Post-classical history

Chronology

1066

(January) Death of King Edward; Earl Harold becomes king

 

(September) King Harold of England defeats and kills King Harold of Norway at Stamford Bridge

 

(October) Duke William of Normandy defeats and kills King Harold of England at Hastings

 

(December) William is consecrated king

1067–70

English rebellions

1069–70

The harrying of the north

1086

Domesday survey carried out

1087

Death of William I; accession of William II Rufus

1088

Rebellion in support of Robert Curthose

1093

Anselm appointed archbishop of Canterbury

1096

Robert pawns Normandy to Rufus

1100

Death of William Rufus; accession of Henry I

1101

Invasion of Robert Curthose

1106

Battle of Tinchebray; Curthose imprisoned; Henry I takes Normandy

1107

Settlement of Investiture Dispute in England

1120

Wreck of the White Ship

1128

Marriage of Empress Matilda to Geoffrey of Anjou

1135

Death of Henry I; accession of Stephen

1139–53

Civil war in England

1141

Battle of Lincoln; Stephen captured; later exchanged for Robert of Gloucester

1141–5

Geoffrey of Anjou conquers Normandy

1149

Cession of Northumbria to David of Scotland

1152

Henry of Anjou (later Henry II) marries Eleanor of Aquitaine

1153

Henry invades England; he and Stephen come to terms

1154

Death of Stephen; accession of Henry II

1157

Henry regains Northumbria

1162

Becket appointed archbishop of Canterbury

1164

Council and Constitutions of Clarendon; Becket goes into exile

1166

Assize of Clarendon

1169–72

English conquest of Ireland begins

1170

Coronation of the young king; murder of Becket

1173–4

Rebellion against Henry II; William ‘the Lion’ (king of Scotland) invades the north

1183

Death of the young king

1189

Death of Henry II; accession of Richard I

1190–2

Richard I on crusade

1193–4

Richard in prison in Germany

1193–1205

Hubert Walter, archbishop of Canterbury (justiciar 1194–8, chancellor 1199–1205)

1197

Death of Rhys of Deheubarth

1199

Death of Richard I; accession of John; establishment of Chancery Rolls

1203–4

Philip Augustus conquers Anjou and Normandy

1208–14

Interdict in England

1214

Battle of Bouvines: French victory

1215

Magna Carta; civil war in England; Louis (later Louis VIII) invades; death of John; accession of Henry III

1217

Battles of Lincoln and Dover; Louis withdraws

1221–4

Arrival of Dominican and Franciscan Friars in England

1224

Louis VIII completes conquest of Poitou

1232

Dismissal of Hubert de Burgh

1240

Death of Llywelyn the Great

1254

Henry III accepts papal offer of throne of Sicily

1258

Barons take over royal government; Provisions of Oxford

1259

Treaty of Paris between England and France

1264

Battle of Lewes; Henry III captured; government of Simon de Montfort

1265

Battle of Evesham; killing of Simon de Montfort

1267

Henry recognizes Llywelyn ap Gruffydd as Prince of Wales

1272

Death of Henry III; accession of Edward I

1276–7

First Welsh War

1282–3

Edward’s conquest of Wales

1286–9

Edward I in Gascony

1291

Edward I asserts his overlordship over Scotland

1294

War with France begins

1295

Franco-Scottish alliance

1296

Edward I invades Scotland; his conflict with the Church

1297

Edward I’s conflict with his magnates; his expedition to Flanders

1306

Rebellion of Robert Bruce

1307

Death of Edward I; accession of Edward II

1314

Scottish victory at Bannockburn

1315–16

Great famine

1321–2

Civil war in England

1327

Deposition and death of Edward II; accession of Edward III

1330

Edward III takes the reins of government

1337

The Hundred Years War begins

1339–41

Political crisis in England

1346

English victories at Crécy and Neville’s Cross

1347

English capture Calais

1348

First occurrence of plague in England

1356

English victory at Poitiers

1361

Second major occurrence of plague

1376

‘Good Parliament’ meets; death of Edward, the Black Prince

1377

Death of Edward III; accession of Richard II

1381

The Peasants’ Revolt

1382

Condemnation of John Wycliffe’s works

1388

‘Merciless Parliament’ meets; battle of Otterburn against the Scots

1389

Richard II declares himself of age

1394–5

Richard II’s first expedition to Ireland

1396

Anglo-French treaty

1397–9

Richard II’s ‘tyranny’

1399

Deposition of Richard II; accession of Henry IV

1400

Rebellion of Owain GlyndImager begins (to 1410)

1403

Henry Hotspur defeated at Shrewsbury

1405

Execution of Archbishop Scrope of York

1408

Defeat of the earl of Northumberland at Bramham Moor

1413

Death of Henry IV; accession of Henry V

1415

English victory at Agincourt

1419–20

English conquest of Normandy

1420

Anglo-French treaty of Troyes

1422

Death of Henry V; accession of Henry VI

1435

Death of John, duke of Bedford; Franco-Burgundian treaty of Arras

1436–7

Henry VI comes of age

1445

Henry VI marries Margaret of Anjou

1449–50

French overrun Normandy

1450

Murder of the duke of Suffolk; John Cade’s rebellion

1453

French overrun Gascony; Henry VI becomes ill

1455

Battle of St Albans between Richard, duke of York and the royalist forces

1459

Defeat of the duke of York at Blore Heath and Ludford Bridge

1461

Deposition of Henry VI; accession of Edward IV

1465

Capture of Henry VI

1469

Rebellion of Richard, earl of Warwick and George, duke of Clarence

1470

Deposition of Edward IV; return of Henry VI

1471

Return of Edward IV; death of the earl of Warwick at Barnet; death of Henry VI

1475

Edward IV’s expedition to France; Anglo-French treaty of Picquigny

1477

William Caxton’s first printed book in England

1483

Death of Edward IV; accession, deposition, and death of Edward V; accession of Richard III; rebellion of Henry, duke of Buckingham

1485

Death of Richard III at Bosworth; accession of Henry VII

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