, Six Centuries, 46.

115. Sedgwick, Italy, II, 197.

116. Power, Medieval People, 103.

117. Thompson, Economic History of the Middle Ages, 595.

118. Müller-Lyer, Marriage, 56.

119. Coulton, Panorama, 313; Addison, Arts, 272.

120. Coulton, Medieval Village, 27.

121. Schevill, Siena, 349.

122. Haskins, Studies in Medieval Culture, 122.

123. Sedgwick, II, 206.

124. Coulton, Panorama, 96.

125. Power, E., Medieval People, 76.

126. Lacroix, Manners, 239; Coulton, Medieval Village, 559.

127. Coulton, Panorama, 96.

128. Kirstein, L., Dance, 88.

129. Wright, Th., Domestic Manners, 257.

130. Walsh, J., Thirteenth Century, 452.

131. Davis, Medieval England, 372.

132. Davis, Life on a Medieval Barony, 64.

133. Encyclopaedia Britannica, XIII, 791c.

134. Lacroix, Manners, 233.

135. Gardiner, E. N., Athletics of the Ancient World, 237.

136. Coulton, Panorama, 83.

137. Gardiner, 238.

138. Coulton, Panorama, 95.

139. Coulton, Social Life, 392.

140. Id., Chaucer, 278.

141. Chambers, E. K., The Medieval Stage, I, 287; Maitland, Dark Ages, 174; Lacroix, Science and Literature in the Middle Ages, 240

142. Ibid.; Chambers, I, 323; Coulton, Panorama, 606.

143. Chambers, I, 343.

144. Time, Dec. 31, 1945.

145. Wad dell. Wandering Scholars, 200.

146. Coulton, From Francis, 56.

147. Ibid., 55.

148. 57.

149. 13.

CHAPTER XXXI

1. Jackson, Sir T., Byzantine and Romanesque Architecture, 94.

2. Id., Gothic Architecture, I; 59.

3. Spencer, H., Principles of Sociology, III, 291; Coulton, Life, IV, 169.

4. Theophilus, Sehedula diversarum artium, Introd., in Dillon, Glass, 126.

5. Addison, Arts, 86, 59.

6. Ibid., 186.

7. Walsh, Thirteenth Century, 115.

8. Saunders, English Art in the Middle Ages, 65.

9. Ackerman, Phyllis, Tapestry, 42f

10. Ruskin, Stones of Venice, I, ch. 2.

11. Morey, 195.

12. Short, E. H., The Painter in History, 75.

13. Mâle, L’art religieux du XIIIe siècle, 80.

14. Taine, H., Italy: Florence and Venice, 49.

15. Encyclopaedia Britannica, V, 706d.

16. Vasari, Lives, I, 66.

17. Morey, 267.

18. Lacroix, Arts, 251f.

19. Adams, H., Mont St. Michel, 137.

20. Saunders, 105.

21. Mâle, 78.

22. Bond, F., Wood Carvings in English Churches, I, 167.

23. Ibid.

24. Mâle, 74.

25. S. Reinach in Walsh, Thirteenth Century, 106.

26. Kantorowicz, 535; Morey, 314; Sedgwick, II, 225.

CHAPTER XXXII

1. Pope, A. U., Iranian and Armenian Contributions to the Beginnings of Gothic Architecture, 127.

2. Porter, II, 170.

3. Speculum, Jan. 1927, 23.

4. Mâle, 66; Morey, 234.

5. William of Malmesbury, v, 3.

6. Encyclopaedia Britannica, VII, 763.

7. Cram, Substance of Gothic, 119.

8. Pope, Contributions, 137.

9. Bond, F., Gothic Architecture in England, 263; Pirenne, J., Grands courants, II, 135; Porter, II, 63.

10. Addison, Arts, 201.

11. Panofsky, I., Abbot Suger.

12. Cram, 144.

13. Coulton, Life, II, 18; Porter, I, 151f.

14. Headlam, C., Story of Chartres, 140.

15. Jackson, Gothic Architecture, I, 96.

16. Ferguson, J., History of Architecture, I, 540.

17. Adams, H., 66.

18. Headlam, Chartres, 229.

19. Ibid., 208.

20. Ibid.

21. Adams, H., 76.

22. Connick, C. J., Adventures in Light and Color, 10.

23. Robillard, M., Chartres, 54.

24. Faure, Medieval Art, 348; Bond, Gothic Architecture in England, 33; Moore, C. H., Development of Gothic Architecture, 124.

25. Jackson, Gothic Architecture, I, 189.

26. Ibid.

27. Walsh, Thirteenth Century, 108.

28. Armstrong, Sir W., Art in Great Britain, 46.

29. Morey, 293. Germany was closed to mere scholars during the composition of these pages, which must therefore speak of German architecture and sculpture at second hand, or from vague memories of visits in 1912 and 1932.

30. De Wulf, Medieval Philosophy, I, 3.

31. Morey, 297.

32. In Taine, Italy: Florence, 89.

33. Beard, 143.

34. Street, G., Gothic Architecture in Spain, 106.

35. Arnold, Legacy of Islam, 168; Dieulafoy, Art in Spain, 147.

CHAPTER XXXIII

1. Lang, P. H., Music in Western Civilization, 51.

2. Ibid., 43.

3. Reese, Music in the Middle Ages, 63.

4. Ibid., 20f; Oxford History of Music, introductory volume, 137.

5. Lang, 71.

6. Grove, Dictionary of Music, s.v. Notation.

7. Arnold, Legacy of Islam, 17; Sarton, II (1), 25, 406.

8. The date and identity of Franco are disputed; cf. Grove, s.v. Franco of Cologne.

9. Lang, 130.

10. Ibid., 139.

11. Giraldus Cambrensis, Description of Wales, i, 8.

12. Lang, 97.

13. Jusserand, 196.

14. Reese, 206.

15. Ibid., 246.

16. So argues, with considerable scholarship, Julian Ribera in La musica de las cantigas; cf. McKinney, H. D., and Anderson, W. R., Music in History, 181. Beck, Gennrich, and Reese prefer to derive the name and songs of the troubadours from the trope; cf. Reese, 218.

17. Lacroix, Arts, 203.

18. Addison, Arts, 110.

19. Reese, 123.

20. Rowbotham, 6; Lacroix, Arts, 205.

21. Ibid., 204.

CHAPTER XXXIV

1. In Ogg, 145.

2. Vossler, K., Medieval Culture, I, 5.

3. Dante, La Vita Nuova, xxv.

4. Munro and Sellery, 330.

5. Cf. Pollock and Maitland, I, 57.

6. Mumford, L., Technics and Civilization, 438; Encyclopaedia Britannica, XXI, 1006a.

7. Lyra Graeca, III, 679, app. by J. M. Edmonds.

8. Munro and Sellery, 282; Haskins, Renaissance, 16; id., Normans, 236.

9. Haskins, Renaissance, 72.

10. Thorndike in Speculum, Apr. 1937, 268.

11. Haskins, Renaissance, 72.

12. Coulton, Panorama, 683.

13. Lea, Inquisition in Middle Ages, I, 554.

14. Lacroix, Arts, 472.

15. Walsh, Thirteenth Century, 156.

16. Coulton, Medieval Scene, 124; Panorama, 576; Haskins, Renaissance, 71.

17. Encyclopaedia Britannica, XIV, 3.

18. Haskins, Renaissance, 43.

19. Calvert, Moorish Remains in Spain, 426.

20. Haskins, Studies in Medieval Culture, 100.

21. Bevna, Legacy of Israel, 230.

22. Ibid., 211.

23. Sarton, II(1), 125.

24. Arnold, Legacy of Islam, 347.

25. Ibid., 244.

26. Wright, Domestic Manners, 271.

27. De Wulf, Medieval Philosophy, I, 61; West, Alcuin, 57.

28. John of Salisbury, Metalogicus, i, 24, in Poole, Illustrations, 98.

29. Thorndike in Speculum, Oct. 1940, 401.

30. Walsh, Thirteenth Century, 28.

31. Thorndike, l.c.; Rashdall, Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages, III, 350; Crump, Legacy of the Middle Ages, 262-3.

32. Abélard, Historia Calamitatum, Introd. by R. A. Cram, p. v.

33. Coulton, Medieval Village, 254.

34. Jusserand, 279.

35. Coulton, Panorama, 388.

36. Thorndike, Speculum, Oct. 1940, 408.

37. Rashdall, Universities, III, 370.

38. Aristotle, Politics, viii, 1.

39. Crump, 266.

40. Rashdall, I, 93.

41. Ibid., 113.

42. Lea, Inquisition in the Middle Ages, I, 59.

43. Walsh, Thirteenth Century, 33; Baedeker, K., Northern Italy, 471.

44. Rashdall, I, 149-67.

45. Ibid., 196.

46. 196-7.

47. Paetow, L. J., Guide to the Study of Medieval History, 448.

48. Haskins, Renaissance, 396.

49. Rashdall, I, 445.

50. Thorndike, Magic, II, 53.

51. Cambridge Medieval History, VI, 746.

52. Encyclopaedia Britannica, XI, 995.

53. Rashdall, III, 29n.

54. Ibid., 33.

55. 199.

56. 246n; Sarton, II(2), 584.

57. Davis, Medieval England, 398.

58. Encyclopaedia Britannica, X, 9006b.

59. Ashley, I, 203.

60. Munro and Sellery, 350; Walsh, Thirteenth Century, 65.

61. Waddell, Wandering Scholars, 171.

62. Walsh, 65.

63. Rashdall, IV, 325-36.

64. Ibid.

65. Coulton, Social Life, 95.

66. Rashdall, III, 386.

67. Ibid., 439.

68. 441.

69. 440.

70. 96n.

71. 431.

72. 432; Coulton, Life, III, 73.

73. Rashdall, III, 439.

74. Castiglione, 328.

75. Munro and Sellery, 350.

76. Rashdall, I, 466-70.

CHAPTER XXXV

1. V. Cousin in Abélard, Ouvrages inédits, xcix.

2. Gilson, É., La philosophie au moyen âge, ed. 1947, 238.

3. De Wulf, Medieval Philosophy, I, 103.

4. Ibid., 46.

5. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, I, i, 1.

6. Ueberweg, History of Philosophy, I, 386.

7. Abélard, Historia Calamitatum, ch. 6.

8. Rémusat, C. de, Abélard, I, 39.

9. Abélard, Calamitatum, ch. 5.

10. Gilson, La philosophie au moyen âge, ed. 1922, 1, 89.

11. Abélard, Calamitatum, ch. 5.

12. Rémusat, I, 30n.

13. Abélard, ch. 16.

14. Rémusat, I, 54.

15. Abélard, ch. 6. He does not say that he accompanied her.

16. Ibid., ch. 7; Lea, Celibacy, 269.

17. Abélard, ch. 7.

18. Ibid.

19. Poole, Illustrations, 125.

20. Abélard, Dialectica, introd. to Part IV, in Ouvrages inédits.

21. Ibid.

22. In Rémusat, II, 534-5.

23. Ouvrages inédits, p. clxxxvii.

24. Abélard, Sic et non, in Ouvrages, p. 16.

25. De Wulf, Medieval Philosophy, I, 201.

26. Abélard, Calamitatum, ch. 9.

27. Rémusat, I, 77.

28. Abélard, Calamitatum, ch. 9.

29. Ch. 11.

30. Rémusat, II, 197.

31. Ibid., 196; Gilson, La philosophie au moyen âge, ed. 1947, p. 291.

32. Ueberweg, I, 387.

33. Rémusat, II, 203.

34. Ibid., 205.

35. Abélard, Calamitatum, ch. 12.

36. Ch. 13.

37. Ch. 15.

38. Ch. 14.

39. In Scott-Moncrieff, Letters of Abélard and Héloïse, 53-6.

40. Ibid., p. 82.

41. P. 103.

42. Butler, Women, 68.

43. Prof. Paetow considered the “letters of Héloïse … the vain imaginings of a very vain man.”—Speculum, Apr. 1927, 227. Prof. Gilson concludes in favor of their general authenticity; cf. his Héloïse et Abélard, Paris, 1938, and Speculum, July 1939, 394.

44. Abélard, Scito te ipsum, xiii-xiv, in Rémusat, II, 466.

45. Abélard, Ep. xiii, in Cambridge Medieval History, V, 798.

46. St. Bernard, Eps. 191 and 338, in Taylor, Medieval Mind, I, 417, and II, 385; Adams, H., 313; Ueberweg, 396.

47. Raby, Christian Latin Poetry, 321.

48. Rémusat, I, 260.

CHAPTER XXXVI

1. Duhem, Système du monde, III, 88.

2. De Wulf, History of Medieval Philosophy, I, 154.

3. Poole, Illustrations, 151.

4. Ibid., 185.

5. 108.

6. Thorndike, Magic, II, 58.

7. Ibid., 50; italics mine.

8. Ibid., 58.

9. Poole, 158.

10. Taylor, Medieval Mind, II, 402.

11. In Poole, Illustrations, 164.

12. In Adams, H., 292.

13. John of Salisbury, Polycraticus, v, 16; vi, 24; vii, 17.

14. V, 16.

15. IV, 3.

16. V, 6; vi, 6, 12, 25; iii, 15.

17. VIII, 20.

18. VII, 11.

19. Munro and Sellery, 460; Sarton, II(2), 860; De Wulf, History of Medieval Philosophy, I, 248.

20. Ibid.

21. Robertson, J. M., History of Free Thought, I, 325.

22. Lea, Inquisition in Middle Ages, I, 99.

23. Coulton, Five Centuries, I, 345.

24. Id., Medieval Scene, 111.

25. De Wulf, I, 189.

26. Lea, II, 319.

27. Gilson, La philosophie au moyen âge, ed. 1947, 384.

28. Rashdall, I, 354.

29. Lea, II, 320-3.

30. Renan, Averroès, 288.

31. Coulton, Panorama, 449.

32. Rashdall, I, 264.

33. De Wulf, II, 97.

34. Hearnshaw, Medieval Contributions to Modern Civilization, 145.

35. Lea, III, 440.

36. Castiglione, 330.

37. Coulton, Panorama, 461.

38. Gilson, La philosophie, ed. 1947, 564.

39. De Wulf, II, 96, 103.

40. In Gilson, ed. 1947, 564.

41. Ibid., 565.

42. 562.

43. 558; Renan, Averroès, 268.

44. Ibid., 273-5; Gilson, ed. 1947, 559.

45. Cambridge Medieval History, V, 822.

46. De Wulf, I, 144.

47. Id., Philosophy and Civilization in the Middle Ages, 51.

48. Gilson, Philosophy of St. Bonaventure, 8.

49. Sabatier, 41.

50. Gilson, La philosophie, ed. 1922, II, 9.

51. Sarton, II(2), 938; Taylor, Medieval Mind, II, 451.

52. Maritain, J., The Angelic Doctor, 32.

53. Ibid., 29.

54. 31; D’Arcy, Thomas Aquinas, 35.

55. Ibid., 51.

56. 46.

57. Grabmann, M., Thomas Aquinas, 32.

58. Wicksteed, P. H., Dante and Aquinas, 93; D’Arcy, 47.

59. Maritain, 45.

60. D’Arcy, 52.

61. De Wulf, Philosophy and Civilization, 166.

62. Maritain, 40.

63. Bevan, Legacy of Israel, 267.

64. Diesendruck, Z., Maimonides and Thomas Aquinas, 5.

65. Gilson, La philosophie, ed. 1922, I, 114.

66. In Sarton, II (2), 915.

67. Thomas Aquinas, De caelo et mundo, lect. 22, in Grabmann, 44.

68. Id., Summa contra Gentiles, i, 2.

69. Ibid.

70. Id., Comm. on Aristotle’s Metaphysics, 333.

71. Id., Summa Theologica, I, xvi, 8.

72. Id., Summa contra Gentiles, i, 12.

73. Ibid., i, 3.

74. Id., Summa Theologica, II IIae, i, 5.

75. Ibid., II IIae, x, 7.

76. Id., Quodlibeta, II, a, 7, in Grabmann, 50.

77. Id., Summa Theologica, II IIae, i, 10.

78. Ibid., xxvi, 10.

79. Id., De veritate, ii, 10.

80. Id., Summa contra Gentiles, i, 11.

81. Id., Summa Theologica, I, ii, 3; Summa contra Gentiles, i, 16.

82. Ibid., i, 3; i, 30.

83. Id., Summa Theologica, I, lxxxiv, 7.

84. Id., Summa contra Gentiles, ii, 38.

85. Ibid., 35.

86. Ibid., iii, 23.

87. Id., Quodlibeta, xi, 4.

88. Id., Comm. on II Sent., VIII, vi, 4, in Hopkins, C. E., Share of Thomas Aquinas in … the Witchcraft Delusion, 78.

89. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, I, cxvii, 3.

90. Ibid., lcxv, 3; xcv, 5.

91. Ibid., 4.

92. Id., Comm. on Aristotle’s Metaphysics, 146, 157.

93. Id., Summa Theologica, I, lxxvi, 1.

94. In Walsh, Thirteenth Century, 444.

95. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, I, lxxv, 4.

96. Id., Summa contra Gentiles, ii, 72.

97. D’Arcy, 147.

98. Thomas Aquinas, Comm. on Aristotle’s Metaphysics, 179.

99. Id., Summa contra Gentiles, ii, 49.

100. Id., De anima, iii, 7.

101. Id., Summa Theologica, I, lxxviii, 1-4.

102. Ibid., I, v, 6.

103. De Wulf, History of Medieval Philosophy, II, 25.

104. Thomas Aquinas, De veritate, xxiv, 1.

105. Id., Summa contra Gentiles, i, 1.

106. Id., Summa Theologica, I, lxxvi, 1.

107. Ibid., I IIae, iv, 6.

108. Id., De veritate, ii, 2.

109. Id., Summa contra Gentiles, iii, 27-31.

110. Id., Summa Theologica, II IIae, xiv, 3; xxvii, 1; xxxi, 4.

111. Id., Comm. on Aristotle’s Metaphysics, 207; Summa Theologica, I, xcii, 1; xcix, 2; cxv, 3.

112. Ibid.

113. Ibid., I, xcii, 3.

114. Ibid., I, v, 3.

115. Ibid., II IIae, x, 11.

116. Ibid., II IIae, civ, 1; I IIae, xix, 5; De veritate, xvii, 5; on IV Sent., 38.

117. Id., Summa Theologica, II IIae, x, 11.

118. Ibid., 10.

119. Ibid., 11.

120. Ibid., 8.

121. Ibid.

122. Ibid., II IIae, xi, 4.

123. Ibid., I IIae, xcvii, 3.

124. Ibid., I, ciii, 3.

125. Ibid., I IIae, cv, 1; cvii, 1.

126. Id., De regimine principum, i, 6.

127. Id., Summa Theologica, II IIae, lxvi, 2.

128. Ibid.

129. Ibid., II IIae, cxviii, 1.

130. Ibid., II IIae, lxvi, 7.

131. Ibid., II IIae, lxxvii, 4.

132. Ibid., II IIae, lxxviii, 1-4.

133. Ibid., I IIae, xcii, 1; cv, 1; II IIae, lvii, 3; lxx, 3.

134. Ibid., I IIae, vii, 1f; Comm. on II Sent., xliv; Summa contra Gentiles, iv, 76; Hearnshaw, Social and Political Ideas, 102.

135. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, I, xxiii, 5.

136. Ibid., I, xxiii, 1, 3; Summa contra Gentiles, iii, 163, quoting Paul, Ephesians, i, 4.

137. Wicksteed, 266.

138. Gilson, Bonaventure, 7.

139. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, I, xii, 1, 7-8.

140. Ibid., II IIae, clxxix-clxxxii.

141. Sarton, II(2), 916.

142. Thomas Aquinas, Summa contra Gentiles, i, 1.

143. Sarton, II(2), 906.

144. Gilson, Reason and Revelation, 30.

145. Id., La philosophie, ed. 1947, 606.

146. De Wulf, Medieval Philosophy, II, 85.

147. Ibid., 84; Gilson, 603.

148. Quoted in Mill, J. S., System of Logic, pref.

149. Waddell, Wandering Scholars, 113.

150. Gilson, La philosophie, ed. 1922, I, 154.

CHAPTER XXXVII

1. James, Women, 120.

2. Thorndike, Magic, II, 8.

3. Ibid., 814.

4. Coulton, Panorama, 105.

5. Coulton, Five Centuries, I, 251.

6. Himes, 161.

7. Coulton, Panorama, 106.

8. Kantorowicz, 354.

9. Thorndike, Magic, II, 169.

10. Coulton, Life, I, 33.

11. Id., Panorama, 115.

12. Milman, I, 542.

13. Lea, Inquisition in Middle Ages, III, 424.

14. Hastings, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, III, 421a.

15. Pauphilet, A., Jeux et sapience du moyen âge, 317n.

16. Coulton, Social Life, 526.

17. Singer, Chas., Studies in the History and Method of Science, I, 165.

18. Castiglione, 385.

19. Thorndike, Magic, II, 167.

20. Lacroix, Science and Literature, 208.

21. Thorndike, II, 319.

22. Ibid., 328.

23. 689, 949.

24. Sarton 11(2), 1082.

25. Walsh, The Popes and Science, 52.

26. Sarton, 11(2), 1082.

27. Cf. text in Walsh, Popes, app.

28. Ibid., 31, 43.

29. Pliny, Natural History, xxxvi, 26, 67.

30. Thorndike, II, 237.

31. Sarton, 11(2), 611.

32. Thorndike, II, 449.

33. Sarton, 11(2), 617.

34. Singer, Studies, II, 105.

35. Ibid., I, 18.

36. Thorndike, I, 775.

37. Addison, Arts, 78.

38. Giraldus Cambrensis, Itinerary, 6.

39. Augustine, City of God, xvi, 9.

40. Sarton, I, 516.

41. Joinville, 258.

42. Raby, Christian Latin Poetry, 356.

43. Sarton II(2), 575.

44. Kantorowicz, 360.

45. Mumford, 22.

46. Sarton, II(1), 21.

47. Speculum, Apr. 1941, 242.

48. Sarton, 11(2), 1024.

49. Ibid.; Singer, II, 398.

50. Arnold, Legacy of Islam, 97.

51. Kantorowicz, 354.

52. Sarton, 11(2), 1030.

53. Willoughby, W., Social Justice, 14.

54. Sarton, 11(2), 1041.

55. Ibid., 1098.

56. 1037.

57. 1038-9.

58. Thorndike, I, 740.

59. Garrison, 148.

60. Sarton, II(1), 81, 242.

61. Garrison, 175.

62. Ibid., 181.

63. Castiglione, 381.

64. Bartholomaeus Anglicus, xlv, 4, in Coulton, Social Life, 502.

65. Castiglione, 384.

66. Kantorowicz, 356.

67. Lacroix, Science, 149.

68. Thorndike in Speculum, Apr. 1928, 194; Neuman, Jews in Spain, II, 110.

69. Garrison, 170.

70. Lea, Inquisition in Middle Ages, III, 52.

71. Ibid., 52-7.

72. Garrison, 144, 172.

73. Lacroix, Science, 154.

74. Garrison, 144.

75. Coulton, Panorama, 448.

76. Sarton, II(1), 72.

77. In Castiglione, 337.

78. Garrison, 153.

79. Castiglione, 388.

80. Walsh, Thirteenth Century, 345.

81. Sarton, II(1), 84.

82. Joyce, Ireland, 151.

83. Garrison, 186.

84. Speculum, Jan. 1937, 19.

85. Munro and Sellery, 266.

86. In Coulton, Panorama, 304.

87. Jackson, Byzantine and Romanesque Architecture, I, 142; Barnes, Economic History, 165.

88. Thorndike, II, 28f.

89. Ibid., 25.

90. 538.

91. Ibid.

92. 526, 551, 566, 568, 583.

93. Walsh, Thirteenth Century, 48.

94. Albertus Magnus, De animalibus, iv, 3, in Sarton, II(2), 938.

95. Sarton, II(1), 72.

96. Bacon, Opus tertium, ch. 17.

97. Id., Opus maius, I, xi.

98. Bridges, J. H., Life and Work of Roger Bacon, 125.

99. Bacon, Opus tertium, Brewer ed., p. 28.

100. Id., Opus maius, i, 10.

101. In Little, A. G., Roger Bacon Essays, 10.

102. Opus maius, i, 1.

103. Compendium studii philosophiae, ed. Brewer, p. 469.

104. Opus maius, ii, 12.

105. Ibid.

106. VII, 1.

107. Little, 117; Sarton, II(2), 805, 961.

108. Opus tertium, ch. 29.

109. Opus maius, iv, 16.

110. Ibid., iv, 4; De coelestibus, in Little, 15.

111. Opus maius, vi, 1.

112. Thorndike, II, 650.

113. Opus maius, iv, 4.

114. Bridges, 36; Little, 180.

115. Sloane MS., folio 83b, 1-2, in Little, 178.

116. De secretis operibus artis et naturae, ch. iv, in Little, 178.

117. Little, 321; En. Br., XI, 3.

118. In Bridges, 93.

119. Opus maius, v, 4.

120. De secretis operibus, in Singer, II, 397.

121. Singer, II, 132.

122. Opus maius, vii, ad initium.

123. Bridges, 387.

124. Ibid., 127.

125. 52.

126. De Wulf, Med. Philosophy, II, 139.

127. Opus maius, ii, 5.

128. Compendium philosophiae, in Coulton, Life, II, 55f.

129. Opus tertium, in Taylor, Medieval Mind, II, 523.

130. Ibid, in Coulton, Five Centuries, I, 135.

131. Taylor, II, 530.

132. Little, 26.

133. Ibid.

134. 28.

135. Taylor, II, 347.

136. Thorndike, II, 196.

137. Ibid., 203.

CHAPTER XXXVIII

1. Cf. Saxo Grammaticus, 89.

2. Joinville, 140.

3. Iacopo de Voragine, Golden Legend, pp. 48-56.

4. Mâle, 320.

5. Raby, Secular Latin Poetry, II, 289.

6. Haskins, Renaissance, 177.

7. Waddell, Wandering Scholars, 188.

8. In Raby, op. cit., 171.

9. Tr. by Helen Waddell in Medieval Latin Lyrics, 171.

10. In Van Doren, M., Anthology of World Poetry, 454.

11. In Waddell, op. cit., 278.

12. Bieber, M., History of the Greek and Roman Theater, 423.

13. Chambers, Medieval Stage, II, 44; Matthews, B., Development of the Drama, 115.

14. Mantzius, History of Theatrical Art, II, 5.

15. Matthews, 114.

16. Symonds, J. A., Studies of the Greek Poets, 310.

17. Raby, Christian Latin Poetry, 219.

18. Mantzius, II, 10f.

19. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, II IIae, clxviii, 3.

20. Chanson de Roland, 11. 1989-2009.

21. Sturluson, Prose Edda, #72, in Sigfusson.

22. Dasent, G., Story of Burnt Njal, 237-58.

23. In Butler, Women, 101.

24. Cambridge Medieval History, III, 128.

25. Cf. an excellent fictionalized biography of Peire Vidal in Cronyn, G., The Fool of Venus.

26. Arnold, Legacy of Islam, 17.

27. Lecky, Morals, II, 232.

28. Speculum, Oct. 1938, 380-7.

29. Tr. by Ezra Pound in Van Doren, 660.

30. Reese, Medieval Music, 232.

31. Fiedler, Das Oxforder Buch Deutscher Dichtung, 5.

32. Walther von der Vogelweide, I Saw the World, 41.

33. In Taylor, Medieval Mind, II, 56.

34. Walther von der Vogelweide, Songs and Sayings, 33.

35. Walther von der Vogelweide, I Saw the World, 16.

36. Taylor, II, 62.

37. Walther von der Vogelweide, I Saw the World, 69.

38. Walther von der Vogelweide, Songs and Sayings, 22.

39. Taylor, II, 58.

40. Prestage, Chivalry, 100; Coulton, Life, III, 77; Francke, German Literature, 111.

41. Kroeger, A. E., The Minnesinger of Germany, 4.

42. Schoenfeld, Women of the Teutonic Nations, 162.

43. Tr. by Arthur O’Shaughnessy in Van Doren, 663.

44. Chrétien de Troyes, Arthurian Romances, 1.

45. Ibid., 318, 309.

46. 287.

47. Wolfram von Eschenbach, Parzival, I, 67.

48. In Taylor, II, 8.

49. Wolfram, I, 188; vi, 937.

50. Aucassin et Nicolette, 6.

51. Ibid., 12. French text in Pauphilet, 444.

52. Aucassin, 13.

53. William of Lorris and Jean Clopinel de Meung, Romance of the Rose, ll. 8767f, 8858.

54. Lines 8511f.

55. 7849.

56. 1685.

57. 9267-70, 9725-47.

CHAPTER XXXIX

1. Tr. by D. G. Rossetti.

2. Asin y Palacios, Islam and the Divine Comedy, 271f.

3. Dante, Purgatorio, xxvi, 91f.

4. Sedgwick, Italy, II, 277.

5. Tr. by D. G. Rossetti.

6. Vossler, II, 152.

7. In Sedgwick, II, 291.

8. Cf. Purgatorio, xxx, 55.

9. Sedgwick, II, 283.

10. Vossler, I, 323.

11. Dante, Inferno, xv, 85.

12. Vossler, I, 164.

13. Dante, La Vita Nuova, ii, tr. Rossetti.

14. Ibid., iii.

15. xix.

16. xxvi.

17. xxxii.

18. Paradiso, xxx, 28.

19. Id., Purgatorio, xxxi, 60.

20. Symonds, Dante, 55.

21. Dante, De monarchia, iii, 11.

22. Ibid., 16.

23. De monarchia, pref., xxxiii.

24. Dante, Eleven Letters, vi.

25. Ep. vii.

26. Symonds, Dante, 79.

27. Ep. x.

28. Symonds, Dante, 92.

29. Letter to the Italian Cardinals (1314).

30. Dante, Il Convito, x, 5.

31. Ibid, vii, 4.

32. The authenticity of this letter has been unconvincingly questioned by Vossler, I, 76.

33. Dante, Eleven Letters, p. 197.

34. In Coulton, Panorama, 208.

35. Dante, Paradiso, end.

36. Ibid., x, 137f.

37. Cf. Blochet, Sources orientales de la Divine Comédie, Paris, 1901, and Asin y Palacios, La escatologia musulmana en la Divina Comedia, Madrid, 1919, translated as Islam and the Divine Comedy.

38. Asin y Palacios, 55-61.

39. Ibid., 171-3, 276-7.

40. Ibid., 232.

41. Rowbotham, 130.

42. Dante, Inferno, i, 1-3.

43. Ibid., i, 86.

44. Ibid., iii, 1-9.

45. Ibid., iii, 50.

46. Ibid., iv, 131-43.

47. Ibid., v, 121-42; tr. Cary.

48. Ibid., xix, 53.

49. Ibid., xxviii, 22-42; tr. Cary.

50. Id., Purgatorio, v, 13.

51. Ibid., vi, 76-93.

52. Ibid., xxvi, 112.

53. Ibid., xxvii, end.

54. Ibid., xxx, 37-9.

55. Ibid., xxxi, 49-51.

56. Ibid., end.

57. Id., Paradiso, iii, 85.

58. Ibid., xxvii, 22-8.

59. Id., Inferno, xviii, 57-63.

60. Id., Paradiso, ix, 127.

61. Id., Inferno, xxiv, 125.

62. Ibid., xxxiii, 152.

63. Ibid., xxxiii, 80-4.

64. Ibid., xxxiii, 148.

EPILOGUE

1. Coulton, Medieval Village, 290.

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