Post-classical history

Chronology

1095

(Mar.) Council of Piacenza

(July-Sept. 1096) Pope Urban II’s preaching journey (27 Nov.) Proclamation of First Crusade at the Council of Clermont

(Dec.-July 1096) Persecution of Jews in Europe

1096-1102

The First Crusade

1096

Pope Urban compares the Reconquista of Spain to the crusade

1096-7

Arrival of the armies of the second wave of the crusade at Constantinople

1097

(1 July) Battle of Dorylaeum

(21 Oct.-3 June 1098) Siege of Antioch

1098

(10 Mar.) Baldwin of Boulogne takes control of Edessa

(28 June) Battle of Antioch

1099

(15 July) Jerusalem falls to the crusaders (22 July) Godfrey of Bouillon elected first Latin ruler of Jerusalem

1101

(Aug.-Sept.) Final wave of armies of the First Crusade defeated by the Turks in Asia Minor

1107-8

Crusade of Bohemond of Taranto

1108

(Sept.) Bohemond surrenders to the Greeks

1109

(12 July) Capture of Tripoli

1113

First papal privilege for the Hospital of St John

1114

Catalan crusade to the Balearic Islands

1118

Crusade of Pope Gelasius II in Spain (19 Dec.) Saragossa falls to the crusaders

1119

(27 June) Battle of the Field of Blood

1120-5

Crusade of Pope Calixtus II to the East and in Spain

1120

Foundation of the Knights Templar

1123

(Mar.-Apr.) Crusade decree of First Lateran Council

1124

(7 July) Capture of Tyre by crusaders

1125-6

Raid of Alfonso I of Aragon into Andalusia

1128-9

Crusade to the East recruited by Hugh of Payns

1129

(Jan.) Recognition of the Templars by the Council of Troyes

(Nov.) Crusaders attack Damascus

1135

(May) Council of Pisa. Crusade indulgences offered to those taking up arms against the anti-pope and the Normans in southern Italy

1139-40

Crusade to the East

1144

(24 Dec.) Fall of Edessa to the Muslims

1145

(1 Dec.) Pope Eugenius III proclaims the Second Crusade in the bull Quantum praedecessores

1146-7

St Bernard of Clairvaux preaches the Second Crusade

1146

Persecution of Jews in the Rhineland

1147-9

The Second Crusade

1147

(i3 Apr.) Pope Eugenius authorizes crusading in Spain and beyond the north-eastern frontier of Germany as well as to the East (24 Oct.) Capture of Lisbon

1148

(24-8 July) Withdrawal of the crusaders from the siege of Damascus

1149

(I5 July) Consecration of the new church of the Holy Sepulchre

1153

Crusade in Spain

1154

(25 Apr.) Occupation of Damascus by Nur al-Din

1157-84

Series of papal calls to crusade in the East, answered by some small and medium-sized expeditions

1157-8

Crusade in Spain

1158

Foundation of the Order of Calatrava

1163 -9

Expeditions to Egypt of King Amalric of Jerusalem

1169

Completion of redecoration of the church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, sponsored by the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I, King Amalric of Jerusalem, and Bishop Ralph of Bethlehem (23 Mar.) Egypt submits to Saladin, acting on behalf of Nur al-Din

1170

Foundation of the Order of Santiago

1171

Crusade in the Baltic region

1172

(10 Sept.) ‘Abbasid caliphate proclaimed in Egypt by Saladin

c.1173

Foundation of the Order of Montegaudio

1174

(15 May) Death of Nur al-Din

(28 Oct.) Saladin takes over Damascus

1175

Crusade in Spain

c.1176

Foundation of the Orders of Avis (as the Order of Evora) and Alcantara (as the Order of San Julian del Peirero)

1177

Crusade to the East of Philip of Flanders

1183

(11 June) Aleppo submits to Saladin

1186

(3 Mar.) Mosul submits to Saladin

1187

(4 July) Battle of Hattin (2 Oct.) Jerusalem taken by Saladin (29 Oct.) Pope Gregory VI11 proclaims the Third Crusade in the bull Audita tremendi

1188

(Jan.) Imposition of the Saladin Tithe in England

1189-92

The Third Crusade

1189

(3 Sept.) Fall of Silves in Portugal to crusaders

1190

(10 June) Drowning of the Emperor Frederick I in Cilicia

1191

(June) Richard I of England takes Cyprus (12 July) Capitulation of Acre to Richard I of England and Philip 11 of France (7 Sept.) Battle of Arsuf

1192

(2 Sept.) Treaty of Jaffa

1193-1230

The Livonian Crusade (renewed 1197, 1199)

1193

Crusade in Spain

1197-8

German Crusade to Palestine

1197

Crusade in Spain

1198

Foundation of the Teutonic Order (Aug.) Pope Innocent III proclaims the Fourth Crusade

1199

(24 Nov.) Proclamation of the Crusade against Markward of Anweiler

(Dec.) Taxation of the Church for crusaders instituted

C. 1200

Foundation of the Order of San Jorge de Alfama

1202

Establishment of the Order of Swordbrethren

1202-4

The Fourth Crusade

1202

(24 Nov.) Crusaders take Zara

1204

Pope Innocent allows recruitment for the Livonian Crusade on a regular basis (12-15 Apr.) Sack of Constantinople by crusaders (9 May) Baldwin of Flanders elected first Latin emperor of Constantinople

1204-5

Conquest of the Peloponnese by Geoffrey of Villehardouin and William of Champlitte

1206

Danish Crusade to Ösel

1208

(14 Jan.) Assassination of Peter of Castelnau, the papal legate in Languedoc Proclamation of the Albigensian Crusade

1209-29

The Albigensian Crusade

1209

(22 July) Sack of Beziers

1211

King of Hungary gives the Teutonic Order a march in Transylvania

1212

The Children’s Crusade Crusade in Spain

(17 July) Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa

1213

(Apr.) Pope Innocent III proclaims the Fifth Crusade. The Spanish and Albigensian Crusades are downgraded in favour of the eastern theatre of war

(12 Sept.) Battle of Muret

1215

Order of Preachers (Dominicans) in Toulouse (14 Dec.) The constitution Ad liberandam agreed by the Fourth Lateran Council, permitting regular taxation of the Church for crusading

121I6

(28 Oct.) King Henry III of England takes the cross against English rebels

1217-29

The Fifth Crusade

1218

(27 May-5 Nov. 1219) Siege of Damietta

121I9

Danish Crusade to Estonia

1221

(30 Aug.) Crusaders in Egypt defeated at al- Mansura

1225

Teutonic Order invited to Prussia

1226

Albigensian Crusade renewed

1227

Crusade authorized against heretics in Bosnia (renewed in 1234)

1228-9

Crusade of the Emperor Frederick II (last act of the Fifth Crusade)

1229-33

Civil War in Cyprus

1229

(18 Feb.) Jerusalem restored to Christians by treaty (12 Apr.) Peace of Paris ends Albigensian Crusade Teutonic Order begins conquest of Prussia

1229-53

Crusade in Spain

1229-31

Crusade of James I of Aragon to Mallorca

1231

Crusade of John of Brienne in aid of Constantinople

Crusade of Ferdinand III of Castile in Spain

1232-4

Crusade against the Stedinger heretics in Germany

1232-53

Conquest of Valencia by James I of Aragon

1236

Proclamation of a new crusade in support of Constantinople

(29 June) Ferdinand III of Castile takes Cordoba

1237

Teutonic Order absorbs Swordbrethren in Livonia

1239-40

Crusade in aid of Constantinople

1239-41

Crusades of Thibaut of Champagne and Richard of Cornwall

1239

Proclamation of the Crusade against the Emperor Frederick II (renewed 1240, 1244)

Swedish Crusade to Finland

1241

Proclamation of the Crusade against the Mongols (renewed 1243, 1249)

1242

First Prussian Revolt against the Teutonic Order (5 Apr.) Battle on Lake Peipus

1244

(16 Mar.) Fall of Montsegur

(11 July-23 Aug.) Fall of Jerusalem to the Khorezmians

(I7 Oct.) Battle of La Forbie

1245

Teutonic Order permitted to wage a permanent crusade in Prussia

1248 -54

First Crusade of St Louis (King Louis IX of France)

1248

(Oct.) Aachen taken by crusaders engaged against Frederick II

(23 Nov.) Seville taken by Ferdinand III of Castile

1249

(6 June) Capture of Damietta

1250

(8 Feb.) Crusaders in Egypt defeated at al-Mansura

1250-4

St Louis in Palestine

1251

First Crusade of the Shepherds

1254

Crusade to Prussia of King Ottokar II of Bohemia, Rudolf of Habsburg and Otto of Brandenburg. Foundation of Königsberg

1255

Crusades preached against Manfred of Staufen and against Ezzelino and Alberic of Romano

1256-8

War of St Sabas in Acre

1258

(i0 Feb.) Mongols sack Baghdad

1259

Latins of Achaea defeated by the Greeks in the Battle of Pelagonia

1260

Livonian Teutonic Knights defeated by the Lithuanians in the Battle of Durbe Second Prussian revolt Castilian Crusade to Salé in Morocco (3 Sept.) Battle of Ayn Jalut (23 Oct.) Baybars becomes sultan of Egypt

1261

(25 July) Greeks reoccupy Constantinople

1265-6

Crusade of Charles of Anjou to southern Italy

1266

(26 Feb.) Battle of Benevento

1268

(18 May) Fall of Antioch to Mamluks

1268

(23 Aug.) Battle of Tagliacozzo

1269-72

Second Crusade of St Louis

1269

Aragonese crusade to Palestine

1270

(25 Aug.) Death of St Louis in Tunisia

1271-2

Edward of England in Palestine

1274

(18 May) Crusade decree Constitutiones pro zelo fidei of Second Council of Lyons

c-1275

Foundation of the Order of Santa Mana de Espana

1277

(Sept.) Vicar of Charles of Anjou, who had bought crown of Jerusalem from a pretender, arrives in Acre. Kingdom of Jerusalem split.

1282

(30 Mar.) Sicilian Vespers

1283-1302

Crusade against Sicilians and Aragonese

1285

French Crusade against Aragon

1286

(4 June) Kingdom of Jerusalem reunited under King Henry II of Cyprus

1287

(18 June) Crusade to the East of Alice of Blois

1288

Crusade to the East of John of Grailly

1289

(26 Apr.) Tripoli falls to the Mamluks

1290

Crusades to East of Otto of Grandson and North Italians

1291

(I8 May) Acre falls to the Mamluks (July) Sidon and Beirut fall

(Aug.) Christians evacuate Tortosa and Château Pèlerin

1302

Muslims take island of Ruad from Templars Latin rule in Jubail probably ends (31 Aug.) Treaty of Caltabellotta

1306

Hospitallers begin invasion of Rhodes

1306-7

Crusade against followers of Fra Dolcino in Piedmont

1307

Crusade proclaimed in support of Charles of Valois’s claims to Constantinople (I3 Oct.) Arrest of all Templars in France

1309

Popular Crusade

Teutonic Order moves headquarters to Marienburg in Prussia

1309-10

Castilian and Aragonese Crusade in Spain Crusade against Venice

1310

Hospitaller Crusade consolidates hold on Rhodes

1311

Hospitaller headquarters now established on Rhodes (15 Mar.) Battle of Halmyros (River Kephissos). Catalan Company assumes control of Athens and Thebes

1312

(3 Apr.) Order of the Knights Templar suppressed (2 May) Pope Clement V grants most Templar properties to the Hospitallers

1314

Crusade in Hungary (renewed 1325, 1332, 1335, 1352, 1354)

1317

(18 Mar.) The last Templar master, James of Molay, and Geoffrey of Charney burnt Foundation of the Order of Montesa

1319

Foundation of the Order of Christ

1320

Second Crusade of the Shepherds

1321

Crusade against Ferrara, Milan and the Ghibellines

1323

in the march of Ancona and duchy of Spoleto (extended to cover Mantua in 1324) Norwegian Crusade against the Russians in Finland

1325

Crusade in Poland (renewed 1340, 1343, 1351, 1354, 1355, 1363, 1369)

1327

Crusade planned against Cathars in Hungary

1328

Crusade proclaimed against King Louis IV of Germany Crusade in Spain

1330

Crusade planned against Catalan Athens

1331

New Crusade to the East proclaimed

1332-4

First Crusade League

1334

Ships of Crusade League defeat Turks in Gulf of

1337

Adramyttion Ayas falls to Mamluks

1340

Crusade against heretics in Bohemia

1342-4

(30 Oct.) Battle of River Salado Siege of Algegiras

1344

Crusade to Canary Islands planned

1345-7

(28 Oct.) Crusade League occupies Smyrna Crusade of Humbert, dauphin of Viennois

1345

Crusade of Genoese to defend Kaffa against the Mongols

1348

Crusade of King Magnus of Sweden to Finland

1349-50

(renewed 1350, 1351) Siege of Gibraltar

1353-7

Crusade to regain control of the Papal State in Italy

1354

Proposal of crusade to Africa

1359

Crusade against Cesena and Faenza Crusade League defeats Turks at Lampsakos

1360

Crusade against Milan (renewed 1363, 1368)

1365-7

Crusade of King Peter I of Cyprus

1365

(10 Oct.) Alexandria taken and held for six days by Peter of Cyprus

1366

(Aug.-Dec.) Crusade of Amadeus of Savoy to Dardanelles and Bulgaria

1374

Hospitallers take over defence of Smyrna

1377

Achaea leased to the Hospitallers for five years, leading to the rule of the Navarrese Company

1378

Capture of the Hospitaller master Juan Fernandez de Heredia by the Albanians

1379

Navarrese Company takes Thebes

1383

Crusade of the bishop of Norwich against the Clementists in Flanders

1386

Crusade of John of Gaunt in Castile Union of Poland and Lithuania. The conversion of Lithuania to Christianity under way

1390

Crusade to Mahdia

1394

Crusade of Nicopolis proclaimed

1396

Crusade of Nicopolis

(25 Sept.) Battle of Nicopolis

1398

Crusade to defend Constantinople proclaimed (renewed 1399, 1400)

1399-1403

Crusade of John Boucicaut

1402

(Dec.) Smyrna falls to Tamerlane

1410

(15 July) Battle of Tannenberg

1420-31

Hussite Crusades

1420

First Hussite Crusade

1421

Second Hussite Crusade

1422

Third Hussite Crusade

1426

(7 July) Battle of Khirokitia

1427

Fourth Hussite Crusade

1431

Fifth Hussite Crusade

1432

Greek despot of Morea takes over the principality of Achaea

1440-44

Mamluks attack Rhodes

1443

(1 Jan.) Crusade of Varna proclaimed Crusade of Varna

1444

(19 Nov.) Crusaders defeated at Varna

1453

(29 May) Constantinople falls to Turks (30 Sept.) Proclamation of a new Crusade to East (renewed 1455)

1454

(17 Feb.) Feast of the Pheasant in Lille

145 5

Genoese Crusade to defend Chios

1456

Crusade of St John of Capistrano (4 June) Athens occupied by Turks (22 July) Defence of Belgrade by crusaders under John Hunyadi and St John of Capistrano

1457

Papal fleet takes Samothrace, Thasos and Lemnos

1459-60

Crusade congress at Mantua

1459

Foundation of the Order of Bethlehem

1460

(14 Jan.) Proclamation of Crusade of Pope Pius II

1462

Lesbos falls to Turks

1464

(15 Aug.) Pope Pius II dies waiting for crusade to muster at Ancona

1470

Negroponte falls to Turks

1471

(31 Dec.) Crusade proclaimed

1472

Crusade League attacks Antalya and Smyrna

1480

(23 May-late Aug.) Turks besiege Rhodes (11 Aug.) Turks take Otranto

1481

(8 Apr.) Crusade proclaimed to regain Otranto (10 Sept.) Otranto recovered from Turks

1482-92

Crusade in Spain

1487

Malaga falls to Spaniards

1489

Baza, Almena and Guadix fall to Spaniards End of monarchy in Cyprus

1490-2

Siege of Granada

1490

Congress in Rome plans a new crusade

1492

(2 Jan.) Granada falls to Spanish crusaders

1493

Crusade in Hungary

1499-1510

Spanish crusade in North Africa (1497 Melilla; 1505 Mers el-Kebir; 1508 Canary Islands; 1509 Oran; 1510 Rock of Algiers, Bougie and Tripoli)

1499

Turks take Lepanto

1500

Turks take Coron and Modon (I June) Crusade proclaimed

1512-17

Fifth Lateran Council discusses crusading

1513

Crusade proclaimed in eastern Europe

1516-17

Ottoman conquest of Egypt

1517

(11 Nov.) Crusade proclaimed

1520

(June) Field of Cloth of Gold: the kings of France and England meet on preparations for a new crusade

1522

(July-18 Dec.) Siege of Rhodes, ending in surrender of Rhodes to Turks

1523

(1 Jan.) Hospitallers leave Rhodes

1525

Albert of Brandenburg, Hochmeister of the Teutonic Order, adopts Lutheranism

1529

(26 Sept.-Oct.) First Ottoman siege of Vienna

1530

(2 Feb.) Crusade proclaimed

(23 Mar.) Hospitallers given Malta and Tripoli in North Africa by the Emperor Charles V (as king of Sicily)

1535

(June-July) Crusade of the Emperor Charles V to Tunis

1537-8

Crusade League to eastern Mediterranean

1538

(27 Sept.) Fleet of Crusade League defeated off Preveza

1540

Nauplia and Monemvasia fall to Turks

1541

(Oct.-Nov.) Crusade of the Emperor Charles V to Algiers

1550

(June-Sept.) Crusade of the Emperor Charles V to Mahdia

1551

(i4 Aug.) Hospitallers surrender Tripoli to the Turks

1562

Gotthard Kettler, master of Teutonic Order in Livonia, adopts Lutheranism and becomes a duke Foundation of the Order of Santo Stefano

1565

(19 May-8 Sept.) Great Siege of Malta by Turks

1566

Chios falls to Turks

1570-1

Holy (Crusade) League (renewed 1572) Fall of Cyprus to Turks

1570

(9 Sept.) Nicosia falls to Turks

1571

(5 Aug.) Famagusta falls to Turks (7 Oct.) Battle of Lepanto

1572

League fleet in eastern Mediterranean

Union of the Orders of St Lazarus and St Maurice

1573

(11 Oct.) Don John of Austria takes Tunis

1574

(Aug.-Sept.) Tunis recovered by Turks

1578

Crusade of King Sebastian of Portugal to Morocco (4 Aug.) Battle of Alcazarquivir

1588

The Armada

1614

Malta raided by the Turks

1617

Foundation of the Ordre de la Milice Chrétienne

1645—69

Crete conquered by the Turks. Defended by a Crusade League

1664

Hospitallers attack Algiers

1669

(26 Sept.) Iraklion (Candia) surrenders to Turks

1683

(14 July-12 Sept.) Second Ottoman Siege of Vienna

1684-97

Holy (Crusade) League

1685-7

Venetians occupy the Peloponnese

1686

Christian forces take Buda

1699

Peace of Karlowitz

1707

Hospitallers help defend Oran

1715

Peloponnese reoccupied by Turks

1741-73

Manoel Pinto, grand master of the Hospitallers, adopts full attributes of sovereignty

1792

Hospitaller properties in France seized

1798

(13 June) Malta surrenders to Napoleon

MAPS

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