Post-classical history

NOTES

ONE. PROSPERITY AT SEA

1 Anon., The Lives, Apprehensions, Arraignments, and Executions, of the 19 Late Pirates. The executions of the eighteenth and nineteenth pirates were delayed until the following day amidst rumors of a pardon from the king, which, in the event, did not materialize.

2 Ibid.

3 Ibid.

4 Ibid.

5 Sir Arthur Chichester to Lord Salisbury, Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office (1860-1912), April 13, 1608 (hereafter cited as CSP Ireland ).

6 Sir Henry Mainwaring, “Discourse on Pirates,” in G. E. Manwaring (ed.), The Life and Works of Sir Henry Mainwaring, vol. 2, 15-16.

7 Lords of the Council to President of Munster (Sir Henry Danvers), CSP Ireland, September 27, 1608.

8 Fernand Braudel, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, vol. 1, 231.

9 Johannes Brenz, Booklet on the Turk; Veit Dietrich, How Preachers Should Exhort the People to Repentance and Earnest Prayer Against the Turk; both quoted in John W. Bohnstedt, “The Infidel Scourge of God,” 50, 51.

10 Preface to Newton’s translation of Agostino Curione’s A Notable Historie of the Saracens (1575); quoted in Daniel J. Vitkus (ed.), Three Turk Plays from Early Modern England, 7.

11 Richard Knolles, Generall Historie of the Turkes, 1.

12 William Shakespeare, Richard II, IV, i, 2076-78.

13 J. Morgan, A Complete History of Algiers, 257.

14 D. Haëdo, Topographia e historia general de Argel, Valladolid (1612); quoted in Charles-André Julien, History of North Africa, 280.

15 Morgan, A Complete History of Algiers, 259.

16 Ibid., 263.

17 In his lifetime, and especially after the death of Oruç, Hızır was usually known in the West simply as “Barbarossa.” Later writers added an attempt at his honorary name, calling him “Hayreddin Barbarossa.”

18 Morgan, A Complete History of Algiers, 293.

19 Lewis Roberts, The Merchants Mappe of Commerce, 192.

20 Ibid., 118.

21 Article 37, The Capitulations and Articles of Peace Between the Majesty of the King of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland &c. and the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, 11.

22 Ibid., Article 19, 5.

TWO. WHERE ARE THE DAYS?

1 Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office (1864-1947), June 23, 1608 (hereafter cited as CSP Venice).

2 Anon., The Seamans Song of Captain Ward . . . .

3 Strictly speaking, letters of reprisal were something different. They allowed a merchant or shipowner who had been robbed by foreigners to recoup his losses by taking goods belonging to the robbers’ fellow countrymen. In practice, the terms were used interchangeably until well into the seventeenth century.

4 “A Proclamation Ordained by the King’s Highness . . . ,” Harleian MSS 442, 170; reprinted in R. G. Marsden, Law and Custom of the Sea, vol. 1, Navy Records Society (1915), 156-7.

5 Piero Contarini, Venetian Ambassador, “Relation of England,” December 1618; in CSP Venice, 1617-19.

6 James I, A Proclamation to Represse All Piracies and Depredations upon the Sea (1603).

7 James I, A Proclamation for Revocation of Mariners from Foreign Services (March 1, 1605).

8 “Report on England Presented to the Government of Venice in the Year 1607, by the Illustrious Gentleman Nicolo Molin, Ambassador There,” CSP Venice, May 30, 1607.

9 Anon., The Lives, Apprehensions, Arraignments, and Executions, of the 19 Late Pirates.

10 Andrew Barker, A True and Certaine Report . . . , 5.

11 Ibid., 5-6.

12 Quoted in Michael Oppenheim, “The Royal Navy under James I,” 494.

13 Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office (1856-1972), June 23, 1597 (hereafter cited as CSPD).

14 Nathaniel Boteler, Six Dialogues about Sea-Services . . . , 26.

15 Michael Oppenheim (ed.), The Naval Tracts of Sir William Monson, Navy Records Society (1902-13), vol. 2, 237.

16 Barker, A True and Certaine Report . . . , 7.

17 Ibid., 8.

18 Ibid., 9.

19 Ibid., 10.

20 Ibid., 10.

21 Ibid., 11.

22 Anthony Nixon, Newes from Sea of Two Notorious Pyrats, 2.

23 Leo Africanus, A Geographical Historie of Africa, 251.

24 Quoted in Godfrey Fisher, Barbary Legend, 159.

25 Quoted in Charles-André Julien, History of North Africa, 307.

26 Richard Hakluyt, The Principal Navigations . . . , vol. 2, 1.128.

27 Myles Davies, Athenæ Britannicæ, 97.

28 Pascual de Gayangos (trans.), The History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain, vol. 2 (1843), 394.

29 Quoted in David James, “The ‘Manual de artillería,’” 251.

30 CSP Venice, May 17, 1603.

31 John Ogilby, Africa, Being an Accurate Description . . . , 253.

32 Leo Africanus, A Geographical Historie of Africa, 247.

33 Ibid., 249.

34 Ibid., 248.

35 Ibid., 249.

36 Ogilby, Africa, Being an Accurate Description . . . , 251.

37 Nixon, Newes from Sea . . . , 4.

38 Barker, A True and Certaine Report . . . , 12.

39 The pinnace never arrived. For reasons which aren’t altogether clear, its crew kept sailing westward until they reached the Atlantic, stopping only when they were shipwrecked off the Balearic Islands. The survivors were picked up by a Dutchman and taken back to Tunis.

40 R. G. Marsden, Documents Relating to Law and Custom of the Sea, vol. 1, 379.

41 By way of comparison, Henry VIII’s great Mary Rose was rated at 700 tons, and the Golden Hind, in which Sir Francis Drake circumnavigated the world, was a vessel of just 120 tons.

42 Sean Jennett (trans.), Journal of a Young Brother: The Life of Thomas Platter, 117.

43 Marc’Antonio Correr to the Doge and Senate, CSP Venice, August 6, 1609.

44 Barker, A True and Certaine Report . . . , 13.

45 Ibid., 14.

46 Ibid., 13-14.

THREE. HELLFIRE IS PREPARED

1 Andrew Barker, A True and Certaine Report . . . , 16.

2 CSP Venice, March 24, 1608.

3 Barker, A True and Certaine Report . . . , 17.

4 CSP Venice, November 5, 1607.

5 Ibid., November 15, 1607.

6 Ibid., October 2, 1608.

7 Ibid., October 2, 1608.

8 James I, A Proclamation Against Pirats [sic], January 8, 1609.

9 Barker, A True and Certaine Report . . . , 18.

10 Ibid., 18.

11 Ibid., 24.

12 Anthony Nixon, Newes from Sea . . . , 15-16.

13 Barker, A True and Certaine Report . . . , 15.

14 Ibid., 1.

15 I owe this reference, and the wording, to Marc David Baer, Honored by the Glory of Islam, 197.

16 CSP Venice, December 23, 1610.

17 Samuel Rowlands, “To a Reprobate Pirate that Hath Renounced Christ and Is Turn’d Turk,” in More Knaves Yet.

18 Thomas Dekker, If It Be Not Good, the Divel Is in It.

19 Robert Daborn, A Christian Turn’d Turk, in Daniel J. Vitkus (ed.), Three Turk Plays from Early Modern England, 198.

20 Ibid., 230-31.

21 Rowland White to Sir Robert Sidney, quoted in Bernard Harris, “A Portrait of a Moor,” in Alexander and Wells, Shakespeare and Race, 29.

22 Stow, quoted in Harris, “A Portrait of a Moor,” 32.

23 Chamberlain, quoted in Harris, “A Portrait of a Moor,” 31.

24 Historical Manuscripts Commission, Downshire II, 160.

25 Ibid., 186.

26 CSP Venice, November 19, 1609.

27 William Lithgow, The Totall Discourse . . . , 359.

28 Ibid., 380.

FOUR. THE LAND HATH FAR TOO LITTLE GROUND

1 Anon., The Sea-mans Song of Dansekar the Dutch-man, His Robberies Done at Sea.

2 Anthony Nixon, Newes from Sea . . . , 20-21.

3 Ibid., 21.

4 Ibid., 22.

5 Ibid., 26.

6 Ibid., 27.

7 Ibid., 30.

8 Ibid., 31.

9 Ibid., 33.

10 Charles J. Sisson and Arthur Brown, “‘The Great Dansker’: Literary Significance of a Chancery Suit,” 341.

11 Nixon, Newes from Sea . . . , 34.

12 Ibid., 35.

13 Ibid., 34.

14 William Okeley, Eben-ezer: or, a Small Monument of Great Mercy, 5.

15 John Dryden, Limberham, 1, i.

16 Katharine Prescott Wormeley (trans.), The Plays of Molière, Little, Brown and Company (1909), vol. 1, 298.

17 Roberto Rossetti, “An Introduction to Lingua Franca,” see http://www.uwm.edu/-corre/franca/edition3/lingua5.html.

18 William Lithgow, The Totall Discourse . . . ,162.

19 Quoted as the epigraph to Kahane, Kahane, and Tietze, The Lingua Franca in the Levant.

20 Nixon, Newes from Sea . . . , 10.

21 CSP Venice, October 12, 1609.

22 Ibid., October 31, 1609.

23 Ibid., December 1, 1609.

24 Ibid., May 23, 1610.

25 Ibid., September 21, 1610.

26 Ibid.

27 Ibid., January 6, 1611.

28 Lithgow, The Totall Discourse . . . , 381. Lithgow states that these events took place in 1616; but since he later buries Sir Francis Verney (who died in September 1615), he must have his dates wrong. He also says that Danseker negotiates with the “Bashaw” (i.e., the pasha of Tunis) rather than the dey. At this point in Tunisian history the role of the temporary and Istanbul-appointed pasha is largely ceremonial, and it is much more likely that Lithgow means Yusuf Dey, the de facto head of state.

29 Lithgow, The Totall Discourse . . . , 382.

30 Ibid.

31 Anon., The Sea-mans Song of Dansekar the Dutch-man, His Robberies Done at Sea.

FIVE. Y­OUR MAJESTY’S NEW CREATURE

1 CSP Ireland, November 18, 1612.

2 High Court of Admiralty, Public Record Office 13/41/59 (July 24, 1610) (hereafter cited as PRO).

3 Lords of the Council to Chichester, CSP Ireland, September 27, 1612.

4 Skipwith to the Lord Deputy, CSP Ireland, July 25, 1611.

5 Ibid.

6 T. Whitburn (ed.), Westward Hoe for Avalon in the New-found-land, 42.

7 CSP Venice, October 15, 1612.

8 Whitburn, Westward Hoe for Avalon, 42.

9 CSP Venice, February 4, 1612.

10 Ibid.

11 Ibid., March 3, 1613.

12 Ibid.

13 Ibid., April 19, 1612.

14 Mary Breese Fuller, “Sir John Eliot and John Nutt, Pirate,” Smith College Studies in History, vol. 4, no. 2 (January 1919), 76.

15 Ibid., 82.

16 Quoted in ibid., 88.

17 Quoted in ibid., 91.

18 Thomas Fuller, The History of the Worthies of England (1662), “Herefordshire,” 40

19 Quoted in G. E. Manwaring (ed.), The Life and Works, vol. 1, 8.

20 Sir Henry Mainwaring, “Discourse on Pirates,” in G. E. Manwaring (ed.), The Life and Works, vol. 2, 11.

21 CSPD, July 5, 1611.

22 Mainwaring, “Discourse on Pirates,” in Manwaring (ed.), The Life and Works, vol. 2, 10.

23 State Papers Colonial (America and West Indies), I, March 16, 1621.

24 Ibid.

25 Mainwaring, “Discourse on Pirates,” in Manwaring, The Life and Works, vol. 2, 22-23.

26 Ibid., 26.

27 John Maclean (ed.), Letters of George Lord Carew to Sir Thomas Roe, 35.

28 Mainwaring, “Discourse on Pirates,” in Manwaring, The Life and Works, vol. 2, 6.

29 Ibid., 14.

30 Ibid., 15.

31 Ibid., 18.

32 Ibid., 19.

33 Ibid., 24.

34 Ibid., 39-40.

35 Ibid., 36, 37.

36 Ibid., 36.

37 Ibid., 26.

38 Ibid., 31.

39 Ibid., 32.

40 Ibid., 33.

41 Ibid., 25.

42 Ibid., 27.

43 Ibid., 25.

44 Ibid., 42-43.

45 John Smith, The True Travels . . . , 59, 60

46 Robert Daborn, A Christian Turn’d Turk, scene 16, 300-2.

47 M. Oppenheim (ed.), The Naval Tracts of Sir William Monson, vol. 3, 83.

48 This figure comes from J. F. Guilmartin, Jr., Gunpowder and Galleys, 198. My account of the advantages and disadvantages of the galley relies heavily on Professor Guilmartin’s study.

49 Guilmartin, Gunpowder and Galleys, 63.

50 John Fox, “The Worthy Enterprise of John Fox, in Delivering 266 Christians out of the Captivity of the Turk,” in Daniel J. Vitkus (ed.), Piracy, Slavery, and Redemption, 58.

51 Oppenheim, The Naval Tracts of Sir William Monson, vol. 3, 267.

52 Ibid.

53 Maclean (ed.), Letters of George Lord Carew to Sir Thomas Roe, 111.

54 Cabala: Sive Scrinia Sacra. Mysteries of State & Government ..., 206.

55 CSP Venice, June 16, 1616.

56 PRO, State Papers 84/77, 182.

57 Quoted in Michael Oppenheim, A History of the Administration of the Royal Navy and of Merchant Shipping in Relation to the Navy from 1509 to 1660 (1896), 198-9.

58 CSP Venice, October 5, 1603.

59 PRO, State Papers 14/90, 136.

SIX. RICH CASKETS OF HOME-SPUN VALOUR

1 Anon., A Fight at Sea, Famously Fought by the Dolphin of London, 2.

2 Ibid., 3.

3 John Smith, An Accidence or The Path-way to Experience Necessary for All Young Sea-men . . . , 11-24.

4 Anon., A Fight at Sea, Famously Fought by the Dolphin of London, 2.

5 William Bourne, The Arte of Shooting in Great Ordnaunce, 54.

6 Ibid., 56.

7 Ibid., 55.

8 Anon., A Fight at Sea, Famously Fought by the Dolphin of London, 6.

9 Ibid., 7.

10 Ibid., 7.

11 J. Bullokar, English Expositor, “Petroll.”

12 Anon., A Fight at Sea, Famously Fought by the Dolphin of London, 9.

13 Ibid., 8.

14 Anon., A Relation, Strange and True, of a Ship of Bristol Named the Jacob, 3.

15 Ibid., 2.

16 Ibid., 4.

17 Ibid., 5.

18 Ibid., 7-8.

19 John Rawlins, The Famous and Wonderful Recovery of a Ship of Bristol, called the Exchange, 9-10.

20 Ibid., 13.

21 Ibid., 14.

22 Ibid., 19.

23 Ibid., 33.

24 Ibid., 31.

25 Ibid., 31-32.

26 Ibid., 32.

27 Ibid., 2.

28 Ibid., 9, 23, 8, 17.

SEVEN. TREACHEROUS INTENTS

1 Quoted in Michael Oppenheim (ed.), The Naval Tracts of Sir William Monson, vol. 3, 107.

2 Ibid., 80.

3 Ibid., 83.

4 George T. Clark, Glamorgan Worthies, 12.

5 Aston Papers, BL Add. MS 36445, 15-19.

6 John Taylor, Heavens Blessing, and Earths Joy . . . .

7 John Ogilby, Africa, Being an Accurate Description . . . , 221.

8 Aston Papers, BL Add. MS 36445, 22.

9 Ibid.

10 Public Record Office, State Papers 71/1/21v; quoted in David Delison Hebb, Piracy and the English Government, 1616-1642, 88. I am indebted to Dr Hebb’s book, and to Michael Oppenheim’s account in The Naval Tracts of Sir William Monson, vol. 3, 98-116, for my understanding of Mansell’s operation in Algiers.

11 Quoted in Hebb, Piracy and the English Government, 88.

12 Aston Papers, BL Add. MS 36445, 23.

13 Ibid.

14 Ibid.

15 John Button, Algiers Voyage, n.p.

16 PRO, State Papers (Barbary), vol. 1, 29.

17 Button, Algiers Voyage.

18 Ibid.

19 Ibid.

20 Ibid.

21 BL Harl. MS 1581, 76.

22 PRO, State Papers 94/24/124.

23 Hebb, Piracy and the English Government, 125, quoting Kent Archive Office U 269 ON 6874, January 22, 1621.

24 Girolamo Lando, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge; in CSP Venice, May 7, 1621.

25 Quoted in Hebb, Piracy and the English Government, 100.

26 Girolamo Lando, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge; in CSP Venice, June 11, 1621.

27 The patent was declared void in 1623, but Mansell persuaded the Privy Council to grant him another immediately, on almost identical terms. He was still defending it twenty years later.

28 Ogilby, Africa, Being an Accurate Description . . . , 222.

29 Button, Algiers Voyage.

30 Ibid.

31 Ibid.

32 J. Morgan, A Complete History of Algiers, 649.

33 Ibid., 650.

34 Ibid., 651.

35 Button, Algiers Voyage.

36 Girolamo Lando to the Doge and Senate, in CSP Venice, July 30, 1621.

37 Calvert to Cranfield; quoted in Hebb, Piracy and the English Government, 104.

38 “Sir Robert and his crew are ill paid, and Sir Richard Hawkins, the Vice-Admiral, is dead of vexation” (April 27, 1622); quoted without attribution in Clark, Glamorgan Worthies, 39.

39 Quoted in Oppenheim (ed.), The Naval Tracts of Sir William Monson, vol. 3, 94-95.

40 Morgan, A Complete History of Algiers, 648.

41 Journal of the House of Commons 1, December 5, 1621

42 CSP Venice, October 8, 1622.

EIGHT. FISHERS OF MEN

1 CSP Ireland 1606-8, 100.

2 Charles Smith, The Antient and Present State of the County and City of Cork, vol. 2, 310-11.

3 CSP Ireland, July 17, 1630.

4 CSP Ireland, July 19, 1630.

5 CSP Ireland, November 13, 1630, enclosed with letter of November 20 from the Earl of Cork to Lord Dorchester.

6 Earl of Cork’s Letter-Book, Devonshire Collection; quoted in J. Coombs, “The Sack of Baltimore: a Forewarning,” 60.

7 This part of the promontory is still known today as “the platform,” according to James N. Healy, The Castles of County Cork, 182.

8 Olafur Egilsson, quoted in Bernard Lewis, “Corsairs in Iceland,” 242.

9 Quoted in ibid., 244.

10 Quoted in ibid., 240.

11 Quoted in Henry Barnby, “The Sack of Baltimore,” 102.

12 Lord Wilmot to Lord Dorcester, CSP Ireland, January 6, 1630.

13 Barnby, “The Sack of Baltimore,” 102.

14 Ibid.

15 Ibid.

16 Richard Caulfield (ed.), The Council Book of the Corporation of Kinsale, June 20, 1631.

17 CSP Ireland, June 10, 1631.

18 Button to Nicholas, CSPD, July 5, 1631.

19 Chatsworth MSS, Earl of Cork’s Letter-Book, 396.

20 Ibid.

21 CSPD, July 23, 1631.

22 Ibid., August 23, 1631.

23 Quoted in Des Ekin, The Stolen Village: Baltimore and the Barbary Pirates, 240.

24 Chatsworth MSS, Earl of Cork’s Letter-Book, 395.

25 CSPD, March 9, 1632.

26 CSP Ireland, April 6, 1632.

27 Smith, The Antient and Present State of the County and City of Cork, vol. 1, 254.

NINE. WOEFUL SLAVERY

1 Francis Knight, A Relation of Seaven Yeares Slaverie under the Turkes of Argeire, 1.

2 J. Morgan, A Complete History of Algiers, 676.

3 Knight, A Relation of Seaven Yeares Slaverie under the Turkes of Argeire, 18.

4 Morgan, A Complete History of Algiers, 666.

5 Knight, A Relation of Seaven Yeares Slaverie under the Turkes of Argeire, 19.

6 Ibid., 24.

7 Ibid., 27.

8 Ibid.

9 Ibid., i.

10 CSPD, September 26, 1636.

11 Ibid, November 1, 1636.

12 Ibid, January 1, 1636.

13 “For the relief of captives,” April 25, 1643; quoted in C. H. Firth and R. S. Rait (eds.), Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum 1642-1660, vol. 3, 134.

14 Knight, A Relation of Seaven Yeares Slaverie under the Turkes of Argeire, i.

15 CSPD, September 26, 1635.

16 Ibid., 1635 [undated].

17 Ibid., 1636 [undated].

18 Ibid., September 2, 1636.

19 Charles Fitzgeffry, Compassion Towards Captives . . . , 17, 46.

20 Ibid., 47.

21 “Trinity House of Deptford Transactions,” 1609-35, in G. G. Harris (ed.), London Record Society 19 (1983), 72-78.

22 CSPD, September 2, 1636.

23 Quoted in David Delison Hebb, Piracy and the English Government, 236.

24 CSPD, August 4, 1636.

25 Ibid., December 1636.

26 Ibid.

27 John Rushworth, Historical Collections of Private Passages of State, vol. 2, 257.

28 John Dunton, A True Journal of the Salley Fleet, 25.

29 PRO, State Papers 16/270/65; PRO, State Papers 105/148/59.

30 Michael Strachan, “Sampson’s Fight with Maltese Galleys, 1628,” 287.

31 Dunton, A True Journal of the Salley Fleet, 5.

32 Ibid.

33 Ibid., 5-6.

34 Ibid., 7

35 Ibid., 8.

36 CSPD, March 31, 1635. Simpson spent time in Plymouth gaol in 1635, accused of saying “that some of the chief commanders in the late action to the Isle of Rhé were either fools, cowards, or traitors.” His defense, unusally robust for the time, was that they were indeed fools, cowards, or traitors.

37 Dunton, A True Journal of the Salley Fleet, 9.

38 Ibid., 13.

39 Ibid., 15.

40 Ibid., 19-20.

41 CSPD, July 29, 1637.

42 Dunton, A True Journal of the Salley Fleet, 20.

43 Ibid., 21.

44 Mohammed IV to Charles I, Marrakesh, September 1637; in J.F.P. Hopkins (trans.) Letters from Barbary 1576-1774, 15.

45 Albert J. Loomie (ed.), Ceremonies of Charles I: The Note Books of John Finet, 230.

46 Ibid., 233.

47 Ibid., 234.

48 William Knowler (ed.), The Earl of Strafford’s Letters and Despatches, vol. 2, 138.

49 CSPD, December 30, 1637.

50 Dunton, A True Journal of the Salley Fleet, “Epistle Dedicatorie,” ii .

51 William Davenant and Inigo Jones, Britannia Triumphans, 2.

52 Knowler (ed.), The Earl of Strafford’s Letters and Despatches, vol. 2, 124. They were placed in a box at the king’s left hand, and just behind his seat. The next day Charles told Finet off for not giving them even better places.

TEN. THE YOKE OF BONDAGE

1 William Okeley, Eben-ezer: or, a Small Monument of Great Mercy, 3.

2 Ibid., “Upon this book” (prefatory poem).

3 Ibid., 3.

4 Ibid., 5.

5 Ibid., 6.

6 Ibid., 8.

7 John Rawlins, The Famous and Wonderfull Recoverie of a Ship of Bristoll, 8.

8 Okeley, Eben-ezer: or, a Small Monument of Great Mercy, 9.

9 Ibid., 11.

10 Ibid., 12.

11 The story first surfaces in a medieval Christian text, the Apology of al-Kindy.

12 Okeley, Eben-ezer: or, a Small Monument of Great Mercy, 14.

13 Ibid., 16.

14 Ibid.

15 Ibid., 19.

16 Ibid., 22.

17 Devereux Spratt, “Journal,” in T.A.B. Spratt, Travels and Researches in Crete, vol. 1, 385.

18 Okeley, Eben-ezer: or, a Small Monument of Great Mercy, 23.

19 Spratt, “Journal,” vol. 1, 386. Spratt left Algiers in 1645 or 1646 and returned to Ireland, where he became a minister at Mitchelstown, County Cork.

20 Okeley, Eben-ezer: or, a Small Monument of Great Mercy, 41.

21 Ibid.

22 Ibid., 31.

23 Ibid., 26-27.

24 Ibid., 28.

25 Ibid., xx.

26 Ibid., 41.

27 Quoted in J.F.P. Hopkins (trans.), Letters from Barbary 1576-1774, 90.

28 Journal of the House of Commons 3: 1643-1644, 155 (July 5, 1643).

29 Okeley, Eben-ezer: or, a Small Monument of Great Mercy, 42.

30 Ibid., 47.

31 Ibid., 50.

32 Ibid., 52.

33 Ibid., 57.

34 Ibid., 63-64.

35 Ibid., 73-74.

36 Ibid., 74.

37 Ibid., 76.

38 Ibid., 80.

39 Ibid.

40 Ibid., 84.

41 Ibid., xv.

ELEVEN. DELIVERANCE

1 Albert J. Loomie (ed.), Ceremonies of Charles I: The Note Books of John Finet, 250.

2 Francis Knight, A Relation of Seaven Yeares Slaverie under the Turkes of Argeire, 16.

3 Emanuel D’Aranda, The History of Algiers and Its Slavery, 161. Ali Bitshnin makes an appearance in the eighteenth-century picaresque novel The Adventures of Gil Blas, as “Hali Pegelin, a Greek renegado,” who steals the heart of the passionate Donna Lucinda.

4 Ibid., 12.

5 Ibid., 14.

6 Okeley, Eben-ezer: or, a Small Monument of Great Mercy, 28-29; D’Aranda, The History of Algiers, 198. D’Aranda later heard that the friar was persuaded to convert back to Christianity, at which he was burned to death by his captors.

7 D’Aranda, History of Algiers, 164.

8 Ibid., 256-57.

9 Knight, A Relation of Seaven Yeares Slaverie under the Turkes of Argeire, 9.

10 J. Morgan, A Complete History of Algiers, 669-70.

11 Lewis Roberts, The Merchants Map of Commerce, 70.

12 Both quotes John Ogilby, Africa, Being an Accurate Description . . . , 223, 224.

13 David Delison Hebb, Piracy and the English Government, 263.

14 CSPD, January 26, 1638.

15 Ibid., September 23, 1639.

16 28 Henry VIII, c. 15, subsequently named the Offences at Sea Act 1536.

17 CSPD, October 3, 1640.

18 John Raithby (ed.), Statutes of the Realm V, 1628-80, 134-35.

19 CSP Venice, February 7, 1642.

20 Journal of the House of Commons 1547-1699, February 21, 1642.

21 Henry Robinson, Libertas, or Relief to the English Captives in Algier, 3.

22 Ibid.

23 Quoted in Marc David Baer, Honoured by the Glory of Islam, 57.

24 Thomas Edgar, The Lawes Resolutions of Womens Rights, 66. I owe this reference to Nabil Matar (Britain and Barbary 1589-1689, 83).

25 Journal of the House of Commons 1547-1699, June 1, 1642.

26 C. H. Firth and R. S. Rait (eds.), Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum, 1642-1660, April 25, 1643.

27 Journal of the House of Lords, 6, July 5, 1643.

28 Hebb, Piracy and the English Government, 1616-1642, 272.

29 Journal of the House of Commons 1547-1699, August 15, 1645.

30 A Venetian diplomat, in a commendable but uncharacteristic burst of pedantry, said that “I fancy they call them Turks when they are really corsairs of Algiers” (CSP Venice, September 8, 1645).

31 Edmond Cason, A Relation . . . Concerning the Redemption of the Captives in Argier and Tunis, 7.

32 Ibid., 16.

33 Ibid., 11.

34 Ibid.

35 Thomas Sweet, Dear Friends [“The Long and Lamentable Bondage of Thomas Sweet, and Richard Robinson”], 1.

36 Cason, A Relation . . . Concerning the Redemption of the Captives in Argier and Tunis, 12.

37 Ibid., 13

38 Sweet, Dear Friends, 1.

39 Cason, A Relation . . . Concerning the Redemption of the Captives in Argier and Tunis, 14.

40 Journal of the House of Commons, November 28, 1651.

41 CSPD, July 26, 1653.

42 Charles Longland to Robert Blackborne, CSPD, April 13, 1657.

43 Cason to the Navy Committee, CSPD, April 2, 1653.

44 Journal of the House of Commons, January 14, 1652.

TWELVE. THE GREATEST SCOURGE TO THE ALGERINES

1 Richard Chandler, The History and Proceedings of the House of Commons, vol. 1, 1660-1680, 31.

2 Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, The Life of Edward, Earl of Clarendon, vol. 1, 494. The admiral was Sir John Lawson, who had visited the place.

3 Sir Henry Sheres, A Discourse Touching Tanger, 16.

4 Ibid., 18.

5 Ibid., 16.

6 Clarendon, The Life of Edward, Earl of Clarendon, vol. 1, 334.

7 Carte MSS, vol. 74, f.389; reprinted in R. C. Anderson (ed.), The Journal of Edward Mountagu, First Earl of Sandwich, 289.

8 Basil Lubbock (ed.), Barlow’s Journal of His Life at Sea . . . from 1659 to 1703, vol. 2, 70.

9 Anderson, The Journal of Edward Mountagu, 116.

10 George Philips, The Present State of Tangier, 41.

11 Anon., A Brief Relation of the Present State of Tangier, 3.

12 Lancelot Addison, A Discourse of Tangier under the Government of the Earl of Teviot, 7.

13 Ibid., 6.

14 Anon., Brief Relation, 8.

15 Samuel Pepys, The Diary of Samuel Pepys, Robert Latham and William Matthews (eds.), 11 vols., June 2, 1664.

16 Ibid., June 15, 1664.

17 Anderson, The Journal of Edward Mountagu, 118.

18 Pepys, Diary, September 28, 1663.

19 Philips, The Present State of Tangier, 32-33.

20 Ibid., 31.

21 John Luke’s Journal, quoted in E.M.G. Routh, “The English at Tangier,” 477.

22 Pepys, Diary, September 22, 1667.

23 Sir Hugh Cholmley, A Short Account of the Progress of the Mole at Tangier, 4.

24 Anon., An Exact Journal of the Siege of Tangier, 1.

25 Samuel Pepys in Edwin Chappell (ed.), The Tangier Papers of Samuel Pepys, 78.

26 Anon., A Faithful Relation of the Most Remarkable Transactions Which Have Happened at Tangier, 3.

27 Anon., An Exact Journal of the Siege of Tangier, 3.

28 Ibid., 4.

THIRTEEN. BREACHES OF FAITH

1 Samuel Boothouse, A Brief Remonstrance of Several National Injuries . . . , 2.

2 Ibid., 22.

3 Ibid., 25.

4 Robert Blake to Secretary Thurloe; 14/24 March 1651/5; in J. R. Powell (ed.), The Letters of Robert Blake, 291.

5 Ibid.

6 J. R. Powell (ed.), “The Journal of John Weale 1654-1656,” 106.

7 Blake to Secretary Thurloe; 14/24 March 1651/5; in Powell, The Letters of Robert Blake, 292.

8 Blake to Secretary Thurloe; 18/28 April 1655; in Powell, The Letters of Robert Blake, 294.

9 Powell, The Letters of Robert Blake, 274.

10 Powell, “The Journal of John Weale 1654-1656,” 109.

11 “A Letter from the George”; in Powell, The Letters of Robert Blake, 320.

12 G. T., An Encomiastick . . . ,” 21. “Gehenna” appears in early Jewish, Christian, and Muslim texts as hell, a place of torment for sinners.

13 Charles Longland, agent at Livorno, to Secretary Thurloe, July 30, 1655; in Thomas Birch (ed.), A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, vol. 3, 663.

14 CSPD, February 27, 1658. Stoakes went on to conclude a similar treaty with Tripoli.

15 Sir Thomas Bendysh to the Lord Protector, October 22, 1657; in Birch (ed.), State Papers of John Thurloe, vol. 6, 570.

16 Levant Company to Sir Thomas Bendysh, CSPD, September 10, 1657.

17 Anon., A Brief Relation or Remonstrance of the Injurious Proceedings . . . , 3.

18 Ibid., 4.

19 R. C. Anderson (ed.), The Journal of Edward Mountagu, First Earl of Sandwich, 98.

20 Charles II, Proclamation Touching the Articles of Peace with Argiers, Tunis, and Tripoli, January 29, 1663.

21 Charles II, Articles of Peace Concluded between his Sacred Majesty and the Kingdoms and Governments of Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli in the Year 1662 (1662), 14.

22 Ibid., 11.

23 CSPD, April 13, 1657.

24 Charles II, Articles of Peace Concluded . . . in the Year 1662, 4.

25 Ibid., 7.

26 Ibid., 20.

27 Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate; CSP Venice, December 15, 1662.

28 Mercurius Publicus, no. 40, October 2-9, 1662, 663.

29 Samuel Pepys, The Diary of Samuel Pepys, January 5, 1663.

30 Charles II, Articles of Peace & Commerce Between the Most Serene and Mighty Prince Charles II . . . [and] Tripoli, title page.

31 Charles II, Articles of Peace Concluded . . . in the Year 1662, 7.

32 Quoted in R. L. Playfair, The Scourge of Christendom, 90.

33 Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate; CSP Venice, July 14, 1662.

34 Quoted in Playfair, The Scourge of Christendom, 86.

35 Charles II, His Majesties Gracious Speech to Both Houses of Parliament, Together with the Lord Chancellors, Delivered . . . the 10th of October, 1665, 6-8.

36 A Letter Written by the Governour of Algiers, to the States-General of the United Provinces, 1-2.

37 BL Sloane MS 2755, 24. His Royal Highness was James, Duke of York, in whose name as Lord High Admiral passes were issued.

38 Playfair, The Scourge of Christendom, 145.

39 Instructions from the Duke of York to Sir Thomas Allin, June 29, 1669; in R. C. Anderson (ed.), The Journals of Sir Thomas Allin, vol. 2, 231.

40 Ibid., 232.

41 BL MS Tanner 296, 131; reprinted in Anderson, The Journals of Sir Thomas Allin, vol. 2, 242.

42 Charles II, Articles of Peace Between His Sacred Majesty Charles the Second . . . and the City and Kingdom of Algiers, 8.

43 Wenceslaus Hollar, A True Relation of Capt. Kempthorn’s Engagement . . . with Seven Algier Men of War.

44 Historical Manuscripts Commission, Dartmouth MSS, III, 6.

45 Anon., The Present State of Algeir [sic], 2.

46 C. R. Pennell (ed.), Piracy and Diplomacy in Seventeenth-Century North Africa, 171.

47 Cole, quoted in Playfair, The Scourge of Christendom, 158.

FOURTEEN. NO PART OF ENGLAND

1 Anon., An Exact Journal of the Siege of Tangier, 13.

2 Ibid.

3 CSPD, August 10, 1680.

4 The King’s Own, which was first raised for service in Tangier, was originally called the 2nd Tangier, or the Earl of Plymouth’s Regiment of Foot.

5 John Ross, Tanger’s [sic] Rescue; or a Relation of the Late Memorable Passages at Tanger, 11.

6 Ibid., 23.

7 Anchitell Grey, Debates of the House of Commons, VIII, 11.

8 Ibid., 5, 7, 19.

9 Edwin Chappell (ed.), The Tangier Papers of Samuel Pepys, 58.

10 Ibid., 65.

11 Ibid., 71.

12 Ibid., 83.

13 Ibid., 16.

14 Historical Manuscripts Commission, Dartmouth MSS III, 92.

15 Chappell, The Tangier Papers, 89.

16 Ibid., 101.

17 Ibid., 95.

18 Historical Manuscripts Commission, Dartmouth MSS III, 96.

19 Ibid., 96-97.

20 Chappell, Tangier Papers, 50.

21 Historical Manuscripts Commission, Dartmouth MSS III, 34.

22 Ibid., 44.

23 Ibid., 53.

24 Ibid., I, 105.

FIFTEEN. THE KING’S AGENT

1 Thomas Baker, “A Journall or Memoriall of Whasoever Occurrences Shall Happen or Bee Noteworthy Begunn at London . . . 1677,” Bodleian MS Eng. Hist. C.236, May 2, 1677. My understanding of Baker’s journal and his time in Tripoli owes a great deal to C. R. Pennell’s excellent Piracy and Diplomacy in Seventeenth-Century North Africa: The Journal of Thomas Baker, English Consul in Tripoli, 1677-1685, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press (1989).

2 Quoted in R. L. Playfair, The Scourge of Christendom, 50.

3 Baker, “Journall,” 7b (August 9, 1677).

4 Ibid., 8a (October 8, 1677).

5 John Seller, Atlas Maritimus, “Tripoli.”

6 Baker, “Journall,” 3a (May 2, 1677).

7 Charles II, Articles of Peace and Commerce Between . . . Charles II . . . [and] the Noble City and Kingdom of Tripoli in Barbary, 5.

8 Baker, “Journall,” 31b (May 5, 1680).

9 Samuel Purchas, Purchas his Pilgrimage, 606.

10 Baker, “Journall,” 22a (June11, 1679).

11 Baker, “Journall,” 21a (April 20, 1679).

12 John Ogilby, Africa, Being an Accurate Description . . . , 276.

13 Baker, “Journall,” 21b (June 9, 1679).

14 Ibid., 24a (September 26, 1679).

15 Ibid., February 17, 1680. The original text is in Italian: this translation and the following are from Pennell, Piracy and Diplomacy, 200.

16 Charles II, Articles of Peace and Commerce Between . . . Charles II . . . [and] the Noble City and Kingdom of Tripoli in Barbary, 12.

17 Baker, “Journall,” 39a (May 13, 1681).

18 A. Holstein, “Journal of a Voyage to the Kingdom of Tripoli in Barbary, 1675-6,” BL Sloane 2755.

19 Baker, “Journall,” 71a (July 16, 1684); 71b (August 24, 1684).

20 Ibid., 38a (April 10, 1681).

21 Ibid., 59a (March 11, 1683).

22 Ibid., 84a (April 11, 1685).

23 Ibid., 57b-58a (December 29, 1682).

24 Ibid., 58a (December 29, 1682).

25 “Dr. Covel’s Diary (1670-1679),” in J. Theodore Bent (ed.), Early Voyages and Travels in the Levant (1893), 120.

26 Baker, “Journall,” 54a (November 7, 1682).

27 Ibid., 56b (November 18, 1682).

28 Ibid., 38b (April 14, 1681).

29 Ibid., 71a (July 24, 1684).

30 Ibid., 63a (June 30, 1683).

31 Ibid., 41b (October 15, 1681).

32 Ibid., 40a (June 30, 1681).

33 Ibid., 47b (May 23, 1682).

34 Ibid., 32a (June 1, 1680).

35 Ibid., 49a (August 4, 1682).

36 Ibid., 69b (June 13, 1684).

37 Ibid., 72b (September 23, 1684). Baker needed deep pockets: when he returned to England he put in a claim for £651 11s. 6d. in expenses (CSPD, James II, June 4, 1687).

38 Ibid., 73b (October 7, 1684).

39 Ibid., 79a (December 15, 1684).

40 Ibid., 73b (October 7, 1684).

41 Ibid., 80b (December 15, 1684).

42 CSPD, James II, November 8, 1686.

43 Baker, “Journall,” 36b (January 5, 1681); 75a (November 3, 1684).

44 Ibid., 36b (January 5, 1681); 75a (November 3, 1684).

45 Ibid., 64b (September 5, 1683).

46 Quoted in Godfrey Fisher, Barbary Legend, 281.

47 When he was retired and living in London, Thomas Baker was involved in distributing government grants to poor Turks in England, just as he had helped Christians when he lived in Tripoli and Algiers. The Treasury Books of the later 1690s contain several references to him signing money orders to provide food, clothing, and relief for distressed Algerians stranded in England—a pleasing counterpoint to his role as consul.

SIXTEEN. THE LAST CORSAIR

1 Quoted in Frederick C. Leiner, The End of the Barbary Terror, 95.

2 Mordecai M. Noah, U.S. consul at Tunis; quoted in J. de Courcy Ireland, “Raïs Hamidou,” 196.

3 Alexander Jardine, Letters from Barbary, France, Spain, Portugal, &c, vol. 1, 68-69.

4 J. M. Forbes, U.S. minister to Denmark, September 6, 1815, William Shaler Papers, Collection 1172, Historical Society of Pennsylvania; quoted in Leiner, The End of the Barbary Terror, 152.

5 Adams to Jefferson, February 17, 1786, Jefferson Papers, vol. 19; quoted in Irwin, The Diplomatic Relations of the United States with the Barbary Powers, 40.

6 James Leander Cathcart, The Captives: Eleven Years a Prisoner in Algiers, 170.

7 Ibid., 184.

8 Jefferson to Adams, July 11, 1786, Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States of America (1837), vol. 1, 792.

9 William Eaton to Secretary of State, February 3, 1802; quoted in Irwin, The Diplomatic Relations of the United States with the Barbary Powers, 117.

10 Captain William Bainbridge to the U.S. Navy Department, November 1, 1803; in Thomas Harris, The Life and Services of Commodore William Bainbridge, 81.

11 Jonathan Cowdery, American Captives in Tripoli (1806); quoted in Paul Baepler (ed.), White Slaves, African Masters, 168.

12 Samuel Putnam Waldo, The Life and Character of Stephen Decatur, 19; R. Thomas, The Glory of America: Comprising Memoirs of the Lives and Glorious Exploits of Some of the Most Distinguished Officers, 196.

13 Paschal Paoli Peck, July 4, 1805; in U.S. Gazette, October 11, 1805.

14 Tobias Lear to the U.S. Secretary of State, July 5, 1805, American State Papers, Foreign Relations, vol. 2, 717; quoted in Irwin, The Diplomatic Relations of the United States with the Barbary Powers, 153.

15 National Intelligencer, November 6, 1805.

16 Albert Devoulx, Le Raïs Hamidou, 72. My account of Hamidou’s life relies heavily on Devoulx’s biography, as well as on J. de Courcy Ireland, “Raïs Hamidou.”

17 Elizabeth Broughton, Six Years’ Residence in Algiers, 200.

18 Ibid.

19 Filippo Pananti, Narrative of a Residence in Algiers (1818), 34.

20 Ibid., 45.

21 Ibid., 46.

22 Quoted in Leiner, The End of the Barbary Terror, 109.

23 Devoulx, Le Raïs Hamidou, 144.

24 Ibid., 133-34.

25 Quoted in Leiner, The End of the Barbary Terror, 152.

26 Alexander Slidell Mackenzie, The Life of Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, vol. 2, 115. Perry believed that Omar was being egged on by the consuls of Europe, who were jealous of the United States’s achievement. He was probably right.

27 Charles Francis Adams (ed.), Memoirs of John Quincy Adams, vol. 3, 354.

28 Ibid., 356.

29 William Shaler, Sketches of Algiers, Political, Historical, and Civil, 279.

30 Edward Osler, The Life of Admiral Viscount Exmouth, 219.

31 Shaler, Sketches of Algiers, 281.

32 Despatch to James Monroe, dated September 13, 1816; quoted in R. L. Playfair, The Scourge of Christendom, 271.

33 Viscount Exmouth to Omar, August 28, 1816; in Shaler, Sketches of Algiers, 290-91.

34 Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, Protocol No. 39, November 20, 1818; translated and reprinted in Shaler, Sketches of Algiers, 302-3.

35 The Times (of London), November 5, 1830.

36 Ibid., December 17, 1830.

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