Post-classical history

The Age of Faith: A History of Medieval Civilization

The Age of Faith: A History of Medieval Civilization

The fourth volume in Will Durant's Pulitzer Prizewinning series, ''The Age of Faith'' surveys the medieval achievements and modern significance of Christian, Islamic, and Judaic life and culture. Like the other volumes in the 'Story of Civilization' series, this is a selfcontained work, which at the same time fits into a comprehensive history of mankind. It includes the dramatic stories of St. Augustine, Hypatia, Justinian, Mohammed, Harun alRashid, Charlemagne, William the Conqueror, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Richard the Lionheart, Saladin, Maimonides, St. Francis, St. Thomas Aquinas, Roger Bacon, and many others, all in the perspective of integrated history. The greatest love stories in literature of Héloise and Abélard, of Dante and Beatrice are here retold with enthralling scholarship.

BOOK I: THE BYZANTINE ZENITH: A.D. 325–565

Chronological Table

Chapter I. JULIAN THE APOSTATE: 332–63

I. The Legacy of Constantine

II. Christians and Pagans

III. The New Caesar

IV. The Pagan Emperor

V. Journey’s End

Chapter II. THE TRIUMPH OF THE BARBARIANS: 325–476

I. The Threatened Frontier

II. The Savior Emperors

III. Italian Background

IV. The Barbarian Flood

V. The Fall of Rome

Chapter III. THE PROGRESS OF CHRISTIANITY: 364–451

I. The Organization of the Church

II. The Heretics

III. The Christian West

IV. The Christian East

V. St. Augustine

VI. The Church and the World

Chapter IV. EUROPE TAKES FORM: 325–529

I. Britain Becomes England

II. Ireland

III. Prelude to France

IV. Visigothic Spain

V. Ostrogothic Italy

Chapter V. JUSTINIAN: 527–65

I. The Emperor

II. Theodora

III. Belisarius

IV. The Code of Justinian

V. The Imperial Theologian

Chapter VI. BYZANTINE CIVILIZATION: 337–565

I. Work and Wealth

II. Science and Philosophy

III. Literature

IV. Byzantine Art

Chapter VII. THE PERSIANS: 224–641

I. Sasanian Society

II. Sasanian Royalty

III. Sasanian Art

IV. The Arab Conquest

BOOK II: ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION: A.D. 569–1258

Chronological Table

Chapter VIII. MOHAMMED: 569–632

I. Arabia

II. Mohammed in Mecca

III. Mohammed in Medina

IV. Mohammed Victorious

Chapter IX. THE KORAN

I. Form

II. Creed

III. Ethics

IV. Religion and the State

V. Sources of the Koran

Chapter X. THE SWORD OF ISLAM: 632–1058

I. The Successors

II. The Umayyad Caliphate

III. The Abbasid Caliphate

IV. Armenia

Chapter XI. THE ISLAMIC SCENE: 632–1058

I. The Economy

II. The Faith

III. The People

IV. The Government

V. The Cities

Chapter XII. THOUGHT AND ART IN EASTERN ISLAM: 632–1058

I. Scholarship

II. Science

III. Medicine

IV. Philosophy

V. Mysticism and Heresy

VI. Literature

VII. Art

VIII. Music

Chapter XIII. WESTERN ISLAM: 641–1086

I. The Conquest of Africa

II. Islamic Civilization in Africa

III. Islam in the Mediterranean

IV. Spanish Islam

Chapter XIV. THE GRANDEUR AND DECLINE OF ISLAM: 1058–1258

I. The Islamic East

II. The Islamic West

III. Glimpses of Islamic Art

IV. The Age of Omar Khayyam

V. The Age of Sa’di

VI. Moslem Science

VII. Al-Ghazali

VIII. Averroës

IX. The Coming of the Mongols

X. Islam and Christendom

BOOK III: JUDAIC CIVILIZATION: A.D. 135–1300

Chronological Table

Chapter XV. THE TALMUD: 135–500

I. The Exiles

II. The Makers of the Talmud

III. The Law

IV. Life and the Law

Chapter XVI. THE MEDIEVAL JEWS: 500–1300

I. The Oriental Communities

II. The European Communities

III. Jewish Life

IV. Anti-Semitism

Chapter XVII. THE MIND AND HEART OF THE JEW: 500–1300

I. Letters

II. The Adventures of the Talmud

III. Science Among the Jews

IV. The Rise of Jewish Philosophy

V. Maimonides

VI. The Maimonidean War

VII. The Cabala

VIII. Release

BOOK IV: THE DARK AGES: A.D. 566–1095

Chronological Table

Chapter XVIII. THE BYZANTINE WORLD: 566–1095

I. Heraclius

II. The Iconoclasts

III. Imperial Kaleidoscope

IV. Byzantine Life

V. The Byzantine Renaissance

VI. The Balkans

VII. The Birth of Russia

Chapter XIX. THE DECLINE OF THE WEST: 566–1066

I. Italy

II. Christian Spain

III. France

Chapter XX. THE RISE OF THE NORTH: 566–1066

I. England

II. Wales

III. Irish Civilization

IV. Scotland

V. The Northmen

VI. Germany

Chapter XXI. CHRISTIANITY IN CONFLICT: 529–1085

I. St. Benedict

II. Gregory the Great

III. Papal Politics

IV. The Greek Church

V. The Christian Conquest of Europe

VI. The Nadir of the Papacy

VII. The Reform of the Church

VIII. The Great Eastern Schism

IX. Gregory VII Hildebrand

Chapter XXII. FEUDALISM AND CHIVALRY: 600–1200

I. Feudal Origins

II. Feudal Organization

III. Feudal Law

IV. Feudal War

V. Chivalry

BOOK V: THE CLIMAX OF CHRISTIANITY: A.D. 1095–1300

Chronological Table

Chapter XXIII. THE CRUSADES: 1095–1291

I. Causes

II. The First Crusade

III. The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem

IV. The Second Crusade

V. Saladin

VI. The Third Crusade

VII. The Fourth Crusade

VIII. The Collapse of the Crusades

IX. The Results of the Crusades

Chapter XXIV. THE ECONOMIC REVOLUTION: 1066–1300

I. The Revival of Commerce

II. The Progress of Industry

III. Money

IV. Interest

V. The Guilds

VI. The Communes

VII. The Agricultural Revolution

VIII. The Class War

Chapter XXV. THE RECOVERY OF EUROPE: 1095–1300

I. Byzantium

II. The Armenians

III. Russia and the Mongols

IV. The Balkan Flux

V. The Border States

VI. Germany

VII. Scandinavia

VIII. England

IX. Ireland—Scotland—Wales

X. The Rhinelands

XI. France

XII. Spain

XIII. Portugal

Chapter XXVI. PRE-RENAISSANCE ITALY: 1057–1308

I. Norman Sicily

II. The Papal States

III. Venice Triumphant

IV. From Mantua to Genoa

V. Frederick II

VI. The Dismemberment of Italy

VII. The Rise of Florence

Chapter XXVII. THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH: 1095–1294

I. The Faith of the People

II. The Sacraments

III. Prayer

IV. Ritual

V. Canon Law

VI. The Clergy

VII. The Papacy Supreme

VIII. The Finances of the Church

Chapter XXVIII. THE EARLY INQUISITION: 1000–1300

I. The Albigensian Heresy

II. The Background of the Inquisition

III. The Inquisitors

IV. Results

Chapter XXIX. MONKS AND FRIARS: 1095–1300

I. The Monastic Life

II. St. Bernard

III. St. Francis

IV. St. Dominic

V. The Nuns

VI. The Mystics

VII. The Tragic Pope

VIII. Retrospect

Chapter XXX. THE MORALS AND MANNERS OF CHRISTENDOM: 700–1300

I. The Christian Ethic

II. Premarital Morality

III. Marriage

IV. Woman

V. Public Morality

VI. Medieval Dress

VII. In the Home

VIII. Society and Sport

IX. Morality and Religion

Chapter XXXI. THE RESURRECTION OF THE ARTS: 1095–1300

I. The Esthetic Awakening

II. The Adornment of Life

III. Painting

IV. Sculpture

Chapter XXXII. THE GOTHIC FLOWERING: 1095–1300

I. The Cathedral

II. Continental Romanesque

III. The Norman Style in England

IV. The Evolution of Gothic

V. French Gothic

VI. English Gothic

VII. German Gothic

VIII. Italian Gothic

IX. Spanish Gothic

X. Considerations

Chapter XXXIII. MEDIEVAL MUSIC: 326–1300

I. The Music of the Church

II. The Music of the People

Chapter XXXIV. THE TRANSMISSION OF KNOWLEDGE: 1000–1300

I. The Rise of the Vernaculars

II. The World of Books

III. The Translators

IV. The Schools

V. Universities of the South

VI. Universities of France

VII. Universities of England

VIII. Student Life

Chapter XXXV. ABÉLARD: 1079–1142

I. Divine Philosophy

II. Héloïse

III. The Rationalist

IV. The Letters of Heloise

V. The Condemned

Chapter XXXVI. THE ADVENTURE OF REASON: 1120–1308

I. The School of Chartres

II. Aristotle in Paris

III. The Freethinkers

IV. The Development of Scholasticism

V. Thomas Aquinas

VI. The Thomist Philosophy

VII. The Successors

Chapter XXXVII. CHRISTIAN SCIENCE: 1095–1300

I. The Magical Environment

II. The Mathematical Revolution

III. The Earth and Its Life

IV. Matter and Energy

V. The Revival of Medicine

VI. Albertus Magnus

VII. Roger Bacon

VIII. The Encyclopedists

Chapter XXXVIII. THE AGE OF ROMANCE: 1100–1300

I. The Latin Revival

II. Wine, Woman, and Song

III. The Rebirth of Drama

IV. Epics and Sagas

V. The Troubadours

VI. The Minnesingers

VII. The Romances

VIII. The Satirical Reaction

Chapter XXXIX. DANTE: 1265–1321

I. The Italian Troubadours

II. Dante and Beatrice

III. The Poet in Politics

IV. The Divine Comedy

EPILOGUE: THE MEDIEVAL LEGACY

Bibliography

Notes