Post-classical history

Appendix I: Chronology

c.1070 Birth of Hugues de Payen; Foundation of the Hospitallers

1095 (November) Pope Urban II calls for a crusade to recapture Jerusalem

1099 (July) Jerusalem captured by the First Crusade

1104 Hugh of Champagne arrives in Outremer (possibly with Hugues de Payen)

1114 Bishop of Chartres refers to a military order called the ‘Militia of Christ’

c.1119 Traditional founding date of the Templars

1120 (January) Council of Nablus: Templars accepted in the East

1127 First meeting between Hugues de Payen and St Bernard of Clairvaux

1129 (January) Council of Troyes. The Latin Rule of the Temple established

1131 In Praise of the New Knighthood by St Bernard

1135 Earliest records of Templars acting as bankers

c.1136 Death of Hugues de Payen (possibly 1131); Hospitallers begin militarisation

1136–37 Templars first established in the Amanus March

1139 Omnes datum optimum (possibly as late as 1152)

1144 Milites templi (possibly as early as 1134)

1145 Militia Dei

1147–49 The Second Crusade

1148–49 Templars granted Gaza

1153 Fall of Ascalon to the Franks

Mid 1160s Hierarchical statutes or retrais added to the Rule

Late 1160s Statutes on conventual life, the holding of chapters, and penances added to the Rule

1168 Templars refuse to participate in the Egyptian campaign

1173 Assassin envoy murdered by the Templars

1187 (1 May) Battle of the Springs of Cresson; (4 July)Battle of Hattin; (2 October) Jerusalem falls to Saladin

1188 Council of Gisors: the ‘Cutting of the Elm’

1189–92 The Third Crusade

1192 Templars move headquarters to Acre

1191–92 Templars occupy – and for a short time, own – Cyprus

1191–1216 Templars and Leo of Armenia in conflict over the Amanus March

1198 Foundation of the Teutonic Knights

1202–04 The Fourth Crusade

1208 Innocent III accuses the Templars of necromancy; Start of the Albigensian Crusade

1217–21 Building of the castle of ’Atlit (Pilgrim’s Castle)

1218–21 The Fifth Crusade

1228–29 Crusade of Frederick II

1239–40 Crusade of Theobald of Champagne

1240–41 Crusade of Richard of Cornwall

1240 Rebuilding of Safad begins

1241–42 Siege of the Hospital compound at Acre

1243 Eviction of Imperial forces from Tyre

1244 (16 March) Fall of Cathar stronghold at Montségur; (23 August) Loss of Jerusalem; (17 October) Battle of La Forbie

1248–54 Crusade of St Louis

1250 (8 February) Battle of Mansurah

1257–67 Additional clauses on penances added to the Rule

1266 Fall of Safad to the Mamluks

After 1268 Catalan Rule of the Templars

1271–72 Crusade of Edward of England – truce negotiated with Mamluks

1274 Council of Lyon

1277 Maria of Antioch sells her rights to the throne of Jerusalem to Charles of Anjou

1277–82 Civil War in Tripoli

1291 (May) Fall of Acre to the Mamluks; (August) Templars evacuate Tortosa and ’Atlit

1299 Fall of La Roche Guillame

1300 Templars attack Egyptian coastal towns

1300–01 Abortive attempt to retake the Holy Land

1302 Loss of Ruad and massacre of the Templar garrison

1305 First allegations made against the Order by Esquin de Floyran

1306 Templars support Amaury in coup in Cyprus; Jacques de Molay returns to the West

1307 (13 October) Arrest of the Templars in France; (19 October) Parisian hearings begin; (24 October) Jacques de Molay’s first confession; (22 November) Pastoralis praeeminentiae calls for Templars everywhere to be arrested; (24 December) De Molay retracts his confession before Papal committee

1308 (February) Clement suspends proceedings; (27 June) 72 Templars confess before Clement; (August) Papal Commissions launched; De Molay interviewed at Chinon

1309 (22 November) Papal commission begins its proceedings; (26 & 28 November) De Molay appears before commission

1310 (April) Templar defence begins; (10 May) Burning of 54 Templars as relapsed heretics near Paris

1311 (5 June) Papal hearings finally end; (16 October) Council of Vienne begins

1312 (22 March) Vox in excelso abolishes the Temple; (2 May) Ad providam transfers Temple property to the Hospital; (6 May) Considerantes dudum allows provincial councils to judge cases

1314 (18 March) Burning of Jacques de Molay and Geoffroi de Charney; (20 April) Pope Clement V dies; (24 June) Battle of Bannockburn; (29 November) Philip the Fair dies

1319 Ad ea exquibis recognises the Knights of Christ

1571 Presumed destruction of the Templar archive on Cyprus by the Ottomans

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