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*1 Sir Michael de la Pole, 1383 Rot. Parl., III 150

*2 Chff Bekar, Income Sharing Amongst Medieval Peasants: Usury Prohibitions and the Non-Market Provision of Insurance (Lewis and Clark College, Oregon, USA).

*3 M.Treitez, The Great Hunger of 1044:The Progress of a Medieval Famine, in Serve it Forth 11 (June 1999) and 12 (Oct 1999).


*1 Guido, bishop of Amiens, Carmen de hello Hastingensi, v 931–44 (in Mon. Hist. Brit., 1848); Henry of Huntingdon, Historia Anglorum (in Rer. Brit. med. aevi script., p.763, ed. Arnold, London, 1879); Wace, Roman de Rou, 3rd part, v. 8035–62, ed. Andresen (Heilbronn, 1879)

*2 Norman Moore, ed. The Book of the Foundation of St Bartholomew’s Church in London, Early English Text Society, no. 163 (1923)

*3 Froissart describes the moment. He does not say that Sir John sang in French, but when Chandos’ herald composed a poem-chromcle life of the Black Prince, that was in French, so it is unlikely that he would sing in English.

*4 How king Edward & his menye met with the Spaniardes in the see, The Poems of Laurence Minot 1333–1352. Originally published in The Poems of Laurence Minot 1333–1352, edited by Richard H. Osberg, trans A. Ereira (M.I. Kalamazoo: Western Michigan University for TEAMS, 1997).


*1 G. Spraggs, Outlaws & Highwaymen (Pimlico 2001), p. 24.

*2 H. Rothwel, ed., English Historical Documents 1189–1327 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1975), III, pp. 566–7.

*3 Translated by G. Spraggs from ‘Trailbaston’, ed. I.S.T. Aspin in Anglo-Norman Political Songs (Oxford, Blackwell for the Anglo-Norman Text Society, 1953), pp. 67–78.

*4 Rot. Parl. III 504.

*5 A Relation of the Island of England about the year 1500 (Camden Soc., 1847), pp. 34–5

*6 M. Keen, The Outlaws of Medieval Legend, Routledge, p. 200.


*1 Aelred, Mirror of Charity, bk. II, ch 23, trans E. Connor, cited by Julie Kerr in ‘An Essay on Cistercian Liturgy in Yorkshire’ in the University of Sheffield’s Cistercians in Yorkshire project

*2 Edward Coleman, ‘Nasty Habits – Satire and the Medieval Monk’, History Today, volume 43, issue 6, June 1993, pp. 36–42.

*3 Jocelin of Brakelond, Chronicle of the Abbey of St Edmund’s.


*1 ‘Breakdown of the Year: Physics Fraud’, Science,Vol 298, 20 December 2002, p. 2303.

*2 Office of Research Integrity, Annual Report 2001

*3 Jeffrey Burton Russell, Inventing the Flat Earth: Columbus and Modern Historians (Greenwood Press, 1997).

*4 See http://explorers htm, for an essay by Nicholas Whyte.

*5 Vol. 349, Feb 1, 1997

*6 The Management and Control of Hospital Acquired Infection in Acute NHS Trusts in England estimated that hospital-acquired infection causes 5000 deaths annually. Three thousand two hundred people died in road accidents in England and Wales in 2002. Office of National Statistics HSQ10DT2.


*1 Georges Duby, Guillame le Marechal, ou le meilleur chevalier du monde (Paris, 1984), trans. R. Howard, William Marshal, Flower of Chivalry (New York, 1986), p. 33 – quoted in Kaeuper, p. 280

*2 The Book of the Ordre of Chyvalry, trans. W Caxton, ed. A.T.P. Byles (EETS, 1926 rep. 1971) p. 31. Following quotations: pp. 32, 38

*3 Sarrasin, Le Roman du Hem, ed. A. Henry (Brussels, 1939), discussed in Juliet Vale, Edward III and Chivalry: Chivalric Society and its Context 1270–1350 (Boydell Press, 1982).

*4 Jean Froissart, The Chronicles of Froissart, trans, by John Bourchier, Lord Berners, ed. G C Macaulay (New York, 1910).

*5 Pietro Azario, ‘Liber gestorum in Lombardia’, in L.A. Muratori Rerum Italicarum Scriptures – Storici Italiani (Bologna, 1939), XVI, IV, p 128.

*6 Matteo Villani, Cronica (Florence, 1825–6) v. 259–260.

*7 J Temple-Leader and G. Marcetti, Sir John Hawkwood (London, 1889)

*8 Francho Sacchetti, Il trecentonovelle ed. V. Pernicone (Florence, 1946), pp. 448–9.


*1 History of William Marshal.

*2 H Leyser, Medieval Women a Social History of Women in England 450–1500 (Palgrave Macmillan, 1995), p. 241

*3 Ibid., p. 247.

*4 The Peasant Land Market in Southern England, 1260–1350, Dr Mark Page, University of Durham.

*5 Letter of 1448, Paston Letters and Papers of the Fifteenth Century, ed. Norman Davis (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1971).

*6 Calendar of Patent Rolls, Richard II, 2, 103.

*7 Leyser, p 161

*8 La Querelle de la Rose letters and documents, compiled and edited by Joseph L. Baird and John R Kane, North Carolina studies in the Romance languages and literatures; no. 199 (Chapel Hill: UNC Dept. of Romance languages [distributed by University of North Carolina Press], 1978), pp. 129–30.

*9 Samantha Riches, St George Hero, Martyr and Myth (Sutton Publishing, 2001).


*1 G.H. Cook, Old St Paul’s Cathedral, 1955, p. 92: Henry Hart Milman, Annals of St Paul’s, 2nd ed, 1869, pp. 43–4.

*2 Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, pp. 654, 666.

*3 Ralph of Coggeshall, The Barnwell Chronicle, Roger of Wendover, Gervase of Canterbury, and the Annals of Margam and Tewkesbury.

*4 William Stubbs (ed.), Gesta Regis Henna Secundi (Roger of Howden) I, p 292.

*5 D. A. Carpenter, Abbot Ralph of Coggeshall s Account of the Last Years of King Richard and the First Years of King John, English Historical Review, Nov. 1998.

*6 McKisack M., The Fourteenth Century (Oxford, 1959), 498.

*7 L C. Hector, ‘Chronicle of the Monk of Westminster’, English Historical Review, 68 (1953), pp. 62–5

*8 Philippe de Mézières, Letter to King Richard II, trans. G.W. Coopland (Liverpool, 1975), p. 54

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