Post-classical history

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Select bibliography

PRIMARY SOURCES

This list includes both primary sources cited in this book and, where judged appropriate, additional primary texts, either in Arabic or in translation, that may be of interest to readers or have been helpful in the preparation of this work.

Abu’l-Fida’, ‘Imad al-Din Isma‘il. (1983) The Memoirs of a Syrian Prince: Abu’l-Fida’, Sultan of Hamah (672–732/1273–1331). Trans. P.M. Holt. Freiburger Islamstudien 9. Wiesbaden, Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag GMBH.

——. ‘Imad al-Din Isma‘il. (1998–9) Al-Mukhtasar fi Akhbar al-Bashar. Ed. Muhammad Z.M. ‘Azab, Yahya S. Husayn and Muhammad F. Wasif. 4 vols. Cairo: Dar al-Ma‘arif.

Arab Historians of the Crusades. (1984) Ed. Francesco Gabrieli. Trans. Francesco Gabrieli and E.J. Costello. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Al-‘Azimi, Muhammad ibn ‘Ali. (1984) Ta’rikh Halab. Ed. Ibrahim Za‘rur. Damascus: n.p.

Al-Bukhari, Muhammad ibn Isma‘il. (2003) Sahih al-Bukhari. Ed. and trans. Muhammad M. al-Sharif. 4 vols. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyya.

Chronicles of the Crusades: Eyewitness Accounts of the Wars between Christianity and Islam. (2000) Ed. Elizabeth Hallam. Trans. Michael Parkison. New York: Welcome Rain.

Al-Harawi, Abu’l-Hasan ‘Ali. (1962) ‘Les Conseils du Sayh al-Harawi à un Prince Ayyubide’. Ed. and trans. Janine Sourdel-Thomine. Bulletin d’Études Orientales 17, pp. 205–68.

Ibn ‘Abd al-Zahir, Muhyi’l-Din. (1961) Tashrif al-Ayyam wa-l-‘Usur fi Sirat al-Malik al-Mansur. Ed. Murad Kamil and Muhammad ‘A. al-Najjar. Cairo: al-Sharika al-‘Arabiyya li-l-Tiba‘a wa-l-Nashr.

Ibn al-‘Adim, Kamal al-Din. (1951–68) Zubdat al-Halab min Ta’rikh Halab. Ed. Sami Dahan. 3 vols. Damascus: al-Ma‘had al-Firansi.

Ibn al-Athir, ‘Izz al-Din. (1963) Al-Ta’rikh al-Bahir fi’l-Dawla al-Atabakiyya. Ed. ‘Abd al-Qadir A. Tulaymat. Cairo: Dar al-Kutub al-Haditha.

——. (1966) Al-Kamil fi’l-Ta’rikh. Ed. C.J. Tornberg. 13 vols. Beirut: Dar Sadir.

——. (2006) The Chronicle of Ibn al-Athir for the Crusading Period from al-Kamil fi’l-Ta’rikh: Part 1: The Years 491–541/1097–1146: The Coming of the Franks and the Muslim Response. Trans. D.S. Richards. Crusade Texts in Translation 13. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

——. (2007) The Chronicle of Ibn al-Athir for the Crusading Period from al-Kamil fi’l-Ta’rikh: Part 2: The Years 541–589/1146–1193: The Age of Nur al-Din and Saladin. Trans. D.S. Richards. Crusade Texts in Translation 15. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

——. (2008) The Chronicle of Ibn al-Athir for the Crusading Period from al-Kamil fi’l-Ta’rikh: Part 3: The Years 589–629/1193–1231: The Ayyubids after Saladin and the Mongol Menace. Trans. D.S. Richards. Crusade Texts in Translation 17. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

Ibn al-Dawadari, Abu Bakr ibn ‘Abd Allah. (1971) Kanz al-Durar wa-Jami‘ al-Ghurar. Vol. 8. Ed. Ulrich Haarmann. Cairo: al-Ma‘had al-Almani li-l-Athar.

Ibn al-Jawzi, ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Ali. (1992) Al-Muntazam fi Ta’rikh al-Muluk wa-l-Umam. Ed. Muhammad ‘A. al-Q. ‘Ata and Mustafa ‘A. al-Q. ‘Ata. 19 vols. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyya.

Ibn Jubayr, Muhammad ibn Ahmad. (1907) The Travels of Ibn Jubayr. Ed. William Wrightand M.J. de Goeje. E.J.W. Gibb Memorial Series, Vol. 5. 2nd Ed. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill.

——. (2001) The Travels of Ibn Jubayr. Trans. R.J.C. Broadhurst. New Delhi: Goodword Books.

Ibn Khallikan, Ahmad ibn Muhammad. (1961) Ibn Khallikan’s Biographical Dictionary. Trans. William Mac Guckin de Slane. 4 vols. New York: Johnson Reprint Corporation.

——. (1968–94) Wafayat al-A‘yan wa-Anba’ Abna’ al-Zaman. Ed. Ihsan ‘Abbas. 8 vols. Beirut: Dar Sadir.

Ibn al-Khayyat, Ahmad ibn Muhammad. (1994) Diwan ibn al-Khayyat. Ed. Kh. Mardam Bey. Beirut: Dar Sadir.

Ibn al-Qalanisi, Hamza ibn Asad. (1932) The Damascus Chronicle of the Crusades. Trans. H.A.R. Gibb. London: Luzac and Co.

——. (1983) Ta’rikh Dimashq. Ed. Suhayl Zakkar. Damascus: Dar Hassan li-l-Tiba‘a wa-l-Nashr.

Ibn al-Qaysarani, Muhammad ibn Nasr. (1991) Shi‘r Ibn al-Qaysarani. Ed. ‘Adil J.S. Muhammad. Al-Zarqa’, Jordan: al-Wakalat al-‘Arabiyya li-l-Nashr wa-l-Tawzi‘.

Ibn Shaddad, Baha’ al-Din. (1964) Al-Nawadir al-Sultaniyya wa-l-Mahasin al-Yusufiyya: Sirat Salah al-Din. Ed. Jamal al-Din al-Shayyal. Cairo: al-Dar al-Misriyya li-l-Ta’lif wa-l-Tarjama.

——. (2001) The Rare and Excellent History of Saladin. Trans. D.S. Richards. Crusade Texts in Translation 7. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

Ibn Taghri Birdi, Jamal al-Din. (1963) Al-Nujum al-Zahira fi Muluk Misr wal-Qahira. Ed. M.‘A. al-Q. Hatim. 12 vols. Cairo: Dar al-Kutub al-Misriyya.

Ibn Wasil, Jamal al-Din Muhammad. (1953–75) Mufarrij al-Kurub fi Akhbar Bani Ayyub. Ed. Jamal al-Din al-Shayyal, Hasanayn M. Rabi‘ and Sa‘id ‘A. al-F. ‘Ashur. 5 vols. Cairo: Al-Matba‘a al-Amiriyya.

‘Interview with Usama bin Laden by His Followers, 1998’. (2004) Trans. Akram Fouad Khater, inAkram Fouad Khater (ed.), Sources in the History of the Modern Middle East. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, pp. 360–3.

Al-Isfahani, ‘Imad al-Din. (1965) Al-Fath al-Qussi fi’l-Fath al-Qudsi. Ed. Muhammad M. Subh. Cairo: al-Dar al-Qawmiyya li-l-Tiba‘a wa-l-Nashr.

——. (1972) Conquête de la Syrie et de la Palestine par Saladin (al-Fath al-Qussi fi l-Fath al-Qudsi). Trans. Henri Massé. Paris: Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner.

‘Jihad against Jews and Crusaders: World Islamic Front Statement’. (2004) Trans. Akram Fouad Khater, in Akram Fouad Khater (ed.), Sources in the History of the Modern Middle East. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, pp. 363–5.

Al-Maqrizi, Ahmad ibn ‘Ali. (1967–73) Itti‘az al-Hunafa’ bi-Akhbar al-A’imam al-Fatimiyyin al-Khulafa’. Ed. Jamal al-Din al-Shayyal and Muhammad H.M. Ahmad. 3 vols. Cairo: Lajnat Ihya’ al-Turath al-Islami.

Al-Mas‘udi, ‘Ali ibn al-Husayn. (1894) Kitâb at-Tanbîh wa’l-Ischrâf. Ed. M.J. de Goeje. Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum, Vol. 8. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill.

——. (1965–79) Muruj al-Dhahab wa-Ma‘adin al-Jawhar. Ed. Charles Pellat. 7 vols. Beirut: Manshurat al-Jami‘a al-Lubnaniyya.

Matériaux pour un Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum: Deuxième Partie, Tome Deuxième: Syrie du Sud – Jérusalem ‘Haram’. (1925) Ed. Max van Berchem. Mémoires Publiés par les Membres de l’Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale du Caire, Vol. 44. Cairo: Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale.

The Meaning of the Holy Qur’an. (2004) Ed. and trans. ‘Abdullah Y. ‘Ali. 11th Ed. Beltsville, MD: Amana Publications.

The Sea of Precious Virtues (Bahr al-Fava’id): A Medieval Islamic Mirror for Princes. (1991) Trans. Julie Scott Meisami. Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press.

Semeonis, Symon. (1960) Itinerarium Symonis Semeonis ab Hybernia ad Terram Sanctam. Ed. and trans. Mario Esposito. Scriptores Latini Hiberniae 4. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.

Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, Yusuf ibn Qizughli. (1951–2) Mir’at al-Zaman fi Ta’rikh al-A‘yan. 2 vols. Hyderabad-Deccan, India: Dairatu’l-Maarifil-Osmania.

Al-Sulami, ‘Ali ibn Tahir. (in press) The Book of the Jihad of ‘Ali ibn Tahir al-Sulami (d. 1106): Text, Translation and Commentary. Ed. and trans. Niall Christie. Crusade Texts in Translation. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

Usama ibn Munqidh. (1930) Usamah’s Memoirs entitled Kitab al-I‘tibar. Ed. Philip K. Hitti. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

——. (1987) Lubab al-Adab. Ed. Ahmad M. Shakir. Cairo: Dar al-Kutub al-Salafiyya.

——. (2000) An Arab-Syrian Gentleman and Warrior in the Period of the Crusades: Memoirs of Usamah ibn-Munqidh (Kitab al-I‘tibar). Trans. Philip K. Hitti. Records of Western Civilization. New York: Columbia University Press.

——. (2008) The Book of Contemplation: Islam and the Crusades. Trans. Paul M. Cobb. Penguin Classics. London: Penguin Books.

Al-Wasiti, Muhammad ibn Ahmad. (1979) Fada’il al-Bayt al-Muqaddas. Ed. Isaac Hasson. Max Schloessinger Memorial Series 3. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University.

SECONDARY SOURCES

Note that this is a list of scholarly works cited in this book, rather than a comprehensive list of secondary sources about the subject. Interested readers are encouraged to consult the bibliographies and notes of the works listed below for further reading on the topic.

Abouali, Diana. (2011) ‘Saladin’s Legacy in the Middle East before the Nineteenth Century’, Crusades 10, pp. 175–89.

Abulafia, David. (1994) ‘The Role of Trade in Muslim–Christian Contact during the Middle Ages’, in Dionisius A. Agius and Richard Hitchcock (eds), The Arab Influence in Medieval Europe. Middle East Cultures Series 18. Reading, UK: Ithaca Press, pp. 1–24.

——. (1995) ‘Trade and Crusade 1050–1250’, in Michael Goodich, Sophia Menache and Sylvia Schein (eds), Cross Cultural Convergences in the Crusader Period: Essays Presented to Aryeh Grabois on his Sixty-Fifth Birthday. New York: Peter Lang, pp. 1–20.

Ali-Karamili, Sumbul. (2008) The Muslim Next Door: The Qur’an, the Media and That Veil Thing. Ashland, OR: White Cloud Press.

Amitai-Preiss, Reuven. (1995) Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk–Ilkhanid War, 1260–1281. Cambridge Studies in Islamic Civilization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Atiya, Aziz S. (1962) Crusade, Commerce and Culture. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Atrache, Laila. (1996) Die Politik der Ayyubiden: Die Fränkisch–Islamischen Beziehungen in der Ersten Hälfte des 7./13. Jahrhunderts unter Besonderer Berücksichtigung des Feindbildes. Arabica Rhema 1. Münster, Germany: Rhema.

Ayalon, David. (1977) Studies on the Mamluks of Egypt (1250–1517). London: Variorum Reprints.

——. (1994) Islam and the Abode of War: Military Slaves and Islamic Adversaries. Variorum Collected Studies Series. Aldershot, UK: Variorum.

Bachrach, Jere L. (1984) A Middle East Studies Handbook. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.

Bengio, Ofra. (1998) Saddam’s Word: Political Discourse in Iraq. Studies in Middle Eastern History. New York: Oxford University Press.

Bonner, Michael. (1996) Aristocratic Violence and Holy War: Studies in the Jihad and the Arab–Byzantine Frontier. American Oriental Series 81. New Haven, CT: American Oriental Society.

——. (2006) Jihad in Islamic History: Doctrines and Practice. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Bonney, Richard. (2004) Jihad: From Qur’an to bin Laden. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Bosworth, Clifford E. (1996) The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual. New York: Columbia University Press.

Bush, George W. (2001) ‘Remarks by the President upon Arrival’. The White House: President George W. Bush. Posted 16 September 2001. Available online at <htt­p:/­/ge­org­ewb­ush­-wh­ite­hou­se.­arc­hiv­es.­gov­/ne­ws/­rel­eas­es/­200­1/0­9/2­001­091­6-2­.ht­ml> (accessed 24 June 2013).

Chamberlin, John M. (2007) Imagining Defeat: An Arabic Historiography of the Crusades. MA Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. Posted 1 March 2007. Available online at <htt­p:/­/ha­ndl­e.d­tic­.mi­1/1­00.­2/A­DA4­672­68> (accessed 13 September 2013).

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Christie, Niall. (1999) Levantine Attitudes towards the Franks during the Early Crusades (490/1096–564/1169). PhD Thesis, University of St Andrews. Posted 12 June 2012. Available online at <htt­p:/­/hd­l.h­and­le.­net­/10­023­/27­41> (accessed 24 June 2013).

——. (2004) ‘Just a Bunch of Dirty Stories? Women in the “Memoirs” of Usamah Ibn Munqidh’, in Rosamund Allen (ed.), Eastward Bound: Travel and Travellers, 1050–1550. Manchester: Manchester University Press, pp. 71–87.

——. (2006) ‘Religious Campaign or War of Conquest? Muslim Views of the Motives of the First Crusade’, in Niall Christie and Maya Yazigi (eds), Noble Ideals and Bloody Realities: Warfare in the Middle Ages. History of Warfare 37. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill, pp. 57–72.

——. (2007 a) ‘Jerusalem in the Kitab al-Jihad of ‘Ali ibn Tahir al-Sulami’, Medieval Encounters 13(2), pp. 209–21.

——. (2007 b) ‘Motivating Listeners in the Kitub al-Jihad of ‘Ali ibn Tahir al-Sulami (d. 1106)’, Crusades 6, pp. 1–14.

—— and Deborah Gerish. (2003) ‘Parallel Preachings: Urban II and al-Sulami’, Al-Masaq: Islam and the Medieval Mediterranean 15(2), pp. 139–48.

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——. (2014) The Race for Paradise: An Islamic History of the Crusades. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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——. (1994) The Assassin Legends: Myths of the Isma’ilis. London: I.B. Tauris.

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——. (1986) ‘Al-Quds: Jerusalem in the Consciousness of the Counter-Crusader’, in Vladimir P. Goss and Christine Verzár Bornstein (eds), The Meeting of Two Worlds: Cultural Exchange between East and West during the Period of the Crusades. Studies in Medieval Culture 21. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, pp. 201–21.

——. (1993) ‘Diplomatic Relations between Muslim and Frankish Rulers 1097–1153 A.D.’, in Maya Shatzmiller (ed.), Crusaders and Muslims in Twelfth-Century Syria. The Medieval Mediterranean: Peoples, Economies and Cultures, 400–1453 1. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill, pp. 190–215.

——. (1995) ‘Some Aspects of Muslim–Frankish Christian Relations in the Sham Region in the Twelfth Century’, in Yvonne Y. Haddad and Wadi Z. Haddad (eds), Christian–Muslim Encounters. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, pp. 193–209.

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——. (1999) La Principauté Ayyoubide d’Alep (579/1183–658/1260). Freiburger Islamstudien 21. Stuttgart, Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag.

——. (2011) Saladin. Trans. Jane Marie Todd. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

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El-Azhari, Taef K. (1997) The Saljuqs of Syria during the Crusades, 463–549 A.H./1070–1154 A.D. Islamkundliche Untersuchungen 211. Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag.

Elisséeff, Nikita. (1967) Nur ad-Din: Un Grand Prince Musulman de Syrie au Temps des Croisades (511–569 H./1118–1174). 3 vols. Damascus: Institute Français de Damas.

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France, John. (1997) ‘Technology and the Success of the First crusade’, in Yaacov Lev (ed.), War and Society in the Eastern Mediterranean, 7th–15th Centuries. The Medieval Mediterranean: Peoples, Economies and Cultures, 400–1453 9. Leiden, E.J. Brill, pp. 163–76.

Frenkel, Yehoshua. (1997) ‘The Impact of the Crusades on Rural Society and Religious Endowments: The Case of Medieval Syria (Bilad al-Sham)’, in Yaacov Lev (ed.), War and Society in the Eastern Mediterranean, 7th–15th Centuries. The Medieval Mediterranean: Peoples, Economies and Cultures, 400–1453 9. Leiden, E.J. Brill, pp. 237–48.

——. (2011) ‘Muslim Responses to the Frankish Dominion in the Near East, 1098–1291’, in Conor Kostick (ed.), The Crusades and the Near East: Cultural Histories. London: Routledge, pp. 27–54.

Friedman, Yvonne. (1995) ‘Women in Captivity and their Ransom during the Crusader Period’, in Michael Goodich, Sophia Menache and Sylvia Schein (eds), Cross Cultural Convergences in the Crusader Period: Essays Presented to Aryeh Grabois on his Sixty-Fifth Birthday. New York: Peter Lang, pp. 75–87.

——. (2011) ‘Peacemaking: Perceptions and Practices in the Medieval Latin East’ in Conor Kostick (ed.), The Crusades and the Near East: Cultural Histories. London: Routledge, pp. 229–57.

Gibb, H.A.R. et al. (ed.) (1960–2004) The Encyclopaedia of Islam. 2nd ed. 11 vols plus supplements. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill.

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Gottschalk, Hans L. (1958) Al-Malik al-Kamil von Egypten und seine Zeit: Eine Studie zur Geschichte Vorderasiens und Egyptens in der Ersten Hälfte des 7./13. Jahrhunderts. Wiesbaden, Germany: Otto Harrassowitz.

Halm, Heinz. (1992) Shiism. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Hillenbrand, Carole. (1994) ‘Jihad Propaganda in Syria from the Time of the First Crusade until the Death of Zengi: The Evidence of Monumental Inscriptions’, in Khalil Athaminah and Roger Heacock (eds), The Frankish Wars and their Influence on Palestine: Selected Papers Presented at Birzeit University’s International Academic Conference Held in Jerusalem, March 13–15, 1992. Birzeit, Palestine: Birzeit University Publications, pp. 60–69.

——. (1999 a) The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

——. (2001) ‘“Abominable Acts”: The Career of Zengi’, in Jonathan Phillips and Martin Hoch (eds), The Second Crusade: Scope and Consequences. Manchester: Manchester University Press, pp. 111–32.

——. (2010) ‘Jihad Poetry in the Age of the Crusades’, in Thomas F. Madden, James L. Naus and Vincent Ryan (eds), Crusades: Medieval Worlds in Conflict. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, pp. 9–23.

Hillenbrand, Robert. (1999 b) Islamic Art and Architecture. World of Art. London: Thames and Hudson.

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——. (1995) Early Mamluk Diplomacy (1260–1290): Treaties of Baybars and Qalawun with Christian Rulers. Islamic History and Civilization: Studies and Texts 12. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill.

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Humphreys, R. Stephen. (1977) From Saladin to the Mongols: The Ayyubids of Damascus, 1193–1260. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

——. (1998) ‘Ayyubids, Mamluks and the Latin East in the Thirteenth Century’, Mamluk Studies Review 2, pp. 1–17.

Irwin, Robert. (1986) The Middle East in the Middle Ages: The Early Mamluk Sultanate 1250–1382. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

——. (1995) ‘Islam and the Crusades, 1096–1699’, in Jonathan Riley-Smith (ed.), The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 217–59.

——. (1998) ‘Usamah ibn Munqidh, an Arab-Syrian Gentleman at the Time of the Crusades Reconsidered’, in J. France and William G. Zajc (eds), The Crusades and Their Sources: Essays Presented to Bernard Hamilton. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, pp. 71–87.

Kedar, Benjamin Z. (1990) ‘The Subjected Muslims of the Frankish Levant’, in James M. Powell (ed.), Muslims under Latin Rule, 1100–1300. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 135–74.

——. (1992) ‘The Battle of Hattin Revisited’, in B.Z. Kedar (ed.), The Horns of Hattin: Proceedings of the Second Conference of the Society of the Crusades and the Latin East. Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, pp. 190–207.

——. (1996) ‘Croisade et Jihad Vus par l’Ennemi’, in Michel Balard (ed.), Autour de la Première Croisade: Actes du Colloque de la Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East (Clermont-Ferrand, 22–25 Juin 1995). Byzantina Sorbonensia 14. Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, pp. 345–55.

——. (1997 a) ‘Multidirectional Conversion in the Frankish Levant’, in J. Muldoon (ed.), Varieties of Religious Conversion in the Middle Ages. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, pp. 190–9.

——. (1997 b) ‘Some New Sources on Palestinian Muslims before and during the Crusades’, in H.E. Mayer (ed.), Die Kreuzfahrerstaaten als Multikulturelle Gesellschaft. Schriften des Historischen Kollegs, Kolloquien 37. Munich: Oldenbourg, pp. 129–40.

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——. (2013) Alliances and Treaties between Frankish and Muslim Rulers in the Middle East. Trans. Peter M. Holt. Ed. Konrad Hirschler. The Muslim World in the Age of the Crusades: Studies and Texts 1. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill.

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——. (1999) Saladin in Egypt. The Medieval Mediterranean 21. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill.

——. (2007) ‘Saladin’s Economic Policies and the Economy of Ayyubid Egypt’, in U. Vermeulen and K. D’Hulster (eds), Egypt and Syria in the Fatimid, Ayyubid and Mamluk Eras V. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 169. Leuven, Belgium: Uitgeverij Peeters, pp. 307–48.

——. (2008) ‘The Jihad of Sultan Nur al-Din of Syria (1146–74): History and Discourse’, Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 35, pp. 227–84.

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——. (1997) ‘Jerusalem under the Ayyubids and Mamluks 1187–1516 ad’, in Kamil J. Asali (ed.), Jerusalem in History: 3000 BC to the Present Day. Revised Ed. London: Kegan Paul International, pp. 177–99.

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