BOOK V

THE CLIMAX OF CHRISTIANITY

1095–1300

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE

750–1100:

The Elder Edda

842:

Strasbourg Oath uses vernaculars

c. 1000:

Rise of polyphonic music

1020:

First communal charter (to Leon)

1040:

Guido of Arezzo’s musical staff

1050–1122:

Roscelin, philosopher

1056–1114:

Nestor & the Russian Chronicle

1056–1133:

Hildebert of Tours, poet

1066–87:

William I King of England

1066–1200:

Norman architecture in England

1076–1185:

Gilbert de la Porree, phil’r

1079–1142:

Abélard, philosopher

1080:

Consuls in Lucca; rise of self-governing cities in Italy

1080–1154:

William of Conches, phil’r

1081–1151:

Abbot Suger of St. Denis

1083–1148:

Anna Comnena, historian

1085:

English Domesday Book

1086–1127:

William X, Duke of Aquitaine, first known troubadour

1088f:

Irnerius & Roman law at Bologna

1088–99:

Pope Urban II

1089–1131:

Abbey of Cluny

1090–1153:

St. Bernard

1093–1109:

Anselm Archb’p of Canterbury

1093–1175:

Durham Cathedral

c. 1095:

Chanson de Roland

1095:

Proclamation of First Crusade

1095–1164:

Roger II of Sicily

1098:

Cistercian Order founded

1098–1125:

Henry V King of Germany

1099:

Crusaders take Jerusalem

1099–1118:

Pope Paschal II

1099–1143:

Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem

1099–1179:

St. Hildegarde

c. 1100:

Arabic numerals in Europe; paper manufactured in Constantinople

1100–35:

Henry I King of England

1100–55:

Arnold of Brescia, reformer

1104–94:

Transition style in architecture

1105:

Adelard’s Quaestiones naturales

1110:

University of Paris takes form

1113:

Prince Monomakh quiets revolution in Kiev

1114–58:

Otto of Freising, historian

1114–87:

Gerard of Cremona, translator

1117:

Abélard teaches Héloïse

1117–80:

John of Salisbury, phil’r

c. 1120:

Est’t of the Hospitalers

1121:

Abélard condemned at Soissons

1122:

Concordat of Worms

1122–1204:

Eleanor of Aquitaine

1123:

First Lateran Council

1124–53:

David I King of Scotland

1127:

Est’t of Knights Templar

1133f:

Abbey of St. Denis rebuilt in Gothic

1135–54:

Stephen King of England

1137:

The first Cortes; Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia Britonum

1137–96:

Walter Map (es), satirist

1138:

Conrad III begins Hohenstaufen line

1139–85:

Alfonso I Enriquez, first king of Portugal

1140:

Abélard condemned at Sens

1140–91:

Chrétien de Troyes

1140–1227:

The Goliardic poets

1142:

Rise of Guelf & Ghibelline factions

1142:

Decretum of Gratian

1145–1202:

Joachim of Flora

1146–7:

Revolt of Arnold of Brescia

1147–1223:

Giraldus Cambrensis, geographer

c. 1150:

The Nibelungenlied

1150:

Sententiae of Peter Lombard; sculptures of Moissac; flying buttress used at Noyon

1150–1250:

Heyday of French troubadours

1152–90:

Frederick I Barbarossa emperor of Holy Roman Empire

1154–9:

Pope Hadrian IV

1154–89:

Henry II begins Plantagenet line

1154–1256:

York Minster

1156:

Moscow founded

1157:

Bank of Venice issues gov’t bonds

1157–82:

Valdemar I King of Denmark

1157–1217:

Alexander Neckham, naturalist

1159–81:

Pope Alexander III

c. 1160:

The Cid

1160–1213:

Geoffrey de Villehardouin, hist’n

1163–1235:

Notre Dame de Paris

1165–1220:

Wolfram von Eschenbach, poet

1165–1228:

Walther von der Vogelweide, poet

1167:

Lombard League formed; beginning of Oxford University

1167–1215:

Peire Vidal, troubadour

1170:

Murder of Thomas à Becket; “Strongbow” begins conquest of Ireland; Peter Waldo at Lyons

1170–1221:

St. Dominic

1170–1245:

Alexander of Hales, phil’r

1172f:

Palace of the Doges

1174–1242:

Wells Cathedral

1175–1234:

Michael Scot

1175–1280:

Early English Gothic

1175f:

Canterbury Cathedral

1176:

Carthusian Order est’d; Frederick Barbarossa defeated at Legnano

1178f:

Albigensian heresy; Peterborough Cathedral

1178–1241:

Snorri Sturluson, hist’n

1179:

Third Lateran Council

c. 1180:

University of Montpellier est’d; Marie de France, poetess

1180–1225:

Philip II Augustus of France

1180–1250:

Leonardo de Fibonacci, math’n

c. 1180–1253:

Robert Grosseteste, scientist

1182–1216:

St. Francis of Assisi

1185–1219:

Lesser Armenia fl. under Leo III

1185–1237:

Bamberg Cathedral

1189–92:

Third Crusade

1189–99:

Richard I Coeur de Lion

1190:

Teutonic Order founded

1190–7:

Henry VI of Germany

1192–1230:

Ottakar I King of Bohemia

1192–1280:

Lincoln Minster

1193–1205:

Enrico Dandolo Doge of Venice

1193–1280:

Albertus Magnus

1194–1240:

Llywelyn the Great of Wales

1194–1250:

Frederick II of Sicily

1195–1231:

St. Anthony of Padua

1195–1390:

Bourges Cathedral

1198–1216:

Pope Innocent III

1199–1216:

King John of England

c. 1200:

David of Dinant, phil’r

1200–1304:

Cloth Hall of Ypres

1200–59:

Matthew Paris, hist’n

1200–64:

Vincent of Beauvais, encyclop’t

1201:

Germans conquer Livonia

1201–1500:

Cathedral of Rouen

1202–4:

Fourth Crusade

1202–5:

Philip II of France takes Normandy, Anjou, Maine, and Brittany from England

1202–41:

Valdemar II King of Denmark

1204–29:

Albigensian Crusades

1204–50:

La Merveille of Mont St. Michel

1204–61:

Latin Kingdom of Constant’ple

1205:

Oldest Christian reference to magnetic compass; Hartman von Aue’s Der arme Heinrich

1205–1303:

Cathedral of Leon

1206–22:

Theodore Lascaris Eastern emp.

1207–28:

Stephen Langton Archb’p of Cant’y

1208:

St. Francis founds Friars Minor; Innocent III lays interdict on Engl’d

1209:

Cambridge University founded

1210:

Aristotle forbidden at Paris; Gottfried of Strasbourg’s Tristan

1211–1427:

Reims Cathedral

1212:

Children’s Crusade; Santa Clara founds Poor Clares

1213–76:

James I King of Aragon

1214:

Philip II wins at Bouvines

1214–92:

Roger Bacon

1215:

Magna Carta; Fourth Lateran Council; Dominican Order founded

1216–27:

Pope Honorius III

1216–72:

Henry III King of England

1217:

Fifth Crusade

1217–52:

Ferdinand III of Castile

1217–62:

Haakon IV of Norway

1220–45:

Salisbury Cathedral

1220–88:

Amiens Cathedral

1221–74:

St. Bonaventure

1221–1567:

Cathedral of Burgos

1224:

University of Naples est’d

1224–1317:

Jean de Joinville, hist’n

1225:

Laws of the Sachsenspiegel

1225–74:

St. Thomas Aquinas, phil’r

1225–78:

Niccolò Pisano, sculptor

1226–35:

Regency of Blanche of Castile

1226–70:

Louis IX of France

1227:

University of Salamanca est’d; beginning of papal Inquisition

1227–41:

Pope Gregory IX

1227–1493:

Cathedral of Toledo

1227–1552:

Cathedral of Beauvais

1228f:

Church of San Francesco at Assisi

1228:

Sixth Crusade; Frederick II recovers Jerusalem

1229–1348:

Cathedral of Siena

1230f:

Cathedral of Strasbourg

1230–75:

Guido Guinizelli

1232–1300:

Arnolfo di Cambio, artist

1232–1315:

Raymond Lully, phil’r

1235–81:

Siger of Brabant, phil’r

1235–1311:

Arnold of Villanova, physician

1237:

Mongols invade Russia; William of Lorris’ Roman de la Rose

1240:

Victory of Alexander Nevsky on Neva

c. 1240:

Aucassin et Nicolette

1240–1302:

Cimabue

1240–1320:

Giovanni Pisano, artist

1241:

Mongols defeat Germans at Liegnitz, take Cracow, and ravage Hungary

1243–54:

Pope Innocent IV

1244:

Moslems capture Jerusalem

1245:

First Council of Lyons deposes Frederick II

1245:

Giovanni de Piano Carpini visits Mongolia

1245–8:

Ste. Chapelle

1245–72:

Westminster Abbey

1248:

St. Louis leads Seventh Crusade

1248–1354:

The Alhambra

1248–1880:

Cathedral of Cologne

1250:

St. Louis captured; Frederick II d.; Bracton’s De legibus et consuetudinibus Angliae

1252–62:

Formation of Hanseatic League

1252–82:

Alfonso X the Wise of Castile

1253–78:

Ottokar II of Bohemia

1254–61:

Pope Alexander IV

1255–1319:

Duccio of Siena, painter

1258:

Haakon IV of Norway conquers Iceland

1258–66:

Manfred King of Sicily

1258–1300:

Guido Cavalcanti

c. 1260:

Flagellants

1260–1320:

Henri de Mondeville, surgeon

1261:

Michael VIII Palaeologus restores Eastern Empire at Constantinople

1265:

Simon de Montfort’s Parliament

1265–1308:

Duns Scotus, phil’r

1265–1321:

Dante

1266:

Opus maius of Roger Bacon

1266–85:

Charles of Anjou King of Sicily

1266–1337:

Giotto

1268:

Defeat of Conradin; end of Hohenstaufen line

1269:

Baibars takes Jaffa and Antioch

1270:

Louis IX leads Eighth Crusade

1271–95:

Marco Polo in Asia

1272–1307:

Edward I King of England

1273–91:

Rudolf of Hapsburg Emperor of Holy Roman Empire

1274:

Second Council of Lyons

1279–1325:

Diniz King of Portugal

1280–1380:

English Decorated Gothic

1282:

Sicilian Vespers; Pedro III of Aragon takes Sicily

1283:

Edward I reconquers Wales

1284:

Belfry of Bruges

1285–1314:

Philip IV the Fair of France

c. 1290:

Golden Legend of Iacopo de Voragine; Jean de Meung’s Roman de la Rose

1290–1330:

Cathedral of Orvieto

1291:

Mamluks take Acre; end of Crusades; League of the Swiss cantons

1292–1315:

John Balliol King of Scotland

1294:

Lanfranchi founds French surgery

1294:

Church of Santa Croce at Florence

1294–1303:

Pope Boniface VIII

1294–1436:

Cathedral of Santa Maria de Fiore at Florence

1295:

Edward I’s “Model Parliament”

1296:

Boniface’s bull Clericis laicos

1298:

Wallace defeated at Falkirk; Palazzo Vecchio and Baptistery at Florence

1298f:

Cathedral of Barcelona

1302:

Flemish defeat the French at Courtrai; Boniface’s bull Unam sanctarn; Philip IV calls States General

1305–16:

Pope Clement V

1308–13:

Henry VII Western Emperor

1309:

Clement removes papacy to Avignon

1310–12:

Suppression of Templars in France

1314:

Scotland wins independence at Bannockburn

1315:

Swiss defeat Hapsburg army at Morgarten and establish the Swiss Confederacy

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