Post-classical history

Muslims and Crusaders: Christianity's Wars in the Middle East, 1095-1382, from the Islamic Sources

Muslims and Crusaders: Christianity's Wars in the Middle East, 1095-1382, from the Islamic Sources

Muslims and Crusaders supplements and counterbalances the numerous books that tell the story of the crusading period from the European point of view, enabling readers to achieve a broader and more complete perspective on the period. It presents the Crusades from the perspective of those against whom they were waged, the Muslim peoples of the Levant. The book introduces the reader to the most significant issues that affected their responses to the European crusaders, and their descendants who would go on to live in the Latin Christian states that were created in the region.

This book combines chronological narrative, discussion of important areas of scholarly enquiry and evidence from primary sources to give a well-rounded survey of the period. It considers not only the military meetings between Muslims and the Crusaders, but also the personal, political, diplomatic and trade interactions that took place between Muslims and Franks away from the battlefield. Through the use of a wide range of translated primary source documents, including chronicles, dynastic histories, religious and legal texts and poetry, the people of the time are able to speak to us in their own voices.


Who’s who


Guide to Muslim names



Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2. The Muslim world before the Crusades

Chapter 3. The First Crusade and the Muslim response, 1095–1146

Chapter 4. Nur al-Din and Saladin, 1146–74

Chapter 5. Victory and stalemate, 1174–93

Chapter 6. War and peace in the twelfth-century Levant

Chapter 7. The Successors of Saladin, 1193–1249

Chapter 8. The Mamluks, 1249–1382

Chapter 9. Conclusion


1. Extracts from the Qur’an and hadith

2. A depiction of the Fatimid caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah (r. 996–1021)

3. Al-Mas‘udi on the Franks

4. The fall of Jerusalem to the crusaders: two accounts

5. Muslim views of the crusaders and their motives

6. Extracts from the Book of the Jihad of ‘Ali ibn Tahir al-Sulami (d. 1106)

7. The failure of the Second Crusade at Damascus: two accounts

8. Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Wasiti (fl. 1019): extracts from The Merits of Jerusalem

9. Ibn al-Athir on Nur al-Din and Saladin

10. ‘Imad al-Din al-Isfahani on the Battle of Hattin and Saladin’s conquest of Jerusalem

11. Baha’ al-Din ibn Shaddad on Saladin’s virtues

12. An exchange of letters during the Third Crusade

13. Extract from al-Harawi’s treatise on Muslim military tactics

14. Usama ibn Munqidh on Frankish culture

15. Ibn al-Qaysarani and ‘Imad al-Din al-Isfahani on Frankish women

16. Al-Kamil Muhammad and the Fifth Crusade

17. Two sources on the handover of Jerusalem to Frederick II

18. Ibn al-Dawadari on the Battle of ‘Ayn Jalut

19. Qalawun’s treaty with the Lady of Tyre, 1285

20. Abu’l-Fida’ on the fall of Acre, 1291

21. Statements of Usama ibn Ladin (Osama bin Laden, 1957–2011), 1998

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