NOTES

PROLOGUE: ELTON

1. Chronicon abbatiae Rameseiensis, ed. by W. Duncan Macray, London, 1886, p. 135.

2. Maurice Beresford and John G. Hurst, eds., Deserted Medieval Villages, London, 1971; Maurice Beresford, The Lost Villages of the Middle Ages, London, 1954; John G. Hurst, “The Changing Medieval Village,” in J. A. Raftis, ed., Pathways to Medieval Peasants, Toronto, 1981; Trevor Rowley and John Wood, Deserted Villages, Aylesbury, England, 1982.

CHAPTER 1. THE VILLAGE EMERGES

1. Edward Miller and John Hatcher, Medieval England: Rural Society and Economic Change, 1086-1348, London, 1978, pp. 85-87.

2. Rowley and Wood, Deserted Villages, pp. 6-8.

3. Jean Chapelot and Robert Fossier, The Village and House in the Middle Ages, trans. by Henry Cleere, Berkeley, 1985, p. 327.

4. P. J. Fowler, “Later Prehistory,” in H. P. R. Finberg, gen. ed., The Agrarian History of England and Wales, vol. 1, pt. 1, Prehistory, ed. by Stuart Piggott, Cambridge, 1981, pp. 157-158.

5. Butser Ancient Farm Project Publications: The Celtic Experience; Celtic Fields; Evolution of Wheat; Bees and Honey; Quern Stones; Hoes, Ards, and Yokes; Natural Dyes.

6. Tacitus, De Vita Iulii Agricola and De Germania, ed. by Alfred Gudeman, Boston, 1928, pp. 36-37, 40-41.

7. Chapelot and Fossier, Village and House, pp. 27-30.

8. S. Applebaum, “Roman Britain,” in H. P. R. Finberg, ed., The Agrarian History of England and Wales, vol. 1, pt. 2, A.D. 43-1042, Cambridge, 1972, p. 117.

9. Ibid., pp. 73-82.

10. Ibid., pp. 186, 208.

11. Chapelot and Fossier, Village and House, pp. 61, 100-103.

12. Ibid., p. 26.

13. Ibid., p. 15.

14. Ibid., pp. 144-150.

15. Joan Thirsk, “The Common Fields” and “The Origin of the Common Fields,” and J. Z. Titow, “Medieval England and the Open-Field System,” in Peasants, Knights, and Heretics: Studies in Medieval English Social History, ed. by R. H. Hilton, Cambridge, 1981, pp. 10-56; Bruce Campbell, “Commonfield Origins—the Regional Dimension,” in Trevor Rowley, ed., Origins of Open-Field Agriculture, London, 1981, p. 127; Trevor Rowley, “Medieval Field Systems,” in Leonard Cantor, ed., The English Medieval Landscape, Philadelphia, 1982; H. L. Gray, English Field Systems, Cambridge, Mass., 1915; C. S. and C. S. Orwin, The Open Fields, Oxford, 1954.

16. Joseph and Frances Gies, Life in a Medieval Castle, New York, 1974, p. 148.

17. George C. Homans, English Villagers in the Thirteenth Century, New York, 1975, pp. 12-28.

18. Grenville Astill and Annie Grant, eds., The Countryside of Medieval England, Oxford, 1988, pp. 88, 94.

19. Georges Duby, Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, Columbia, S.C., 1968, pp. 109-111.

20. Joan Thirsk, “Farming Techniques,” in Agrarian History of England and Wales, vol. 4, 1500-1640, ed. by Joan Thirsk, Cambridge, 1967, p. 164.

21. R. H. Hilton, The Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism, London, 1984, pp. 15-16.

22. W. G. Hoskins, The Midland Peasant: The Economic and Social History of a Leicestershire Village, London, 1957, p. 79; Homans, English Villagers, p. 368.

CHAPTER 2. THE ENGLISH VILLAGE: ELTON

1. For Huntingdonshire: Peter Bigmore, The Bedfordshire and Huntingdonshire Landscape, London, 1979. For England in general: H. C. Darby, A New Historical Geography of England Before 1600, Cambridge, 1976; Cantor, ed., The English Medieval Landscape;W. G. Hoskins, The Making of the English Landscape, London, 1955.

2. Applebaum, “Roman Britain,” in The Agrarian History of England and Wales, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 53.

3. Bigmore, Bedfordshire and Huntingdonshire Landscape, pp. 37-42.

4. Frank M. Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England, Oxford, 1971, p. 25.

5. H. C. Darby, “The Anglo-Scandinavian Foundations,” in Darby, ed., New Historical Geography, pp. 13-14.

6. Ibid., p. 15.

7. H. P. R. Finberg, “Anglo-Saxon England to 1042,” in The Agrarian History of England and Wales, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 422.

8. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, trans. by Anne Savage, London, 1983, pp. 90-92, 96.

9. J. A. Raftis, The Estates of Ramsey Abbey: A Study of Economic Growth and Organization, Toronto, 1957, pp. 6-9.

10. A. Mawer and F. M. Stenton, The Place-Names of Bedfordshire and Huntingdonshire, London, 1926, pp. 183-184; James B.Johnston, The Place Names of England and Wales, London, 1915, p. 258; Eilert Ekwall, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place Names, Oxford, 1947, p. 158.

11. Chronicon abbatiae Rameseiensis, pp. 112-113.

12. Ibid., pp. 135-140.

13. E. A. Kosminsky, Studies in the Agrarian History of England in the Thirteenth Century, Oxford, 1956, p. 73.

14. Cartularium monasterii de Rameseia, ed. by William Hart, London, 1884-1893, vol. 1, p. 234. (Henceforth referred to as Cart. Rames.)

15. Barbara Dodwell, “Holdings and Inheritance in East Anglia,” Economic History Review 2nd ser. 20 (1967), p. 55.

16. Raftis, Estates of Ramsey Abbey, pp. 26-34.

17. Susan B. Edgington, “Ramsey Abbey vs. Pagan Peverel, St. Ives, 1107,” Records of Huntingdonshire 2 (1985), pp. 2-5; Edgington, “Pagan Peverel: An Anglo-Norman Crusader,” in Crusade and Settlement, ed. by P. Edbury, Cardiff, 1985, pp. 90-93.

18. H. C. Darby, “Domesday England,” in Darby, ed., New Historical Geography, p. 39.

19. W. Page and G. Proby, eds., Victoria History of the Counties of England: Huntingdonshire, vol. 1, London, 1926, p. 344. (Henceforth referred to as V.C.H. Hunts.)

20. Rotuli Hundredorum temp. Hen. III et Edw. I in Turn Lond’ et in curia receptae scaccarii Westm. asservati, London, 1818, vol. 2, p. 656. (Henceforth referred to as Rot. Hund.)

21. Beresford, Lost Villages, p. 55.

22. G. R. Owst, Literature and Pulpit in Medieval England, Oxford, 1961, pp. 27-28, 37.

23. R. H. Hilton, A Medieval Society: The West Midlands and the End of the Thirteenth Century, New York, 1966, p. 95; Hoskins, The Midland Peasant, p. 284; Chapelot and Fossier, Village and House, pp. 253-254, 296-302; Margaret Wood, The English Mediaeval House, London, 1965, pp. 215-216; Maurice W. Barley, The English Farmhouse and Cottage, London, 1961, pp. 22-25; H. M. Colvin, “Domestic Architecture and Town-Planning,” in A. Lane Poole, ed., Medieval England, London, 1958, vol. 1, pp. 82-88.

24. Wood, English Mediaeval House, p. 293.

25. Chapelot and Fossier, Village and House, pp. 313-315; Sarah M. McKinnon, “The Peasant House: The Evidence of Manuscript Illuminations,” in Raftis, ed., Pathways to Medieval Peasants, p. 304; Colvin, “Domestic Architecture,” p. 87.

26. Hurst, “The Changing Medieval Village,” pp. 42-43; Beresford and Hurst, Deserted Medieval Villages, pp. 104-105; Hilton, A Medieval Society, p. 97.

27. Bedfordshire Coroners’ Rolls, ed. by R. F. Hunnisett, Streatley, England, 1969, pp. 8, 35,45, 83, 92, 112-113.

28. Elton Manorial Records, 1279-1351, ed. by S. C. Ratcliff, trans, by D. M. Gregory, Cambridge, 1946, p. 152. (Henceforth referred to as E.M.R.)

29. Ibid., pp. 392, 393.

30. Hilton, A Medieval Society, p. 95.

31. Beresford and Hurst, Deserted Medieval Villages, p. 116.

32. E.M.R., pp. 196, 300, 316; Grenville Astill, “Rural Settlement, the Toft and the Croft,” in Astill and Grant, eds., Countryside of Medieval England, pp. 36-61.

33. E.M.R., p. 52.

34. Ibid., pp. 52, 370.

35. Ibid., p. 52.

36. Ibid., pp. 50, 82, 110.

37. Rot. Hund., p. 656; Leslie E. Webster and John Cherry, “Medieval Britain in 1977,” Medieval Archaeology 22 (1978), pp. 142, 178.

38. E.M.R., pp. 22, 66, 275.

39. Ibid., pp. 13, 79, 214.

40. Ibid., pp. 137, 138, 169, 275, 322, 323, 336.

41. Ibid., p. 213.

42. Ibid., pp. 21, 64, 138, 169, 170, 215, 386.

43. Ibid., pp. 65, 66, 80, 169, 174, 176, 185, 322, 323.

44. Ibid., pp. 14, 22, 137, 386.

45. Ibid., pp. 14, 137, 138, 139, 323.

46. Ibid., pp. 137, 138, 168, 214, 371.

47. Ibid., p. 169.

48. Ibid., pp. 137, 213, 214, 272, 288.

49. Ibid., pp. 52, 77-78.

50. Ibid., p. 112.

51. Ibid., pp. 10, 19, 57, 126, 158, 203, 266-267.

52. Ibid., p. li.

53. Brian K. Roberts, The Making of the English Village, a Study in Historical Geography, Harlow, England, 1987, pp. 21-29; Chapelot and Fossier, Village and House, p. 184.

54. Hilton, A Medieval Society, pp. 93-95.

55. E.M.R., p. 69.

56. Rot. Hund., pp. 656-658.

57. Hilton, A Medieval Society, p. 92.

58. E.M.R., p. 97.

59. Rot. Hund., p. 657.

CHAPTER 3. THE LORD

1. The Estate Book of Henry de Bray, Northamptonshire, c. 1289-1340, ed. by D. Willis, Camden Society 3rd ser. 27 (1916).

2. Miller and Hatcher, Medieval England, p. 17.

3. R. H. Hilton, The English Peasantry in the Later Middle Ages, Oxford, 1975, pp. 132-133.

4. Homans, English Villagers, pp. 330-331.

5. Raftis, Estates of Ramsey Abbey, p. 77; R. Lennard, Rural England, 1086-1135, a Study of Society and Agrarian Conditions, Oxford, 1959, p. 199.

6. Christopher Dyer, Lords and Peasants in a Changing Society: The Estates of the Bishopric of Worcester, 680-1548, Cambridge, 1980, p. 55; Duby, Rural Economy and Country Life, p. 35.

7. Kosminsky, Studies in Agrarian History, Table 3, p. 100; Cart. Rames., vol. 1, pp. 294, 306.

8. Raftis, Estates of Ramsey Abbey, pp. 68-69.

9. E.M.R., p. 117.

10. Ibid., pp. 193, 299.

11. Ibid., p. 45.

12. Ibid., p. 46.

13. Ellen W. Moore, The Fairs of Medieval England: An Introductory Study, Toronto, 1985.

14. Cart. Rames., vol. 2, p. 342.

15. George Homans, “The Rural Sociology of Medieval England,” Past and Present 4 (1953), p. 39.

16. Ibid., p. 40.

17. Walter of Henley’s Husbandry, Together with an Anonymous Husbandry, Seneschaucie, etc., ed. by E. Lamond, Oxford, 1890, p. 35.

18. Ibid. (Rules of St. Robert), p. 125.

19. Ibid. (Seneschaucie), pp. 88—89; Frances Davenport, The Economic Development of a ‘Norfolk Manor, 1086-2565, Cambridge, 1906, pp. 22-23.

20. Walter of Henley (Seneschaucie), p. 105.

21. E.M.R., p. xviii.

22. E.M.R., p. 173; Davenport, Economic Development of a Norfolk Manor, p. 23.

23. Miller and Hatcher, Medieval England, pp. 192-193.

24. Walter of Henley, p. 11.

25. E.M.R., pp. xxxvii-xxxviii.

26. Ibid., pp. 2, 4, 138, 272, 275, 386.

27. Ibid., pp. 67-68, 140-141, 276-277.

28. Ibid., pp. 13, 67.

29. Ibid., p. 63.

30. Walter of Henley (Seneschaucie), p. 99.

31. Homans, English Villagers, pp. 297-305; Duby, Rural Economy and Country Life, p. 233; Raftis, Estates of Ramsey Abbey, pp. 125-127; Miller and Hatcher, Medieval England, pp. 193-197.

32. Walter of Henley (Seneschaucie), pp. 100-102.

33. E.M.R., pp. 56-85.

34. Ibid., p. 15.

35. Ibid., p. 24.

36. Ibid., p. 68.

37. Raftis, Estates of Ramsey Abbey, p. 95.

38. Nigel Saul, Scenes from Provincial Life, Knightly Families in Sussex, 1280-1400, Oxford, 1987, p. 127.

39. Geoffrey Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales, in The Complete Works of Geoffrey Chaucer, ed. by F. N. Robinson, Boston, 1933, p. 25 (lines 593-594).

40. Walter of Henley, pp. 17-18.

41. J. S. Drew, “Manorial Accounts of St. Swithun’s Priory, Winchester,” in E. M. Carus-Wilson, ed., Essays in Economic History, London, 1962, pp. 27-30.

42. Walter of Henley, p. 11.

43. Homans, English Villagers, p. 293.

44. E.M.R., pp. 70, 79, 278, 373.

45. Walter of Henley (Rules of St. Robert), p. 145.

46. Cart. Rames., vol. 3, pp. 168-169, 230-232.

47. Paul Vinogradoff, The Growth of the Manor, London, 1911; Dyer, Lords and Peasants, p. 67.

48. M. M. Postan, “The Famulus: The Estate Labourer in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries,” Economic History Review, supplement no. 2, Cambridge, 1954, p. 3.

49. E.M.R., pp. 16, 173, 218.

50. Ibid., pp. 24, 48, 172-173, 217-218.

51. Postan, “The Famulus,” p. 21; Cart. Rames., vol. 3, pp. 236-241; vol. 1, pp. 319, 330, 340, 351, 363.

52. Postan, “The Famulus,” p. 21.

53. Walter of Henley (Seneschaucie), p. 110; Walter of Henley, pp. 11-13; David L. Farmer, “Prices and Wages,” in H. E. Hallam, ed., The Agrarian History of England and Wales, vol. 2, 1042-1350, Cambridge, 1988, p. 748; Annie Grant, “Animal Resources,” in Astill and Grant, eds., Countryside of Medieval England, p. 174.

54. E.M.R., pp. 25-26; J. A. Raftis, “Farming Techniques (East Midlands),” in The Agrarian History of England and Wales, vol. 2, pp. 336-337.

55. E.M.R., p. 173.

56. Raftis, Estates of Ramsey Abbey, p. 206.

57. E.M.R., pp. lii-liii.

58. Raftis, Estates of Ramsey Abbey, p. 167.

59. Warren O. Ault, Open-Field Farming in Medieval England: A Study of Village By-Laws, London, 1972, p. 31.

60. Farmer, “Prices and Wages,” in The Agrarian History of England and Wales, vol. 2, p. 734.

61. Walter of Henley (Seneschaucie), p. 113.

62. Walter of Henley, p. 25.

63. Robert Trow-Smith, History of British Livestock Husbandry, London, 1957-1959, vol. 1, p. 156.

64. Ibid., p. 153.

65. E.M.R., pp. liii-liv.

66. Trow-Smith, British Livestock Husbandry, vol. 1, p. 149.

67. Walter of Henley (Seneschaucie), pp. 117-118.

68. E.M.R., p. Iv.

69. Miller and Hatcher, Medieval England, p. 77.

70. Walter of Henley (Rules of St. Robert), p. 141.

71. E. A. Kosminsky, “Services and Money Rents in the Thirteenth Century,” in Carus-Wilson, ed., Essays in Economic History, pp. 31-48.

72. The Estate Book of Henry de Bray, pp. xxiv-xxvii.

73. Beresford and Hurst, Deserted Medieval Villages, p. 127.

74. Walter of Henley, p. 19.

75. Ibid., p. 29.

76. E.M.R., pp. 17, 25.

77. Walter of Henley (Seneschaucie), p. 113.

78. Trow-Smith, British Livestock Husbandry, p. 112.

79. Ibid., p. 161; Farmer, “Prices and Wages,” in The Agrarian History of England and Wales, vol. 2, p. 757; E.M.R., p. liii.

80. Miller and Hatcher, Medieval England, p. 215.

81. Thirsk, “Farming Techniques,” in The Agrarian History of England and Waks, vol. 4, p. 163.

82. Trow-Smith, British Livestock Husbandry, p. 169.

CHAPTER 4. THE VILLAGERS: WHO THEY WERE

1. Miller and Hatcher, Medieval England, p. 20.

2. Ibid., p. 113.

3. Frederic William Maitland, The Domesday Book and Beyond, New York, 1966 (first pub. in 1897), p. 31.

4. R. H. Hilton, “Freedom and Villeinage in England,” in Hilton, ed., Peasants, Knights, and Heretics, pp. 174-191.

5. F. Pollock and F. W. Maitland, The History of English Law Before the Time of Edward I, Cambridge, 1968, vol. 1, p. 419. On the subject of freedom versus serfdom: R. H. Hilton, The Decline of Serfdom in Medieval England, London, 1969; Miller and Hatcher,Medieval England, pp. 111-133; M. M. Postan, “Legal Status and Economic Condition in Medieval Villages,” in M. M. Postan, Essays on Medieval Agriculture and General Problems of the Medieval Economy, Cambridge, 1968, pp. 278-289.

6. Miller and Hatcher, Medieval England, pp. 111-112.

7. Ibid., p. 112.

8. Duby, Rural Economy and Country Life, p. 282.

9. Cart. Rames., vol. 3, pp. 257-260.

10. J. A. Raftis, Warboys: Two Hundred Years in the Life of an English Medieval Village, Toronto, 1974, pp. 67-68.

11. Kosminsky, Studies in the Agrarian History of England, pp. 230-237.

12. Rot. Hund., pp. 656-658.

13. V.C.H. Hunts., p. 161.

14. Rot. Hund., pp. 656-658.

15. Cart. Rames., vol. 1, pp. 299-300, 310, 324, 336, 345, 350, 357, 361, 365, 393-394, 460-461, 475, 483; vol. 2, pp. 45-46.

16. E.M.R., p. 128.

17. Ibid., p. 268.

18. Ibid., p. 10.

19. Raftis, Estates of Ramsey Abbey, pp. 224-227.

20. E.M.R., pp. 5-6.

21. Ibid., pp. 28, 78, 181, 227, 287-288, 334.

22. Rot. Hund., p. 657.

23. E.M.R., pp. 93, 150.

24. Ibid., pp. 147, 151.

25. Ibid., pp. 147, 201, 255.

26. Ibid., p. 10. See also Postan, “The Famulus,” pp. 7-14.

27. E.M.R, p. 93.

28. Ibid., p. 261.

29. Ibid., p. 249.

30. Ibid., p. 44.

31. Chaucer, Canterbury Tales, p. 32.

32. E.M.R., p. 43.

33. Ibid., p. 44.

34. Ibid., p. 10.

35. Ibid., p. 126.

36. Ibid., p. 43.

37. Ibid., p. 43.

38. Ibid., p. 43.

39. Ibid., p. 196.

40. Ibid., p. 115.

41. Bedfordshire Coroners’ Rolls, p. 114.

42. E.M.R., p. 34.

43. Ibid., p. 89.

44. Ibid., p. 190.

45. Ibid., p. 254.

46. Ibid., p. 261.

47. Ibid., p. 257.

48. Ibid., p. 261.

49. Ibid., p. 293.

50. Anne De Windt, “A Peasant Land Market and Its Participants: King’s Ripton 1280-1400,” Midland History 4 (1978), pp. 142-149.

51. M. M. Postan, “Village Livestock in the Thirteenth Century,” Economic History Review 2nd ser. 15 (1962), pp. 219-249.

52. Trow-Smith, British Livestock Husbandry, vol. 1, p. 103.

53. E.M.R., p. 200.

54. Bedfordshire Coroners’ Rolls, p. 87.

55. Ibid., p. 82.

56. Edmund Britton, The Community of the Vill: A Study in the History of the Family and Village Life in Fourteenth-Century England, Toronto, 1977.

57. Edwin De Windt, Land and People in Holywell-cum-Needingworth: Structures of Tenure and Patterns of Social Organization in an East Midlands Village, 1253-1453, Toronto, 1972.

58. E.M.R., p. 3.

59. Ibid., p. 44.

60. Ibid., pp. 120-121.

61. Ibid., p. 122.

62. Ibid., p. 146.

63. Ibid., p. 200.

64. Ibid., p. 234.

65. Ibid., p. 2.

66. Ibid., p. 30.

67. Ibid., p. 46.

68. Ibid., p. 34.

69. Ibid., p. 116.

70. Ibid., p. 120.

71. Ibid., p. 95.

72. Ibid., p. 261.

73. Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, Montaillou, the Promised Land of Error, trans, by Barbara Bray, New York, 1978.

74. E.M.R., pp. 5-6.

CHAPTER 5. THE VILLAGERS: HOW THEY LIVED

1. Beresford and Hurst, Deserted Medieval Villages, p. 122; Cantor, “Villages and Towns,” in Cantor, ed., The English Medieval Landscape, pp. 173-174; Chapelot and Fossier, Village and House, pp. 204—205; Hurst, “The Changing Medieval Village,” p. 44.

2. R. K. Field, “Worcestershire Peasant Buildings, Household Goods and Farming Equipment in the Later Middle Ages,” Medieval Archaeology 9 (1965), pp. 105-145.

3. E.M.R., p. 115.

4. Ibid., p. 151.

5. Ibid., p. 300.

6. Beresford and Hurst, Deserted Medieval Villages, p. 104; Hilton, A Medieval Society, pp. 96-97; Trow-Smith, British Livestock Husbandry, vol. 1, p. 114.

7. Wood, English Mediaeval House, pp. 300-302; Chapelot and Fossier, Village and House, pp. 284-314; Colvin, English Farmhouse, pp. 21-36.

8. Beresford and Hurst, Deserted Medieval Villages, p. 105.

9. E.M.R., p. 170.

10. Beresford and Hurst, Deserted Medieval Villages, pp. 98, 100; Wood, English Mediaeval House, pp. 257-260.

11. Hali Meidenhod, ed. by O. Cockayne, London, 1922, p. 53.

12. Owst, Literature and Pulpit, pp. 27, 35-36.

13. Barbara Hanawalt, The Ties That Bound: Peasant Families in Medieval England, New York, 1986, pp. 45-49; Hoskins, The Midland Peasant, pp. 295-296; Hilton, A Medieval Society, pp. 100-101; Field, “Worcestershire Peasant Buildings,” pp. 121-123.

14. Wood, Mediaeval English House, pp. 368-374.

15. E.M.R., pp. 12, 62, 78, 133, 209.

16. Duby, Rural Economy and Country Life, p. 65.

17. Miller and Hatcher, Medieval England, p. 164.

18. H. E. Hallam, “The Life of the People,” in Agrarian History of England and Wales, vol. 2, pp. 830, 838.

19. Cecily Howell, Land, Family, and Inheritance in Transition, Cambridge, 1983, pp. 164-165; Grenville Astill, “Fields,” in Astill and Grant, eds., Countryside of Medieval England, p. 118.

20. Kosminsky, Studies in the Agrarian History of England, p. 240.

21. Miller and Hatcher, Medieval England, pp. 147-148; H. S. Bennett, Life on the English Manor, A Study of Peasant Conditions, 1150-1400, Cambridge, 1960 (first pub. in 1937), p. 95; Hallam, “Life of the People,” in The Agrarian History of England and Wales,vol. 2, p. 824; J. Z. Titow, English Rural Society, 1200-1350, London, 1969, p. 79; Howell, Land, Family, and Inheritance, p. 159.

22. Michel Mollat, The Poor in the Middle Ages, an Essay in Social History, trans, by Arthur Goldhammer, New Haven, 1986, pp. 194-195.

23. Anear MacConglinne, “The Vision of Viands,” in The Portable Medieval Reader, ed. by James Bruce Ross and Mary Martin McLaughlin, New York, 1966, pp. 497-499.

24. John Gower, Miroir de I’Omme, II, lines 450-460, in Complete Works of John Gower, ed. by G. C. Macaulay, Oxford, 1899-1902, vol. 1, p. 293.

25. E.M.R., p. 47.

26. William Langland, Piers Plowman’s Crede, ed. by W. W. Skeat, London, 1867, pp. 16-17.

27. John Stow, Survey of London, London, 1603, p. 92, translating William Fitzstephen’s description of twelfth-century London, cited in Bennett, Life on the English Manor, p. 261.

28. Homans, English Villagers, p. 358.

29. Bennett, Life on the English Manor, p. 262.

30. E.M.R., p. 172.

31. Homans, English Villagers, p. 362.

32. Ibid., p. 365.

33. Ibid., pp. 368, 370.

34. E.M.R., p. 69.

35. Homans, English Villagers, p. 372.

36. E.M.R., p. 172.

37. Robert Manning, Handlyng Synne, ed. by Idelle Sullens, Binghamton, New York, 1983, p. 224.

38. Owst, Literature and Pulpit, p. 362.

39. Bedfordshire Coroners’ Rolls, pp. 97-98.

40. Hanawalt, Ties That Bound, pp. 44, 60.

41. Bedfordshire Coroners’ Rolls, pp. 2-3.

42. Ibid., pp. 55-57.

43. Ibid., p. 108.

44. Ibid., p. 51.

45. Ibid., pp. 71-72.

46. Ibid., p. xxiii.

47. Ibid., p. 7.

48. Ibid., pp. 12-13.

49. Ibid., p. 116.

CHAPTER 6. MARRIAGE AND THE FAMILY

1. Frances and Joseph Gies, Marriage and the Family in the Middle Ages, New York, 1987, pp. 157-177.

2. Miller and Hatcher, Medieval England, p. 138.

3. P. D. A. Harvey, A Medieval Oxfordshire Village: Cuxham, 1240 to 1400, Oxford, 1965, p. 124.

4. Rosamond Jane Faith, “Peasant Families and Inheritance Customs in Medieval England,” Agricultural History Review 4 (1966), p. 91.

5. Ibid., pp. 86-87.

6. E.M.R., p. 208.

7. Court Roll of Chalgrave Manor, ed. by Marian K. Dale, Bedfordshire Historical Record Society 28 (1950), p. 10.

8. E.M.R., pp. 56, 68, 70.

9. Ibid., p. 392.

10. Ibid., p. 313.

11. Ibid., pp. 84-85, 264, 317.

12. Ibid., p. 313.

13. Cart. Rames., vol. 1, p. 416.

14. Ibid., vol. 1, pp. 294, 306, 320, 330, 352.

15. Ibid., vol. 1, pp. 359, 384.

16. Court Roll of Chalgrave Manor, p. 9.

17. Trow-Smith, British Livestock Husbandry, pp. 100-101.

18. Britton, Community of the Vill, pp. 59-64.

19. Anne De Windt, “Peasant Land Market,” pp. 151-153.

20. Duby, Rural Economy and Country Life, p. 284.

21. E.M.R., p. 96.

22. Ibid., p. 261.

23. Ibid., p. 5.

24. Eleanor Searle, “Seigneurial Control of Women’s Marriage: The Antecedents and Function of Merchet in England,” Past and Present 82 (1979), pp. 3-43; also Searle, “Freedom and Marriage in Medieval England: An Alternative Hypothesis,” Economic History Review 2nd ser. 29 (1976).

25. E.M.R., p. 28.

26. Ibid., p. 132.

27. Judith M. Bennett, “Medieval Peasant Marriage: An Examination of the Marriage License Fines in Liber Gersumarum,” in Raftis, ed., Pathways to Medieval Peasants, p. 195.

28. Ibid., p. 197.

29. Ibid., pp. 205-209, 213-214.

30. Ibid., pp. 208-209.

31. Cart. Rames., vol. 1, p. 432.

32. Bennett, “Medieval Peasant Marriage,” pp. 200-204.

33. E.M.R., pp. 61, 132, 208-209.

34. Gies, Marriage and the Family, pp. 135-141.

35. William Langland, The Vision of Piers Plowman, ed. by A. V. C. Schmidt, London, 1984, passus ix, lines 162-165, p. 97.

36. Manning, Handlyng Synne, p. 279.

37. Ibid., p. 277.

38. G. R. Owst, Preaching in Medieval England, London, 1926, p. 269.

39. Ibid., p. 269.

40. Cart. Rames., vol. 1, p. 312.

41. Gies, Marriage and the Family, pp. 242-245, 299-300.

42. Manning, Handlyng Synne, p. 211.

43. E.M.R., p. 3.

44. Ibid., pp. 132, 146.

45. Ibid., p. 200.

46. G. G. Coulton, Medieval Village, Manor, and Monastery, New York, 1960 (first pub. in 1925), pp. 477-478.

47. J. A. Raftis, in correspondence with the authors.

48. Britton, Community of the Vill, pp. 34-37.

49. Hanawalt, Ties That Bound, p. 216.

50. John Myrc, Instructions for Parish Priests, ed. by E. Peacock, London, 1868, pp. 18-19.

51. Manning, Handlyng Synne, pp. 240-241.

52. Myrc, Instructions for Parish Priests, pp. 4-5.

53. Hanawalt, Ties That Bound, pp. 172-173.

54. Ibid., pp. 175-179.

55. Bedfordshire Coroners’ Rolls, p. 1.

56. Ibid., p. 51.

57. Ibid., pp. 59-60.

58. Ibid., p. 98.

59. Barbara Hanawalt, “Childbearing Among the Lower Classes of Late Medieval England,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 8 (1977), pp. 20-21.

60. Owst, Literature and Pulpit, pp. 34-35.

61. Ibid., pp. 33-34.

62. Ibid., p. 34.

63. Hanawalt, Ties That Bound, pp. 166-167.

64. Cart. Rames., pp. 300-301.

65. M. M. Postan and J. Titow, “Heriots and Prices on Winchester Manors,” Economic History Review 2nd ser. 11 (1959), pp. 392-410; Hanawalt, Ties That Bound, pp. 228-229; Miller and Hatcher, Medieval England, pp. viii-ix.

66. E.M.R., p. 311.

67. Elaine Clark, “Some Aspects of Social Security in Medieval England,” Journal of Family History 7 (1982), pp. 307-320.

68. Manning, Handlyng Synne, pp. 30-32.

69. J. A. Raftis, Tenure and Mobility: Studies in the Social History of the Mediaeval English Village, Toronto, 1964, pp. 43-44.

70. Ibid., pp. 44-45.

71. Homans, English Villagers, p. 146.

72. Clark, “Some Aspects of Social Security,” p. 313.

73. Ibid., pp. 312-313.

74. Raftis, Tenure and Mobility, p. 45.

75. Ibid., p. 44.

76. Clark, “Some Aspects of Social Security,” pp. 310-311.

77. Howard Morris Stuckert, Corrodies in English Monasteries: A Study in English Social History of the Middle Ages, Philadelphia, 1923; Hilton, A Medieval Society, pp. 111-113.

78. Hilton, A Medieval Society, p. 163.

79. Bedfordshire Coroners’ Rolls, p. 4.

80. Ibid., p. 89.

81. Manning, Handlyng Synne, pp. 280-281.

82. Myrc, Instructions for Parish Priests, pp. 53-59.

83. Roberti Grosseteste Epistolae episcopi quondam Lincolniensis, ed. by H. R. Luard, London, 1861, p. 74, cited in Homans, English Villagers, p. 392.

84. Homans, English Villagers, p. 392.

85. Cited in Owst, Preaching in Medieval England, p. 268.

CHAPTER 7. THE VILLAGE AT WORK

1. E.M.R., p. 90; Raftis, “Farming Techniques,” in The Agrarian History of England and Wales, vol. 2, p. 329.

2. Ault, Open-Field Farming, pp. 22-23.

3. Gray, English Field Systems, especially pp. 39—49 and 71-82; Gray expresses the change from two-field to three-field as bringing “under tillage one-sixth more of the [total] arable” (p. 76); Homans, English Villagers, p. 57; Duby, Rural Economy andCountryLife, pp. 22-23, 92-96; Miller and Hatcher, Medieval England, pp. 88-97.

4. Miller and Hatcher, Medieval England, pp. 89-97 for a general discussion of field systems; Homans, English Villagers, p. 54; Trevor Rowley, “Medieval Field Systems,” in Cantor, ed., The English Medieval Landscape, pp. 36-38.

5. Maurice Beresford, Studies in Leicestershire Agrarian History, London, 1949, p. 93, cited in Ault, Open-Field Farming, p. 52.

6. E.M.R., p. 4.

7. Ibid., p. 34.

8. Ibid., p. 30.

9. Ibid., p. 3.

10. Miller and Hatcher, Medieval England, p. 99.

11. Ibid., p. 123.

12. E.M.R., p. xxx.

13. V.C.H. Hunts., vol. 1, p. 75; Rot. Hund., p. 657.

14. Cart. Rames., vol. 1, pp. 323-324.

15. Raftis, Estates of Ramsey Abbey, pp. 194-195; Robert R. Reynolds, Europe Emerges: Transition Toward an Industrial World-Wide Society, 600-1750, Madison, 1967, p. 132.

16. E.M.R., p. xxx.

17. Ibid., p. 4.

18. Ibid., p. 5.

19. John Langdon, “Agricultural Equipment,” in Astill and Grant, eds., Countryside of Medieval England, p. 96; Orwin and Orwin, The Open Fields, p. 12; Field, “Worcestershire Peasant Buildings,” pp. 123-125.

20. Ault, Open-Field Farming, p. 20; Miller and Hatcher, Medieval England pp. 154-155.

21. Trow-Smith, British Livestock Husbandry, pp. 69-70.

22. Butser Hill Ancient Farm Project; M. L. Ryder, “Livestock,” in The Agrarian History of England and Wales, vol. 1, pt. 1, p. 349; E.M.R., p. lix; Trow-Smith, British Livestock Husbandry, vol. 1, p. 123.

23. Ault, Open-Field Farming, p. 20.

24. Ibid., p. 22; Orwin and Orwin, The Open Fields, pp. 33-35; Homans, English Villagers, pp. 44-45.

25. Ault, Open-Field Farming, p. 23.

26. Thirsk, “Farming Techniques,” in The Agrarian History of England and Wales, vol. 4, p. 166; Walter of Henley, p. 19.

27. Ibid., p. 19; J. A. Raftis, “Farming Techniques: the East Midlands,” in The Agrarian History of England and Wales, vol. 2, p. 327.

28. E.M.R., p. 249; Christopher Dyer, “Farming Techniques: the West Midlands,” in The Agrarian History of England and Wales, vol. 2, p. 378.

29. Homans, English Villagers, p. 40.

30. Walter of Henley, p. 13; Raftis, “Farming Techniques: the East Midlands,” in The Agrarian History of England and Wales, vol. 2, p. 327.

31. Dyer, Lords and Peasants, p. 69.

32. Walter of Henley, p. 15.

33. Maitland, Domesday Book and Beyond, p. 348.

34. Ault, Open-Field Farming, pp. 26-27.

35. Cart. Rames., vol. 1, p. 311; E.M.R., p. 173; Homans, English Villagers, pp. 269-270.

36. Cart. Rames., vol. 1, p. 311.

37. Ibid., vol. 1, pp. 311, 336.

38. E.M.R., p. 30.

39. Ibid., p. 3.

40. Ibid., p. 69.

41. Cart. Rames., vol. 1, p. 300.

42. Britton, Community of the Vill pp. 170-171; H. E. Hallam, “The Life of the People,” in The Agrarian History of England and Wales, vol. 2, p. 838.

43. Walter of Henley (Hosbonderie), p. 69.

44. Ault, Open-Field Farming, p. 28.

45. Cited in Ault, Open-Field Farming, p. 31 (Commentary on the Laws of England, vol. 3, p. 212, 1772).

46. Walter of Henley, p. 69; Homans, English Villagers, p. 103.

47. Hilton, A Medieval Society, p. 123.

48. Fernand Braudel, Civilization and Capitalism 15th-18th Century, vol. 1, The Structures of Everyday Life: The Limits of the Possible, New York, 1981, p. 124.

49. Ault, Open-Field Farming, p. 29.

50. Walter of Henley (Seneschaucie), p. 99.

51. Ault, Open-Field Farming, pp. 42-43.

52. Langdon, “Agricultural Equipment,” in Astill and Grant, eds., Countryside of Medieval England, p. 103.

53. Duby, Rural Economy and Country Life, p. 270; F. R. H. DuBoulay, The Lordship of Canterbury, London, 1966, p. 12.

54. E.M.R., p. 92.

55. Langland, Piers Plowman’s Crede, pp. 16-17.

56. Hilton, The English Peasantry in the Later Middle Ages, pp. 102-103.

57. Ibid., p. 105.

58. Ibid., p. 97.

59. Trow-Smith, British Livestock Husbandry, p. 129.

60. Ibid., p. 147.

61. Ibid., p. 159.

62. Thirsk, “Farming Techniques,” in The Agrarian History of England and Wales, vol. 4, p. 187.

63. Miller and Hatcher, Medieval England, p. 217.

64. Walter of Henley (Hosbonderie), pp. 76-77.

65. Trow-Smith, British Livestock Husbandry, p. 128.

66. Ault, Open-Field Fanning, pp. 48-49.

67. V.C.H. Hunts., p. 78.

68. Joan Thirsk, “Farming Techniques,” in The Agrarian History of England and Wales, vol. 4, pp. 192-193.

69. Ault, Open-Field Farming, p. 50.

70. Trow-Smith, British Livestock Husbandry, pp. 117, 121; Miller and Hatcher, Medieval England, p. 217.

71. James Greig, “Plant Resources,” in Astill and Grant, eds., Countryside of Medieval England, p. 121; E.M.R., p. 60.

72. Raftis, “Farming Techniques,” in The Agrarian History of England and Wales, vol. 2, p. 338; Thirsk, “Farming Techniques,” in The Agrarian History of England and Wales, vol. 4, p. 195.

73. Walter of Henley (Hosbonderie), p. 77.

74. Joseph and Frances Gies, Life in a Medieval City, New York, 1969, pp. 102-103.

75. E.M.R., p. 81.

76. Ibid., p. 303.

77. Cart. Rames., vol. 1, pp. 489-490.

78. E.M.R., p. 52.

79. Ibid., pp.96, 117.

80. Ibid., p. 260.

81. Ibid., pp.64, 111-112, 211.

82. Ibid., pp. 13, 64.

83. Ibid., p. lvii.

84. Ibid., pp. 5, 45.

85. Ibid., pp. 66, 67, 138, 141, 171, 172.

86. Henri Pirenne, Economic and Social History of Medieval Europe, New York, 1937, p. 88.

87. Homans, English Villagers, p. 236; Raftis, Tenure and Mobility, p. 139.

88. E.M.R., pp. 6-7.

89. Postan and Titow, “Heriots and Prices on Winchester Manors.”

90. Mollat, The Poor in the Middle Ages, p. 178.

91. Vinogradoff, Growth of the Manor, p. 307.

92. Hallam, “The Life of the People,” in The Agrarian History of England and Wales, vol. 2, p. 846.

CHAPTER 8. THE PARISH

1. Miller and Hatcher, Medieval England, pp. 106-107.

2. John Godfrey, The English Parish, 600-1300, London, 1969; J. R. H. Moorman, Church Life in England in the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge, 1945, pp. 2-9.

3. Cart. Rames., vol. 2, p. 136.

4. Moorman, Church Life in England, pp. 24-37; A. Hamilton Thompson, The English Clergy and Their Organization in the Later Middle Ages, Oxford, 1947, pp. 101-131.

5. Moorman, Church Life in England, pp. 26-28.

6. Chronicon de Lanercost, Edinburgh, 1839, p. 158, cited in Moorman, Church Life in England, p. 27n.

7. Moorman, Church Life in England, pp. 28-31; Godfrey, The English Parish, pp. 74-75.

8. Ibid., pp. 76-77.

9. Chaucer, Canterbury Tales, pp. 30-31.

10. Moorman, Church Life in England, pp. 90-91.

11. Ibid., pp. 92-94.

12. Ibid., pp. 95-98.

13. Myrc, Instructions for Parish Priests, p. 1; W. A. Pantin, The English Church in the Fourteenth Century, Cambridge, 1955, pp. 195-243.

14. The Autobiography of Giraldus Cambrensis, ed. and trans, by H. E. Williams, London, 1937, p. 40.

15. Cart. Rames., vol. 1, pp. 293-294.

16. Ibid., vol. 1, p. 306.

17. Ibid., vol. 1, p. 331.

18. Rot. Hund., p. 658.

19. Cart. Rames., vol. 1, pp. 305-306.

20. Ibid., vol. 1, p. 293.

21. Ibid., vol. 1, p. 320.

22. E.M.R., p. 196.

23. Ibid., p. 300.

24. Owst, Preaching in Medieval England, p. 31.

25. Moorman, Church Life in Medieval England, p. 59.

26. Colin Piatt, The Parish Churches of Medieval England, London, 1981, p. 58.

27. Adhemar Esmein, Le Manage en droit canonique, ed. by R. Genestal, Paris, 1929-35, vol. 1, p. 131.

28. Moorman, Church Life in England, pp. 64-65.

29. Manning, Handlyng Synne, pp. 201-203.

30. Chronicon de Lanercost, pp. 2-3, cited in Moorman, Church Life in England, p. 64.

31. Piatt, Parish Churches, pp. 13-26.

32. Ibid., pp. 27-28.

33. P. H. Ditchfield, Old Village Life, London, 1920, pp. 104-105.

34. Platt, Parish Churches, pp. 28-29.

35. W. O. Hassall, How They Lived: An Anthology of Original Accounts Written Before 1485, New York, 1960, p. 344.

36. Manning, Handlyng Synne, pp. 217-218.

37. Moorman, Church Life in England, pp. 68-70.

38. Manning, Handlyng Synne, pp. 108-109.

39. Owst, Preaching in Medieval England, p. 170.

40. Ibid., p. 172.

41. Myrc, Instructions for Parish Priests, p. 9.

42. Moorman, Church Life in England, pp. 79-80.

43. Owst, Preaching in Medieval England, p. 319.

44. Owst, Literature and Pulpit, p. 156.

45. Owst, Preaching in Medieval England, pp. 336-337.

46. Ibid., p. 339.

47. Ibid., pp. 341-342.

48. Pantin, English Church in the Fourteenth Century, pp. 199-200.

49. Myrc, Instructions for Parish Priests, p. 26.

50. Ibid., pp. 29-43.

51. Ibid., pp. 43-48.

52. Ibid., pp. 1-3.

CHAPTER 9. VILLAGE JUSTICE

1. Homans, English Villagers, pp. 309-327.

2. E.M.R., pp. 37-38.

3. A. E. Levett, Studies in Manorial History, Oxford, 1938, p. 111.

4. Homans, English Villagers, p. 312; E.M.R., pp. 7, 34, 47, 105.

5. Levett, Studies in Manorial History, p. 149.

6. E.M.R., p. 1.

7. Levett, Studies in Manorial History, p. 151.

8. E.M.R., p. 153.

9. The Court Baron, ed. by F. W. Maitland and W. P. Baildon, London, 1891, p. 27.

10. Ibid., p. 28.

11. Homans, English Villagers, pp. 315-316.

12. The Court Baron, p. 28.

13. Homans, English Villagers, pp. 314-315.

14. E.M.R., p. 2.

15. Martin Pimsler, “Solidarity in the Medieval Village? The Evidence of Personal Pledging at Elton, Huntingdonshire,” Journal of British Studies 17 (1977), pp. 1-11; Britton, Community of the Vill, p. 104.

16. E.M.R., pp. 2-7.

17. Homans, English Villagers, p. 315.

18. E.M.R., p. 89.

19. Ibid., p. 46.

20. Homans, English Villagers, p. 315.

21. E.M.R., pp. 30, 89.

22. Marc Bloch, Feudal Society, trans, by L. A. Manyon, Chicago, 1964, vol. 1, p. 271.

23. E.M.R., p. 5.

24. Homans, English Villagers, pp. 324-325; John G. Bellamy, Crime and Public Order in the Later Middle Ages, London, 1973, pp. 90-91.

25. The Court Baron, pp. 93-94.

26. V.C.H. Hunts., vol. 1, p. 159.

27. E.M.R., p. 3.

28. Ibid., p. 44.

29. Ibid., p. 94.

30. Ibid., p. 31.

31. Ibid., p. 94.

32. Ibid., p. 120.

33. Ibid., p. 197.

34. Ibid., p. 102.

35. Ibid., p. 94.

36. Ibid., p. 189.

37. Ibid., p. 152.

38. Ibid., p. 3.

39. Ibid., p. 152.

40. Ibid., p. 31.

41. Gies, Marriage and the Family, p. 63; Jean-Louis Flandrin, “Sex in Married Life in the Early Middle Ages,” in Philippe Aries and Andre Béjin, Western Sexuality, London, 1985, pp. 140-157.

42. E.M.R., pp. 31-32.

43. Ibid., p. 39.

44. Homans, English Villagers, pp. 312-313.

45. E.M.R., p. 42.

46. Mollat, The Poor in the Middle Ages, p. 172.

47. Homans, English Villagers, p. 320.

48. E.M.R., p. 200.

49. Ibid., p. 299.

50. Ibid., p. 94.

51. Ibid., p. 98.

52. Homans, English Villagers, p. 323.

53. Britton, Community of the Vill, pp. 170-171.

54. E.M.R., p. 153.

55. Ibid., p. 44.

56. Ibid., p. 191.

57. Ibid., p. 146.

58. Ibid., p. 154.

59. Ibid., p. 257.

60. Ibid., p. 154.

61. Ibid., p. 42.

62. Mollat, The Poor in the Middle Ages, p. 171; Duby, Rural Economy and Country Life, pp. 253-254.

63. E.M.R., p. 3.

64. Ibid., p. 30.

65. Ibid., p. 247.

66. Ibid., p. 247.

67. Ibid., p. 90.

68. W. O. Ault, The Court Rolls of Ramsey Abbey and the Honour of Clare, New Haven, 1928, p. xx.

69. Britton, Community of the Vill, pp. 174-175.

70. Levett, Studies in Manorial History, p. 140.

71. Vinogradoff, Growth of the Manor, p. 364.

72. Bellamy, Crime and Public Order, pp. 32-33.

73. Ibid., p. 33.

74. Bedfordshire Coroners’ Rolls, pp. v-ix.

75. Ibid., pp. 58, 74, 76-77, 89-90.

76. Ibid., passim.; E.M.R., p. 238.

77. Bellamy, Crime and Public Order, p. 30.

78. Ibid., p. 160.

79. Ibid., p. 113.

80. Ibid., p. 87.

81. Ibid., p. 188.

82. Bedfordshire Coroners’ Rolls, p. 107.

CHAPTER 10. THE PASSING OF THE MEDIEVAL VILLAGE

1. H. C. Darby, “Domesday England,” and R. E. Glasscock, “England Circa 1334,” both in Darby, ed., A New Historical Geography, pp. 45-47, 143-145; Hallam, “Population Movements in England, 1086-1350,” in The Agrarian History of England and Wales,vol. 2, p. 536, gives higher estimates.

2. J. C. Russell, “Late Medieval Population Patterns,” Speculum 20 (1945), p. 164.

3. Ian Kershaw, “The Great Famine and Agrarian Crisis in England, 1315-1322,” in Hilton, ed., Peasants, Knights, and Heretics, p. 95.

4. Ibid., pp. 93-94, 102-104.

5. Alan H. R. Baker, “Changes in the Later Middle Ages,” in Darby, ed., A New Historical Geography, pp. 291-318.

6. E.M.R., p. 337.

7. Ibid., p. 342.

8. Ibid., p. 351.

9. Ibid., p. 359.

10. Ibid., p. 361.

11. Ibid., p. 342.

12. Ibid., p. 364.

13. Ibid., p. 383.

14. Ibid., p. 373.

15. Ibid., p. 373.

16. Raftis, Estates of Ramsey Abbey, p. 253.

17. R. H. Hilton, Bondmen Made Free: Medieval Peasant Movements and the English Rising of 1381, New York, 1973, p. 147.

18. Ibid., p. 148.

19. Ibid., pp. 160-162.

20. Duby, Rural Economy and Country Life, p. 334.

21. Froissart, Chronicles, trans. by Geoffrey Brereton, Harmondsworth, England, 1968, p. 212.

22. Thomas Walsingham, Historia Anglicana, cited in R. B. Dobson, The Peasants’ Revolt of 1381, London, 1970, pp. 373-375.

23. Hilton, Bondmen Made Free, p. 227.

24. Cited in Maurice Ashley, Great Britain to 1688, Ann Arbor, 1961, p. 147.

25. Hilton, Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism, p. 25; Dyer, Lords and Peasants, pp. 285-286; V.C.H. Hunts., vol. 1, p. 84.

26. Duby, Rural Economy and Country Life, p. 357.

27. V.C.H. Hunts., p. 162.

28. Beresford, Lost Villages, p. 166.

29. R. A. Donkin, “Changes in the Early Middle Ages,” and Baker, “Changes in the Later Middle Ages,” both in Darby, ed., A New Historical Geography, pp. 82, 208, 212.

30. Bigmore, Bedfordshire and Huntingdonshire Landscape, p. 132.

31. Ibid., pp. 126-127.

32. Cited in Bigmore, Bedfordshire and Huntingdonshire Landscape, p. 136.

33. Baker, “Changes in the Later Middle Ages,” in Darby, ed., A New Historical Geography, p. 211.

34. Ibid., p. 242.

35. Braudel, Civilization and Capitalism, vol. 1, p. 123.

36. Peter Laslett, The World We Have Lost: England in the Industrial Age, New York, 1971, p. 35.

37. Joan Thirsk, “Farming Techniques,” in The Agrarian History of England and Wales, vol. 4, pp. 180-181.

38. Ault, Open-Field Farming, p. 143.

39. Dyer, Lords and Peasants, p. 372.

40. Ault, Open-Field Farming, p. 78.

41. V.C.H. Hunts., p. 160.

42. Marc Bloch in The Cambridge Economic History of Europe, vol. 1, The Agrarian Life of the Middle Ages, ed. by M. M. Postan, Cambridge, 1966, p. 61.

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