Bibliography

Primary sources

Sources for medieval history tend to be much less freely availaible than their equivalents from the classical period. Not only do a majority remain untranslated, but many are accessible only in intimidating volumes of nineteenth-century scholarship. Two resources are particularly indispensable. One is the Patrologia Latina, an immense compendium of sermons, saints’ lives and other writings on ecclesiastical themes, gathered together in no fewer than 221 volumes by a single French priest, Jacques-Paul Migne. The other is the Monumenta Germaniae Historica, an even more titanic anthology of sources for the study of medieval history, begun in 1826 and ongoing to this day. Its title notwithstanding, the range of texts it embraces is far from confined to Germany. It is, however, authentically monumental.

The following abbreviations were unavoidable:

AASS: Acta Sanctorum Quotquot Orbe Colunter, Société des Bollandistes Antwerp, Brussels and Paris, 1643–1940

EHD: English Historical Documents 1, c. 500–1042, Dorothy Whitelock London, 1979

MGH: Monumenta Germaniae Historica

AA: Auctores Antiquissimi Libelli: Libelli de lite imperatorum et pontificum

SRG: Scriptores Rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum separati editii

SS: Scriptores

PG: Patrologia Graeca

PL: Patrologia Latina

All quotations from the Bible are from the Revised Standard Version. All quotations from the Qur’an are from the translation by Abdullah Yusuf Ali (Indianapolis, 1992).

Abbo of Fleury: Apologeticus ad Hugonem et Rodbertum Reges Francorum, in PL 139

Abd Allah b. Buluggin al-Ziri al-Sanhaji: Al-Tibyan, tr. A. T. Tibi Leiden, 1986

Adalbero of Laon: Poème au roi Robert, C. Carozzi Paris, 1979

Adam of Bremen: History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen, tr. Francis J. Tschan New York, 2002

Adémar of Chabannes: Ademari Cabannensis Chronica, Pascale Bourgain Turnhout, 1999

Adso of Montier-en-Der: “Letter on the Origin and Time of the Antichrist,” in Apocalyptic Spirituality: Treatises and Letters of Lactantius, Adso of Montier-en-Der, Joachim of Fiore, The Franciscan Spirituals, Savonarola, tr. Bernard McGinn New York, 1979

Aelfric: Colloquy, G. N. Garmonsway London, 1947

Aelfric: Aelfric’s Catholic Homilies, Malcolm Godden London, 1979

Albert of Aachen: Historia Ierosolimitana, Susan B. Edgington Oxford, 2007

Albert of Metz: Fragmentum ed Deoderico primo episcopo Mettensi, in MGH SS 4 Hanover, 1854

Alcuin: Letters, in Alcuin of York, c. A.D. 732 to 804: His Life and Letters, by Stephen Allott York, 1974

Amatus of Monte Cassino: The History of the Normans, tr. Prescott N. Dunbar Woodbridge, 2004

Andrew of Fleury: Miraculi Sancti Benedicti, Eugene de Certain Paris, 1858

Andrew of Fleury: Vie de Gauzlin, Abbé de Fleury, Robert-Henri Bautier Paris, 1969

Angilbertus: Karolus Magnus et Leo Papa, in MGH Poetae Latini aevi Karolini 1 Berlin, 1881

Anna Comnena: The Alexiad, tr. E. R. A. Sewter London, 2003

Annales Hildesheimenses, in MGH SRG 8 Hanover, 1878

Annales Quedlinburgenses, in MGH SS 3 Hanover, 1839

Annals of Ulster, tr. Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niocail Dublin, 1983

Archives d’Anjou, Paul Marchegay, 3 Angers, 1843–56

Ari Thorgilsson: Book of the Icelanders, Halldór Hermannsson Ithaca, 1930

Arnold of Regensburg: Vita S. Emmerami, in MGH SS 4 Hanover, 1841

Arnulf of Milan: Liber Gestorum Recentium, in MGH SRG 67 Hanover, 1994

Augustine: City of God, tr. Henry Bettenson London, 2003

Augustine: On Order, tr. Silvano Borruso South Bend, 2006

Avitus of Vienne: Epistulae, in MGH AA 6.2 Berlin, 1888

Battle of Maldon, in EHD

Beno: Benonis et Aliorum Cardinalium Schismaticorum Contra Gregorium VII. et Urbanum II. Scripta, in MGH Libelli 2 Hanover, 1892

Bibliotheca Cluniacensis, Martinus Marrier and Andreas Quercetanus Mâcon, 1915

Blickling Homilies, tr. Richard J. Kelly London, 2003

Bonizo of Sutri: To a Friend, in The Papal Reform of the Eleventh Century, tr. and I. S. Robinson Manchester, 2004

Bruno of Merseburg: Saxonicum Bellum, in MGH Deutsches Mittelalter 2 Leipzig, 1937

Bruno of Querfort: Passio Sancti Adalberti, in MGH SS 4 Hanover, 1841

Bruno of Querfort: Vita Quinque Fratrum, in MGH SS 15 Hanover, 1887

Byrhtferth: Byrhtferth’s Manual, tr. and S. J. Crawford London, 1929

Carmen de Hastingae Proelio, in Morillo, 46–52

Cartulaire de l’Abbaye de Saint-Aubin d’Angers, B. de Broussillon, 2 Paris, 1903

Cartulaire du Ronceray, Paul Marchegay Angers, 1856

Charlemagne: Epistolae, in MGH Epistolae Karolini Aevi Berlin, 1892–1925

Chronicon Mosomense: Chronique ou Livre de Fondation du Monastère de Mouzon, tr. and Michel Bur Paris, 1989

Chronicon Novaliciense, in MGH SS 7 Hanover, 1846

Collectanea Byzantina II, S. G. Mercati Bari, 1970

Constantine VII Porphyrogenitos: De Administrando Imperio, tr. R. J. H. Jenkins Dumbarton Oaks, 1967

Corpus Scriptorum Muzarabicorum, J. Gil, 2 Madrid, 1973

Desiderius of Monte Cassino: Dialogi de Miraculis Sancti Benedicti, in MGH SS 30/2 Leipzig, 1934

Documents pour l’Histoire de l’Église de Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers (768–1300), L. Rédet Poitiers, 1847

Donation of Constantine, Ernest F. Henderson, in Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages London, 1910 319–29

Dudo of Saint-Quentin: History of the Normans, tr. Eric Christiansen Woodbridge, 1998

Egil’s Saga, tr. C. Fell and J. Lucas London, 1975

Einhard: The Life of Charlemagne, in Two Lives of Charlemagne, tr. Lewis Thorpe London, 1969

Encomium Emmae Reginae, tr. Alistair Campbell Cambridge, 1998

Erchempert: Historia Langabardorum Beneventarnorum (http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/erchempert.html)

Eucherius of Lyon: The Passion of the Martyrs Van Berchem, 55–9

Eusebius: Eusebius’ Life of Constantine, tr. Averil Cameron and Stuart G. Hall Oxford, 1999

Eusebius: In Praise of the Emperor Constantine (http://www.ucalgary.ca/vandersp/Courses/texts/eusebius/euseprai.html)

Ex Miraculis Sancit Alexii, in MGH SS 4 Hanover, 1841

Flodoard: Annales, Philippe Lauer Paris, 1905

Fontes ad Topographiam Veteris Urbis Romae Pertinentes, VIII, Regio Urbis X, Mons Palatinus, G. Lugli Rome, 1960

Fulbert of Chartres: The Letters & Poems of Fulbert of Chartres, F. Behrends Oxford, 1976

Fulcher of Chartres: The First Crusade: The Chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres and Other Sources, Edward Peters Philadelphia, 1998

Gallus Anonymus: The Deeds of the Princes of the Poles, tr. Paul W. Knoll and Frank Shaer Budapest, 2003

Geoffrey of Malaterra: De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Calabriae et Siciliae Comitis et Roberti Guiscardi Fratris Eius, E. Pontieri Bologna, 1927

Gerbert of Aurillac: Acta Concilii Remensis ad Sanctum Basolum, in MGH SS 3 Hanover, 1838

Gerbert of Aurillac: The Letters of Gerbert with his Papal Privileges as Sylvester II, tr. Harriet Pratt Lattin New York, 1961

Gesta Consulum Andegavorum: Chroniques des Comtes d’Anjou et des Seigneurs d’Amboise, L. Halphen and R. Poupardin Paris, 1913

Gilo: Vita Sancti Hugonis Abbatis, H. E. J. Cowdrey, in Studi Gregoriani 11, 1978

Glaber, Rodulfus: Opera, John France, Neithard Bulst and Paul Reynolds Oxford, 1989

Gregory I: Homiliarum in Evengelia, in PL 76

Gregory I: Moralium Libri, in PL 75

Gregory I: Regulae Pastoralis Liber, in PL 77

Gregory VII: The “Epistolae Vagantes” of Pope Gregory VII, tr. H. E. J. Cowdrey Oxford, 1972

Gregory VII: The Register of Pope Gregory VII 1073–1085, tr. H. E. J. Cowdrey Oxford, 2002

Guibert de Nogent: A Monk’s Confession: The Memoirs of Guibert of Nogent, tr. Paul J. Archambault Philadelphia, 1995

Guibert de Nogent: The Deeds of God through the Franks: A Translation of Guibert de Nogent’s Gesta Dei per Francos, tr. R. Levine Woodbridge, 1996

Hariulf: Gesta Ecclesiae Centulensis, in Chronique de l’Abbaye de Saint-Riquier, F. Lot Paris, 1894

Heliand: The Heliand: The Saxon Gospel, tr. G. Ronald Murphy Oxford, 1992

Henry II, in MGH Diplomata Regum et Imperatorum Germaniae 3 H. Bresslau, H. Bloch and R. Holtzmann Hanover, 1900–3

Henry IV: Die Briefe Heinrichs IV, in MGH Deutsches Mittlealter 1 Leipzig, 1937

Henry of Huntingdon: The History of the English People 1000–1154, tr. Diana Greenway Oxford, 1996

Hermann of Reichenau: Chronicon de Sex Aetatibus Mundi, in MGH SS 5 Hanover, 1844

Hildebert: Vita Sancti Hugonis, in PL 159, cols. 857–94

Hrotsvit of Gandersheim: Pelagia, in Opera Omnia, Walter Berschin Munich, 2001

Hugh of Cluny: Two Studies in Cluniac History 1049–1126, H. E. J. Cowdrey Rome, 1978

Ibn Hazm: The Ring of the Dove: A Treatise on the Art and Practice of Arab Love, tr. A. J. Arberry London, 1997

Inventio et Miracula Sancti Vulfranni, Dom J. Laporte Rouen, 1938

Itinera Hierosolymitana et Descriptiones Terrae Sanctae, T. Tobler and A. Molinier Osnabrück, 1966

John Canaparius: Vita Sancti Adalberti, in MGH SS 4 Hanover, 1841

John the Deacon: Chronicon Venetum, G. Monticolo Rome, 1890

John of Fécamp: Epistola ad Leonem IX, in PL 143, cols. 797–800

John of St. Arnoul: La Vie de Jean, Abbé de Gorze, Michel Parisse Paris, 1999

John of Salerno: St. Odo of Cluny: Being the Life of St. Odo of Cluny by John of Salerno and the Life of St. Gerald of Aurillac by St. Odo, tr. G. Sitwell London, 1958

John Skylitzes: Synopsis Historiarum, I. Thurn Berlin, 1973

Jordanes: The Gothic History of Jordanes, tr. Charles C. Mierow Princeton, 1915

Lactantius: De Mortibus Persecutorum, J. L. Creed Oxford, 1984

Lampert of Hersfeld: Annales, in MGH SRG 38 Hanover, 1894

Landulf Senior: Historia Mediolanensis, in MGH SS 8 Hanover, 1848

Laxdaela Saga, tr. Magnus Magnusson and Hermann Palsson London, 1969

Leo VI: Tactica, in PG 107, cols. 419–1094

Leo of Synada: The Correspondence of Leo, Metropolitan of Synada & Syncellus, M. P. Vinson Washington, DC, 1985

Leo the Deacon: The History of Leo the Deacon: Byzantine Military Expansion in the Tenth Century, tr. Alice-Mary Talbot Dennis F. Sullivan Washington, DC, 2005

Lex Salica, in MGH Leges Nationum Germanicarum 4/2 Hanover, 1969

Liber Miraculorum Sancte Fidis, A. Bouillet Paris, 1897

Liber Tramitis Aevi Odilonis Abbatis, P. Dinter Siegburg, 1980

Life of King Edward who Rests at Westminster, tr. F. Barlow Oxford, 1992

Life of Pope Leo IX, in The Papal Reform of the Eleventh Century, tr. and I. S. Robinson Manchester, 2004

Liudprand of Cremona: Antapodosis and History of Otto, in The Works of Liudprand of Cremona, tr. F. A. Wright London, 1930

Liudprand of Cremona: Relatio de Legatione Constantinopolitana (The Mission to Constantinople), Brian Scott Bristol, 1993

Leo of Vercelli: “Panegyric on Otto III,” in Kaiser, Rom und Renovatio, by P. E. Schramm, pp. 62–4

Louis IV: Recueil des Actes de Louis IV, Roi de France (936–954), P. Lauer Paris, 1914

Michael Psellus: Fourteen Byzantine Rulers, tr. E. R. A. Sewter London, 1966

Milo Crispin: Vita Beati Lanfranci Cantuariensium Archiepiscopi, in PL 150, cols. 53–4

Odo of Cluny: Collationes, in PL 133

Orderic Vitalis: The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, tr. Marjorie Chibnall, 6 Oxford, 1968–80

Ottar the Black: Knútsdrápa, in EHD, 335–6

Otto I: Diplomata, in MGH Diplomata Regum et Imperatorum Germaniae 1 Hanover, 1879–84

Otto of Freising: The Two Cities, tr. C. C. Mierow New York, 1928

Paul of Bernried: The Life of Pope Gregory VII, in The Papal Reform of the Eleventh Century, tr. and I. S. Robinson Manchester, 2004

Paulinus of Aquileia: Carmina, in MGH Poetae 1 Berlin, 1881

Peter Damian: Vita Dominici Loricati, in PL 144, cols. 1009–24

Peter Damian: Vita Romualdi, G. Tabacco Rome, 1957

Peter Damian: The Letters of Peter Damian, 1–120, tr. Owen J. Blum, 4 Washington, DC, 1989–98

Peter the Venerable: De Miraculis, in PL 189, cols. 851–954

“Poeta Saxo”: Annalium de gestis Caroli Magni imperatoris libri quinque, in MGH Poetae Latini Aevi Carolini 4 Berlin, 1899

Primer of Medieval Latin: An Anthology of Prose and Poetry, Charles H. Beeson Washington, DC, 1986

Quellen zur Geschichte Kaiser Heinrich IV, F. -J. Schmale I. Schmale-Ott Darmstadt, 1961

Ralph of Caen: The Gesta Tancredi of Ralph of Caen: A History of the Normans on the First Crusade, tr. Bernard S. Bachrach and David S. Bachrach Aldershot, 2005

Rather of Verona: The Complete Works of Ratherius of Verona, P. L. Reid Michigan, 1991

Regino of Prüm: Chronicon cum Continuatione Treverensi, in MGH SRG 10 Hanover, 1890

Richer: Histoire de France (888–995), tr. R. Latouche Paris, 1930

Robert the Monk: Historia Iherosolimitana, in Recueil des Historiens des Croisades: Historiens Occidentaux 3 Paris, 1866

Ruodlieb, tr. Gordon B. Ford Leiden, 1965

Russian Primary Chronicle, tr. S. H. Cross and O. P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor Cambridge, Mass., 1953

Saxo Grammaticus: History of the Danes, tr. Peter Fisher and Hilda Ellis Davidson Cambridge, 1979

Sigebert of Gembloux: Chronica, in MGH SS 6 Hanover, 1884

Sigehard: Miracula S. Maximini, in Acta Sanctorum Quotquot Toto Orbe Coluntur, Iohannes Bollandus Antwerp, 1688

Snorri Sturluson: Heimskringla: A History of the Norse Kings, tr. Samuel Laing London, 1844

Snorri Sturluson: King Harald’s Saga, tr. Magnus Magnusson and Hermann Palsson St. Ives, 1966

Snorri Sturluson: The Ynglinga Saga (http://omacl.org/Heimskringla/ynglinga.html)

Thangmar: Vita Sancti Bernwardi Episcopi Hildesheimensis, in MGH SS 4 Hanover, 1841

Thietmar of Merseburg: Ottonian Germany: The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg, tr. David A. Warner Manchester, 2001

Urban II: Epistolae et Privilegia, in PL 151

Vita Altmanni Episcopi Pataviensis, in MGH SS 12 Hanover, 1856

Vita et Miracula Sancti Leonardi, A. Poncelet, in AASS, November 3

Vita Sancti Athanasii, in PL 149

Vita Sancti Nili Abbatis Cryptae Ferratae, in MGH SS 4 Hanover, 1841

Warner of Rouen: Moriuht, Christopher J. McDonough Toronto, 1995

Wazo of Liège: Gesta Episcoporum Leodiensium, in MGH SS 7 Hanover, 1846

Wido of Osnabrück: Liber de Controversia inter Hildebrandum et Heinricum Imperatorem, in MGH Libelli I Hanover, 1891

Widukind of Corvey: Res Gestae Saxonicae, in MGH SS 3 Hanover, 1838

William of Apulia: La Geste de Robert Guiscard, M. Mathieu Palermo, 1961

William of Jumièges: The Gesta Normannorum Ducum of William of Jumièges, Orderic Vitalis and Robert of Torigni, tr. E. M. C. van Houts, 2 Oxford, 1992–5

William of Malmesbury: Vita Wulfstani, Reginald R. Darlington London, 1928

William of Poitiers: The Gesta Guillelmi of William of Poitiers, tr. R. H. C. Davis and M. Chibnall Oxford, 1998

Wipo: Gesta Chuonradi II Imperatoris, in MGH SRG 61 Hanover, 1915

Wulfstan: Lectio Sancti Evangelii Secundum Matheum (http://webpages.ursinus.edu/jlionarons/wulfstan/II.html)

Wulfstan: The Sermon of the Wolf to the English (http://english3.fsu.edu/wulfstan)

Secondary sources

Adelson, Howard L. “The Holy Lance and the Hereditary German Monarchy,” The Art Bulletin 48/2, 1966

Airlie, Stuart “After Empire – Recent Work on the Emergence of Post-Carolingian Kingdoms,” Early Medieval Europe 2/2, 1993

Alexander, Paul J. “Byzantium and the Migration of Literary Works and Motifs: The Legend of the Last Roman Emperor,” Medievala et Humanistica 2 1971

Alexander, Paul J. “The Medieval Legend of the Last Roman Emperor and its Messianic Origin,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 41 1978

Alexander, Paul J. The Byzantine Apocalyptic Tradition Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1985

Ali, Shaukat Millenarian and Messianic Tendencies in Islamic History Lahore, 1993

Allen, Roland “Gerbert, Pope Silvester II,” English Historical Review 28 1892

Allen Brown, R. The Normans and the Norman Conquest London, 1969

Althoff, Gerd Otto III, tr. Phyllis G. Jestice Pennsylvania, 1996

Armstrong, Karen: Muhammed: A Western Attempt to Understand Islam London, 1992

Arnold, Benjamin Medieval Germany 500–1300: A Political Interpretation London, 1997

Ashbridge, Thomas The First Crusade: A New History London, 2004

Assaad, Sadik A. The Reign of Al-Hakim bi Amr Allah (386/996-411/1021): A Political Study Beirut, 1974

Atkinson, Leigh “When the Pope was a Mathematician,” College Mathematics Journal 11 2005

Augenti, Andrea Il Palatino nel Medioevo: Archeologia e Topografia (Secoli VI—XIII) Rome, 1996

Bachrach, Bernard S. Early Medieval Jewish Policy Minneapolis, 1977

Bachrach, Bernard S. “Pope Sergius IV and the Foundation of the Monastery at Beaulieu-lès-Loches,” Revue Bénédictine 95 1985

Bachrach, Bernard S. Fulk Nerra: the Neo-Roman Consul, 98— 1040 Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1993

Barbero, Alessandro Charlemagne: Father of a Continent, tr. Allan Cameron Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2004

Barlow, Frank Edward the Confessor London, 1970

Barlow, Frank The Norman Conquest and Beyond London, 1983

Barlow, Frank The Godwins: The Rise and Fall of a Noble Dynasty Harlow, 2002

Barraclough, Geoffrey The Crucible of Europe: The Ninth and Tenth Centuries in European History London, 1976

Barstow, Anne Llewellyn Married Priests and the Reforming Papacy New York, 1982

Barthélemy, D. “Encore le Débat sur l’An Mil!,” Revue Historique de Droit Français et Étranger 73 1975

Barthélemy, D. “La Mutation Féodale a-t-elle eu Lieu? Note Critique,” Annales E. S. C. 47 1992

Barthélemy, D. “Debate: The Feudal Revolution,” Past and Present 152 1996

Barthélemy, D. “La Paix de Dieu dans son Contexte (989–1041),” Cahiers de Civilisation Médiévale 40 1997

Barthélemy, D. L’An Mil et la Paix de Dieu: La France Chrétienne et Féodale (980–1060) Paris, 1999

Bartlett, Robert The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Change, 950–1350 London, 1993

Bashear, Suliman “Early Muslim Apocalyptic Materials,” in Bonner Burlington, 2004

Bates, David Normandy before 1066 London, 1982

Bäuml, Franz H. Medieval Civilization in Germany, 800–1273 London, 1969

Baylé, Maylis “Le Décor Sculpté de Saint-Georges-de-Boscherville: Quelques Questions de Style et d’Iconographie,” in Anglo-Norman Studies 8 R. Allen Brown Woodbridge, 1986

Berman, Constance Hoffman Medieval Religion: New Approaches New York, 2005

Berman, Harold J. Law and Revolution: The Formation of the Western Legal Tradition Cambridge, Mass., 1983

Bernhardt, John W. Itinerant Kingship and Royal Monasteries in Early Medieval Germany, c. 936–1075 Cambridge, 1993

Beumann, Helmut Die Ottonen Stuttgart, 1991

Biddle, Martin The Tomb of Christ Stroud, 1999

Bisson, T. N. “The ‘Feudal Revolution,’” Past and Present 142 1994

Bisson, T. N. “Medieval Lordship,” Speculum 70 1995

Bitel, Lisa M. Women in Early Medieval Europe, 400–1100 Cambridge, 2002

Blanks, David R. “Islam and the West in the Age of the Pilgrim,” in Frassetto New York, 2002

Bloch, Marc Les Rois Thaumaturges Paris, 1924

Bloch, Marc Feudal Society, 1 and 2 tr. L. A. Manyon London, 1989

Blum, Owen J. St. Peter Damian: His Teaching on the Spiritual Life Washington, DC, 1947

Blumenthal, Uta-Renate The Investiture Controversy: Church and Monarchy from the Ninth to the Twelfth Century Philadelphia, 1995

Bois, Guy The Transformation of the Year One Thousand: The Village of Lournand from Antiquity to Feudalism, tr. Jean Birrell Manchester, 1992

Bonnassie, Pierre From Slavery to Feudalism in South-Western Europe, tr. Jean Birrell Cambridge, 1991

Bonnassie, Pierre Les Sociétés de l’An Mil: Un Monde Entre Deux Ages Brussels, 2001

Bonner, Michael Arab—Byzantine Relations in Early Islamic Times Burlington, 2004

Bonner, Michael Jihad in Islamic History: Doctrines and Practice Princeton, 2006

Bouchard, Constance Brittain “The Origins of the French Nobility: A Reassessment,” American Historial Review 86 1981

Bouchard, Constance Brittain Sword, Miter, and Cloister: Nobility and the Church in Burgundy, 980–1198 Ithaca, 1987

Boussard, Jacques “L’Origine des Familles Seigneuriales dans la Région de la Loire Moyenne,” Cahiers de Civilisation Médiévale 5 1962

Boutruche, Robert Seigneurie et Féodalité, 2 Paris, 1968–70

Bowlus, Charles R. The Battle of Lechfeld and its Aftermath, August 955: The End of the Age of Migrations in the Latin West Aldershot, 2006

Brackmann, Albert “Die Politische Bedeutung der Mauritius-Verehrung im Frühen Mittelalter,” Sitzungsberichte 30 1937

Brague, Rémi The Law of God: The Philosophical History of an Idea, tr. Lydia G. Cochrane Chicago, 2007

Brandes, W. “Liudprand von Cremona (Legatio Cap. 39–410) und eine Bisher Unbeachtete West-östliche Korrespondz über die Bedeutung des Jahres 1000 A.D.,” Byzantinische Zeitschrift 93 2000

Branner, Robert Chartres Cathedral New York, 1969

Brett, Michael The Rise of the Fatimids: The World of the Mediterranean and the Middle East in the Fourth Century of the Hijra, Tenth Century CE Brill, 2001

Brisbane, Mark, and Gaimster, David Novgorod: The Archaeology of a Russian Medieval City and its Hinterland London, 2001

Brooke, Christopher Medieval Church and Society: Collected Essays London, 1971

Brooke, Christopher Europe in the Central Middle Ages 962–1154 London, 2000

Brown, Gordon S. The Norman Conquest of Southern Italy and Sicily Jefferson, 2003

Brown, Peter “Society and the Supernatural: A Medieval Change” Daedalus 1975

Brown, Peter The Rise of Western Christendom: Triumph and Diversity, A.D. 200–1000 Oxford, 1996

Brühl, Carlrichard “Die Kaiserpfalz bei St. Peter und die Pfalz Ottos III. auf dem Palatin,” Quellen und Forschungen aus italienischen Archiven und Bibliotheken 34 1954

Brühl, Carlrichard Deutschland—Frankreich: Die Geburt zweier Völker Cologne, 1990

Bull, Marcus Knightly Piety and the Lay Response to the First Crusade: The Limousin and Gascony, c. 970—c. 1130 Oxford, 1993

Bull, Marcus France in the Central Middle Ages 900–1200 Oxford, 2002

Bulliet, R. Conversion to Islam in the Medieval Period: An Essay in Quantitive History Cambridge, Mass., 1979

Büttner, H. “Der Weg Ottos des Grossen zum Kaisertum,” Archiv für Mittelrheinische Kirchengeschichte 14 1962

Bynum, Caroline Walker Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1987

Callahan, Daniel “Adémar of Chabannes, Apocalypticism and the Peace Council of Limoges of 1031,” Revue Bénédictine 101 1991

Callahan, Daniel “The Problem of the “Filioque” and the Letter from the Pilgrim Monks of the Mount of Olives to Pope Leo III and Charlemagne. Is the Letter Another Forgery by Adémar of Chabannes?,” Revue Bénédictine 102 1992

Callahan, Daniel “Adémar of Chabannes, Millennial Fears and the Development of Western Anti-Judaism,” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 46 1995

Cambridge Medieval History III, c. 900—c. 1024, Timothy Reuter Cambridge, 1999

Cambridge Medieval History IV, c. 1024—c. 1198, David Luscombe and Jonathan Riley-Smith, 2 Cambridge, 2004

Campbell, James The Anglo-Saxons London, 1982

Campbell, James Essays in Anglo-Saxon History London, 1986

Campbell, James The Anglo-Saxon State London, 2000

Canard, Marius “La Destruction de l’Église de la Résurrection par le Calife Hakim et l’Histoire de la Descente du Feu Sacré,” Byzantion 35 1965

Cantor, Norman F. “The Crisis of Western Monasticism, 1050–113,” The American Historical Review 66/1, 1960

Cantor, Norman F. Medieval History: The Life and Death of a Civilization New York, 1968

Carozzi, Claude La Fin des Temps: Terreurs et Prophéties au Moyen Âge Paris, 1999

Chapelot, Jean, and Fossier, Robert The Village and House in the Middle Ages, tr. Henry Cleere London, 1985

Charanis, Peter “Byzantium, the West and the Origins of the First Crusade,” Byzantion 19 1947

Chibnell, Marjorie The Debate on the Norman Conquest Manchester, 1999

Chibnell, Marjorie The Normans Oxford, 2000

Christiansen, Eric The Norsemen in the Viking Age Oxford, 2002

Clark, Victoria The Far-Farers: A Journey from Viking Iceland to Crusader Jerusalem London, 2003

Cohen, Jeremy From Witness to Witchcraft: Jews and Judaism in Medieval Christian Thought Wiesbaden, 1996

Conant, Kenneth John “The Apse at Cluny,” Speculum 7/1, 1932

Conant, Kenneth John “Mediaeval Academy Excavations at Cluny, X,” Speculum 45/1, 1970

Constable, Giles Three Studies in Medieval Religious and Social Thought Cambridge, 1995

Constable, Giles Cluny from the Tenth to the Twelfth Centuries Aldershot, 2000

Contamine, Philippe War in the Middle Ages, tr. Michael Jones Oxford, 1984

Cook, David Studies in Muslim Apocalyptic Princeton, 2002

Corbet, Patrick Les Saints Ottoniens: Sainteté Dynastique, Sainteté Royale et Sainteté Féminine Autour de l’An Mil Sigmaringen, 1986

Cowdrey, H. E. J. “Unions and Confraternity with Cluny,” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 16 1965

Cowdrey, H. E. J. “Pope Urban II’s Preaching of the First Crusade,” History 55 1970

Cowdrey, H. E. J. The Cluniacs and the Gregorian Reform Oxford, 1970

Cowdrey, H. E. J. “The Peace and the Truce of God in the Eleventh Century,” Past and Present 46 1970

Cowdrey, H. E. J. Popes, Monks and Crusaders London, 1984

Cowdrey, H. E. J. “The Gregorian Papacy, Byzantium, and the First Crusade,” in Howard-Johnston Amsterdam, 1988

Cowdrey, H. E. J. Pope Gregory VII 1073–1085 Oxford, 1998

Cowdrey, H. E. J. Popes and Church Reform in the 11th Century Aldershot, 2000

Crone, Patricia, and Cook, Michael Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World Cambridge, 1977

Crouch, David The Normans: The History of a Dynasty London, 2002

Crouch, David The Birth of Nobility: Constructing Aristocracy in England and France, 900–1300 Harlow, 2005

Cushing, Kathleen G. Reform and Papacy in the Eleventh Century: Spirituality and Social Change Manchester, 2005

Cutler, Anthony “Who Was the ‘Monk of France’ and When Did He Write?,” al-Andalus 28 1963

Cutler, Anthony “Gifts and Gift Exchange as Aspects of the Byzantine, Arab, and Related Economies,” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 55 2001

Daniel, Norman The Arabs and Mediaeval Europe London, 1975

Davids, Adelbert The Empress Theophano: Byzantium and the West at the Turn of the First Millennium Cambridge, 1995

Davis, R. H. C. The Normans and Their Myth London, 1976

Debord, André “Motte Castrale et Habitat Chevaleresque,” in Mélanges d’Histoire et d’Archeologie Médiévale en l’Honneur du Doyen M. de Böuard Paris, 1982

Delort, Robert La France de l’An Mil Paris, 1990

Dennis, George T. Three Byzantine Military Treatises Washington, DC, 1985

Dennis, George T. “Defenders of the Christian People: Holy War in Byzantium,” in Laiou and Mottahedeh Washington, DC, 2000

De Vries, Kelly The Norwegian Invasion of England in 1066 Woodbridge, 1999

Dhondt, J. Étude sur la Naissance des Principautés Territoriales en France (Ixe—Xe Siècles) Bruges, 1948

Dolley, R. H. M. Anglo-Saxon Coins London, 1961

Douglas, David C. William the Conqueror London, 1964

Douglas, David C. The Norman Achievement London, 1969

Duby, Georges La Société aux Xie et XIIe Siècles dans la Région Mâconnaise Paris, 1953

Duby, Georges L’An Mil Paris, 1980

Duby, Georges The Three Orders: Feudal Society Imagined, tr. Arthur Goldhammer Chicago, 1980

Duckett, Eleanor Death and Life in the Tenth Century Ann Arbor, 1967

Dunbabin, Jean France in the Making, 843–1180 Oxford, 2000

Dunn, Maryjane, and Davidson, Linda Kay The Pilgrimage to Compostela in the Middle Ages: A Book of Essays New York, 1996

El Cheikh, Nadia Maria Byzantium Viewed by the Arabs Cambridge, Mass., 2004

Elliott, Dyan Fallen Bodies: Pollution, Sexuality, and Demonology in the Middle Ages Philadelphia, 1999

Ellis, Hilda Roderick The Road to Hel: A Study of the Conception of the Dead in Old Norse Literature Cambridge, 1943

Ellis Davidson, H. R The Viking Road to Byzantium London, 1976

Emmerson, Richard Kenneth Antichrist in the Middle Ages: A Study of Medieval Apocalypticism, Art, and Literature Manchester, 1981

Emmerson, Richard K., and McGinn, Bernard The Apocalypse in the Middle Ages Ithaca, 1992

Enright, Michael J. Iona, Tara and Soissons: The Origin of the Royal Anointing Ritual Berlin, 1985

Erdmann, Carl “Endkaiserglaube und Kreuzzugsgedanke im 11. Jahrhundert,” Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte 11 1932

Erdmann, Carl Ottonische Studien, Helmut Beumann Darmstadt, 1968

Erdmann, Carl The Origin of the Idea of Crusade, tr. Marshall W. Baldwin and Walter Goffart Princeton, 1977

Evans, J. Monastic Life at Cluny, 910–1157 Oxford, 1931

Fichtenau, Heinrich Living in the Tenth Century: Mentalities and Social Orders, tr. Patrick J. Geary Chicago, 1991

Fierro, Maribel Abd al-Rahman III: The First Cordoban Caliph Oxford, 2005

Fleckstein, Josef Early Medieval Germany, tr. Bernard S. Smith Amsterdam, 1978

Fletcher, Richard Saint James’s Catapult: The Life and Times of Diego Gelmírez of Santiago de Compostela Oxford, 1984

Fletcher, Richard “Reconquest and Crusade in Spain, c. 1050–1150,” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 37 1987

Fletcher, Richard Moorish Spain Berkeley, 1992

Fletcher, Richard The Conversion of Europe: From Paganism to Christianity 371–1386 AD London, 1997

Fletcher, Richard Bloodfeud: Murder and Revenge in Anglo-Saxon England London, 2002

Flori, Jean La Guerre Sainte: La Formation de l’Idée de Croisade dans l’Occident Chrétien Paris, 2001

Flori, Jean L’Islam et la Fin des Temps: L’Interprétation Prophétique des Invasions Musulmanes dans la Chrétienté Médiévale Paris, 2002

Folz, Robert Le Souvenir et la Légende de Charlemagne dans l’Empire Germanique Médiéval Paris, 1950

Folz, Robert The Concept of Empire in Western Europe: From the Fifth to the Fourteenth Century, tr. Sheila Ann Ogilvie London, 1969

Foot, Sarah “The Historiography of the Anglo-Saxon ‘Nation-State’,” in Power and the Nation in European History, Len Scales and Oliver Zimmer Cambridge, 2005

Forte, Angelo, Oram, Richard, and Pedersen, Frederik Viking Empires Cambridge, 2005

Fossier, Robert Enfance de l’Europe, 2 Paris, 1982

Fossier, Robert Peasant Life in the Medieval West, tr. J. Vale Oxford, 1988

Fossier, Robert The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Middle Ages: Volume II: 950–1250 tr. Stuart Airlie and Robyn Marsack Cambridge, 1997

France, John “The Destruction of Jerusalem and the First Crusade,” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 47 1996

France, John Western Warfare in the Age of the Crusades, 1000–1300 Ithaca, 1999

Franklin, Simon, and Shepard, Jonathan The Emergence of Rus, 750–1200 London, 1996

Frassetto, Michael Medieval Purity and Piety: Essays on Medieval Clerical Celibacy and Religious Reform New York, 1998

Frassetto, Michael The Year 1000: Religious and Social Response to the Turning of the First Millennium New York, 2002

Freedman, Paul Images of the Medieval Peasant Stanford, 1999

Fried, Johannes “Awaiting the End of Time,” tr. Scott Denlinger Edward Peters, in Landes, Gow and Van Meter Oxford, 2003

Fuhrmann, Horst Germany in the High Middle Ages: c. 1050–1200 tr. Timothy Reuter Cambridge, 1986

Fulton, Rachel From Judgment to Passion: Devotion to Christ & the Virgin Mary, 800–200 New York, 2002

Gabriele, Matthew “Otto III, Charlemagne, and Pentecost A.D. 1000: A Reconsideration Using Diplomatic Evidence,” in Frassetto New York, 2002

Gasc, Hélène “Gerbert et la Pédagogie des Arts Libéraux à la Fin du Dixième Siècle,” Journal of Medieval History 12/2, 1986

Gay, Jules L’Italie Méridionale et l’Empire Byzantine depuis l’Avènement de Basile I jusqu’à la Prise de Bari par les Normands (867–1071) 2 New York, 1960

Geary, Patrick “Humiliation of Saints,” in Saints and Their Cults: Studies in Religious Sociology, Folklore and History, Stephen Wilson Cambridge, 1983

Geary, Patrick Phantoms of Remembrance: Memory and Oblivion at the End of the First Millennium Princeton, 1994

Gibbon, Edward The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 3 London, 1994

Gil, Moshe A History of Palestine, 634–1099, tr. Ethel Broido Cambridge, 1992

Glenn, Jason Politics and History in the Tenth Century: The Work and World of Richer of Reims Cambridge, 2004

Glick, Thomas F. From Muslim Fortress to Christian Castle: Social and Cultural Change in Medieval Spain Manchester, 1995

Glick, Thomas F. Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages Brill, 2005

Goez, Werner “Zur Persönlichkeit Gregors VII,” Römische Quartalschrift 73 1978

Goez, Werner “The Concept of Time in the Historiography of the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries,” in Medieval Concepts of the Past, Gerd Althoff, Johannes Fried and Patrick J. Geary Cambridge, 2002

Görich, Knut Otto III Romanus, Saxonicus et Italicus: Kaiserliche Rompolitik und sächsische Historiographie Sigmaringen, 1994

Gougenheim, S. Les Fausses Terreurs de l’An Mil: Attente de la Fin des Temps ou Approfondissement de la Foi? Paris, 1999

Green, Dennis H., and Siegmund, Frank The Continental Saxons from the Migration Period to the Tenth Century: An Ethnographic Perspective San Marino, 2003

Gregorovius, Ferdinand History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages: Volume 3: 800–1002 A.D., tr. Annie Hamilton London, 1903

Griffith, Paddy The Viking Art of War London, 1995

Guillot, Olivier Le Comte d’Anjou et son Entourage au Xie Siècle Paris, 1972

Hadley, D. M. Masculinity in Medieval Europe London, 1999

Hallam, Elizabeth M. Capetian France (987–1328) London, 1980

Hamilton, Bernard Monastic Reform, Catharism and the Crusades, 900–1300 London, 1979

Harris, Jonathan Byzantium and the Crusades London, 2003

Harris, Joseph “Eddic Poetry,” in Old Norse-Icelandic Literature: A Critical Guide Carol J. Clover and John Lindow Ithaca, 1985

Haskins, Charles H. “The Materials for the Reign of Robert I of Normandy,” English Historical Review 31 1916

Head, Thomas Hagiography and the Cult of Saints: The Diocese of Orléans, 800–1200 Cambridge, 1990

Head, Thomas, and Landes, Richard The Peace of God: Social Violence and Religious Response in France around the Year 1000 Ithaca, 1992

Heath, Ian Byzantine Armies, 886–1118 Oxford, 1979

Herrin, Judith The Formation of Christendom Princeton, 1997

Herrin, Judith Women in Purple: Rulers of Medieval Byzantium London, 2001

Higham, N. J. The Death of Anglo-Saxon England Stroud, 1997

Hill, Boyd H. The Rise of the First Reich: Germany in the Tenth Century New York, 1969

Hill, Boyd H. Medieval Monarchy in Action: The German Empire from Henry I to Henry IV London, 1972

Hill, David Ethelred the Unready: Papers from the Millenary Conference Oxford, 1978

Hill, Paul The Road to Hastings: The Politics of Power in Anglo-Saxon England Stroud, 2005

Hlawitschka, E. “Zur Herkunft und zu den Seitenverwandten des Gegenkönigs Rudolf von Rheinfelden,” in Die Salier und das Reich, S. Weinfurter Sigmaringen, 1991

Hodges, Richard The Anglo-Saxon Achievement London, 1989

Hofmeister, Adolf Die Heilige Lanze ein Abzeichen des Alten Reichs Breslau, 1908

Holtzmann, Walther “Studien zur Orientpolitik des Papsttums und zur Entstehung des ersten Kreuzzuges,” Historische Vierteljahrschrift 22 1924

Howard-Johnston, J. D. Byzantium and the West c.850—c. 1200 Amsterdam, 1988

Hubert, Étienne Espace Urbain et Habitat à Rome du Xe Siècle à la fin du XIIIe Siècle Rome, 1990

Hunt, Noreen Cluny under Saint Hugh 1049–1109 London, 1967

Huygens, R. B. C. “Un Témoin de la Crainte de l’An 1000: La Lettre sur les Hongrois,” L’Atomus 15 1957

Iogna-Prat, Dominique: “Continence et Virginité dans la Conception Clunisienne de l’Order du Monde autour de l’An Mil,” Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-lettres, 1985

Iogna-Prat, Dominique Order & Exclusion: Cluny and Christendom Face Heresy, Judaism, and Islam (1000–1150) tr. Graham Robert Edwards Ithaca, 2002

Isawi, C. “The Area and Population of the Arab Empire: an Essay in Speculation,” in The Islamic Middle East, 700–1900: Studies in Economic and Social History, A. L. Udovitch Princeton, 1981

Iversen, Gunilla “Transforming a Viking into a Saint: The Divine Office of St Olav,” in The Divine Office in the Latin Medieval Ages, Margot E. Fassler and Rebecca A. Baltzer Oxford, 2000

Jeep, John M. Medieval Germany: An Encyclopedia New York, 2001

Jenkins, Romilly Byzantium: The Imperial Centuries, AD 610–1071 London, 1966

Jones, Gwyn A History of the Vikings Oxford, 2001

Jones, Prudence, and Pennick, Nigel A History of Pagan Europe London, 1995

Joranson, Einar “The Great German Pilgrimage of 1064–1065,” in The Crusades and Other Historical Essays Presented to Dana C. Munro by His Former Students, Louis J. Paetow New York, 1928

Kantorowicz, Ernst The King’s Two Bodies: A Study in Medieval Political Theology Princeton, 1957

Karras, Ruth Mazo Sexuality in Medieval Europe New York, 2005

Karsh, Efraim Islamic Imperialism: A History New Haven, 2006

Kedar, Benjamin Z. Crusade and Mission: European Attitudes toward the Muslims Princeton, 1984

Kelly, J. N. D. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes Oxford, 1986

Kennedy, Hugh Muslim Spain and Portugal: A Political History of al-Andalus Harlow, 1996

Kennedy, Hugh “From Antiquity to Islam in the Cities of al-Andalus and al-Mashriq,” in Genèse de la Ville Islamique en al-Andalus et au Maghreb Occidental, P. Cressier and M. García-Arenal Madrid, 1998

Keynes, Simon The Diplomas of King Aethelred “the Unready” 978–1016: A Study in Their Use as Historical Evidence Cambridge, 1980

Körner, Sten The Battle of Hastings, England, and Europe 1035–1066 Lund, 1964

Kovacs, Judith, and Rowland, Christopher Revelation Oxford, 2004

Koziol, Geoffrey Begging Pardon and Favor: Ritual and Political Order in Early Medieval France Ithaca, 1992

Krautheimer, R. Rome: Profile of a City, 312–1308 Princeton, 1980

Kreutz, Barbara M. Before the Normans: Southern Italy in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries Philadelphia, 1991

Lacey, Robert, and Danziger, Danny The Year 1000: What Life was Like at the Turn of the First Millennium London, 1999

Ladner, Gerhart B. L’Immagine dell’Imperatore Ottone III Rome, 1988

Laiou, Angeliki E., and Mottahedeh, Roy Parviz The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World Washington, DC, 2000

Landes, Richard “Lest the Millennium be Fulfilled: Apocalyptic Expectations and the Pattern of Western Chronography, 100–800 CE,” in The Use and Abuse of Eschatology in the Middle Ages, W. Verbeke, D. Verhelst and A. Welkenhuysen Leuven, 1988

Landes, Richard “La Vie Apostolique en Aquitaine au Tournant du Millennium: Paix de Dieu, Culte de Reliques et Communautés ‘Hérétiques’,” Annales 46 1991

Landes, Richard “Sur les Traces du Millennium: La ‘Via Negativa’,” Le Moyen Âge 99 1993

Landes, Richard Relics, Apocalypse, and the Deceits of History Cambridge, Mass., 1995

Landes, Richard “On Owls, Roosters, and Apocalyptic Time: A Historical Method for Reading a Refractory Documentation,” Union Seminary Quarterly Review 49 1996

Landes, Richard “The Massacres of 1010: On the Origins of Popular Anti-Jewish Violence in Western Europe,” in Cohen Wiesbaden, 1996

Landes, Richard Encyclopedia of Millennialism and Millennial Movements New York, 2000

Landes, Richard “The Fear of an Apocalyptic Year 1000: Augustinian Histori ography, Medieval and Modern,” Speculum 75 2000

Landes, Richard “The Fruitful Error: Reconsidering Millennial Enthusiasm,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 32/1, 2001

Landes, Richard “Giants with Feet of Clay: On the Historiography of the Year 1000” (www.bu.edu/mille/scholarship/1000/AHR9.html)

Landes, Richard, Gow, Andrew, and van Meter, David C. The Apocalyptic Year 1000: Religious Expectation and Social Change, 950–1050 Oxford, 2003

Lavelle, Ryan Aethelred II: King of the English 978–1016 Stroud, 2002

Lawson, M. K. Cnut: England’s Viking King Stroud, 2004

Lawson, M. K. The Battle of Hastings 1066 Stroud, 2007

Le Goff, Jacques Time, Work, and Culture in the Middle Ages, tr. Arthur Goldhammer Chicago, 1980

Leclercq, Jean Saint Pierre Damien: Ermite et Homme d’Église Rome, 1960

Leithart, Peter J. “The Gospel, Gregory VII and Modern Theology,” Modern Theology 19/1, 2003

Lemerle, Paul “Byzance et la Croisade,” in Relazioni del X Congresso Internazionale di Scienze Storiche Florence, 1955

Lévi-Provençal, Évariste Histoire de l’Espagne Musulmane, 3 Paris, 1950

Lewis, Andrew W. Royal Succession in Capetian France: Studies on Familial Order and the State Cambridge, Mass., 1981

Leyser, K. J. “The Polemics of the Papal Revolution,” in Trends in Medieval Political Thought, Beryl Smalley Oxford, 1965

Leyser, K. J. Rule and Conflict in an Early Medieval Society: Ottonian Saxony Oxford, 1979

Leyser, K. J. Medieval Germany and its Neighbours, 900–1250 London, 1982

Leyser, K. J. Communications and Power in Medieval Europe: The Carolingian and Ottonian Centuries, Timothy Reuter London, 1994

Leyser, K. J. Communications and Power in Medieval Europe: The Gregorian Revolution and Beyond, Timothy Reuter London, 1994

Lieu, Samuel “From History to Legend and Legend to History: The Medieval and Byzantine Transformation of Constantine’s Vita,” in Constantine: History, Historiography and Legend, Samuel Lieu and Dominic Montserrat London, 1998

Linehan, Peter “At the Spanish Frontier,” in Linehan and Nelson London, 2001

Linehan, Peter, and Nelson, Janet L. The Medieval World London, 2001

Little, Lester K. “The Personal Development of Peter Damian,” in Order and Innovation in the Middle Ages: Essays in Honor of Joseph R. Strayer, William C. Jordan, Bruce McNab and Teofilo F. Ruiz Princeton, 1976

Little, Lester K., and Rosenwein, Barbara H. Debating the Middle Ages: Issues and Readings Oxford, 1998

Lobrichon, Guy “The Chiaroscuro of Heresy: Early Eleventh-Century Aquitaine as Seen from Auxerre,” in Head and Landes Ithaca, 1992

Lobrichon, Guy “Jugement dernier et Apocalypse,” in De l’Art Comme Mystagogie: Iconographie du Jugement Dernier et des Fins Dernières à l’Époque Gothique Poitiers, 1996

Logan, F. Donald The Vikings in History London, 2005

Loomis, Laura Hibbard “The Holy Relics of Charlemagne and King Athelstan: The Lances of Longinus and St. Mauricius,” Speculum 25 1950

Loomis, Laura Hibbard “The Passion Lance Relic and the War Cry Monjoie in the Chanson de Roland and Related Texts,” in Adventures in the Middle Ages: A Memorial Collection of Essays and Studies, Helene Bullock New York, 1962

Lopez, R. “The Norman Conquest of Sicily,” in A History of the Crusades: The First Hundred Years, M. W. Baldwin Philadelphia, 1969

Loud, G. A. The Age of Robert Guiscard: Southern Italy and the Norman Conquest Harlow, 2000

Lovelock, James The Revenge of Gaia London, 2007

Lynch, Joseph H. “Hugh I of Cluny’s Sponsorship of Henry IV: Its Context and Consequences,” Speculum 60/4, 1985

MacKinney, Loren C. “The People and Public Opinion in the Eleventh-Century Peace Movement,” Speculum 5 1930

MacLean, Simon “Apocalypse and Revolution: Europe around the Year 1000,” Early Medieval Europe 15/1, 2007

Magdalino, Paul “The History of the Future and its Uses: Prophecy, Policy and Propaganda,” in The Making of Byzantine History: Studies Dedicated to Domald M. Nicol, R. Beaton and C. Roueché Aldershot, 1993

Magdalino, Paul “The Byzantine Background to the First Crusade,” Canadian Institute of Balkan Studies, 1996

Magdalino, Paul Byzantium in the Year 1000 Brill, 2003

Magnou-Nortier, Elisabeth Pouvoirs et Libertés au Temps des Premiers Capétians Maulévrier, 1992

Mango, Cyril Byzantium: The Empire of New Rome London, 1980

Marín-Guzmán, Roberto “Some Reflections on the Institutions of Muslim Spain: Unity in Politics and Administration,” American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 21 2004

McCormick, Michael Eternal Victory: Triumphal Rulership in Late Antiquity, Byzantium, and the Early Medieval West Cambridge, 1986

McCormick, Michael Origins of the European Economy: Communications and Commerce, A.D. 300–900 Cambridge, 2001

McGinn, Bernard Visions of the End: Apocalyptic Traditions in the Middle Ages New York, 1979

McGinn, Bernard Antichrist: Two Thousand Years of the Human Fascination with Evil New York, 1994

McKitterick, Rosamund “Continuity and Innovation in Tenth-Century Ottonian Culture,” in Intellectual Life in the Middle Ages: Essays Presented to Margaret Gibson, Lesley Smith and Benedicta Ward London, 1992

McKitterick, Rosamund “Ottonian Intellectual Culture in the Tenth Century and the Role of Theophanu,” Early Medieval Europe 2/1, 1993

McKitterick, Rosamund History and Memory in the Carolingian World Cambridge, 2004

McKitterick, Rosamund The Early Middle Ages: Europe 400–1000 Oxford, 2001

Menocal, María Rosa The Ornament of the World: How Muslims, Jews, and Christians Created a Culture of Tolerance in Medieval Spain New York, 2002

Milis, Ludo J. R. Angelic Monks and Earthly Men Woodbridge, 1992

Miller, Timothy S., and Nesbitt, John Peace and War in Byzantium: Essays in Honor of George T. Dennis, S.J. Washington, DC, 1995

Moore, R. I. The Birth of Popular Heresy London, 1975

Moore, R. I. The Origins of European Dissent London, 1977

Moore, R. I. The Formation of a Persecuting Society: Power and Deviance in Western Europe, 950–1250 Oxford, 1990

Moore, R. I. “Heresy, Repression and Social Change in the Age of Gregorian Reform,” in Christendom and its Discontents: Exclusion, Persecution, and Rebellion, 1000–1500, Scott L. Waugh Peter D. Diehl Cambridge, 1996

Moore, R. I. “The Birth of Heresy: A Millennial Phenomenon,” Journal of Religious History 24/1, 2000

Moore, R. I. The First European Revolution, c. 970–1215 Oxford, 2000

Morghen, Raffaello Gregorio VII e la Riforma della Chiesa nel Secolo XI Palermo, 1974

Morillo, Stephen The Battle of Hastings Woodbridge, 1996

Morris, Colin The Papal Monarchy: The Western Church from 1050 to 1250 Oxford, 1989

Morrison, Karl F. “The Gregorian Reform,” in Christian Spirituality: Origins to the Twelfth Century, Bernard McGinn and John Meyendorff London, 1986

Moulin, Léo La Vie Quotidienne des Religieux au Moyen Âge (Xe—XVe Siècle) Paris, 1978

Mütherich, F. “The Library of Otto III,” in The Role of the Book in Medieval Culture, Peter Ganz Turnhout, 1986

Navari, Joseph “The Leitmotiv in the Mathematical Thought of Gerbert of Aurillac,” Journal of Medieval History 1, 1975

Nelson, Janet L. Politics and Ritual in Early Medieval Europe London, 1986

Nelson, Janet L. The Frankish World, 750–900 London, 1996

Nelson, Janet L. Rulers and Ruling Families in Early Medieval Europe Aldershot, 1999

Niles, John D., and Amodio, Mark Anglo-Scandinavian England: Norse—English Relations in the Period before the Conquest Lanham, 1989

Noble, T. F. X. The Republic of St. Peter: The Birth of the Papal State, 680–825 Philadelphia, 1984

Norwich, John Julius The Normans in the South, 1016–1130 London, 1967

Ortigues, E., and Iogna-Prat, D. “Raoul Glaber et l’Historiographie Clunisienne,” Studi Medievali 26/2, 1985

O’Callaghan, Joseph F. Reconquest and Crusade in Medieval Spain Philadelphia, 2003

O’Leary, De Lacy A Short History of the Fatimid Khalifate London, 1923

O’Shea, Stephen Sea of Faith: Islam and Christianity in the Medieval Mediterranean World London, 2006

Page, R. I. Chronicles of the Vikings: Records, Memorials and Myths Bath, 2002

Partner, Nancy Writing Medieval History London, 2005

Paxton, Frederick S. Christianizing Death: The Creation of a Ritual Process in Early Medieval Europe Ithaca, 1990

Pelteret, David A. E. Slavery in Early Mediaeval England: From the Reign of Alfred until the Twelfth Century Woodbridge, 1995

Pérez de Urbel, Justo “El Culto de Santiago in el Siglo X,” Compostellanum 16, 1971

Peters, F. E. Jerusalem: The Holy City in the Eyes of Chroniclers, Visitors, Pilgrims, and Prophets from the Days of Abraham to the Beginnings of Modern Times Princeton, 1985

Phillips, Jonathan The First Crusade: Origins and Impact Manchester, 1997

Pognon, Edmond La Vie Quotidienne en l’An Mille Paris, 1981

Pognon, Edmond Hugues Capet et la France Féodale Paris, 1989

Poly, Jean-Pierre “Le Capétien Thaumaturge: Genèse Populaire d’un Miracle Royal,” in Delort Paris, 1990

Poly, Jean-Pierre, and Bournazel, Eric The Feudal Transformation, 900–1200, tr. Caroline Higgitt New York, 1991

Rees, Martin Our Final Century: Will Civilisation Survive the Twenty-First Century? London, 2003

Reilly, B. F. The Contest of Christian and Muslim Spain, 1031–1157 London, 1992

Reston, James The Last Apocalypse: Europe at the Year 1000 A.D. New York, 1998

Reuter, Timothy “The End of Carolingian Military Expansion,” in Charlemagne’s Heir, P. Godman and R. Collins Oxford, 1990

Reuter, Timothy Germany in the Early Middle Ages, c. 800–1056 London, 1991

Reuter, Timothy “Debate: The Feudal Revolution,” Past and Present 155, 1997

Reuter, Timothy The Medieval Nobility: Studies on the Ruling Classes of France and Germany from the Sixth to the Twelfth Century Amsterdam, 1979

Reynolds, Susan “Medieval Origines Gentium and the Community of the Realm,” History 68, 1983

Reynolds, Susan Kingdoms and Communities in Western Europe 900–1300 Oxford, 1997

Riché, Pierre “Le Mythe des Terreurs de l’An Mille,” in Les Terreurs de l’An 2000 Paris, 1976

Riché, Pierre “Les Conditions de la Production Littéraire: Maîtres et Écoles,” in Lateinische Kultur im X. Jahrhundert, Walter Berschin Stuttgart, 1991

Riley-Smith, Jonathan The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading London, 1986

Riley-Smith, Jonathan The First Crusaders, 1095–1131 Cambridge, 1997

Robinson, I. S. “Gregory VII and the Soldiers of Christ,” History 58, 1973

Robinson, I. S. The Papacy 1073–1198: Continuity and Innovation Cambridge, 1990

Robinson, I. S. Henry IV of Germany, 1056–1106 Cambridge, 1999

Roesdahl, Else Viking Age Denmark, tr. Susan Margeson and Kirsten Williams London, 1982

Roesdahl, Else The Vikings, tr. Susan Margeson and Kirsten Williams London, 1987

Rösener, W. Peasants in the Middle Ages, tr. Alexander Stützer Chicago, 1992

Rosenstock-Huessy, Eugen Out of Revolution: Autobiography of Western Man New York, 1938

Rosenstock-Huessy, Eugen Driving Power of Western Civilization: The Christian Revolution of the Middle Ages Boston, 1949

Rosenwein, Barbara H. Rhinoceros Bound: Cluny in the Tenth Century Philadelphia, 1982

Rosenwein, Barbara H. To Be the Neighbor of Saint Peter: The Social Meaning of Cluny’s Property, 909–1049 Ithaca, 1989

Russell, James C. The Germanization of Early Medieval Christianity: A Sociohistorical Approach to Religious Transformation Oxford, 1994

Sahas, Daniel J. John of Damascus on Islam: The “Heresy of the Ishmaelites” Leiden, 1972

Sansterre, Jean-Marie “Otton III et les Saints Ascètes,” Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia 43/2, 1989

Sassier, Yves Hugues Capet: Naissance d’une Dynastie Paris, 1987

Sawyer, Birgit, Sawyer, Peter, and Wood, Ian The Christianization of Scandinavia Alingsas, 1987

Sawyer, P. H. “The Wealth of England in the Eleventh Century,” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 15, 1965

Sawyer, P. H. Kings and Vikings: Scandinavia and Europe, AD 700–1100 London, 1982

Scales, Peter C. The Fall of the Caliphate of Córdoba Leiden, 1994

Schiavone, Aldo The End of the Past: Ancient Rome and the Modern West, tr. Margery J. Schneider Cambridge, Mass., 2000

Schimmelpfennig, Bernhard The Papacy, tr. James Sievert New York, 1992

Schillebeeckx, Edward The Church with a Human Face New York, 1985

Schramm, Percy E. Kaiser, Rom und Renovatio: Studien und Texte zur Geschichte des römischen Erneuerungsgedankens vom Ende des karolingischen Reiches bis zum Investiturstreit, 2 Leipzig and Berlin, 1929

Schramm, Percy E. Herrschaftszeichen und Staatssymbolik, 3 Stuttgart, 1954–6

Scragg, Donald The Battle of Maldon AD 991 Oxford, 1991

Searle, Eleanor “Possible History,” Speculum 61, 1986

Searle, Eleanor Predatory Kinship and the Creation of Norman Power, 840–1066 Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1988

Seitter, Walter Katechonten: Den Untergang Aufhalten Berlin, 2001

Settipani, Christian “Les Comtes d’Anjou et Leurs Alliances aux Xe et Xie Siècles,” in Family Trees and the Roots of Politics: The Prosopography of Britain and France from the Tenth to the Twelfth Century, K. S. B. Keats-Rohan Woodbridge, 1997

Sevcenko, Ihor “Unpublished Texts on the End of the World about the Year 1000 AD,” in Mélanges Gilbert Dagron Paris, 2002

Shahar, S. Childhood in the Middle Ages London, 1990

Shepard, Jonathan “The Uses of the Franks in Eleventh-Century Byzantium,” Anglo-Norman Studies 15, 1993

Shepard, Jonathan “Cross-purposes: Alexius Comnenus and the First Crusade,” in Phillips Manchester, 1997

Shepard, Jonathan “Courts in East and West,” in Linehan and Nelson London, 2001

Slupecki, Leszek Pawel Slavonic Pagan Sanctuaries Warsaw, 1994

Smith, Julia M. H. Europe after Rome: A New Cultural History 500–1000 Oxford, 2005

Smith, Julia M. H. Early Medieval Rome and the Christian West Leiden, 2000

Southern, R. W. The Making of the Middle Ages London, 1953

Southern, R. W. Medieval Humanism and Other Studies Oxford, 1970

Southern, R. W. Western Society and the Church in the Middle Ages London, 1970

Stafford, Pauline Unification and Conquest: A Political and Social History of England in the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries London, 1989

Stafford, Pauline Queen Emma and Queen Edith: Queenship and Women’s Power in Eleventh-Century England Oxford, 1997

Stafford, Pauline “Powerful Women in the Early Middle Ages: Queens and Abbesses,” in Linehan and Nelson London, 2001

Stenton, Frank Anglo-Saxon England Oxford, 1971

Struve, Tilman “Zwei Briefe der Kaiserin Agnes,”Historisches Jahrbuch 104, 1984

Struve, Tilman “Die Romreise der Kaiserin Agnes,” Historisches Jahrbuch 105, 1985

Sumption, Jonathan Pilgrimage: An Image of Mediaeval Religion London, 1975

Taylor, Catherine “The Year 1000 and Those Who Laboured,” in Frassatto New York, 2002

Tellenbach, Gerd Church, State and Christian Society at the Time of the Investiture Contest, tr. R. F. Bennett Oxford, 1940

Tellenbach, Gerd The Church in Western Europe from the Tenth to the Early Twelfth Century, tr. Timothy Reuter Cambridge, 1993

Thompson, Damian The End of Time: Faith and Fear in the Shadow of the Millennium London, 1996

Ullman, Walter The Growth of Papal Government in the Middle Ages: A Study in the Ideological Relation of Clerical to Lay Power London, 1955

Ullman, Walter Principles of Government and Politics in the Middle Ages London, 1961

Ullman, Walter The Carolingian Renaissance and the Idea of Kingship London, 1969

Ullman, Walter A Short History of the Papacy in the Middle Ages London, 1972

Vallvé Bermejo, J. El Califato de Córdoba Madrid, 1992

Vatikiotis, P. J. “Al-Hakim Bi-Amrillah: The God-King Idea Realised,” Islamic Culture 29/1, 1955

Vatikiotis, P. J. The Fatimid Theory of State Lahore, 1957

Van Berchem, Denis Le Martyre de la Légion Thébaine: Essai sur la Formation d’une Légende Basel, 1956

Van Houts, Elisabeth “The Origins of Herleva, Mother of William the Conqueror,” English Historical Review 101, 1986

Van Houts, Elisabeth “The Norman Conquest through European Eyes,” English Historical Review 110, 1995

Van Houts, Elisabeth The Normans in Europe Manchester, 2000

Verhelst, D. “Les Conceptions d’Adson Concernant l’Antichrist,” Recherches de Théologie Ancienne et Médiévale 40 1973

Vogel, Jörgen Gregor VII. und Heinrich IV. nach Canossa Berlin, 1983

Vryonis, Speros The Decline of Medieval Hellenism in Asia Minor and the Process of Islamization from the Eleventh through the Fifteenth Century Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1971

Wach, Joachim Sociology of Religion Chicago, 1944

Walker, Ian W. Harold: The Last Anglo-Saxon King Stroud, 1997

Wallace-Hadrill, J. M. The Barbarian West, 400–1000 London, 1964

Wallace-Hadrill, J. M. Early Medieval History Oxford, 1975

Warner, David A. “Henry II at Magdeburg: Kingship, Ritual and the Cult of Saints,” Early Medieval Europe 3/2, 1994

Wasserstein, David J. The Rise and Fall of the Party-Kings: Politics and Society in Islamic Spain 1002–1086 Princeton, 1985

Wasserstein, David J. The Caliphate in the West: An Islamic Political Institution in the Iberian Peninsula Oxford, 1993

Watkins, Basil The Book of Saints: A Comprehensive Biographical Dictionary London, 2002

Watson, Andrew M. Agricultural Innovation in the Early Islamic World: The Diffusion of Crops and Farming Techniques, 700–1100 Cambridge, 1983

Whittow, Mark The Making of Orthodox Byzantium, 600–1025 Basingstoke, 1996

Wickham, Chris “Italy and the Early Middle Ages,” in The Birth of Europe: Archaeological and Social Development in the First Millennium A.D., ed. Klaus Randsborg (Rome, 1989) Wickham, Chris: Land and Power London, 1994

Wickham, Chris “Debate: The Feudal Revolution,” Past and Present 155, 1997

Wickham, Chris Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean, 400–800 Oxford, 2005

Wilkinson, John Jerusalem Pilgrims before the Crusades Warminster, 1977

Williams, John “Cluny and Spain,” Gesta 27, 1988

Williams, Schafer The Gregorian Epoch: Reformation, Revolution, Reaction? Lexington, 1964

Wolf, Kenneth Baxter Making History: The Normans and Their Historians in 11th Century Italy Philadelphia, 1995

Wolff, Philippe The Awakening of Europe, tr. Anne Carter London, 1968

Wood, Michael In Search of the Dark Ages London, 1981

Wood, Michael In Search of England: Journeys into the English Past London, 1999

Woods, David “The Origin of the Legend of Maurice and the Theban Legion,” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 45, 1994

Wormald, Patrick “Engla lond: The Making of an Allegiance,” Journal of Historical Sociology 7, 1994

Zimmerman, Harald Der Canossagang von 1077: Wirkungen und Wirklichkeit Mainz, 1975

Zotz, Thomas “Carolingian Tradition and Ottonian-Salian Innovation: Comparative Observations on Palatine Policy in the Empire,” in Kings and Kingship in Medieval Europe, ed. Anne J. Duggan London, 1993

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!
Previous
Page
Next
Page