BOOK I

THE BYZANTINE ZENITH

325–565

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE

Dates of rulers and popes are of their reigns. All dates are A.D.

226:

Ardashir founds Sasanian dynasty

241–72:

Shapur I of Persia

251–356:

St. Anthony of Egypt

293–373:

Athanasius

300–67:

Hilary of Poitiers

309–79:

Shapur II of Persia

310–400:

Ausonius, poet

311–81:

Ulfilas, apostle to the Goths

325:

Council of Nicaea

325–403:

Oribasius, physician

325–91:

Ammianus Marcellinus, hist’n

329–79:

St. Basil

320–89:

Gregory Nazianzen

331:

B. of Julian the Apostate

337:

Death of Constantine

340–98:

St. Ambrose

340–420:

St. Jerome

345–407:

St. John Chrysostom

345–410:

Symmachus, senator

348–410:

Prudentius, poet

353–61:

Constantius sole emperor

354–430:

St. Augustine

359–408:

Stilicho, patricius

361–3:

Julian emperor

363–4:

Jovian emperor

364–7:

Valentinian I, Western emp.

364–78:

Valens Eastern emperor

365–408:

Claudian, poet

366–84:

Pope Damasus I

372:

Huns cross the Volga

375–83:

Gratian Western emperor

378:

Battle of Hadrianople

379:

Theon of Alexandria, math’n

379–95:

Theodosius I, emperor

382–92:

Affair of Altar of Victory

383–92:

Valentinian II, Western emp.

386–404:

Jerome’s transl, of Bible

387:

Baptism of Augustine

389–461:

St. Patrick

390:

Penance of Theodosius

392–4:

Eugenius Western emperor

394:

End of the Olympian Games

394–423:

Honorius Western emp.

395–408:

Arcadius Eastern emp.

395–410:

Alaric I King of Visigoths

397:

Confessions of St. Augustine

c. 400:

Saturnalia of Macrobius

402:

Alaric defeated at Pollentia

403:

Ravenna becomes Western capital

404:

End of gladiatorial games

407:

Roman legions leave Britain

408–50:

Theodosius II Eastern emp.

409:

Pelagius, theologian

410:

Alaric sacks Rome

410–85:

Proclus, mathematician

413:

Orosius, historian

413–26:

Augustine’s City of God

415:

Murder of Hypatia

425:

University of Constantinople

425–55:

Valentinian III Western emp.

428–31:

Nestorius patriarch at C’ple

429:

Vandals conquer Africa

431:

Council of Ephesus

432–82:

Sidonius Apollinaris

432–61:

St. Patrick in Ireland

433–54:

Aëtius patricius

438:

Theodosian Code

439:

Gaiseric takes Carthage

440–61:

Pope Leo I

440:

Moses of Chorene, hist’n

449:

Anglo-Saxons invade Britain

450–67:

Marcian Eastern emp.

450–550:

Great age of architecture and mosaic at Ravenna

451:

Attila defeated at Troyes

452:

Leo I turns Attila from Rome

453:

D. of Attila

454:

Valentinian III slays Aëtius

455:

Gaiseric sacks Rome

456:

Ricimer rules the West

457–61:

Majorian Western emp.

466–83:

Visigoths conquer Spain

474–91:

Zeno Eastern emp.

475–6:

Romulus Augustulus

475–526:

Theodoric King of Ostrogoths

475–524:

Boethius, philosopher

476:

End of Western Roman Empire

480–573:

Cassiodorus, historian

481:

Clovis and the Franks begin conquest of Gaul

483–531:

Kavadh I; Mazdakite communism

490–570:

Procopius, historian

491–518:

Anastasius I Eastern emp.

493–526:

Theodoric rules Italy

525–605:

Alexander of Tralles, physician

527–65:

Justinian I Eastern emp.

529:

Justinian closes schools of Athens; St. Benedict founds Monte Cassino

530–610:

Fortunatus, poet

531–79:

Khosru I of Persia

532–7:

Cathedral of St. Sophia

533:

Belisarius regains Africa

535–53:

The “Gothic War” in Italy

538–94:

Gregory of Tours, hist’n

546–53:

Totila rules Italy

552:

Silk culture introduced into Europe

570–636:

Isidore of Seville, encyclopedist

577:

Anglo-Saxon victory at Deorham

589–628:

Khosru II of Persia

616:

Persians conquer Egypt

637–42:

Arabs conquer Persia

641:

End of Sasanian dynasty

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