Post-classical history

Further Reading


F. Barlow, The Feudal Kingdom of England 1042–1216 (5th edn, London, 1999), an excellent outline.

R. Bartlett, England under the Norman and Angevin Kings, 1075–1225 (Oxford, 2000).

M. Chibnall, Anglo-Norman England 1066–1166 (Oxford, 1986), judicious.

S. B. Chrimes, C. D. Ross, and R. A. Griffiths (eds.), Fifteenth-century England, 1399–1509: Studies in Politics and Society (Manchester, 1972; 2nd edn, Stroud, 1995), essays on central topics.

M. T. Clanchy, England and its Rulers 1066–1272 (Glasgow, 1983; 2nd edn, 1998), a thought-provoking combination of political and cultural history, with a new epilogue on Edward I.

R. R. Davies, Domination and Conquest. The Experience of Ireland, Scotland and Wales 1100–1300 (Cambridge, 1990).

F. R. H. DuBoulay, An Age of Ambition (London, 1970), a stimulating look at themes (e.g. class, marriage, sex) often neglected.

R. Frame, The Political Development of the British Isles 1100–1400 (Oxford, 1990).

A. Harding, England in the Thirteenth Century (Cambridge, 1993).

J. R. Lander, Conflict and Stability in Fifteenth-century England (3rd edn, London, 1977), an overall (if gloomy) view of the century.

R. Mortimer, Angevin England 1154–1258 (Oxford, 1994).

D. M. Stenton, English Society in the Early Middle Ages 1066–1307 (2nd edn, Harmondsworth, 1952), a brief social survey.

A. Tuck, Crown and Nobility, 1272–1461 (London, 1985), a clear and sound narrative.

Studies of Some Major Themes

J. Bellamy, Crime and Public Order in England in the Later Middle Ages (London, 1973).

A. L. Brown, The Governance of Late Medieval England, 1272–1461 (London, 1989).

R. G. Davies and J. H. Denton (eds), The English Parliament in the Middle Ages (Manchester, 1981), nicely integrated essays.

J. Gillingham, The English in the Twelfth Century. Imperialism, National Identity and Political Values (Woodbridge, 2000).

B. Golding, Conquest and Colonisation. The Normans in Britain 1066–1100 (London, 1994).

A. E. Goodman, The Wars of the Roses (London, 1981), good on military matters.

J. A. Green, The Aristocracy of Norman England (Cambridge, 1997).

R. H. Hilton, The English Peasantry in the Later Middle Ages (Oxford, 1975).

J. C. Holt, Magna Carta (Cambridge, 1965; 2nd edn, 1992), indispensable for the political and social context of the charter.

J. Le Patourel, The Norman Empire (Oxford, 1976), magisterial. The starting-point for all future studies of this subject.

K. B. McFarlane, Lancastrian Kings and Lollard Knights (Oxford, 1972), two major themes explored with insight.

K. B. McFarlane, The Nobility of Later Medieval England (Oxford, 1973), essays by a master-historian.

C. Platt, The English Medieval Town (London, 1976), a pleasant, illustrated book.

N. J. G. Pounds, The Medieval Castle in England and Wales (Cambridge, 1990).

N. A. M. Rodger, The Safeguard of the Sea. A Naval History of Britain. Volume One 660–1649 (London, 1997).

C. D. Ross, The Wars of the Roses (London, 1976), wise and well illustrated.

G. O. Sayles, The King’s Parliament of England (London, 1975), a distillation of 40 years of research and argument by Richardson and Sayles.

V. J. Scattergood and J. W. Sherborne (eds), English Court Culture in the Later Middle Ages (London, 1983), expert essays on a variety of themes.

M. Strickland, War and Chivalry. The Conduct and Perception of War in England and Normandy, 1066–1217 (Cambridge, 1996).

A. Williams, The English and the Norman Conquest (Woodbridge, 1995).

Royal Biographies

C. T. Allmand, Henry V (London, 1992).

R. Barber, Edward, Prince of Wales and Aquitaine (London, 1978).

F. Barlow, William Rufus (London, 1983), not just a life, also a fine study of the times.

D. Bates, William the Conqueror (London, 1989).

D. A. Carpenter, The Minority of Henry III (London, 1990).

R. H. C. Davis, King Stephen (London 1967; 3rd edn, 1990), lively and stimulating.

J. Gillingham, Richard I (London, 1999).

R. A. Griffiths, The Reign of King Henry VI (London, 1981; 2nd edn, Stroud, 1988), more than a biography of the king.

J. L. Kirby, Henry IV of England (London, 1970).

W. M. Ormord, The Reign of Edward III (London, 1990).

D. D. R. Owen, William the Lion. Kingship and Culture 1143–1214 (East Linton, 1997).

M. Prestwich, Edward I (London, 1988).

C. D. Ross, Edward IV (London, 1974; 2nd edn, London, 1997).

C. D. Ross, Richard III (London, 1981; 2nd edn, London, 1999).

N. Saul, Richard II (London, 1997).

E. L. G. Stones, Edward I (Oxford, 1978).

K. J. Stringer, The Reign of Stephen (London, 1993).

W. L. Warren, King John (Harmondsworth, 1961), seeks to rescue John from the damning verdict of thirteenth-century chroniclers.

W. L. Warren, Henry II (London, 1973), massive but readable.

Other Biographies

F. Barlow, Thomas Becket (London, 1986), a detached and detailed narrative.

R. Bartlett, Gerald of Wales 1146–1223 (Oxford, 1982), an excellent study of an original and troubled mind.

C. R. Cheney, Hubert Walter (London, 1967), a lucid account of the career of the most powerful churchman of the age.

D. Crouch, William Marshal. Court, Career and Chivalry in the Angevin Empire (London, 1990).

A. E. Goodman, John of Gaunt (London, 1992), a royal prince on a European stage.

G. L. Harriss, Cardinal Beaufort (Oxford, 1988), a prince of the church in politics and war.

J. R. Maddicott, Simon de Montfort (Cambridge, 1994).

N. Vincent, Peter des Roches. An Alien in English Politics 1205–1238 (Cambridge, 1996).

Church and Religion

F. Barlow, The English Church 1066–1154 (London, 1979), a lively analysis of a radical and tumultuous age.

D. Knowles, The Monastic Order in England 940–1216 (2nd edn, Cambridge, 1963), a scholarly history of monasticism by a scholar monk.

D. Knowles, The Religious Orders in England, vol. I (Cambridge, 1962), important for the coming of the friars.

K. B. McFarlane, John Wycliffe and the Beginnings of English Nonconformity (London, 1952).

R. N. Swanson, Church and Society in Late Medieval Britain (London, 1989).


G. W. S. Barrow, Kingship and Unity. Scotland 1000–1316 (London, 1981), an invaluable brief survey.

J. Brown (ed.), Scottish Society in the Fifteenth Century (London, 1977), essays on central topics.

A. A. M. Duncan, Scotland. The Making of the Kingdom (Edinburgh, 1975).

A. Grant, Independence and Nationhood: Scotland, 1306–1469 (London, 1984), a comprehensive and often original survey.


R. R. Davies, Conquest, Coexistence and Change: Wales 1063–1415 (History of Wales, vol. 2) (Oxford, 1987), economy, society, and politics: a major study.

G. Williams, Recovery, Reorientation, and Reformation: Wales c.1415–1642 (History of Wales, vol. 3) (Oxford, 1987).


S. Duffy, Ireland in the Middle Ages (Dublin, 1997).

R. Frame, Colonial Ireland 1169–1369 (Dublin, 1981), an admirable sketch.

J. F. Lydon, Ireland in the Later Middle Ages (Dublin, 1973).


J. L. Bolton, The Medieval English Economy 1150–1500 (London, 1980), the most helpful general introduction.

A. R. Bridbury, Economic Growth: England in the Later Middle Ages (London, 1962).

R. H. Britnell, The Commercialisation of English Society, 1100–1500 (Cambridge, 1993).

C. Dyer, Standards of Living in the later Middle Ages. Social Change in England c.1200–1520 (Cambridge, 1989).

E. Miller and J. Hatcher, Medieval England: Rural Society and Economic Change 1086–1348 (London, 1978), a judicious survey of the rural economy.

E. Miller and J. Hatcher, Medieval England: Towns, Commerce and Crafts, 1086–1348 (London, 1995), a companion volume.

S. Reynolds, An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns (2nd edn, Oxford, 1982), the thinking person’s introduction to English urban history.

G. A. Williams, Medieval London: from Commune to Capital (London, 1963), a vivid and detailed account of thirteenth- and early fourteenth-century London.

Language and Literacy

M. T. Clanchy, From Memory to Written Record: England 1066–1307 (London, 1979; 2nd edn, 1993), a fascinating analysis of the development of literacy and the literate mentality.

A. Crawford (ed.), Letters of the Queens of England, 1100–1547 (Stroud, 1994), an often neglected perspective.

S. Medcalf (ed.), The Context of English Literature: The Later Middle Ages (London, 1981), a rare attempt to integrate cultural and social history.


J. Alexander and P. Binski (eds), Age of Chivalry. Art in Plantagenet England 1200–1400 (Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1987).

T. S. R. Boase, English Art 1100–1216 (Oxford, 1953).

P. Brieger, English Art 1216–1307 (Oxford, 1957).

J. Evans, English Art, 1307–1461 (Oxford, 1949).

T. Tatton-Brown, Great Cathedrals of Britain (London, 1989).

G. Zarnecki, J. Holt, and T. Holland (eds), English Romanesque Art 1066–1200 (Arts Council, 1984).

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