Post-classical history

Notes

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Preface

1. Richard A. Fletcher, Moorish Spain (New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1992), p. 151.

Chapter One Logic and Compromise

1. William of Malmesbury, The Deeds of the Bishops of England (Gesta Pontificum Anglorum), trans. David Preest (2002), p. 575.

2. Guy Carleton Lee, Source-book of English History (1900), pp. 125–127; David Charles Douglas, William the Conqueror: The Norman Impact upon England (1964), pp. 265–266.

3. Douglas, pp. 273–274.

4. William of Malmesbury, The Deeds of the Bishops of England, p. 98.

5. Jaroslav Pelikan, The Growth of Medieval Theology (600–1300) (1978), p. 98.

6. William of Malmesbury, The Deeds of the Bishops of England, p. 26.

7. Saint Anselm, Proslogion, in A Scholastic Miscellany: Anselm to Ockham, ed. and trans. Eugene R. Fairweather (1956), p. 69.

8. Ibid., p. 100.

9. Uta-Renate Blumenthal, The Investiture Controversy (1988), p. 156.

10. William of Malmesbury, Gesta Regum Anglorum (The History of the English Kings), trans. R. A. B. Mynors, R. M. Thomson, and Michael Winterbottom, vol. 1 (1998), p. 749.

11. Henry White, History of Great Britain and Ireland (1849), p. 114.

12. Gerd Tellenbach, The Church in Western Europe from the Tenth to the Early Twelfth Century (1993), p. 273.

13. Horst Fuhrmann, Germany in the High Middle Ages, c. 1050–1200, trans. Timothy Reuter (1986), p. 88.

14. Ibid., pp. 88–89; Karl F. Morrison, ed., The Investiture Controversy (1971), pp. 69–70.

15. Morrison, pp. 69–70.

Chapter Two The Crusader Enemy

1. Anna Comnena, The Alexiad of Anna Comnena, trans. E. R. A. Sewter (1969), X.9–10.

2. Ibid., X.11.

3. Ibid., XI.11–12.

4. The “Historia belli sacri (Tudebodus imitatus et continuatus),” cited by Aleksandr A. Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine Empire, 324–1453, 2nd ed., vol. 2 (1952), p. 410.

5. George A. C. Sandeman, Metternich (1911), p. 168.

6. Christopher Duggan, A Concise History of Italy (1994), p. 40

7. Thomas F. Madden, Enrico Dandolo and the Rise of Venice (2003), p. 8.

8. Vasiliev, p. 413; Frederic Chapin Lane, Venice, a Maritime Republic (1973), pp. 33–34.

9. Donald M. Nicol, Byzantium and Venice (1988), p. 79.

10. Simon Payaslian, The History of Armenia (2007), p. 82.

11. In Fontes rerum byzantinarum, quoted by Vasiliev, p. 416.

Chapter Three Anarchy

1. Henry of Huntingdon, The Chronicle of Henry of Huntingdon, trans. Thomas Forester (1853), p. 244; William of Malmesbury, Gesta Regum Anglorum, pp. 761–763.

2. William of Malmesbury, Gesta Regum Anglorum, p. 745; Judith A. Green, The Government of England under Henry I (1986), p. 5.

3. T. A. Archer and Charles Lethbridge Kingsford, The Crusades (1914), p. 15; John Richard Green, A Short History of the English People, rev. ed. (1894) p. 99.

4. William of Tyre, A History of Deeds Done beyond the Sea, trans. and ed. Emily Atwater Babcock and A. C. Krey, vol. 2 (1976), bk. 14.2, p. 51.

5. Simeon of Durham, The Historical Works of Simeon of Durham, trans. Joseph Stevenson (1855), p. 617.

6. Henry of Huntingdon, The Chronicle of Henry of Huntingdon, trans. and ed. Thomas Forester (1853), bk. 7, pp. 259–260.

7. Ibid., pp. 269–271.

8. M. J. Swanton, trans. and ed., The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (1998), pp. 264–265.

Chapter Four The Lost Homeland

1. Li Qingzhao ji jiazhu, quoted in Simon Leys, The Hall of Uselessness (2011), pp. 255–256.

2. Patricia Buckley Ebrey, ed., Chinese Civilization, 2nd ed. (1993), p. 169.

3. Ebrey, p. 171; Jacques Gernet, A History of Chinese Civilization, 2nd ed. (1996), p. 357.

4. Yuan-Kang Wang, Harmony and War (2001), p. 80.

5. Peter Allan Lorge, War, Politics and Society in Early Modern China, 900–1795 (2005), p. 55.

6. Jung-Pang Lo, “The Emergence of China as a Sea Power during the Late Sung and Early Yuan Periods,” Far Eastern Quarterly 14, no. 4 (1955): 502, 491.

7. Wang, p. 89.

8. Alexander Woodside, Vietnam and the Chinese Model (1971), pp. 7,299.

9. James Anderson, The Rebel Den of Nùng Trí Cao (2007), p. 143.

10. Michael E. Brown and Sumit Ganguly, Fighting Words (2003), p. 222; Nicholas Tarling, ed., The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, vol. 1 (1999), pp. 147–148.

11. George Coedès, The Indianized States of Southeast Asia, ed. Walter F. Vella, trans. Sue Brown Cowing (1968), pp. 99–100, 159.

12. Georges Maspero, Royaume de Champa, quoted in Coedès, The Indianized States of Southeast Asia, pp. 159–160.

13. Victor B. Lieberman, Strange Parallels, vol. 1 (2003), pp. 348–350.

14. Oscar Chapuis, A History of Vietnam (1995), p. 52.

15. John K. Whitmore, Essays into Vietnamese Pasts (1995), p. 65.

16. Chapuis, p. 42.

17. Milton Osborne, The Mekong (2000), p. 31.

18. Charles Higham, The Civilization of Angkor (2001), pp. 115–117.

19. Ian Shaw and Robert Jameson, A Dictionary of Archaeology (1999), p. 63.

Chapter Five Crusade Resurrected

1. Carole Hillenbrand, The Crusades (2000), p. 113; William of Tyre, p. 105.

2. Martin Sicker, The Islamic World in Decline (2001), p. 72

3. Nicholas N. Ambraseys, “The 12th Century Seismic Paroxysm in the Middle East,” Annals of Geophysics 47, nos. 2–3 (April–June 2004): 743–744; Ibn al-Athir, The Chronicle of Ibn al-Athir for the Crusading Period, trans. D. S. Richards (2006), pt. 1, p. 351.

4. Josef W. Meri, Medieval Islamic Civilization (2006), vol. 1, p. 219; The Qur’an, trans. Thomas Clancy (2004), p. 299.

5. Ibn al-Athir, pt. 1, p. 283; Jonathan C. Phillips and Martin Hoch, eds., The Second Crusade (2001), p. 126.

6. Christopher Tyerman, God’s War (2006), p. 188.

7. William of Tyre, p. 143.

8. Hillenbrand, p. 115.

9. Jacques P. Migne, Patrologia Cursus Completus (1855), cols. 1064–1066.

10. Thomas F. Madden, The New Concise History of the Crusades, updated ed. (2005), p. 50.

11. Otto of Freising, The Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa, trans. Charles Christopher Mierow (2004), p. 70; Jonathan Phillips and Martin Hoch, eds., The Second Crusade (2001), p. 3.

12. Thomas F. Tout, The Empire and the Papacy, 918–1273 (1899), p. 284.

13. Madden, The New Concise History, p. 52; Ralph V. Turner, Eleanor of Aquitaine (2009),
pp. 66–67.

14. Michael Frassetto, ed., Medieval Purity and Piety (1998), pp. 118–119; Ralph V. Turner, Eleanor of Aquitaine (2009), p. 47.

15. William of Tyre, pp. 171–172; Madden, The New Concise History, p. 58.

16. William of Tyre, pp. 176–177.

17. Ibid., p. 80.

18. Turner, p. 93.

19. Thomas S. Asbridge, The Crusades (2010), p. 242.

20. Bernard of Clairvaux, Five Books on Consideration, trans. John Douglas Anderson and Elizabeth T. Kennan (1976), p. 49; William of Tyre, p. 193.

Chapter Six Reconquista and Rediscovery

1. Roger Le Tourneau, The Almohad Movement in North Africa in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries (1969), p. 25; Olivia Remie Constable, Medieval Iberia (1997), p. 186.

2. Donald J. Kagay and L. J. Andrew Villalon, eds., The Circle of War in the Middle Ages (1999, pp. 26–27; Chronica Adefonsi Imperatoris, II.50, in The World of El Cid, trans. Simon Barton and Richard Fletcher (2000), p. 225.

3. Chronica Adefonsi Imperatoris, II.58, in Barton and Fletcher, p. 228.

4. Ibid., II.92, in Barton and Fletcher, p. 241.

5. Keith J. Devlin, The Man of Numbers (2011), p. 21; Chris Lowney, A Vanished World (2005), p. 149.

6. Edward Grant, A Source Book in Medieval Science (1974), p. 35; B. F. Reilly, The Contest of Christian and Muslim Spain (1992), pp. 127–128.

Chapter Seven Questions of Authority

1. Peter Abelard, Historia Calamitatum, in The Letters of Abelard and Heloise, trans. Betty Radice (1974), p. 3.

2. Ibid., 11.

3. James Burge, Heloise and Abelard (2003), pp. 127–131; Abelard, Historia Calamitatum, p. 17.

4. Gillian Rosemary Evans, ed., The Medieval Theologians (2001), pp. 109–110; Peter Godman, The Silent Masters (2000), pp. 67–68.

5. Abelard, Historia Calamitatum, 21.

6. Godman, 79–80.

7. Otto of Freising, p. 82.

8. Ibid., p. 84.

9. Heinrich Fichtenau, Heretics and Scholars in the High Middle Ages, 1000–1200, trans. Denise A. Kaiser (1998), pp. 297–298.

10. Radice, p. 228.

11. John of Salisbury,The Metalogicon of John of Salisbury, trans. Daniel D. McGarry (1955), pp. 68, 167.

12. R. N. Swanson, The Twelfth-Century Renaissance (1999), p. 74; Alan Charles Kors and Edward Peters, Witchcraft in Europe, 400–1700 (2001), pp. 72–73.

13. Marcia L. Colish, Peter Lombard, vol. 1 (1994), pp. 16–17, 25,

14. Ibid., pp. 30–31, 77ff.; Evans, pp. 181–182.

Chapter Eight The New Song

1. Frederick W. Mote, Imperial China, 900–1800 (1999), p. 298.

2. Helaine Selin, ed., Encyclopedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures (2008), p. 959; Chen Kelun, Chinese Porcelain (2004), p. 13; Wenhua Li, Agro-ecological Farming Systems in China (2001), pp. 28–29.

3. Alfreda Murck, Poetry and Painting in Song China (2000), p. 219.

4. Yang Xianyi and Gladys Yang, trans., Poetry and Prose of the Tang and Song (1984), pp. 273–274.

5. Steven Warshaw, China Emerges: A Concise History of China from Its Origins to the Present (1987), p. 60; P. J. Ivanhoe, Confucian Moral Self-Cultivation (2000), pp. 47–49.

6. Ebrey, p. 173; Godman, p. 80.

7. Mote, pp. 232–233; Herbert Franke and Denis Twitchett, eds., The Cambridge History of China, vol. 6 (2007), pp. 239–240.

8. Franke and Twitchett, pp. 240–241.

9. Harold Miles Tanner, China (2009), pp. 219–220.

10. Lorge, p. 63.

11. Yuan-Kang Wang, Harmony and War (2011), p. 92.

12. Lu Yu, “To Show to My Sons,” trans. Burton Watson, in The Shorter Columbia Anthology of Traditional Chinese Literature, ed. Victor H. Mair (2000), p. 124.

Chapter Nine The Heiji Disturbance

1. George Sansom, A History of Japan to 1334 (1958), p. 197; Delmer M. Brown and Ichirō Ishida, trans. and eds., The Future and the Past (1979), p. 72.

2. Reinhard Bendix, Kings or People (1978), pp. 76–77; Stephen R. Turnbull, The Samurai (1977), pp. 25–27.

3. Brown and Ishida, p. 78; John W. Hall, Jeffrey P. Mass, and David L. Davis, Medieval Japan (1974), pp. 69–70.

4. William Wayne Farris, Japan to 1600 (2009), p. 86.

5. Brown and Ishida, p. 317.

6. Donald H. Shively and William H. McCullough, eds., The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 2 (1999), p. 609.

7. Brown and Ishida, p. 99.

8. Wm. Theodore de Bary et al., eds., Sources of Japanese Tradition, 2nd ed., vol. 1 (2001), p. 269; Turnbull, The Samurai, pp. 34–35

9. De Bary, p. 275; Brown and Ishida, p. 104; Turnbull, The Samurai, p. 37.

10. Brown and Ishida, p. 107.

11. Ibid., pp. 115–116.

Chapter Ten Death of an Army

1. Ki-baik Lee, A New History of Korea, trans. Edward W. Wagner with Edward J. Shultz (1984), p. 138

2. Martina Deuchler, The Confucian Transformation of Korea (1992), p. 32.

3. Edward J. Shultz, Generals and Scholars (2000), pp. 11–12.

4. Ki-baik Lee, p. 136.

5. Peter H. Lee, ed., Sourcebook of Korean Civilization, vol. 1 (1993), p. 332; Shultz, p. 16.

6. Shultz, pp. 13–14.

7. Ki-baik Lee, p. 139; Shultz, pp. 15, 17.

8. Michael J. Seth, A History of Korea (2011), p. 104.

9. Peter H. Lee, p. 332.

10. Ki-Baik Lee, p. 140.

11. Peter H. Lee, p. 334.

12. Shultz, pp. 20–21, 28–29.

13. Ki-baik Lee, p. 140; Shultz, p. 34.

14. Ki-baik Lee, p. 142.

15. Peter H. Lee, pp. 334–336.

16. Ki-baik Lee, p. 145; Peter H. Lee, p. 340.

17. Shultz, pp. 55–56; Seth, pp. 104–105.

Chapter Eleven The First Plantagenet

1. Swanton, p. 264.

2. John D. Hosler, Henry II (2007), pp. 5–6; William of Newburgh, Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, Henry II, and Richard I, ed. Richard Howlett, vol. 3 (1886), p. xvii.

3. Malcolm Barber, The Two Cities (1992), p. 267.

4. Quoted in Turner, p. 109.

5. Hosler, pp. 44–45.

6. William of Newburgh, The History of English Affairs, Book I, ed. P. G. Walsh and M. J. Kennedy (1988), p. 127

7. Ibid., p. 15.

8. Peter of Blois, Epistolae, ed. J. A. Giles (1847), pp. 50, 193–194.

9. Christopher Harper-Bill and Nicholas Vincent, eds., Henry II (2007), pp. 311–312; Rebecca Fraser, The Story of Britain (2006), pp. 128–129.

10. Hosler, p. 49.

Chapter Twelve Frederick Barbarossa

1. Eric Christiansen, The Northern Crusades, rev. ed. (1997), p. 53; Madden, The New Concise History, pp. 55–56.

2. France, pp. 132–133.

3. Otto of Freising, pp. 332–333.

4. Quoted in Colin Morris, The Papal Monarchy (1989), pp. 188–189.

5. Ibid., p. 190.

6. Otto of Freising, pp. 150–152.

7. Ibid., p. 127.

8. Morris, p. 267.

9. Patrick J. Geary, Living with the Dead in the Middle Ages (1994), pp. 244–245.

10. Quoted in Robert Sallares, Malaria and Rome (2002), p. 225.

11. Morris, p. 195.

Chapter Thirteen The Almohads in Spain

1. Kagay and Villalon, p. 27.

2. Joseph F. O’Callaghan, A History of Medieval Spain (1975), p. 232.

3. Michael Gerli, Medieval Iberia (2003), p. 82; David Luscombe and Jonathan Riley-Smith, eds., New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 4 (2004), p. 615.

4. O’Callaghan, p. 236

5. Luscombe and Riley-Smith, p. 615.

6. Norman Roth, Jews, Visigoths, and Muslims in Medieval Spain (1994), p. 119

7. Jamil M. Abun-Nasr, A History of the Maghrib in the Islamic Period (1987), pp. 93–94.

8. Luis Vaz de Camões, The Lusiads, trans. Landeg White (2002), p. 161 (canto 8, stanza 29).

9. H. P. Livermore, A New History of Portugal (1966), p. 64.

10. Luscombe and Riley-Smith, p. 617

11. Ibid., pp. 617–618; Uri Rubin and David J. Wasserstein, eds., Dhimmis and Others (1997),
p. 166.

Chapter Fourteen “Many Nations”

1. Nehemia Levtzion and Jay Spaulding, eds., Medieval West Africa (2003), p. 7; Muhammad Fasi and Ivan Hrbek, Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century (1988), p. 449.

2. “The Bornu Girgam,” translated in Journal of the African Society 12, no. 45 (Oct. 1912): 75.

3. E. W. Bovill and Robin Hallett, The Golden Trade of the Moors, 2nd ed. (1995), pp. 160–161.

4. Paul E. Lovejoy, Transformations in Slavery (1983), pp. 15–16.

5. Levtzion and Spaulding, p. 7; Humphrey J. Fisher, Slavery in the History of Muslim Black Africa (2001), p. 238.

6. J. D. Fage and R. A. Oliver, eds., Papers in African Prehistory (1970), pp. 259–260.

7. Richard Gray, ed., The Cambridge History of Africa, vol. 4 (1975), pp. 202–203.

8. G. S. P. Freeman-Grenville, “Some Recent Archaeological Work on the Tanganyika Coast,” Man 58 (July 1958): 106.

9. Ibid., pp. 107–108.

10. Elizabeth Allo Isichei, A History of African Societies to 1870 (1997), p. 251.

11. Jeffrey Brodd, Primary Source Readings in World Religions (2009), pp. 34–35; Jacob Kehinde Olupona and Terry S. Reynolds, eds., Òrisà Devotion as World Religion (2008), pp. 151–152.

12. Kevin Shillington, ed., Encyclopedia of African History (2005), pp. 226–227; Dmitri M. Bondarenko and Peter M. Roese, “Between the Ogiso and Oba Dynasties: An Interpretation of Interregnum in the Benin Kingdom,” History in Africa 31 (2004): 103–115.

13. Roger Blench and Matthew Spriggs, eds., Archaeology and Language, vol. 3 (1999), p. 313.

14. Nehemia Levtzion and J. F. P. Hopkins, eds., Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History, trans. J. F. P. Hopkins (1981), pp. 79–80.

15. Djibril Tamsir Niane and Joseph Ki-Zerbo, Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Centuries (1997), pp. 124–125; Abiola Irele and Biodun Jeyifo, eds., The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought, vol. 1 (2010), pp. 406–407.

Chapter Fifteen The Last Fatimid Caliph

1. Asbridge, p. 242.

2. Maya Shatzmiller, Crusaders and Muslims in Twelfth-Century Syria (1993), p. 169.

3. H. A. R. Gibb, ed. and trans., The Damascus Chronicle of the Crusades (2002), p. 341.

4. William of Tyre, p. 293.

5. Ibid., p. 294.

6. William Heywood, A History of Pisa, Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries (2010), pp. 112–113.

7. William of Tyre, p. 305.

8. Ibn al-Athir, pt. 2, p. 163.

9. Ibid., p. 172.

10. Asbridge, p. 273; Ibn al-Athir, pt. 2, p. 174.

11. Ibn al-Athir, pt. 2, p. 175.

12. Ibid., p. 183; William of Tyre, pp. 367–368.

13. Ibn al-Athir, pt. 2, pp. 196–197.

Chapter Sixteen Monks and Brahmans

1. The Mahavansa, Part II, trans. L. C. Wijesinha (1889), p. 126; H. W. Codrington, Short History of Ceylon (1926), pp. 58–59.

2. Wijesinha, p. 59.

3. Ibid., p. 148; Joseph Needham, Science and Civilisation in China, vol. 4 (1954), p. 371.

4. Wijesinha, p. 149.

5. S. K. Verma, Political History of Ancient India (2010), p. 146.

6. Hannah Chapelle Wojciehowski, Group Identity in the Renaissance World (2011), p. 179.

7. Ilana Friedrich-Silber, Virtuosity, Charisma, and Social Order (1995), p. 113.

8. Ibid., p. 105; Heinz Bechert, “Theravada Buddhist Sangha,” Journal of Asian Studies 29, no. 4 (Aug. 1970): 765.

9. Friedrich-Silber, pp. 84–85; Bechert, p. 766; Richard Francis Gombrich, Theravada Buddhism (2006), p. 159.

10. J. F. Fleet, “Inscriptions at Ablur,” in E. Hultzsch, ed., Epigraphia Indica and Record of the Archaological Survey of India, vol. 5 (1898–99), p. 240.

11. Bharati Ray, Different Types of History (2009), pp. 251–252; Dale Hoiberg and Indu Ramchandani, Students’ Britannica: India, vol. 3 (2000), p. 286.

12. R. S. Sharma, Early Medieval Indian Society (2001), p. 195; Stanley Wolpert, A New History of India (2004), pp. 112–113; Ray, p. 251.

13. Ray, pp. 253–254.

14. Colin Metcalfe Enriquez, Ceylon, Past and Present (1927), pp. 40–41.

15. Hoiberg and Ramchandani, p. 163.

Chapter Seventeen Conquest of the Willing

1. Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India, 3rd ed. (1998), p. 111.

2. Tso-kha-pa Blo-bza-grags-pa and Gareth Sparham, The Fulfillment of All Hopes (1999), pp. 2–4.

3. Tansen Sen, Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade (2003), pp. 107–108.

4. Salahuddin Ahmed, Bangladesh (2004), p. 59.

5. Bauer, The History of the Medieval World, pp. 231–232.

6. Richard Maxwell Eaton, The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204–1760 (1993), pp. 16–17.

7. Sharma, pp. 102, 278, 283.

8. Minhaj Siraj Juzjani, Tabakat-i-Nasiri, trans. H. G. Raverty (1881), p. 352.

9. J. A. Boyle, ed., The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 5 (1968), p. 160.

10. Tabakat-i-Nasiri, p. 115.

11. Sir William Wilson Hunter, Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1833–1962, vol. 2 (1909), p. 309; Bauer, The History of the Medieval World, pp. 554–555.

12. Raj Kumar, ed., Essays on Medieval India (2003), pp. 275, 277.

13. Ahmed, p. 59.

Chapter Eighteen Death of a Priest

1. “Writ of William I,” quoted in Derek Baker, England in the Early Middle Ages, rev. ed. (1993),
p. 173.

2. Fraser, p. 130.

3. Henry William Carless Davis, England under the Normans and Angevins, 1066–1272 (1949),
pp. 210–211.

4. Michael Staunton, The Lives of Thomas Becket (2001), p. 45.

5. Frank Barlow, Thomas Becket (1986), pp. 44–45; Staunton, pp. 52–53.

6. Fraser, p. 131; Staunton, pp. 67–68.

7. Ernest F. Henderson, ed. and trans., Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages (1896),
pp. 11–16; Fraser, p. 132.

8. Thomas Becket, “Letter 82,” in The Correspondence of Thomas BecketArchbishop of Canterbury 1162–1170, ed. and trans. Anne J. Duggan, vol. 1 (2000), pp. 329, 333.

9. Henderson, pp. 16–20.

10. Ibid.

11. James J. Spigelman, Becket & Henry (2004), pp. 229–230.

12. Ibid., p. 251.

13. Ibid., p. 255; Fraser, p. 134.

14. Edward Potts Cheyney, Readings in English History Drawn from the Original Sources (1922),
pp. 155–158

15. Fraser, p. 135.

Chapter Nineteen Foreign Relations

1. Svat Soucek, A History of Inner Asia (2000), pp. 98–99.

2. Sicker, p. 58.

3. Madden, The New Concise History, pp. 64–65; John Julius Norwich, Byzantium (1996), p. 120.

4. Norwich, Byzantium, p. 121; William of Tyre, p. 235.

5. Stephen Runciman, A History of the Crusades, vol. 2 (1951), p. 348.

6. Norwich, Byzantium, p. 122; Vasiliev, p. 426; Runciman, A History of the Crusades, vol. 2, p. 352.

7. Vasiliev, p. 427.

8. Alicia Simpson and Stephanos Efthymiadis, Niketas Choniates (2009), p. 113.

9. Pál Engel, The Realm of St. Stephen, trans. Tamás Pálosfalvi, ed. Andrew Ayton (2005), p. 36.

10. Paul Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos1143–1180 (1993), p. 7.

11. John Van Antwerp Fine, The Late Medieval Balkans (1987), pp. 2–4.

Chapter Twenty The Venetian Problem

1. Nicol, Byzantium and Venice, p. 96.

2. Madden, The New Concise History, p. 54.

3. Ibid.

4. John Cinnamus, quoted in Nicol, Byzantium and Venice, p. 99.

5. Norwich, Byzantium, pp. 140–141.

6. Fine (1987), p. 6; Nicol, Byzantium and Venice, p. 107.

7. Norwich, Byzantium, p. 144.

8. Nicetas Choniates, O City of Byzantium, trans. Harry J. Magoulias (1984), pp. 192–193.

Chapter Twenty-One Resentments

1. Gerald of Wales, “The History of the Conquest of Ireland,” in The Historical Works of Giraldus Cambrensis, trans. Thomas Wright (1894), p. 184.

2. Ibid., p. 186; Ruth Dudley Edwards and Bridget Hourican, An Atlas of Irish History (1973),
pp. 184–185.

3. Gerald of Wales, p. 227.

4. Sean Duffy, Ailbhe MacShamhrain, and James Moynes, Medieval Ireland (2005), pp. 30–31; Hosler, p. 72.

5. Hosler, p. 65; Gerald of Wales, pp. 252–253.

6. Turner, pp. 224–225.

7. William of Newburgh, The History of English Affairs, Book II, ed. and trans. P. G. Walsh and M. J. Kennedy (2007), p. 117.

8. Wilfred Lewis Warren, Henry II (1973), p. 124.

9. Turner, pp. 226–227.

10. William of Newburgh, Book II, p. 153; Warren, pp. 135–136; Hosler, pp. 217–218; John Gillingham, Richard I (1999), p. 50.

11. Robert Fawtier, The Capetian Kings of France (1966), p. 110.

12. W. H. Jervis, A History of France (1869), p. 143.

13. Jerome A. Chanes, Antisemitism (2004), p. 153.

14. Robert Chazan, Medieval Stereotypes and Modern Antisemitism (1997), p. 14; Jervis, p. 144.

Chapter Twenty-Two Saladin

1. Baha’ al-Din ibn Shaddad, The Rare and Excellent History of Saladin, trans. D. S. Richards (2002), pp. 18–19, 28.

2. Ibn al–Athir, pt. 2, p. 199.

3. Ibid., p. 225.

4. Ibn Shaddad, p. 51.

5. Ibn al-Athir, pt. 2, p. 234; Yaacov Lev, Saladin in Egypt (1999), p. 105; Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem (1898), pp. 141–142.

6. Lane-Poole, Saladin, p. 372; Lev, p. 168; ibn Shaddad, p. 55.

7. Madden, The New Concise History, pp. 73–74.

8. Ibn al-Athir, pt. 2, pp. 316–317; Madden, The New Concise History, pp. 73–74.

9. Ibn al-Athir, pt. 2, p. 321

10. Peter W. Edbury, trans., The Conquest of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade (1998), pp. 158–159.

11. Ibn al-Athir, pt. 2, pp. 323–324.

12. Ibid., pp. 324–325, 334; ibn Shaddad, p. 78.

13. Edbury, p. 73; Jervis, p. 144; Madden, The New Concise History, p. 79.

14. Edbury, p. 76.

Chapter Twenty-Three The Gempei War

1. Jeffrey P. Mass, Yoritomo and the Founding of the First Bakufu (1999), pp. 19–21.

2. Shively and McCullough, p. 697.

3. Burton Watson, trans., Tales of the Heike, ed. Haruo Shirane (2006), p. 16.

4. Brown and Ishida, p. 129.

5. Turnbull, The Samurai, pp. 56–57.

6. Ibid., pp. 57, 59.

7. James Sequin De Benneville, Saito Mussashi-bo Benkei (Tales of the Wars of the Gempei) (1910),
pp. 96, 166, 171.

8. Marius B. Jansen, ed., Warrior Rule in Japan (1995), p. 19.

Chapter Twenty-Four King’s Crusade

1. Roger of Hoveden, The Annals of Roger de Hoveden, trans. Henry T. Riley, vol. 2 (1853), p. 86.

2. Ibid., pp. 63–64; Gillingham, Richard I, p. 84.

3. Gillingham, Richard I, pp. 95, 98.

4. Ibid., pp. 98–99; Roger of Wendover, Flowers of History, trans. J. A. Giles, vol. 2 (1849), p. 75; Roger of Hoveden, p. 109.

5. Roger of Hoveden, pp. 110–111.

6. Itinerarium Regis Ricardi, in Thomas Andrew Archer, The Crusade of Richard I, 1189–1192 (1888), p. 6

7. Roger of Wendover, p. 87; Archer, p. 14.

8. Frederick I and Graham A. Loud, The Crusade of Frederick Barbarossa (2009), pp. 46–47; Vasiliev, pp. 446–447.

9. Edbury, p. 88

10. Ibn al-Athir, pt. 2, pp. 375–376.

11. Edbury, p. 98; Madden, The New Concise History, pp. 83ff.; Ibn al-Athir, pt. 2, p. 386.

12. Archer, pp. 81–82.

13. Ibn al-Athir, pt. 2, p. 387; Jervis, p. 145; Edbury, p. 105.

14. Roger of Hoveden, p. 256.

15. Madden, The New Concise History, pp. 89–90; ibn Shaddad, p. 175; Roger of Wendover, p. 108.

16. Madden, The New Concise History, p. 94; Ibn al-Athir, pt. 2, pp. 401–402; ibn Shaddad, p. 195.

17. Madden, The New Concise History, pp. 94–95; ibn Shaddad, p. 231.

18. “The letter of Richard, King of England, to Queen Eleanor, his mother, and his justiciaries in England,” in Roger of Hoveden, pp. 291–292.

19. Roger of Hoveden, p. 297.

20. Roger of Wendover, p. 178.

Chapter Twenty-Five The Sack of Constantinople

1. Nicetas Choniates, p. 294.

2. Innocent III, “Register 1:336, 15 August 1198,” in Alfred J. Andrea and Brett E. Whale, Contemporary Sources for the Fourth Crusade, rev. ed. (2008), pp. 11–12; Vasiliev, pp. 451–452.

3. Geoffroy de Villehardouin, “The Conquest of Constantinople,” in Joinville and Villehardouin: Chronicles of the Crusades, trans. M. R. B. Shaw (1963), pp. 31–33.

4. Villehardouin, pp. 43ff.; Vasiliev, pp. 452–454.

5. Nicetas Choniates, p. 295.

6. Villehardouin, p. 50.

7. Ibid., p. 52.

8. Ibid., pp. 70–71.

9. Madden, The New Concise History, pp. 110–114; Vasiliev, pp. 459–461.

10. Villehardouin, pp. 92–93.

11. Ibn al-Athir, pt. 3, p. 76; Jonathan Phillips, The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople (2004), p. 267.

12. Phillips, The Fourth Crusade, pp. 265–267.

13. Madden, The New Concise History, p. 119.

Chapter Twenty-Six Westward

1. Juan José Hoil, The Book of Chilam Balam of Chumayel, trans. Ralph Loveland Roys (1967),
p. 129; Robert J. Sharer and Sylvanus G. Morley, The Ancient Maya (1994), p. 168.

2. Hanns J. Prem, The Ancient Americas, trans. Kornelia Kurbjuhn (1997), p. 25; Sharer and Morley, p. 169.

3. Hoil, p. 170; Richard E. W. Adams, Prehistoric Mesoamerica, rev. ed. (1991), p. 75.

4. Charles H. Southwick, Global Ecology in Human Perspective (1996), pp. 109–110.

5. Adams, pp. 108–109; Nicholas J. Saunders, Ancient Americas: The Great Civilisations (2004), p.157; George Kubler, The Art and Architecture of Ancient America (1962), p. 421.

6. Kubler, p. 421; Saunders (2004), p. 157.

7. Saunders (2004), p. 138.

8. Adams (1997), p. 105; David Keys, Catastrophe (2000), p. 219.

9. Adams (1997), p. 111; Keys, p. 221.

10. Saunders (2004), pp. 145–146, 148.

11. Jacques Malengreau, Sociétés des Andes (1995), p. 85.

12. Adams (1997), p. 114; Saunders (2004), pp. 193–196.

13. Adams (1997), p. 118.

14. Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa, Brian S. Bauer, and Vania Smith, The History of the Incas (2007), pp. 60–61.

15. Ibid., pp. 70–74.

Chapter Twenty-Seven The Mongol School of Warfare

1. John Joseph Saunders, The History of the Mongol Conquests (1971), pp. 44–45; The Secret History of the Mongols, trans. Igor de Rachewiltz, vol. 1 (2004), p. 1.

2. Saunders, pp. 45–46; The Secret History, p. 13.

3. Saunders, p. 48; John Man, Genghis Khan (2005), pp. 73–74.

4. The Secret History, p. 43.

5. Ibid., pp. 122, 132–133.

6. Franke and Twitchett, pp. 199, 203; Man, pp. 119–120, 204.

7. Christopher I. Beckwith, Empires of the Silk Road (2009), p. 415, n. 45 (where the meaning of Genghis is discussed); Franke and Twitchett, p. 345; The Secret History, p. 155; David Christian, A History of Russia, Central Asia, and Mongolia (1998), pp. 398–399.

8. Alison Behnke, The Conquests of Genghis Khan (2008), p. 104.

9. Christian, p. 410.

10. Quoted in Dinah Shelton, Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes against Humanity, vol. 2 (2005), p. 703.

Chapter Twenty-Eight John Softsword

1. Roger of Wendover, p. 179.

2. Roger of Hoveden, p. 112.

3. Roger of Wendover, pp. 205–206.

4. Kate Norgate, John Lackland (1902), pp. 90–91; John Gillingham, The Angevin Empire, 2nd ed. (2001), pp. 92–93; Gervase of Canterbury, The Historical Works of Gervase of Canterbury, vol. 2 (1880), p. 93.

5. Jervis, pp. 150–151.

6. Norgate, pp. 123–124.

7. James Fosdick Baldwin, The Scutage and Knight Service in England (1897), pp. 4–5.

8. The Waverley Annals, quoted in Norgate, p. 126.

9. Norgate, p. 127; Roger of Wendover, p. 241.

10. Norgate, pp. 129–131.

11. Gillingham, The Angevin Empire, p. 103.

12. Michael Van Cleave Alexander, Three Crises in Early English History (1998), pp. 84–85; Roger of Wendover, p. 247; Antonia Gransden, Historical Writing in England (1973), p. 343.

Chapter Twenty-Nine Sundiata of the Mali

1. Gordon Innes, Sunjata (1974), p. 275.

2. Levtzion and Hopkins, pp. 110, 117.

3. J. D. Fage with William Tordoff, A History of Africa, 4th ed. (2002), pp. 73–74; Niane and Ki-Zerbo, pp. 125–127.

4. Niane and Ki-Zerbo, p. 125;

5. Innes, pp. 218–219.

6. Niane and Ki-Zerbo, pp. 125–126; Fage and Oliver, pp. 351–352.

7. D. T. Niane, Sundiata, trans. G. D. Pickett (1965), pp. 54–55, 68–70; Junius P. Rodriguez, ed., The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery, vol. 2 (1997), p. 424.

8. Niane, p. 54.

Chapter Thirty The Jokyu War

1. Jansen, p. 1.

2. Mass, Yoritomo, pp. 72–73.

3. Jansen, pp. 6–7.

4. Brown and Ishida, p. 155.

5. Karl F. Friday, Samurai, Warfare and the State in Early Medieval Japan (2004), pp. 11, 25.

6. Brown and Ishida, p 178.

7. Ibid., p. 179.

8. Ibid., p. 182.

9. Ibid., p. 156.

10. Ibid., p. 160; Peter Martin, The Chrysanthemum Throne (1997), p. 5.

11. Brown and Ishida, p. 194; George W. Perkins, trans. and ed., The Clear Mirror (1998), pp. 37–38, 50–51.

12. Perkins, p. 51.

13. Ibid., pp. 51, 53.

14. Jeffrey P. Mass, The Development of Kamakura Rule, 1180–1250 (1979), p. xiv; Patricia B. Ebrey, Anne Walthall, and James B. Palais, Pre-Modern East Asia: to 1800 (2006), p. 185.

15. Quoted in John S. Brownlee, Political Thought in Japanese Historical Writing (1991), p. 98.

Chapter Thirty-One The Unwanted Throne

1. Jean de Joinville and Geoffrey de Villehardouin, Chronicles of the Crusades, trans. Frank T. Marzials (2007), p. 70.

2. Gunther of Pairis, The Capture of Constantinople, ed. and trans. Alfred J. Andrea (1997), pp. 111–112; R. W. Southern, The Making of the Middle Ages (1953), pp. 60–61; Phillips, The Fourth Crusade, p. 270.

3. Joinville and Villehardouin, p. 57.

4. J. M. Hussey and Andrew Louth, The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire (2010), pp. 191–192.

5. Joinville and Villehardouin, pp. 62–63.

6. István Vásáry, Cumans and Tatars (2005), p. 34.

7. Joinville and Villehardouin, p. 65.

8. George Akropolites, The History, trans. and ed. Ruth Macrides (2007), pp. 139–140.

9. Donald MacGillivray Nicol, The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261–1453, 2nd ed. (1993), pp. 12–13; Akropolites, p. 17.

10. Vasiliev, p. 517.

11. Warren T. Treadgold, A History of the Byzantine State and Society (1997), p. 723.

Chapter Thirty-Two The First Delhi Sultanate

1. Tabakat-i-Nasiri, pp. 402–405.

2. Carl F. Petry, ed., The Cambridge History of Egypt, vol. 1 (1998), pp. 245–249.

3. Farhad Daftary, The Assassin Legends (1995), pp. 67–70; Joinville and Villehardouin, pp. 129–130.

4. Daftary, pp. 31–37, 54–55.

5. Wolpert, p. 110; Hasan Nizami, Taju-l Ma-asir, in The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians, ed. H. M. Elliot and John Dowson, vol. 2 (1869), p. 217.

6. Peter Jackson, The Delhi Sultanate (1999), p. 26.

7. Wolpert, p. 10; Jaswant Lal Mehta, Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India, vol. 1 (1979), p. 148; Nizami, p. 241.

8. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 55, pt. 1 (1887): 39–40.

9. Alain Daniélou, A Brief History of India, trans. Kenneth Hurry (2003), pp. 202–203; Peter Jackson, The Delhi Sultanate, p. 45; Wolpert, p. 110

10. Daniélou, p. 203.

11. Peter Jackson, The Delhi Sultanate, p. 47.

12. Radhey Shyman Chaurasia, History of Medieval India (2002), pp. 11–12.

Chapter Thirty-Three Heresy

1. John W. Baldwin, The Government of Philip Augustus (1986), pp. 201–202.

2. Augustine of Hippo, The Correction of the Donatists, 5.19–20, 6.21, 23–24, in A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, vol. 4, ed. Philip Schaff (1887), pp. 633–651.

3. Clyde Pharr, The Theodosian Code and Novels, and the Sirmondian Constitutions (1952), p. 450.

4. Jennifer Kolpacoff Deane, A History of Medieval Heresy and Inquisition (2011), pp. 28, 34–36; Edward Peters, ed., Heresy and Authority in Medieval Europe (1980), pp. 66ff.; Malcolm Lambert, Medieval Heresy, 3rd ed. (2002), pp. 23–24; Walter L. Wakefield and Austin P. Evans, Heresies of the High Middle Ages (1991), p. 130; Reinerius Saccho, “Of the Sects of Modern Heretics,” in S. R. Maitland, History of the Albigenses and Waldenses (1832), pp. 407–413.

5. William of Puylaurens, Chronica, quoted in Peters, p. 107.

6. Peters, p. 123; Deane, p. 39.

7. Peters, p. 124; Lambert, pp. 116–118.

8. Philip Smith, The History of the Christian Church during the Middle Ages (1885), pp. 372–373; Jervis, p. 152.

9. William of Tudela, The Song of the Cathar Wars, trans. Janet Shirley (1996), p. 13.

10. Jervis, pp. 151–152.

11. William of Tudela, pp. 18–19; Pierre des Vaux de Cernay, The History of the Albigensian Crusade, trans. W. A. Sibly and M. D. Sibly (1998), p. 50.

12. Caesarius of Heisterbach, Dialogus Miraculorum (1851), p. 302.

13. Pierre des Vaux de Cernay, p. 50; William of Tudela, pp. 21–22.

14. Pierre des Vaux de Cernay, pp. 78–79.

Chapter Thirty-Four Reconquest and Failure

1. Damian J. Smith, Innocent III and the Crown of Aragon (2004), p. 44.

2. Ibid., pp. 84–85.

3. William of Tudela, pp. 38–39; William of Puylaurens, The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens, trans. W. A. Sibly and M. D. Sibly (2003), pp. 37–38.

4. Damian J. Smith, p. 98; O’Callaghan, p. 246.

5. Continuatio Lambacensis, quoted in Damian J. Smith, p. 99, translation mine.

6. Ibid., pp. 99–103; O’Callaghan, p. 246.

7. Harry W. Hazard, ed., A History of the Crusades, 2nd ed., vol. 3 (1975), pp. 423–424; O’Callaghan, pp. 248–249; Niane and Ki-Zerbo, pp. 53–54; William of Puylaurens, p. 43.

8. William of Puylaurens, p. 46.

9. Jervis, p. 153; William of Tudela, pp. 70–71.

10. O’Callaghan, p. 251.

Chapter Thirty-Five From Bouvines to Magna Carta

1. Roger of Wendover, pp. 259–260.

2. John W. Baldwin, pp. 209–210; Jervis, p. 154; Roger of Wendover, pp. 259–260.

3. Christopher Harper-Bill and Ruth Harvey, The Ideals and Practice of Medieval Knighthood (1986), p. 119; Helena M. Chew and Lucy C. Latham, Europe in the Middle Ages, 843–1494 (1936), p. 202.

4. John W. Baldwin, pp. 214–215; Matthew Bennett, Fighting Techniques of the Medieval World (2006), pp. 112–114; Roger of Wendover, pp. 299–300.

5. Roger of Wendover, p. 300; John W. Baldwin, pp. 216–271; Bennett, pp. 112–113; Robert W. Jones, Bloodied Banners (2010), pp. 51, 78.

6. Jones, p. 44; John W. Baldwin, pp. 218–220.

7. Roger of Wendover, p. 303; Alexander, pp. 97–98.

8. “The ‘Unknown’ Charter of Liberties,” in Harry Rothwell, ed., English Historical Documents, vol. 3 (1975), pp. 301–302.

9. The Chronicle of Melrose, trans. Joseph Stevenson, in The Church Historians of England, vol. 4, pt. 1 (1856), p. 158.

10. Alexander, pp. 100–101; Roger of Wendover, p. 307–308.

11. Roger of Wendover, p. 309.

12. Alexander, pp. 108–109.

13. L. Elliott-Binns, Innocent III (1931), pp. 84–85; “Letter of Innocent III, 24 August 1215,” in Rothwell, p. 317.

14. Roger of Wendover, pp. 335–336.

15. Ibid., pp. 357–358.

16. Stevenson, p. 162.

17. Roger of Wendover, p. 378.

18. John W. Baldwin, p. 334.

Chapter Thirty-Six The Birth of the Inquisition

1. Saint Bonaventure, The Life of St. Francis (2005), pp. 25, 29–31.

2. William of Tudela, p. 79; Elaine Graham-Leigh, The Southern French Nobility and the Albigensian Crusade (2005), pp. 44–45.

3. Roger of Wendover, pp. 344–345; William of Tudela, pp. 83–85.

4. Pierre des Vaux de Cernay, pp. 259, 270–271.

5. Jacques de Vitry, The Exempla (1890), p. xxviii.

6. William of Tudela, pp. 167, 172.

7. Jervis, p. 157.

8. Joseph R. Strayer, The Albigensian Crusades (1992), p. 118.

9. Puylaurens, p. 65; Strayer, p. 119.

10. Peters, p. 194.

Chapter Thirty-Seven Moving Westward

1. Soucek, p. 100.

2. Scott C. Levi and Ron Sela, eds., Islamic Central Asia (2010), pp. 125–126.

3. Ibid., p. 126.

4. Ibid., p. 127.

5. Saunders, pp. 56–57.

6. Ibid., p. 57; ‘Alā’-ad-Dīn Guwainī, John A. Boyle, and Muhammad Qazwīnī, Genghis Khan (1997), pp. 92–93; Boyle, pp. 307–308.

7. Ronald Grigor Suny, The Making of the Georgian Nation (1994), pp. 35–37;

8. René Grousset, The Empire of the Steppes (1970), pp. 245–246.

9. Boyle, pp. 313–315; Guwainī, Boyle, and Qazwīnī, pp. 96ff., 131.

10. Boyle, p. 320; Guwainī, Boyle, and Qazwīnī, pp. 131–135.

11. Peter Jackson, The Mongols and the West, 1221–1410 (2005), p. 39.

12. Grousset, p. 246; The Chronicle of Novgorod, 1016–1471, trans. Robert Michell and Nevill Forbes (1914), p. 66.

13. George Vernadsky, Kievan Russia (1948), pp. 236–238; Franke and Twitchett, p. 365.

14. Levi and Sela, p. 136.

Chapter Thirty-Eight South of India

1. Chelvadurai Manogaran, Ethnic Conflict and Reconciliation in Sri Lanka (1987), p. 25; John Clifford Holt, Buddha in the Crown (1991), p. 96; Culavamsa, trans. Wilhelm Geiger (1929),
p. 132.

2. Culavamsa, p. 135; John Clifford Holt, ed., The Sri Lanka Reader (2011), pp. 42–43.

3. Culavamsa, pp. 138–139, 154.

4. Richard Gombrich and Gananath Obeyesekere, Buddhism Transformed (1988), pp. 137–138.

5. John Clifford Holt, Buddha in the Crown, p. 96.

6. Culavamsa, p. 151.

7. Hultzsch, p. 307.

8. C. Rasanayagam, Ancient Jaffna (1984), pp. 352–353.

Chapter Thirty-Nine The Fifth Crusade

1. Roger of Wendover, p. 383; Madden, The New Concise History, p. 145.

2. Francesco Gabrieli, ed. and trans., Arab Historians of the Crusades (1969), p. 256.

3. Ibid., p. 257.

4. Bonaventure, pp. 98–101; Regis J. Armstrong, ed., Francis of Assisi, vol. 1 (1999), pp. 580, 584.

5. Gabrieli, pp. 258–259; Madden, The New Concise History, p. 151.

6. Bonaventure, p. 102; Armstrong, p. 581.

7. Jonathan P. Phillips, Holy Warriors (2010), p. 226.

8. Ibid., p. 227.

9. L. N. Gumilev, Searches for an Imaginary Kingdom, trans. R. E. F. Smith (1967), p. 167.

Chapter Forty From the Golden Bull to the Baltic Crusade

1. Engel, pp. 91–92; Miklós Molnár, A Concise History of Hungary (1991), p. 33.

2. Charles W. Ingrao and Franz A. J. Szabo, eds., The Germans and the East (2008), p. 37; Vásáry,
p. 28; Nicolaus von Jeroschin, Chronicle of Prussia, trans. Mary Fischer (2010), p. 29.

3. Quoted in Rossiter Johnson, Charles Horne, and John Rudd, eds., The Great Events by Famous Historians, vol. 6 (1905), p. 194.

4. Engel, pp. 94–95; Johnson, Horne, and Rudd, p. 194.

5. David Abulafia, ed., The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 5 (2008), p. 744; Engel, p. 90.

6. Malcolm Barber, The Two Cities, p. 341.

7. T. Norus and Jona Zilius, Lithuania’s Case for Independence (1918), p. 9.

8. Alan V. Murray, Anne Huijbers, and Elizabeth Wawrzyniak, The Clash of Cultures on the Medieval Baltic Frontier (2009), pp. 29, 31; Nicolaus von Jeroschin, pp. 44, 47.

9. Jean W. Sedlar, East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000–1500 (1994), p. 409.

10. Hazard, p. 570; Christiansen, pp. 102–103.

11. Nicolaus von Jeroschin, pp. 63, 76.

Chapter Forty-One Lakeshores, Highlands, and Hilltops

1. Roland A. Oliver and Anthony Atmore, Medieval Africa, 1250–1800 (2002), p. 116.

2. Richard Pankhurst, The Ethiopians (2001), pp. 45–46.

3. Verena Boll, ed., Studia Aethiopica (2004), p. 179.

4. Stuart C. Munro-Hay, Ethiopia (2002), pp. 190–191.

5. Oliver and Atmore, p. 118.

6. Robert O. Collins and James McDonald Burns, A History of Sub-Saharan Africa (2007), p. 90.

7. Nehemiah Levtzion and Randall L. Pouwels, eds., The History of Islam in Africa (2000), p. 81.

8. Collins and Burns, p. 90; Levtzion and Hopkins, pp. 187–188.

9. Levtzion and Pouwels, p. 80; Levtzion and Hopkins, p. 188.

10. Levtzion and Pouwels, p. 5.

11. Niane and Ki-Zerbo, p. 101; Roland A. Oliver and Brian M. Fagan, Africa in the Iron Age (1975), p. 153.

12. Philip Harrison, South Africa’s Top Science Sites (2004), p. 56; David Fleminger, Mapungubwe Cultural Landscape (2006), p. 24–25.

13. Fleminger, pp. 35–36.

14. Ibid., p. 40; Deborah Fahy Bryceson, Judith Okely, and Jonathan Webber, eds., Identity and Networks (2007), p. 165; Martin Hall, Farmers, Kings, and Traders (1990), p. 84.

15. Fleminger, p. 41.

Chapter Forty-Two The Sixth Crusade

1. Rebecca Rist, The Papacy and Crusading in Europe, 1198–1245 (2009), p. 98; David Abulafia, Frederick II (1992), p. 151.

2. Roger of Wendover, pp. 492–493.

3. Ibid., p. 499.

4. G. G. Coulton, From St. Francis to Dante, 2nd ed. (1907), p. 79.

5. Giovanni Villani, Villani’s Chronicle, trans. Rose E. Selfe (1907), p. 130; Roger of Wendover, p. 505.

6. Abulafia, Frederick II, p. 172.

7. Archer and Kingsford, p. 381.

8. Gabrieli, pp. 268–269.

9. Ibn al-Athir, pt. 3, pp. 293–294; Karen Armstrong, Jerusalem (1996), p. 302; Gabrieli,
pp. 269–270.

10. Ibn al-Athir, pt. 3, p. 293; Gabrieli, pp. 270–271; Abulafia, Frederick II, pp. 182–184; T. K. Kington-Oliphant, History of Frederick the Second, vol.1 (1862), p. 330.

11. Kington-Oliphant, p. 330.

Chapter Forty-Three The Tran Dynasty

1. Keat Gin Ooi, ed., Southeast Asia (2004), p. 801, condensed from Clotilde Chivas-Baron, Stories and Legends of Annam, trans. E. M. Smith-Dampier (1920), pp. 175–176.

2. George Coedès, The Making of South East Asia, trans. H. M. Wright (1966), p. 86.

3. Chivas-Baron, p. 179.

4. Oscar Chapuis, A History of Vietnam (2000), p. 80; Walter H. Slote and George A. De Vos, eds., Confucianism and the Family (1998), pp. 151–152.

5. Chapuis, p. 80; Coedès, The Making of South East Asia, pp. 123–124; David C. Kang, East Asia before the West (2010), p. 39; Slote and De Vos, p. 95.

6. Tài T. Nguyimagen and Chi Minh, History of Buddhism in Vietnam (1992), pp. 132–134.

7. Coedès, The Making of South East Asia, p. 101.

8. Ibid., p. 125.

9. Kenneth R. Hall, A History of Early Southeast Asia (2011), p. 240.

10. Ibid., p. 241.

Chapter Forty-Four Young Kings

1. Jean Sire de Joinville, The History of St. Louis, ed. Natalis de Wailly and trans. Joan Evans (1938), p. 22.

2. M. Guizot and Madame Guizot de Witt, The History of France, trans. Robert Black, vol. 1 (1884), pp. 426–427; Fawtier, p. 28.

3. Wilfred Lewis Warren, The Governance of Norman and Angevin England, 1086–1272 (1987),
pp. 174–176; Roger of Wendover, pp. 483–484, 487.

4. Michael Prestwich, Plantagenet England, 1225–1360 (2005), pp. 294–295.

5. Roger of Wendover, p. 538.

6. Damian J. Smith, pp. 27, 33.

7. Ibid., p. 34; Francis Darwin Swift, The Life and Times of James the First (1894), p. 33.

8. Ahmad Ibn-Muhammad al-Maqqari, The History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain, trans. Pascual de Gayangos, vol. 2 (1843), pp. 327–328.

9. O’Callaghan, p. 343.

10. Ibid.; al-Maqqari, p. 328.

11. O’Callaghan, p. 345; al-Maqqari, p. 337.

12. Hazard, pp. 428–430; Damian J. Smith, p. 137.

13. Prestwich, Plantagenet England, p. 295.

14. Joinville, pp. 31–32; Jervis, p. 166.

15. J. R. Maddicott, Simon de Montfort (1994), p. 32.

Chapter Forty-Five The Mongol Horde

1. William E. Henthorn, Korea (1963), p. 14.

2. Ibid., p. 22.

3. Ibid., pp. 62–63; Peter H. Lee, and Wm. Theodore de Bary, eds., Sources of Korean Tradition (1997), pp. 202–203.

4. Carter J. Eckert and Ki-baek Yi, Korea, Old and New (1990), p. 91; Andrew C. Nahm, Korea (1988), pp. 90–91.

5. Henry H. Howorth, History of the Mongols (1876), p. 124.

6. Richard A. Gabriel, Subotai the Valiant (2004), pp. 61–62. 65.

7. Ibid., p. 66; Howorth, p. 124.

8. Janet Martin, Medieval Russia, 980–1584 (1995), p. 135.

9. Grousset, p. 263; David Christian, A History of Russia, Central Asia, and Mongolia (1998), p. 408.

10. Christian, p. 410; Janet Martin, pp. 138–139.

11. Man, p. 270.

12. Ibid., pp. 271–272.

13. Peter F. Sugar, ed., A History of Hungary (1994), p. 26.

14. Armin Vambery and Louis Heilprin, The Story of Hungary (1886), p. 142.

15. Matthew Paris, Matthew Paris’s English History, trans. J. A. Giles, vol. 3 (1854), p. 450

16. Janet Martin, p. 140.

Chapter Forty-Six The Debt of Hatred

1. Gabrieli, pp. 281–282.

2. David G. Einstein, Emperor Frederick II (1949), p. 278; Abulafia, Frederick II, pp. 199–200; Hazard, p. 365.

3. Einstein, p. 279.

4. Ibid., pp. 280–281.

5. Elphège Vacandard, The Inquisition, trans. Bertrand L. Conway (1908), pp. 76–78.

6. Einstein, p. 284; Peters, pp. 178–179.

7. Vacandard, p. 80.

8. Alan Charles Kors and Edward Peters, eds., Witchcraft in Europe, 400–1700, 2nd ed. (2001),
p. 116; Donald W. Engles, Classical Cats (1999), p. 186.

9. Scott L. Waugh and Peter Diehl, eds., Christendom and Its Discontents (1996), p. 47; Wakefield and Evans, p. 267.

10. Einstein, pp. 301–303; Villani, p. 133; Abulafia, Frederick II, p. 241.

11. Skinner, The Renaissance (1978), p. 5; Villani, p. 133.

12. Kington-Oliphant, pp. 55, 68; Einstein, p. 336.

13. Paris, vol. 3, p. 163.

14. Einstein, p. 365; Paris, vol. 3, p. 191.

15. Henry Hart Milman, History of Latin Christianity, vol. 6 (1883), p. 460.

16. Klaus Schatz, Papal Primacy (1996), pp. 93–94.

17. Einstein, pp. 377–378, 381–382.

18. Milman, vol. 6, p. 480; Brian Tierney, The Crisis of Church & State, 1050–1300 (1964), p. 147.

19. Einstein, pp. 409–410; Skinner, p. 5; Kington-Oliphant, p. 461; Villani, p. 147.

20. James Bruce Ross and Mary Martin McLaughlin, eds., The Portable Medieval Reader (1977),
p. 365; Villani, p. 152.

Chapter Forty-Seven The Shadow of God

1. Tabakat-i-Nasiri, pp. 637–638.

2. Ibid., pp. 642–643; Satish Chandra, Medieval India (1997), p. 49.

3. Chandra, p. 50; Tabakat-i-Nasiri, pp. 647–648; Mehta, p. 105. Mehta points out that Nasiruddin may have actually been the posthumous child of Il-tumish’s oldest son (who died in 1229), adopted by Il-tumish in order to place him in the direct line of succession.

4. Wolpert, p. 110

5. Tabakat-i-Nasiri, p. 674; Mehta, p. 107.

6. Radhey Shyman Chaurasia, History of Medieval India (2002), p. 15; Mehta, p. 107.

7. Slightly paraphrased from the translation in Kulke and Rothermund, p. 173.

8. Quoted in Agha Hussain Hamadani, The Frontier Policy of the Delhi Sultans (1986), p. 87; Tabakat-i-Nasiri, p. 679.

9. Tabakat-i-Nasiri, p. 685.

10. Shail Mayaram, Against History, against State (2003), pp. 80–82; Tabakat-i-Nasiri, p. 713.

11. Clifford E. Bosworth et al., eds., The Encyclopædia of Islam, vol. 6 (1986), p. 48.

12. Mehta, p. 116.

13. Ibid., p. 117; Chandra, pp. 53–54.

14. Mehta, pp. 119–120.

15. Chandra, pp. 55–56; Ziauddin Barani, Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi, in The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians, ed. H. M. Elliot and John Dowson, vol. 2 (1871), pp. 99–100.

Chapter Forty-Eight The Seventh Crusade

1. Joinville, p. 33.

2. Peter Jackson, The Seventh Crusade, 1244–1254(2007), pp. 18–19.

3. Ibid., p. 19.

4. Janet Martin, p. 39.

5. Stephen Runciman, A History of the Crusades, vol. 3 (1951), p. 225.

6. Abulafia, The New Cambridge Medieval History, p. 434; Joinville, p. 39.

7. Jervis, pp. 168–169.

8. Runciman, A History of the Crusades, vol. 3, pp. 259–261.

9. William of Tudela, p. 87.

10. Ibid., p. 99; Joinville, pp. 86–87.

11. Madden, pp. 174–175.

12. Ibid., p. 175; Joinville, p. 98.

13. Jervis, p. 169; Sherman A. Jackson, Islamic Law and the State (1996), pp. 42–43; Peter Jackson, The Seventh Crusade, p. 134.

14. Joinville, p. 121.

Chapter Forty-Nine The Splintering Khanate

1. Saunders, p. 93; Robert Marshall, Storm from the East (1993), pp. 140–141.

2. Marshall, p. 149; quoted in George Lane, Genghis Khan and Mongol Rule (2004), pp. 139–140.

3. Quoted in Sangkeun Kim, Strange Names of God (2004), p. 133.

4. “Guyuk Khan’s Letter to Pope Innocent IV (1246),” in Christopher Dawson, Mission to Asia (1980), pp. 85–86.

5. George Lane, p. 141; Marshall, p. 160.

6. Saunders, p. 99.

7. Ibid., p. 100.

8. Quoted in Thomas T. Allsen, Mongol Imperialism (1987), p. 47; George Lane, pp. 49–50.

9. Mote, pp. 452–453.

10. Kang, p. 132.

11. Stephen R. Turnbull, Genghis Khan and the Mongol Conquests (2003), p. 83; Nhung Tuyet Tran and Anthony Reid, Viet Nam (2006), p. 48.

12. Daftary, p. 175.

13. Saunders, pp. 113–114.

Chapter Fifty The Mamluks of Egypt

1. Nasser O. Rabbat, The Citadel of Cairo (1989), p. 90.

2. Sherman A. Jackson, p. 43.

3. Ibid., p. 45.

4. Ibid.; John Bagot Glubb, Soldiers of Fortune (1988), p. 50.

5. Rabbat, p. 95.

6. Peter M. Holt, Ann K. S. Lambton, and Bernard Lewis, eds., The Cambridge History of Islam, vol. 1A (1977), pp. 210–211.

7. Ibid., p. 212; Sherman A. Jackson, pp. 46–47.

8. Marshall, p. 192.

9. Ibid., pp. 192–193; Runciman, A History of the Crusades, vol. 3, pp. 312–313.

10. Marshall, pp. 193.

11. Runciman, A History of the Crusades, vol. 3, p. 314.

12. Holt et al., p. 213.

13. Petry, p. 278.

14. Bertold Spuler, A History of the Muslim World (1994), p. 23.

15. Quoted in Petry, pp. 242–243.

16. Holt et al., pp. 216–217; Sherman A. Jackson, p. 51.

17. Jervis, p. 172.

18. Gabrieli, pp. 311–312.

19. Quoted in Petry, p. 243.

Chapter Fifty-One Louis the Saint

1. Joinville and Villehardouin, p. 155.

2. Ibid., pp. 157–158; Jaroslav Folda, Crusader Art in the Holy Land (2005), p. 245.

3. Rodney Howard Hilton, Bond Men Made Free (1973), pp. 99–100; Mary Morton Wood, The Spirit of Protest in Old French Literature (1917), p. 20; Matthew Paris, Matthew Paris’s English History, trans. J. A. Giles, vol. 2 (1853), p. 451.

4. Le Roman de Renart, quoted in Norman R. C. Cohn, The Pursuit of the Millennium, rev. ed. (1970), p. 82; Paris, vol. 2, p. 453.

5. Norman R. C. Cohn, pp. 96–98; Paris, vol. 2, p. 455.

6. Joinville and Villehardouin, pp. 195–197; Jervis, p. 170.

7. Fawtier, pp. 32–33; Joinville and Villehardouin, pp. 221–223; Georges Duby, France in the Middle Ages, 987–1460, trans. Juliet Vale (1991), p. 251.

8. Joinville and Villehardouin, p. 216.

9. Mandell Creighton, A History of the Papacy during the Period of the Reformation (1882), vol. 1,
pp. 29–30; Brian Davies, ed., Thomas Aquinas (2002), pp. 325–326.

10. Joinville and Villehardouin, pp. 341–342.

11. Saint Thomas Aquinas, De Regimine Principum, in Main Currents of Western Thought, ed. Franklin Le Van Baumer (1978), pp. 76–77.

12. Joinville and Villehardouin, p. 358.

Chapter Fifty-Two The Lion’s Den

1. Innocent IV, Eger cui levia, in Bernard Guillemain, The Later Middle Ages, trans S. Taylor (1960), p. 38.

2. Vacandard, pp. 108–109.

3. David Carpenter, The Reign of Henry III (1996), p. 184.

4. Tout, The Empire and the Papacy, p. 480.

5. Paris, vol. 3, p. 102.

6. Tout, The Empire and the Papacy, p. 490.

7. R. F. Treharne, The Baronial Plan of Reform, 1258–63 (1971), pp. 30–32; Paris, vol. 3, p. 136, 151.

8. Treharne, pp. 66–67; Paris, vol. 3, p. 286.

9. J. R. M. Butler, A History of England (1928), pp. 99–100.

10. Paris, vol. 3, p. 291.

11. Ibid., p. 333; Treharne, pp. 252–253

12. J. R. M. Butler, pp. 109–110; Paris, vol. 3, p. 336; Carpenter, pp. 270–271.

13. Paris, vol. 3, p. 350.

14. Ibid., p. 352.

15. Jervis, p. 171; Stephen Runciman, The Sicilian Vespers (1960), p. 70.

16. Runciman, Sicilian Vespers, p. 85.

17. Dante Alighieri, The Divine Comedy of Dante Alighieri, trans. Henry F. Cary (1909), “Hell,” canto 28, p. 115.

18. Dante, “Purgatory,” canto 3, p. 156.

19. Tout, The Empire and the Papacy, pp. 486–487; Richard H. Lansing and Teodolinda Barolini, The Dante Encyclopedia (2000), p. 439; Ugo Balzani, The Popes and the Hohenstaufen (1889), p. 252.

20. Katherine L. Jansen et al., eds., Medieval Italy (2009), pp. 136–137.

21. James Sime and Edward A. Freeman, History of Germany (1874), p. 99.

Chapter Fifty-Three The Recapture of Constantinople

1. Robert Lee Wolff and Harry W. Hazard, eds., A History of the Crusades, 2nd ed., vol. 2 (1969),
p. 218.

2. Edwin Pears, The Destruction of the Greek Empire (1903), p. 12.

3. Akropolites, p. 270.

4. Ibid., p. 336.

5. Ibid., p. 343.

6. Ibid., p. 367.

7. Janet Shirley, trans., Crusader Syria in the Thirteenth Century (1999), p. 117.

8. Ibid., p. 141.

9. Nicol, The Last Centuries of Byzantium, p. 34; Abulafia, The New Cambridge Medieval History,
p. 435.

10. Norwich, Byzantium, pp. 210–211.

11. Akropolites, p. 380.

12. Ibid., p. 386; George Ostrogorsky, History of the Byzantine State (1968), p. 581.

Chapter Fifty-Four The Last Crusades

1. Abun-Nasr, A History of the Maghrib in the Islamic Period, p. 121; Peter M. Holt, Ann K. S. Lambton, and Bernard Lewis, eds., The Cambridge History of Islam, vol. 2A (1977), pp. 230–231.

2. Norman Housley, Contesting the Crusades (2006), p. 73.

3. Joinville, pp. 221, 223.

4. Ibid., p. 223; Villani, p. 238.

5. Gabrieli, p. 310; George Hill, A History of Cyprus, vol. 2 (1948), p. 170.

6. Villani, pp. 251–252.

7. Michael Prestwich, Edward I (1988), p. 78.

8. Joseph F. Kelly, p. 96; Milman, pp. 406–407.

9. Jonathan Harris, Byzantium and the Crusades (2006), p. 180.

10. Milman, vol. 6, pp. 408–409.

11. Villani, pp. 295–296.

Chapter Fifty-Five Kublai Khan

1. Richard L. Davis, Wind against the Mountain (1996), p. 29.

2. Lorge, pp. 84–85; Michael E. Haskew et al., Fighting Techniques of the Oriental World, ad 1200–1860 (2008), pp. 188–189.

3. Richard L. Davis, p. 30.

4. Mote, p. 457; Thomas De Quincey, Confessions of an English Opium-Eater and Related Writings, ed. Joel Faflak (2009), pp. 287–288.

5. Marco Polo, The Travels of Marco Polo the Venetian, trans. W. Marsden, rev. T. Wright and Peter Harrison (2008), pp. 123–124.

6. Ibid., p. 103.

7. De Bary, p. 280.

8. Sansom, p. 442.

9. Mote, p. 464.

10. Richard L. Davis, p. 2; Mote, p. 465.

11. Kozo Yamamura, ed., The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 3 (1990), pp. 145–146.

12. Ebrey, Walthall, and Palais, pp. 192–193; de Bary, p. 281; Yamamura, p. 147; Sansom, pp. 149–150.

13. Junjirō Takakusu, Wing-tsit Chan, and Charles A. Moore, The Essentials of Buddhist Philosophy (1973), p. 191; Masaharu Anesaki, Nichiren, the Buddhist Prophet (1966), p. 127.

14. Sailendra N. Sen, Ancient Indian History and Civilization (1988), p. 531; Coedès, The Making of South East Asia, pp. 127–128.

15. Chapuis, pp. 83–84.

16. Polo, pp. 110–114.

Chapter Fifty-Six The Sicilian Vespers

1. Robert H. Vickers, History of Bohemia (1894), pp. 262–263.

2. Sime and Freeman, pp. 96–97; Elizabeth Peake, History of the German Emperors and Their Contemporaries (1874), pp. 131–133.

3. Dante, “Purgatory,” canto 24, p. 242.

4. Harris, p. 181.

5. Villani, pp. 267–268.

6. Jervis, p. 176.

7. Milman, p. 448.

Chapter Fifty-Seven The Wars of Edward I

1. Prestwich, Plantagenet England, pp. 146–147.

2. John Edward Lloyd, A History of Wales (1911), pp. 268–269.

3. Prestwich, Edward I, p. 188.

4. Ibid., p. 182.

5. Ibid., p. 194.

6. The Chronicle of Lanercost, 1272–1346, trans. Herbert Maxwell (1913), p. 35.

7. Ibid., pp. 40–41.

8. William Ferguson, Scotland’s Relations with England (1977), p. 23.

9. Prestwich, Edward I, p. 371.

10. The Chronicle of Lanercost, p. 86.

11. Ibid., p. 115; Magnus Magnusson, Scotland (2000), p. 119.

12. John of Fordun, John of Fordun’s Chronicle of the Scottish Nation, trans. Felix J. H. Skene (1872), p. 318.

13. Magnusson, pp. 132–133; Henry the Minstrel and William Hamilton, The History of the Life and Adventures and Heroic Actions of the Renowned Sir William Wallace (1812), p. 63.

14. Magnusson, pp. 134–135; Henry and Hamilton, pp. 83–84.

15. John of Fordun, p. 321.

16. J. M. I. Weatherford, The History of Money (1997), p. 68.

Chapter Fifty-Eight The Second Sultanate of Delhi

1. Barani, pp. 125–126.

2. Ibid., pp. 132–133.

3. Ibid., pp. 146–147.

4. Ibid., p. 140; Chaurasia, p. 30.

5. Barani, p. 161.

6. Wolpert, p. 112; Ahmed, p. 60.

7. Spuler, p. 35.

8. Agha Hussain Hamadani, The Frontier Policy of the Delhi Sultans (1986), p. 120.

9. Barani, p. 162.

10. Ibid., p. 163.

11. Mehta, p. 161.

12. Barani, p. 166.

13. Ibid., pp. 168–169.

14. Kumar, p. 283; Chaurasia, p. 41.

Chapter Fifty-Nine The End of the Papal Monarchy

1. Morris, p. 185; Chew and Latham, p. 187; William Francis Thomas Butler, The Lombard Communes (1906), p. 341; Lansing and Barolini, p. 439.

2. Jean-Charles-Léonard Sismondi, Italian Republics (1841), pp. 85–87; Villani, p. 332; Dante, “Purgatory,” canto 20, lines 71ff., p. 225.

3. Tierney, pp. 186–188; Charles William Previte-Orton, The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History (1952), p. 55.

4. Jean Brissaud, A History of French Public Law, trans. James W. Garner (1915), pp. 367–368; Justo L. Gonzalez, The Story of Christianity, vol. 1 (1984), p. 331.

5. J. F. Verbruggen, The Battle of the Golden Spurs (2002), pp. 243–244.

6. Jean Edme Auguste Gosselin, The Power of the Pope during the Middle Ages, trans. Matthew Kelly, vol. 2 (1853), pp. 233–234.

7. Jervis, p. 185; David Jayne Hill, A History of Diplomacy in the International Development of Europe, vol. 1 (1967), pp. 401–402.

8. Creighton, vol. 1, pp. 27–29.

9. Jervis, p. 186; Creighton, vol. 1, pp. 31–32.

10. Malcolm Barber and A. K. Bate, trans. and eds., The Templars (2002), pp. 246–247.

11. Weatherford, p. 69; Barber and Bate, p. 254

12. Weatherford, pp. 70–71; Barber and Bate, p. 309.

13. Villani, p. 403.

14. Sismondi, pp. 115–116.

15. Skinner, p. 6.

16. Creighton, vol. 1, p. 33.

17. Sophia Menache, Clement V (1998), pp. 33–34.

18. Jervis, pp. 190–191.

Chapter Sixty The Appearance of the Ottomans

1. H. A. Gibbons, The Foundation of the Ottoman Empire (1916), p. 24.

2. J. R. Tanner et al., eds., The Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 4 (1923), p. 655.

3. Ibid., p. 657.

4. Ramon Muntaner, Chronicle, trans. Lady Goodenough (2000), pp. 427–428.

5. Ibid., p. 460.

6. Nicol, The Last Centuries of Byzantium, p. 153; Norwich, Byzantium, p. 276.

7. Nicol, The Last Centuries of Byzantium, pp. 160–161.

8. J. L. Tanner et al., p. 662.

9. Norwich, Byzantium, p. 292.

10. Ibid., pp. 342–343.

11. Fine, p. 275.

12. Vasiliev, p. 617.

Chapter Sixty-One The Fall of the Khilji

1. Eva Ulian, Rajput (2010), pp. 19–20; Mehta, pp. 148–149.

2. Ronald S. McGregor, ed., A History of Indian Literature (1984), pp. 69–70; Amir Khusru, Tarikh’i Alai, in The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians, ed. H. M. Elliot and John Dowson, vol. 3 (1871), pp. 76–77.

3. Khusru, p. 80.

4. Stewart Gordon, When Asia Was the World (2008), pp. 13–14; P. N. Chopra, T. K. Ravindran, and N. Subrahmanian, History of South India (1979), p. 89; Stanley Lane-Poole, Medieval India under Mohammedan Rule, 712–1764 (1903), pp. 113–114; Wolpert, p. 115; Khusru, p. 81.

5. Khusru, pp. 84–85.

6. Barani, pp. 204–205.

7. Ibid., p. 213; Wolpert, p. 115.

8. Barani, pp. 222–223.

9. Ibid., p. 223.

10. Ibid., p. 224.

11. Ibid., pp. 228–229; Kumar, p. 285.

Chapter Sixty-Two The Triumph of the Bruce

1. Prestwich, Edward I, pp. 501–502; Ralph Payne-Gallway, The Book of the Crossbow (1995),
p. 261.

2. John of Fordun, p. 329.

3. Peter Langtoft, Peter of Langtoft’s Chronicle, vol. 2, in The Works of Thomas Hearne, vol. 4 (1810), pp. 329–330.

4. Felix J. H. Skene, ed., The Historians of Scotland, vol. 10 (1880), p. 172; Prestwich, Edward I, pp. 505–507.

5. Skene, pp. 178–179.

6. Preswitch, Edward I, pp. 556–557.

7. Wendy R. Childs, ed. and trans., Vita Edwardi Secundi (2005), p. 7.

8. Nigel Saul, ed., Fourteenth Century England, vol. 5 (2008), p. 40; Walter Phelps Dodge, Piers Gaveston (1971), pp. 38–40.

9. W. M. Ormrod, ed., Fourteenth Century England, vol. 3 (2004), p. 31.

10. Childs, pp. 5–7.

11. Ormrod, p. 32; Childs, p. 15.

12. Childs, pp. 23–25; Andy King and Michael A. Penman, England and Scotland in the Fourteenth Century (2007), p. 25.

13. Childs, pp. 44–49.

14. John of Fordun, p. 340; The Chronicle of Lanercost, pp. 212–213.

Chapter Sixty-Three The Great Famine

1. Brian Fagan, The Little Ice Age (2000), pp. 16–17; Bauer, The History of the Medieval World,
pp. 431, 575; William Chester Jordan, The Great Famine (1996), p. 12.

2. Skene, p. 182; Thomas Wright, ed., The Political Songs of England, from the Reign of John to That of Edward II (1839), pp. 323, 342, translation from Middle English mine; Neville Brown, History and Climate Change (2001), p. 252.

3. John Aberth, From the Brink of the Apocalypse (2001), p. 34; John Kelly, The Great Mortality (2006), p. 58.

4. Lynn Thorndike, A History of Magic and Experimental Science (1934), pp. 285–286; Neville Brown, p. 253; Jordan, p. 18; Fagan, The Little Ice Age, pp. 39–40; F. Donald Logan, A History of the Church in the Middle Ages (2002), p. 276.

5. Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, Hansel and Gretel, trans. Monique Felix (2001), n.p.

6. Wolfgang Behringer, A Cultural History of Climate, trans. Patrick Camiller (2010), p. 105.

7. Ordericus Vitalis, The Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy, trans. Thomas Forester, vol. 4 (1856), pp. 264–265; John of Fordun, p. 341; Jordan, p. 19.

Chapter Sixty-Four The Sultan and the Khan

1. Petry, p. 252; Glubb, p. 154.

2. Glubb, pp. 203–204.

3. Tsugitaka Sato, State and Rural Society in Medieval Islam (1997), pp. 140ff.

4. Meri, vol. 2, p. 573

5. D. M. Lang, “Georgia in the Reign of Giorgi the Brilliant (1314–1346),” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 17, no. 1 (1955): 75–76; Shai Har-El, Struggle for Domination in the Middle East (1995), pp. 33–34.

6. Petry, p. 277.

7. Ross E. Dunn, The Adventures of Ibn Battuta, a Muslim Traveler of the Fourteenth Century (2005), pp. 44–45; André Raymond, Cairo, trans. Willard Wood (2000) p. 120.

8. Arthur John Arberry, Classical Persian Literature (1958), p. 372.

9. Ibid.

10. Dunn, p. 98.

11. Boyle, p. 411

12. Ibid., p. 412; D. O. Morgan “Ibn Battuta and the Mongols,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 3rd ser., vol. 11, no. 1 (April 2001): 9–10.

13. Ibn Battuta, The Travels of Ibn Battuta in the Near East, Asia & Africa1325–1354, trans. Samuel Lee (2004), p. 40.

Chapter Sixty-Five Mansa Musa of Mali

1. Levtzion and Hopkins, pp. 268–269; Ivan Van Sertima, ed., African Presence in Early America (1992), p. 171.

2. Levtzion and Hopkins, p. 211.

3. Ibid., p. 267.

4. Ibid., pp. 270, 335; Ghadah Hijjawi Qaddumi, Book of Gifts and Rarities (1996), pp. 197–198.

5. Levtzion and Hopkins, pp. 212–213.

6. Niane and Ki-Zerbo, pp. 147–148; Ibn Battuta, p. 239.

7. Levtzion and Hopkins, p. 271.

8. Ibid., p. 261.

9. Battuta, p. 240; Levtzion and Hopkins, pp. 265–266.

10. Niane and Ki-Zerbo, pp. 147–148; Levtzion and Hopkins, p. 335.

Chapter Sixty-Six After the Famine

1. Madden, The New Concise History, p. 192

2. Quoted in John E. Weakland, “Pastorelli, Pope, and Persecution,” Jewish Social Studies 38, no. 1 (Winter 1976): 73, translation mine.

3. Gary Dixon, “Encounters in Medieval Revivalism,” Church History 68, no. 2 (June 1999): 273.

4. Michael Goodich, ed., Other Middle Ages (1998), pp. 40, 47; Norman R. C. Cohn, p. 103.

5. Weakland, p. 75; Jervis, pp. 191–192.

6. Michael R. McVaugh, Medicine before the Plague (2002), p. 220; Elizabeth A. R. Brown, “Philip V, Charles IV, and the Jews of France,” Speculum 66, no. 2 (April 1991): 301–302.

7. Jim Bradbury, The Capetians (2007), p. 283.

8. “The Simonie,” lines 59, 73–74, in Medieval English Political Writings, ed. James M. Dean (1996), pp. 205–206, 211.

9. The Chronicle of Lanercost, p. 240; Jean Froissart, Chronicles (1978), p. 39.

10. T. F. Tout, Chapters in the Administrative History of Mediaeval England, vol. 2 (1928), p. 358; Childs, p. 108.

11. The Chronicle of Lanercost, p. 249; Froissart (1978), p. 40.

12. Alison Weir, Queen Isabella (2005), pp. 204ff.

13. Ibid., p. 211.

14. Sir Thomas Gray, Scalacronica, trans. Herbert Maxwell (1907), pp. 93, 96.

15. Froissart (1978), p. 44.

16. Weir, pp. 320–321.

17. Gray, p. 74

18. Ibid., p. 108; Oliver J. Thatcher and Edgar H. McNeal, A Source Book for Mediæval History (1905), p. 366.

19. Gray, p. 110; The Chronicle of Lanercost, p. 267; Weir, pp. 383–384.

Chapter Sixty-Seven The Southern and Northern Courts

1. Marius B. Jansen, p. 83.

2. Ebrey, Walthall, and Palais, p. 193; Marius B. Jansen, p. 74.

3. Marius B. Jansen, p. 75.

4. Morten Oxenboell, “Images of ‘Akuto,’” Monumenta Nipponica 60, no. 2 (Summer 2005): 235, 247–248; Marius B. Jansen, p. xiii.

5. Marius B. Jansen, p. 85.

6. Perkins, p. 162; Andrew Edmund Goble, Kenmu (1996), p. 33.

7. Ebrey, Walthall, and Palais, p. 206; Marius B. Jansen, p. 85; Peter Martin, p. 87.

8. Frank Brinkley and Dairoku Kikuchi, A History of the Japanese People from the Earliest Times to the End of the Meiji Era (1915), p. 377.

9. Ibid., p. 379; Helen Craig McCullough, trans. and ed., The Taiheiki (1959), p. 42.

10. Perkins, pp. 194–195; Friday, p. 54.

11. Pierre François Souyri, The World Turned Upside Down, trans. Kathe Roth (2001), p. 111.

12. Friday, p. 13; Marius B. Jansen, pp. 99–100.

13. Souyri, p. 111; Helen Craig McCullough, ed., Classical Japanese Prose (1990), p. 491.

14. Yamamura, p. 186.

15. Sansom, p. 52.

16. Milton W. Meyer, Japan, 3rd ed. (1993), p. 81.

17. Friday, p. 14.

18. Meyer, p. 81; Brownlee, p. 105.

19. Kitabatake Chikafusa, “Jinno Shotoki,” in Traditional Japanese Literature, ed. Haruo Shirane (2007), p. 855.

Chapter Sixty-Eight Rebellions

1. Richard Maxwell Eaton, A Social History of the Deccan1300–1761 (2005), p. 18; Marika Sardar, “Golconda through Time” (Ph.D. diss., New York University, 2007), p. 26.

2. Barani, pp. 223–233.

3. Eaton, A Social History, pp. 20–21.

4. Kumar, pp. 285–286.

5. Henry Miers Elliot, The History of India, vol. 5 (1907), pp. 154–155.

6. Kumar, p. 286.

7. Elliot, p. 158.

8. Wolpert, p. 116; Ibn Battuta, p. 145.

9. Wolpert, p. 117; Elliot, p. 155.

10. Robert Sewell, Ferñao Nunes, and Domingos Paes, A Forgotten Empire (Vijayanagar) (1972), p. 23.

11. Ahmed, p. 61.

12. Barani, p. 263.

13. Ibid., pp. 266–267.

14. Shams-i Siraj, Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi, in The History of India As Told by Its Own Historians, ed. H. M. Elliot and John Dowson, vol. 3 (1871), pp. 277–278.

15. Elliot, pp. 164ff.

Chapter Sixty-Nine Naming the Renaissance

1. N. Robinson, ed., A History of the World with All Its Great Sensations (1887), p. 166; Michael Jones, ed., The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 6 (2000), pp. 537–538.

2. Michael Jones, pp. 539–540; Philippe Levillain, ed., The Papacy (2002), p. 850.

3. Henry Hart Milman, History of Latin Christianity, vol. 7 (1880), p. 86.

4. Michael Jones, p. 540; Milman, vol. 7, p. 87.

5. Marsilius of Padua, Defensor Pacis, trans. and ed. Alan Gewirth (2001), p. 354; Dante Alighieri, De Monarchia, trans. and ed. Aurelia Henry (1904), pp. 194–195.

6. Marsilius of Padua, pp. 135, 161, 502.

7. Irena Dorota Backus, Historical Method and Confessional Identity in the Era of the Reformation (1378–1615) (2003), pp. 26–27, 35.

8. Michael Jones, p. 541.

9. Milman, vol. 7, pp. 103–107.

10. Levillain, p. 850.

11. Michael Jones, p. 544.

12. Douglas Biow, Doctors, Ambassadors, Secretaries (2002), pp. 29–30; Victoria Kirkham and Armando Maggi, eds., Petrarch (2009), pp. 137–138.

13. Theodor E. Mommsen, “Petrarch’s Conception of the ‘Dark Ages,’” Speculum 17, no. 2 (April 1942): 234, 240–241.

Chapter Seventy The Cities in the Lake

1. Prem, p. 28.

2. Ibid., p. 32; Donald E. Chipman, Moctezuma’s Children (2005), p. 9; Adams, p. 82.

3. Miguel León Portilla and Earl Shorris, eds., In the Language of Kings (2001), pp. 201–202.

4. Ibid., p. 202; Chipman, p. 10.

5. Exequiel Ezcurra, The Basin of Mexico (1999), pp. 10–12.

6. Prem, p. 32; Jacques Soustelle, Daily Life of the Aztecs on the Eve of the Spanish Conquest (1970), pp. 2–3.

7. Soustelle, p. 4.

8. Diego Durán, The History of the Indies of New Spain, trans. and ed. Doris Heyden (1994),
pp. 46–47.

9. Ibid., p. 48.

10. Ibid., pp. 56–58.

11. Ibid., p. 50.

Chapter Seventy-One A Hundred Years of War

1. Froissart (1978), p. 46; Jean Froissart, Chronicles of England, France, Spain and the Adjoining Countries, trans. Thomas Johnes, rev. ed., vol. 1 (1901), p. 8.

2. The Chronicle of Lanercost, p. 268.

3. Ibid., pp. 269–270.

4. Gray, p. 121.

5. The Chronicle of Lanercost, pp. 286–287.

6. Froissart (1978), p. 60.

7. L. J. Andrew Villalon and Donald J. Kagay, eds., The Hundred Years War (Part II) (2008), pp. 4–5.

8. Michael Jones, p. 544; Gray, p. 133.

9. Sime and Freeman, p. 101; Michael Jones, p. 545; Ernst Cassirer, “Some Remarks on the Question of the Originality of the Renaissance,” Journal of the History of Ideas 4, no. 1 (Jan. 1943): 52.

10. Froissart (1978), p. 68.

11. Nicholas Hooper and Matthew Bennet, The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare (1996),
pp. 117–118

12. Richard Barber, The Life and Campaigns of the Black Prince (1997), pp. 28–29; Froissart (1978), pp. 76–77.

13. Froissart (1901), vol. 1, p. 39; Froissart (1978), pp. 90–91.

14. Froissart (1978), pp. 94–95.

15. The Chronicle of Lanercost, p. 342.

16. Michael Jones, pp. 548, 551–552.

17. Froissart (1978), p. 111.

Chapter Seventy-Two The End of the World

1. Franke and Twitchett, pp. 561; Lorge, p. 94.

2. Susan Scott and Christopher Duncan, Biology of Plagues (2001), p. 82; Kelly, p. 8.

3. Kelly, pp. 4–5; Philip Ziegler, The Black Death (1997), pp. 3–4; H. A. R. Gibb, trans. and ed., The Travels of Ibn Battuta, A.D. 1325–1354, vol. 3 (1971), p. 717; Dunn, p. 245.

4. John Aberth, The Black Death (2005), pp. 17–18.

5. Ole Jorgen Benedictow, The Black Death, 1346–1353 (2004), p. 60; Rosemary Horrox, trans. and ed., The Black Death (1994), p. 17.

6. Scott and Duncan, pp. 62–63; Aberth, The Black Death, p. 30.

7. Aberth, The Black Death, p. 29.

8. Horrox, pp. 24–25; Aberth, The Black Death, p. 33.

9. Quoted in Merry E. Wiesner et al., Discovering the Global Past, vol. 1 (2012), p. 389.

10. Ziegler, p. 46; Horrox, pp. 33, 43.

11. Kelly, p. 186; Horrox, pp. 80, 82–84.

12. Raymond, pp. 139–140.

13. Aberth, The Black Death, p. 81.

14. Benedictow, p. 214

15. Horrox, p. 80.

16. Quoted in David Herlihy, The Black Death and the Transformation of the West (1997), p. 41.

17. Horrox, pp. 118, 122, 159; Herlihy, p. 65.

18. Horrox, pp. 248–249.

Chapter Seventy-Three The Will to War

1. Froissart (1901), vol. 1, pp. 50–51.

2. Lawrence Earp, Guillaume de Machaut (1995), pp. 34–35; Jonathan Sumption, The Hundred Years War, vol. 2 (1999), p. 107.

3. Sumption, vol. 2, p. 133.

4. Ibid., p. 198.

5. Ibid., pp. 205–206.

6. Ibid., pp. 208–209.

7. Herbert James Hewitt, The Black Prince’s Expedition of 1355–1357 (1958), pp. 3–4, 64ff.

8. Jervis, pp. 210–211; Gray, pp. 121–124; Hewitt, pp. 101, 126ff.

9. Gray, p. 125.

10. Froissart (1901), vol. 1, pp. 231–323.

11. Nicholas Wright, Knights and Peasants (1998), p. 56.

12. Froissart (1839), p. 240; de Vericour, “The Jacquerie,” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 1 (1872): 187–290, 304; Wright, p. 13.

13. Jervis, pp. 214–215.

14. Ibid.

15. Chronicon Anonymi Cantuariensis, ed. and trans. Charity Scott-Stokes and Chris Given-Wilson (2008), p. 133.

16. Froissart (1901), vol. 1, pp. 79, 83; Christine de Pisan, Fais et Bonnes Meurs du Sage Roy Charles (1819), pt. 2, chap. 4.

17. Jean Froissart, Chronicles of England, France, Spain, and the Adjoining Countries, trans. Thomas Johnes, vol. 1 (1839), p. 314.

18. Froissart (1901), vol. 1, p. 91.

19. Chronicon Anonymi Cantuariensis, p. 149; Froissart (1901), vol. 1, p. 93.

20. Froissart (1901), vol. 1, p. 113.

21. David Nicolle, The Great Chevauchée (2001), pp. 10–11; Froissart (1901), vol. 1, p. 123.

Chapter Seventy-Four White Lotus, Red Turban

1. Hubert Seiwert, Popular Religious Movements and Heterodox Sects in Chinese History (2003), pp. 179–180; B. J. Ter Haar, The White Lotus Teachings in Chinese Religious History (1999),
pp. 115–116.

2. Harold Miles Tanner, p. 272.

3. Ibid., p. 273.

4. Frederick W. Mote and Denis Twitchett, eds., The Cambridge History of China, vol. 7, pt. 1 (1988), pp. 37–38; Haar, pp. 115–116.

5. Mote and Twichett, pp. 19–20.

6. Franke and Twitchett, p. 580; Edward L. Dreyer, Early Ming China (1982), pp. 24–25.

7. Mote and Twitchett, pp. 37–38.

8. Stephen Turnbull, Fighting Ships of the Far East, vol. 1 (2002), pp. 37–38.

9. Mote and Twitchett, pp. 96–98.

10. Henry Miles Tanner, pp. 287–288.

11. Mote, pp. 570–572.

12. Edward Luttwak, The Grand Strategy of the Byzantine Empire (2009), pp. 169–170.

13. Henry Miles Tanner, p. 286; Gernet, pp. 397–398; Kangying Li, The Ming Maritime Trade Policy in Transition, 1368–1567 (2010), pp. 29–30.

14. Li, p. 40.

Chapter Seventy-Five After the Mongols

1. Higham, p. 139.

2. David K. Wyatt, Thailand, 2nd ed. (2003), p. 54.

3. Ooi, p. 192; Wyatt, p. 54.

4. Timothy D. Hoare, Thailand (2004), pp. 31–32.

5. Tarling, p. 163; Wyatt, pp. 56–57.

6. Hoare, p. 33.

7. Charles F. Keyes, The Golden Peninsula (1995), pp. 75–76.

8. Coedès, The Making of South East Asia, p. 205.

9. Chapuis, p. 91.

10. Sun Laichen, “Chinese Military Technology and Dai Viet,” ARI Working Paper, no. 11 (2003), p. 4, available at http://www.ari.nus.edu.sg/docs/wps/wps03_011.pdf.

11. Ibid., pp. 5–6.

12. Andrew Hardy et al., eds., Champa and the Archaeology of My Son (2009), p. 67

13. Coedès, The Making of South East Asia, p. 206.

Chapter Seventy-Six The Turks and the Desperate Emperor

1. Norwich, Byzantium, p. 309.

2. Ibid., p. 318; Nicol, The Last Centuries of Byzantium, p. 238.

3. Caroline Finkel, Osman’s Dream (2005), p. 16; Nicol, The Last Centuries of Byzantium, p. 241; George Finlay, History of the Byzantine and Greek Empires, vol. 2 (1854), p. 562.

4. Nicol, The Last Centuries of Byzantium, pp. 241–242.

5. Norwich, Byzantium, pp. 320–321.

6. Donald M. Nicol, The Reluctant Emperor (1996), p. 130.

7. Nicol, The Last Centuries of Byzantium, pp. 245–246; Norwich, Byzantium, pp. 322–323.

8. Fine, pp. 334–335.

9. Diana Wood, Clement VI (1989), p. 120; Norwich, Byzantium, pp. 326–327; Nicol, The Last Days of Byzantium, pp. 260–261.

10. Theodore Spandounes, On the Origin of the Ottoman Emperors, trans. and ed. Donald M. Nicol (1997), p. 21.

11. Finkel, pp. 17–18; Michael Jones, pp. 849–850.

12. Milman, vol. 7, p. 209.

13. Ibid., p. 215.

14. Nicol, The Last Centuries of Byzantium, pp. 272–273.

15. Norwich, Byzantium, pp. 334–335; Nicol, The Last Centuries of Byzantium; Michael Jones, p. 823; Finlay, p. 579.

16. Finkel, p. 18.

Chapter Seventy-Seven The Disintegration of Delhi

1. Shams-i Siraj, p. 287.

2. Ibid., pp. 289–290.

3. Jamil M. Abun-Nasr, Muslim Communities of Grace (2007), pp. 48–51.

4. Quoted in Gustave E. von Grunebaum, Medieval Islam, 2nd ed. (1953), pp. 138–139.

5. Eaton, The Rise of Islam, pp. 85–86.

6. Kumar, p. 288.

7. Wolpert, p. 117.

8. Brenda J. Buchanan, ed., Gunpowder, Explosives and the State (2006), pp. 54–55.

9. George Michell and Mark Zebrowski, eds., The New Cambridge History of India: I.7 (2008), p. 7; Kulke and Rothermund, p. 170.

10. Chelvadurai Manogaran, Ethnic Conflict and Reconciliation in Sri Lanka (1987), pp. 26–27; Ibn Battuta, pp. 185–188; Codrington, pp. 83–84.

11. Firoz Shah, “Futuhat-i Firoz Shahi,” in The History of India As Told by Its Own Historians, ed. H. M. Elliot and John Dowson, vol. 3 (1871), pp. 375–376.

12. Shams-i Siraj, pp. 344ff.

13. Ibid., p. 317; Wolpert, p. 119; Kumar, p. 7.

Chapter Seventy-Eight The Union of Krewo

1. Norman Davies, God’s Playground, rev. ed., vol. 1 (2005), p. 82.

2. Ibid., pp. 77–78; F. W. Carter, Trade and Urban Development in Poland (1994), p. 154.

3. Frank N. Magill, Great Lives from History: Ancient and Medieval Series, vol. 1 (1988), p. 410.

4. Norman Davies, p. 84.

5. Natalia Nowakowska, Church, State and Dynasty in Renaissance Poland (2007), pp. 14–15; Norman Davies, pp. 89–90.

6. Sugar, p. 54.

7. Molnár, pp. 54–55.

8. Giedrė Mickünaitė, Making a Great Ruler (2006), pp. 125–126; Daniel Stone, The Polish-Lithuanian State, 1386–1795, vol. 4 (2001), p. 8; Andrzej Piotrowski, Architecture of Thought (2011), p. 288.

9. Stone, p. 8.

Chapter Seventy-Nine The Rebirth of the Mongol Horde

1. Clifford E. Bosworth and Muhamed S. Asimov, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, vol. 4, pt. 2 (2000), p. 321

2. Peter Jackson, The Mongols and the West, p. 235; Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat, The Tarikh-i-Rashidi (1895), pp. 30–31.

3. Abu Talib Hussyny, The Mulfuzat Timury, trans. Charles Stewart (1830), p. 36. Although the biography is written in the style of an autobiography, it dates from after Timur’s death.

4. Haidar, p. 34.

5. Justin Marozzi, Tamerlane (2006), p. 98.

6. Haidar, p. 34.

7. Bosworth and Asimov, p. 327.

8. Zafar Nama, quoted in Haidar, p. 39; Peter Jackson and Laurence Lockhart, eds., The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 6 (1986), pp. 50–51; Marozzi, pp. 96–97.

9. Janet Martin, p. 202.

10. Saunders, pp. 166–167.

11. Beiträge zur “7. Internationalen Konferenz zur Geschichte des Kiever und des Moskauer Reiches” (1995), pp. 268–269.

12. Levi and Sela, p. 171.

13. Sunil K. Saxena, History of Medieval India (2001), n.p.

14. Ibid.

15. N. Jayapalan, History of India (2001), pp. 50–51.

Chapter Eighty Compromises and Settlements

1. Nahm, p. 92.

2. David M. Robinson, Empire’s Twilight (2009), pp. 107–108.

3. Kang, p. 167.

4. Ibid., pp. 167–168.

5. Ibid., p. 169.

6. Ibid., pp. 168–169.

7. Ki-baik Lee, pp. 163–164.

8. Kang, pp. 178–180.

9. Kim Dae-haeng, Classical Poetic Songs of Korea (2009), pp. 68–69; Changbom Park, Astronomy, trans. Yoon-jung Cho and Hyun-ju Park (2008), pp. 116–118.

10. Thomas Donald Conlan, From Sovereign to Symbol (2011), pp. 173–174.

11. Ebrey, Walthall, and Palais, p. 207.

12. Conlan, pp. 170–171.

Chapter Eighty-One The House of Visconti and the Papal States

1. Michael Jones, p. 553; Richard Lodge, The Close of the Middle Ages, 1272–1494 (1906),
pp. 185–186.

2. D. M. Bueno de Mesquita, Giangaleazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan (1351–1402) (1941), pp. 1–2.

3. Sismondi, pp. 156–159; The History of St. Catherine of Siena and Her Companions, 3rd ed., vol. 1(1899), pp. 279–280.

4. George L. Williams, Papal Genealogy (1998), p. 34; Oscar Browning, Guelphs & Ghibellines (1893), pp. 149–150.

5. Denis Michael Searby, trans., The Revelations of St. Birgitta of Sweden, vol. 2 (2008), p. 249.

6. Sismondi, pp. 159–160.

7. William Caferro, John Hawkwood (2006), n.p.; Sismondi, pp. 160–161.

8. Creighton, vol. 1, p. 67.

9. Froissart (1901), vol. 1, pp. 165–166.

10. Sismondi, pp. 162–163; Froissart (1901), vol. 1, p. 165.

11. Sismondi, p. 177.

12. Ibid., pp. 188–193.

Chapter Eighty-Two Bad Beginnings

1. Froissart (1901), vol. 1, pp. 134–135.

2. Ibid., p. 135; Alan R. Rushton, Royal Maladies (2008), pp. 188–189.

3. Hooper and Bennett, p. 122.

4. Rushton, p. 87; Froissart (1901), vol. 1, pp. 148–149; Thomas Walsingham, The Chronica Maiora of Thomas Walsingham, 1376–1422, trans. David Preest(2005), pp. 32–33.

5. Walsingham, p. 39.

6. Creighton, vol. 1, pp. 85–89.

7. Duby, p. 286; Froissart (1901), vol. 1, pp. 232–233.

8. George M. Bussey, Thomas Gaspey, and Théodose Burette, A History of France and of the French People (1850), pp. 564–565; Froissart (1901), vol. 1, pp. 258–261.

9. Jervis, p. 226; Froissart (1901), vol. 1, pp. 264–266.

10. J. S. Hamilton, The Plantagenets (2010), p. 184; Walsingham, p. 44.

11. Hamilton, pp. 185–186; Mark O’Brien, When Adam Delved and Eve Span (2004), pp. 30–31.

12. O’Brien, p. 30.

13. Walsingham, p. 29; Ian Christopher Levy, ed., A Companion to John Wyclif, Late Medieval Theologian (2006), pp. 330ff.

14. Leonard W. Cowie, The Black Death and Peasants’ Revolt (1972), pp. 79–80.

15. O’Brien, pp. 36–37; Anthony Goodman, A History of England from Edward II to James I (1977); Charles Oman, The Great Revolt of 1381 (1906), pp. 180–181.

16. Walsingham, p. 124; O’Brien, pp. 36–37.

17. Walsingham, pp. 126–127.

18. O’Brien, pp. 60–61; Goodman, pp. 181–182; Hamilton, p. 189.

19. Adam Usk, The Chronicle of Adam Usk, trans. C. Given-Wilson (1997), p. 5.

20. Walsingham, p. 153.

Chapter Eighty-Three Dislocation

1. Niane and Ki-Zerbo, p. 100.

2. Ibid., pp. 99–100.

3. Mark R. Lipschutz and R. Kent Rasmussen, Dictionary of African Historical Biography, 2nd ed. (1989), p. 240; Roland A. Oliver, ed., The Cambridge History of Africa, vol. 3 (1975), p. 312.

4. Lewis H. Gann and Peter Duignan, African and the World (2000), pp. 216–217.

5. Toyin Falola and Adebayo Oyebade, The Foundations of Nigeria (2003), p. 594.

6. Dierk Lange, Ancient Kingdoms of West Africa (2004), pp. 157–158.

7. Bovill and Hallett (1995), pp. 225–226.

Chapter Eighty-Four Madness and Usurpation

1. Walsingham, p. 63.

2. Froissart (1901), vol. 1, p. 353.

3. Ibid., pp. 364–365; Livermore, pp. 102–103.

4. Froissart (1901), vol. 1, pp. 374–375; Walsingham, pp. 242–244.

5. Walsingham, pp. 278–279.

6. Froissart (1901), vol. 1, pp. 534–535.

7. John Ronald Moreton-Macdonald, A History of France, vol. 1 (1915), p. 268.

8. Walsingham, pp. 298–299.

9. Ibid., pp. 301, 306; John Julius Norwich, Shakespeare’s Kings (1999), pp. 115–116; Usk, p. 49.

10. Norwich, Shakespeare’s Kings, pp. 121–122; Walsingham, pp. 308–309.

11. Walsingham, p. 311.

12. Ibid., p. 317; Usk, pp. 89–91; Froissart (1901), vol. 2, pp. 214–215; Raphael Holinshed, Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland, vol. 3 (1808), p. 14.

Chapter Eighty-Five The Battle of Nicopolis

1. Halil Inalcik, “Ottoman Methods of Conquest,” Studia Islamica, no. 2 (1954): 103.

2. Nicol, The Last Century of Byzantium, pp. 285–289.

3. Ibid., pp. 289–291; Norwich, Byzantium, p. 345.

4. Inalcik, p. 120; Norwich, Byzantium, p. 345.

5. Nicol, The Last Century of Byzantium, pp. 292–293.

6. Norwich, Byzantium, p. 347.

7. Vasiliev, p. 629.

8. Ibid.

9. Norwich, Byzantium, p. 353.

10. France, pp. 276–277.

11. Norwich, Byzantium, p. 355.

12. David Nicolle, Nicopolis (1999), pp. 68–69.

Chapter Eighty-Six The Union and Disunion of Kalmar

1. Franklin Daniel Scott, Sweden, the Nation’s History (1977), p. 81.

2. Vivian Etting, Queen Margrete I, 1353–1412, and the Founding of the Nordic Union (2004) p. 135.

3. Scott, pp. 81–82.

4. Ibid., p. 82; Hjalmar Hjorth Boyesen, A History of Norway from the Earliest Times (1900), p. 468.

5. Boyesen, pp. 468–470.

6. Etting, pp. 135–136.

7. Ibid.

8. Ibid., p. 136.

9. Ibid., pp. 142–144.

10. Boyesen, p. 473.

11. Lester B. Orfield, The Growth of Scandinavian Law (2002), p. 143.

Chapter Eighty-Seven The Hussite Uprising

1. Mogens Herman Hansen, ed., A Comparative Study of Thirty City-State Cultures (2000), pp. 22, 296.

2. Henry Smith Williams, ed., The Historians’ History of the World, vol. 14 (1907), pp. 188–189.

3. Ibid., p. 192; Richard K. Emmerson and Sandra Clayton-Emmerson, eds., Key Figures in Medieval Europe (2006), p. 663; Thatcher and McNeal, p. 400.

4. Emmerson and Clayton-Emmerson, p. 663; Francis Dvornik, The Slavs in European History and Civilization (1962), p. 186; Hans Prutz, The Age of the Renaissance, trans. John Henry Wright (1905), pp. 148–149; Michael Jones, pp. 559–560.

5. Niccolò Machiavelli, The History of Florence and of the Affairs of Italy (1891), pp. 438–439.

6. Williams, p. 194.

7. Philip Schaff and David Schley Schaff, History of the Christian Church, vol. 5, pt. 2 (1910), pp. 341–342.

8. Ibid., p. 343.

9. John Wycliffe, Writings of the Reverend and Learned John Wickliff (1831), pp. 156, 162–163; Walsingham, pp. 259, 272; Peters, pp. 257–259.

10. Henry Bettenson and Chris Maunder, eds., Documents of the Christian Church, 4th ed. (2011), pp. 192–193, Walsingham, p. 249.

11. Jan Hus, The Letters of John Hus (1904), p. 26.

12. Ibid., p. 27.

13. Dvornik, p. 193; Schaff and Schaff, p. 366.

14. Creighton, vol. 2, p. 162.

15. Williams, pp. 200–201; Prutz, p. 159.

16. Hus, pp. 144–145.

17. Ibid., pp. 160–161, 167–168.

18. Ibid., p. 179; Schaff and Schaff, pp. 373–374.

19. Prutz, p. 160.

20. Schaff and Schaff, pp. 380–382; Hus, p. 279.

21. Emmerson and Clayton-Emmerson, p. 664.

Chapter Eighty-Eight The Taking of France

1. Froissart (1901), vol. 2, p. 211.

2. Ramsay, p. 43; Usk, p. 145.

3. Jams Grant, British Battles on Land and Sea, vol. 1 (1897), pp. 76ff.

4. Usk, p. 243.

5. Enguerrand de Monstrelet, The Chronicles of Enguerrand de Monstrelet, trans. Thomas Johnes, vol. 1 (1877), p. 34.

6. Ibid., pp. 53–54.

7. Ibid., pp. 53, 56.

8. Richard Vaughan, John the Fearless (2002), p. 70.

9. Moreton-Macdonald, p. 271; Vaughan, pp. 80–82.

10. Usk, p. 243; Walsingham, p. 389.

11. Moreton-Macdonald, pp. 272–273; Walsingham, p. 397.

12. Jervis, p. 238; Walsingham, p. 397.

13. Walsingham, pp. 407–409.

14. Jervis, p. 239.

15. Walsingham, p. 410.

16. Ibid., p. 412; Monstrelet, vol. 1, p. 342; Usk, p. 257.

17. Monstrelet, vol. 1, p. 343.

18. Moreton-Macdonald, p. 276; Ramsay, pp. 243–244.

19. Ramsay, pp. 267–270.

20. Moreton-Macdonald, pp. 280–281.

Chapter Eighty-Nine After Timurlane

1. Brian M. Fagan, From Stonehenge to Samarkand (2006), p. 244; Ruy González de Clavijo, Embassy to Tamerlane, 1403–1406, trans. Guy Le Strange (1928), pp. 146–152.

2. Kulke and Rothermund, p. 170.

3. Rabbat, pp. 16–17, 136–137; Nezar AlSayyad, Cairo (2011), pp. 122–123, 127.

4. Marozzi, pp. 291–292.

5. Levi and Sela, pp. 171–175.

6. Nicol, The Last Centuries of Byzantium, p. 314.

7. Finkel, pp. 28–29.

8. Jackson, The Mongols and the West, p. 314; Finkel, p. 29.

9. Finkel, p. 31.

10. Grousset, p. 434.

11. Jackson, The Mongols and the West, p. 314.

12. Jackson and Lockhart, pp. 81–82.

13. Spuler, pp. 74–75; Ana Serrano et al., Ibn Khaldun (2006), pp. 110–111.

14. Norwich, Byzantium, p. 375.

15. Ibid., pp. 376–377; Finkel, pp. 35–36.

16. Norwich, Byzantium, pp. 376–377.

Chapter Ninety The Withdrawal of the Ming

1. Kenneth Chase, Firearms (2003), p. 41.

2. Timothy Brook, The Troubled Empire (2010), pp. 90–91.

3. Ibid., pp. 91–92; Timothy Brook, Jérôme Bourgon, and Gregory Blue, Death by a Thousand Cuts (2008), pp. 117–118.

4. Ma-Huan, Ying-yai Sheng-lan, trans. and ed. J. V. G. Mills (1970), pp. 6ff.; Brook, pp. 92–93; Chase, pp. 50–51.

5. Wang, pp. 153–154.

6. Ibid., pp. 155–156.

7. Gernet, p. 398; Denis Sinor, Inner Asia (1969), p. 205; Chase, pp. 46–47.

8. Chapuis, p. 101.

9. Julia Lovell, The Great Wall (2006), pp. 190–191.

10. Wang, p. 154.

11. Chase, p. 51.

12. Gernet, pp. 403–405; Chase, pp. 52–53.

13. Lovell, pp. 192–193.

14. Ibid., pp. 198–199.

15. Gernet, p. 405.

Chapter Ninety-One Failure

1. Sismondi, p. 203.

2. John Addington Symonds, Renaissance in Italy (1883), pp. 152–153; Machiavelli, pp. 44–45.

3. Sismondi, pp. 210–211; Symonds, p. 152; Machiavelli, p. 159.

4. Creighton, vol. 2, pp. 40ff.

5. Robert Bideleux and Ian Jeffries, A History of Eastern Europe, 2nd ed. (2007), pp. 147–148; Emil Reich, Select Documents Illustrating Medieval and Modern History (1905), p. 630.

6. Bideleux and Jeffries, p. 150; Craig D. Atwood, The Theology of the Czech Brethren from Hus to Comenius (2009), p. 115.

7. Creighton, vol. 2, p. 69; Hans Ferdinand Helmolt, The World’s History (1901), p. 199.

8. Creighton, vol. 2, pp. 81–82.

9. George Frederick Young, The Medici, vol. 1 (1911), p. 36.

10. Helmolt, p. 198; Creighton, vol. 2, pp. 105ff.

11. Hugh L. Agnew, The Czechs and the Lands of the Bohemian Crown (2004), pp. 49–59.

12. Creighton, vol. 2, p. 162.

13. Ibid., p. 176.

14. Ibid., pp. 179ff.

15. Kenneth Meyer Setton, The Papacy and the Levant, 1204–1571, vol. 2 (1978), pp. 65–66.

Chapter Ninety-Two Perpetual Slavery

1. Pierre Bontier, Jean Le Verrier, and Richard Henry Major, The Canarian, or Book of the Conquest and Conversion of the Canarians in the Year 1402 (1872), pp. 4, 41–44.

2. Felipe Fernández-Armesto, Before Columbus (1994), pp. 181–182.

3. C. Raymond Beazley, Prince Henry the Navigator (1911), pp. 149–150.

4. Malyn Newitt, The Portuguese in West Africa (2010), pp. 26–27.

5. Bailey W. Diffie and George D. Vinius, Foundations of the Portuguese Empire1415–1580 (1977), p. 55.

6. Gomes Eanes de Zurara, The Chronicle of the Discovery and Conquest of Guinea, trans. Charles Raymond Beazley and Edgar Prestage, vol. 1 (1896), p. 27; Malyn Newitt, A History of Portuguese Overseas Expansion, 1400–1668 (2005), p. 19.

7. Zurara, pp. 30–31.

8. Ibid., pp. 33.

9. W. A. Salisbury Portugal and Its People (1893), pp. 98–99.

10. Zurara, pp. 40ff.; Newitt, A History of Portuguese Overseas Expansion, p. 24.

11. Diffie and Vinius, p. 79; Newitt, The Portuguese in West Africa, pp. 49–50.

12. Diffie and Vinius, pp. 80–81.

13. Arthur Helps, The Conquerors of the New World and Their Bondsmen, vol. 1 (1848), pp. 33–36.

14. Diffie and Vinius, p. 82; Newitt, The Portuguese in West Africa, p. 151.

15. Newitt, The Portuguese in West Africa, p. 44.

16. Salisbury, p. 105.

17. Stefan Goodwin, Africa in Europe (2009), p. 128; A. J. R. Russell-Wood, “Iberian Expansion and the Issue of Black Slavery,” American Historical Review 83, no. 1 (Feb. 1978): 27–28.

18. Francis Gardiner Davenport, ed., European Treaties Bearing on the History of the United States and Its Dependencies to 1648 (1917): 22–23.

Chapter Ninety-Three The Loss of France

1. Walsingham, pp. 442–443.

2. Holinshed, p. 136; Rushton, p. 80; Enguerrand de Monstrelet, The Chronicles of Enguerrand de Monstrelet, vol. 6, trans. Thomas Johnes (1810), pp. 3–4.

3. Malcolm G. A. Vale, Charles VII (1974), pp. 27, 35.

4. Holinshed, p. 137.

5. Ibid., p. 143; Vale, p. 33; Monstrelet, vol. 6, pp. 49–51;

6. Prutz, pp. 215–216; Monstrelet, vol. 6, p. 248.

7. Monstrelet, vol. 6, p. 254.

8. Régine Pernoud and Marie-Véronique Clin, Joan of Arc, trans. Jeremy duQuesnay Adams (1998), p. 23.

9. Monstrelet, vol. 6, p. 255.

10. Clayton J. Drees, The Late Medieval Age of Crisis and Renewal, 1300–1500 (2001), p. 252.

11. Donald Spoto, Joan (2007), p. 111.

12. Ibid., p. 118; Holinshed, p. 170.

13. Spoto, pp. 121ff.

14. Daniel Hobbins, trans., The Trial of Joan of Arc (2007), p. 20.

15. Pernoud and Clin, p. 135.

16. Ibid., pp. 136–137.

17. Jervis, pp. 251–252; Enguerrand de Monstrelet, The Chronicles of Enguerrand de Monstrelet, vol. 2, trans. Thomas Johnes (1853), p. 24.

18. Monstrelet, vol. 2, pp. 3–4, 6.

19. Ibid., pp. 28–29.

20. Jervis, pp. 253–254.

21. Vale, pp. 116–117; Holinshed, p. 229.

22. Holinshed, pp. 235–236; Hooper and Bennett, pp. 134–135.

23. Vale, pp. 173–175; Rushton, pp. 78–80.

Chapter Ninety-Four The Fall

1. Finkel, pp. 41–42.

2. Pero Tafur, Travels and Adventures, 1435–1439, trans. Malcom H. I. Letts (1926), pp. 217–219.

3. Thomas Henry Dyer, The History of Modern Europe, vol. 1 (1861), pp. 14–15.

4. Tafur, p. 222.

5. Dyer, pp. 15–16.

6. Bertrandon de la Brocquière, The Travels of Bertandon de la Brocquière, trans. Thomas Johnes (1807), pp. 281–282; Peter Purton, A History of the Late Medieval Siege, 1200–1500 (2010),
p. 245.

7. Stephen R. Turnbull, The Ottoman Empire1326–1699 (2003), pp. 32–33; Finkel, pp. 44–45; Theoharis Stavrides, The Sultan of Vezirs (2001), pp. 53–54.

8. Hazard, pp. 655–656.

9. Turnbull, The Ottoman Empire, pp. 31–32.

10. Nicol, The Last Century of Byzantium, p. 363; Stavrides, p. 53; Dyer, pp. 17–18.

11. Norwich, Byzantium, pp. 414–415; Donald M. Nicol, The Immortal Emperor (1992), p. 52; Hazard, p. 657.

12. Norwich, Byzantium, p. 414.

13. Finkel, p. 49; Norwich, Byzantium, p. 415.

14. Nicol, The Immortal Emperor, p. 56; Norwich, Byzantium, p. 415.

15. Setton, p. 114.

16. Monstrelet, vol. 2, p. 229; Setton, p. 114; Nicol, The Immortal Emperor, pp. 64–65.

17. Monstrelet, vol. 2, p. 229; Setton, p. 116.

18. Nicol, The Immortal Emperor, p. 65.

19. Hazard, p. 659; Setton, p. 130.

20. Stavrides, p. 54.

21. Finkel, p. 49.

22. Ibid., p. 51.

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