Post-classical history



NOTES

Introduction

1. N. Housley, Contesting the Crusades (Oxford, 2006); The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. J. S. C. Riley-Smith (Oxford, 1995).

2. My thanks to Thomas Phillips for his research on this point: Batman and Robin: The Complete 1949 Movie Serial Collection.

3. J. P. Phillips, “Why a Crusade Will Lead to a Jihad,” Independent, September 18, 2001.

4. E. Sivan, “The Crusader Described by Modern Arab Historiography,” in Asian and African Studies 8 (1972), pp. 104–49; C. Hillenbrand, The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives (Edinburgh, 1999).

5. C. Hillenbrand, Turkish Myth and Muslim Symbol: The Battle of Manzikert (Edinburgh, 2007).

1. “Deus Vult!”: The First Crusade and the Capture of Jerusalem, 1095–99

1. Robert of Rheims, account of Urban II’s speech at Clermont, taken from L. and J. S. C. Riley-Smith, The Crusades: Idea and Reality, 1095–1274 (London, 1981), pp. 42–45. For the full text of Robert’s chronicle, see Robert the Monk’s History of the First Crusade, tr. C. Sweetenham (Aldershot, 2005).

2. C. J. Tyerman, God’s War: A New History of the Crusades (London, 2006), pp. 1–24, elegantly sketches out the situation in Europe and the Mediterranean during the eleventh century.

3. J. S. C. Riley-Smith, What Were the Crusades?, third edition (Basingstoke, 2002), pp. 5–9; J. S. C. Riley-Smith, The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading (London, 1986), pp. 5–8; Tyerman, God’s War, pp. 27–51. In a broader context, see F. H. Russell,The Just War in the Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1975).

4. See the accounts of Robert of Rheims, Baldric of Bourgueil, Fulcher of Chartres, and Guibert of Nogent, all translated in Riley-Smith, Crusades: Idea and Reality, pp. 41–53.

5. Both the tympanum at Conques and at Autun are especially vivid.

6. Guibert of Nogent, The Deeds of God Through the Franks: Gesta Dei per Francos, tr. R. Levine (Woodbridge, 1997), p. 28.

7. Gesta Francorum et aliorum Hierosalimitanorum: The Deeds of the Franks and the Other Pilgrims to Jerusalem, ed. R. Hill, tr. R. A. B. Mynors (London, 1962), p. 1; Guibert of Nogent, Deeds of God, p. 45.

8. C. Hillenbrand, Turkish Myth and Muslim Symbol; C. Hillenbrand, “The First Crusade: The Muslim Perspective,” in The First Crusade: Origins and Impact, ed. J. P. Phillips (Manchester, 1997), pp. 130–41.

9. J. Shepard, “Cross-Purposes: Alexius Comnenus and the First Crusade,” in The First Crusade: Origins and Impact, pp. 107–29.

10. Riley-Smith, The First Crusaders, 1095–1131 (Cambridge, 1999), pp. 55–60.

11. R. Chazan, European Jewry and the First Crusade (Berkeley, 1987).

12. Ibid., p. 66.

13. Ibid., p. 234.

14. Albert of Aachen, Historia Ierosolimitana: History of the Journey to Jerusalem, ed. and tr. S. B. Edgington (Oxford, 2007), pp. 52–53.

15. Chazan, European Jewry, p. 69.

16. Albert of Aachen, Historia Ierosolimitana, pp. 56–59.

17. M. G. Bull, “The Diplomatic of the First Crusade,” in The First Crusade: Origins and Impact, pp. 35–56.

18. Charter from Riley-Smith, The First Crusaders, p. 114.

19. Ibid., pp. 67–68.

20. Fulcher of Chartres, A History of the Expedition to Jerusalem, 1095–1127, tr. F. R. Ryan, ed. H. S. Fink (Knoxville, 1969), p. 88.

21. Riley-Smith, The First Crusade, p. 43.

22. A V. Murray, “Money and Logistics in the Forces of the First Crusade: Coinage, Bullion, Service, and Supply, 1096–1099,” in Logistics of Warfare in the Age of the Crusades, ed. J. H. Pryor (Aldershot, 2006), pp. 229–50.

23. Letter of Urban II to the congregation of Vallombrosa, October 7, 1096, tr. Riley-Smith, Crusades: Idea and Reality, pp. 39–40.

24. AV. Murray, The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: A Dynastic History, 1099–1125 (Oxford, 2000), pp. 1–93.

25. For the letters, see H. Hagenmeyer, Die Kreuzzugsbriefe aus den Jahren 1088–1100 (Innsbruck, 1901), pp. 138–42, 149–52. The latter is translated in “Letter of Stephen of Blois to Adela of Blois,” in The First Crusade: “The Chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres” and Other Source Materials, ed. E. Peters, second edition (Philadelphia, 1998), pp. 287–88. See also K. LoPrete, “Adela of Blois: Familial Alliances and Female Lordships” in Aristocratic Women in Medieval France, ed. T. Evergates (Philadelphia, 1999), pp. 7–43.

26. J. H. and L. L. Hill, Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse (Syracuse, 1962).

27. R. B. Yewdale, Bohemond I, Prince of Antioch (Princeton, 1924); Gesta Franco-rum, passim.

28. Fulcher of Chartres, History of the Expedition to Jerusalem, p. 74.

29. G. T. Dennis, “Defenders of the Christian People: Holy War in Byzantium,” in The Crusades from the Perspective of the Byzantine and Muslim World, eds. A. E. Laiou and R. P. Mottahedeh (Washington, 2001), pp. 31–40; Shepard, “Cross-Purposes,” pp. 108–13; J. Harris, Byzantium and the Crusades (London, 2003), pp. 53–60; Anna Comnena, The Alexiad, tr. E. R. A. Sewter (London, 1969), p. 319.

30. J. France, Victory in the East: A Military History (Cambridge, 1994), p. 105.

31. Anna Comnena, The Alexiad, p. 323.

32. J. Harris, Constantinople (London, 2006).

33. Albert of Aachen, Historia Ierosolimitana, pp. 84–85.

34. Ibid., pp. 90–91; Harris, Byzantium and the Crusades, pp. 60–67.

35. Hillenbrand, “The First Crusade: The Muslim Perspective,” pp. 130–41.

36. Ibid., p. 132.

37. Fulcher of Chartres, History of the Expedition to Jerusalem, p. 85.

38. Gesta Francorum, p. 19.

39. Ibid., pp. 20–21.

40. J. B. Segal, Edessa: The Blessed City (Oxford, 1970); C. MacEvitt, The Crusades and the Christian World of the East: Rough Tolerance (Philadelphia, 2008), pp. 50–73.

41. Gesta Francorum, pp. 44–47.

42. Ibid., p. 62.

43. R.-J. Lilie, Byzantium and the Crusader States, 1096–1204, trs. J. C. Morris and J. E. Ridings (Oxford, 1993), pp. 31–60; Harris, Byzantium and the Crusades, pp. 64–71.

44. Gesta Francorum, pp. 59–60.

45. Ibid., p. 68.

46. Ibid., p. 69.

47. France, Victory in the East, pp. 278–96.

48. Ibid., pp. 303, 323–24; Ralph of Caen, The Gesta Tancredi of Ralph of Caen: A History of the Normans on the First Crusade, trs. B. S. and D. S. Bachrach (Aldershot, 2005), pp. 113–14.

49. For a general context, see R. Bartlett, Trial by Fire and Water (Oxford, 1984), esp. pp. 70–102.

50. T. S. Asbridge, “The Holy Lance of Antioch: Power, Devotion and Memory on the First Crusade,” in Reading Medieval Studies 33 (2007), pp. 3–36.

51. O. Figes, A People’s Tragedy: The Russian Revolution, 1891–1924 (London, 1996), pp. 777–78.

52. Ralph of Caen, Gesta Tancredi, pp. 129–30.

53. The best account of the siege is to be found in France, Victory in the East, pp. 325–66.

54. Raymond of Aguilers, Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalem, trs. J. H. and L. L. Hill (Philadelphia, 1968), pp. 127–28.

55. Ibid., p. 128.

56. Albert of Aachen, Historia Ierosolimitana, pp. 428–29.

57. Raymond of Aguilers, Historia Francorum, p. 127.

58. B. Z. Kedar, “The Jerusalem Massacre of July 1099 in the Western Historiography of the Crusades,” in Crusades 3 (2004), pp. 15–76.

59. Gesta Francorum, p. 92.

60. William of Tyre, A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea, trs. E. A. Babcock and A. C. Krey, 2 vols. (New York, 1943) 1.372–73; Latin text in Chronicon, ed. R. B. C. Huygens, 2 vols. (Turnhout, 1986).

61. Pope Paschal II, in Hagenmeyer, Die Kreuzzugsbriefe, p. 178.

62. Raymond of Aguilers, Historia Francorum, p. 128.

63. Murray, Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, pp. 63–77.

64. J. P. Phillips, The Second Crusade: Extending the Frontiers of Christendom (London, 2007), pp. 17–36.

2. “May God’s Curse Be Upon Them!”: Relations Between Muslims and Franks in the Levant, 1099–1187

1. Translated by C. Hillenbrand, in Phillips, Crusades, p. 169.

2. Hillenbrand, The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives, pp. 83–109.

3. Al-Sulami, Kitab al-Jihad, tr. N. Christie, published online at http://www.arts.cornell.edu/prh3/447/texts/Sulami.html; see also N. Christie, “Motivating Listeners in the Kitab al-Jihad of Ali ibn Tahir al-Sulami (d.1106),” in Crusades 6 (2007), pp. 1–14. The seminal article on this topic is E. Sivan, “La génèse de la contre-croisade: un traité damasquin du début du XIIe siècle,” in Journal Asiatique 254 (1966), pp. 197–224.

4. Al-Sulami, f. 179b (references follow the manuscript numbering in Christie’s translation).

5. Ibid., f. 176b.

6. Ibid., f. 175a.

7. Ibid., f. 177a

8. Bernard of Clairvaux and Raol, author of The Conquest of Lisbon, were two mid-twelfth-century Christian writers who used this theme. See Phillips, Second Crusade, pp. 72–73, 154.

9. Usama ibn Munqidh, The Book of Contemplation: Islam and the Crusades, tr. P. M. Cobb (London, 2008); P. M. Cobb, Usama ibn Munqidh: Warrior Poet of the Age of Crusades (Oxford, 2005); P. M. Cobb, “Infidel Dogs: Hunting Crusaders with Usama ibn Munqidh,” in Crusades 6 (2007), pp. 57–68; R. Irwin, “Usama ibn Munqidh: An Arab-Syrian Gentleman at the Time of the Crusades Reconsidered,” in The Crusades and Their Sources: Essays Presented to Bernard Hamilton, eds. J. France and W. G. Zajac (Aldershot, 1998), pp. 71–87.

10. M. G. S. Hodgson, The Secret Order of the Assassins: The Struggle of the Early Nizari Isma’ilis Against the Islamic World (Philadelphia, 1955).

11. Usama ibn Munqidh, Book of Contemplation, pp. 208–10.

12. Excerpts in ibid., pp. 254–59.

13. Irwin, “Usamah ibn Munqidh,” pp. 83–85.

14. Usama ibn Munqidh, Book of Contemplation, pp. 245–54.

15. For this anecdote, see Irwin, “Usamah ibn Munqidh,” p. 86.

16. Usama ibn Munqidh, Book of Contemplation, p. 144.

17. Ibid., p. 149.

18. Koran, 17.1.

19. Usama ibn Munqidh, Book of Contemplation, p. 147.

20. Ibid., pp. 205–6; Phillips, Second Crusade, pp. 217–18.

21. Fulcher of Chartres, History of the Expedition to Jerusalem, p. 271.

22. Usama ibn Munqidh, Book of Contemplation, pp. 122, 138, 208.

23. Ibid., p. 25.

24. Ibid., pp. 59–62.

25. Irwin, “Usamah ibn Munqidh,” pp. 73–75.

26. Usama ibn Munqidh, Book of Contemplation, pp. 145–46.

27. Ibid., p. 146.

28. P. D. Mitchell, Medicine in the Crusades: Warfare, Wounds and the Medieval Surgeon (Cambridge, 2004).

29. Usama ibn Munqidh, Book of Contemplation, p. 179.

30. Ibid., pp. xxxiii–xxxiv.

31. Ibid., p. 178.

32. Ibn Jubayr, The Travels of Ibn Jubayr, tr. R. J. C. Broadhurst (London, 1952); I. R. Netton, “Ibn Jubayr: Penitent Pilgrim and Observant Traveller,” in Seek Knowledge: Thought and Travel in the House of Islam (Richmond, 1996), pp. 95–102.

33. Ibn Jubayr, Travels, p. 20.

34. Ibid., p. 15.

35. Ibid., p. 60.

36. Ibid., p. 67.

37. Ibid., pp. 166–67.

38. Ibid., p. 66.

39. Ibid., p. 71.

40. Ibid., p. 138.

41. Ibid., p. 271.

42. Ibid., p. 279.

43. Ibid., p. 311.

44. Ibid., pp. 311–14.

45. Ibid., p. 312.

46. For example, see Beha ad-Din Ibn Shaddad, The Rare and Excellent History of Saladin, tr. D. S. Richards (Aldershot, 2001), esp. pp. 22–26.

47. Ibn Jubayr, Travels, p. 316.

48. Ibid., pp. 300–1.

49. Ibid., pp. 316–17.

50. Ibid., p. 318.

51. Ibid., pp. 320–21.

52. S. A. Epstein, Genoa and the Genoese, 958–1528 (Chapel Hill, 1996); T. F. Madden, Enrico Dandolo and the Rise of Venice (Baltimore, 2003); W. Heywood, A History of Pisa: Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries (Cambridge, 1921).

53. Ibn Jubayr, Travels, p. 325.

54. Ibid., p. 331.

3. “A Woman of Unusual Wisdom and Discretion”: Queen Melisende of Jerusalem

1.N. R. Hodgson, Women, Crusading and the Holy Land in Historical Narrative (Woodbridge, 2007), p. 107; D. Gerish, “Gender Theory,” in Palgrave Advances: The Crusades, ed. H. J. Nicholson (Basingstoke, 2005), pp. 130–47.

2. MacEvitt, Rough Tolerance, pp. 70–71; Murray, Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 182.

3. Murray, Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, pp. 115–27; Hodgson, Women, Crusading and the Holy Land, pp. 141–44; MacEvitt, Rough Tolerance, pp. 75–78.

4. J. P. Phillips, Defenders of the Holy Land: Relations Between the Latin East and the West, 1119–1187 (Oxford, 1996), pp. 19–35.

5. Hodgson, Women, Crusading and the Holy Land, pp. 57–60, 71–90, 159–60, 181–90; see also William of Tyre, 2.135.

6. William of Tyre, 2.45–46, contrasts with 50-51 to give the crucial difference in terms.

7. Ibid., 2.38.

8. Orderic Vitalis, The Ecclesiastical History, ed. and tr. M. Chibnall, 6 vols. (Oxford, 1969–80), 6.390–91.

9. J. Prawer, The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem: European Colonialism in the Middle Ages (London, 1972), pp. 96–101.

10. J. S. C. Riley-Smith, “King Fulk of Jerusalem and ‘The Sultan of Babylon,’” in Montjoie: Studies in Crusade History in Honour of Hans Eberhard Mayer, eds. B. Z. Kedar, J. S. C. Riley-Smith, and R. Hiestand (Aldershot, 1997), pp. 55–66.

11. Le cartulaire du chapitre du Saint-Sépulcre de Jérusalem, ed. G. Bresc-Bautier (Paris, 1984), no. 92, p. 209.

12. B. F. Reilly, The Kingdom of León-Castilla Under Queen Urraca, 1109–1126 (Princeton, 1982).

13. H. E. Mayer, “Studies in the History of Queen Melisende of Jerusalem,” in Dumbarton Oaks Papers 26 (1972), pp. 95–182; Phillips, Crusades, pp. 106–8; Hodgson, Women, Crusading and the Holy Land, pp. 134–35.

14. William of Tyre, 2.71–72.

15. H. E. Mayer, Varia Antiochena: Studien zum Kreuzfahrerfürstentum Antiochia im 12. und frühen 13. Jahrhundert (Hanover, 1993), no. 2, p. 114; Phillips, Defenders of the Holy Land, pp. 44–52.

16. William of Tyre, 2.72.

17. Bartlett, Trial by Fire and Water, pp. 103–26, esp. 111.

18. William of Tyre, 2.72.

19. Ibid., 2.73–74.

20. Ibn al-Qalanisi, The Damascus Chronicles of the Crusades, tr. H. A. R. Gibb (London, 1932), p. 215.

21. William of Tyre, 2.73–74.

22. J. H. Pryor, Geography, Technology and War: Studies in the Maritime History of the Mediterranean, 649–1571 (Cambridge, 1988), pp. 3–4.

23. AJ. Boas, Crusader Archaeology: The Material Culture of the Latin East (London, 1999), pp. 13, 25–30.

24. William of Tyre, 2.74–76.

25. B Z. Kedar, “A Twelfth-Century Description of the Jerusalem Hospital;” S. B. Edgington, “Medical Care in the Hospital of St John in Jerusalem,” both in The Military Orders Volume 2: Welfare and Warfare, ed. H. J. Nicholson (Aldershot, 1994), pp. 3–26, 27–33; Mitchell, Medicine in the Crusades, pp. 60–85.

26. William of Tyre, 2.75–76.

27. Mayer, “Studies in the History of Queen Melisende,” pp. 107, 109.

28. William of Tyre, 2.76.

29. H. E. Mayer, “Angevins Versus Normans: The New Men of King Fulk of Jerusalem,” in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 133 (1989), pp. 1–25.

30. Orderic Vitalis, Ecclesiastical History, 6.390–93.

31. Ibn al-Qalanisi, Damascus Chronicles of the Crusades, p. 208.

32. Regesta regni Hierosolymitani, 1098–1291, ed. R. Röhricht (Innsbruck, 1893), nos. 163–64, pp. 40–41.

33. Phillips, Defenders of the Holy Land, pp. 46–52, 59–61.

34. J. Folda, The Art of the Crusaders in the Holy Land, 1098–1187 (Cambridge, 1995), pp. 137–63; B. Kühnel, Crusader Art of the Twelfth Century: A Geographical, an Historical, or an Art-Historical Notion? (Berlin, 1994), pp. 67–125.

35. Folda, Art of the Crusaders in the Holy Land, pp. 130–37, 246–49.

36. William of Tyre, 2.132–34; Folda, Art of the Crusaders in the Holy Land, pp. 131–36.

37. Boas, Crusader Archaeology, p. 25.

38. William of Tyre, 2.134–35.

39. Bernard of Clairvaux, The Letters of St Bernard of Clairvaux, new edition, tr. B. S. James, introduction B. M. Kienzle (Stroud, 1998), no. 274, p. 347.

40. Ibid., no. 273, p. 346.

41. Gesta Stephani (The Deeds of Stephen), ed. and tr. K. R. Potter (London, 1955), p. 81; M. Chibnall, The Empress Mathilda (Oxford, 1996).

42. Orderic Vitalis, Ecclesiastical History, 5.324–25; Hodgson, Women, Crusading and the Holy Land, pp. 109–10, 114–15, 236–38.

43. William of Tyre, 2.283, 291.

44. Folda, Art of the Crusaders in the Holy Land, pp. 324–28.

45. William of Tyre, 2.139–40, 283.

4. The “Blessed Generation”: Saint Bernard of Clairvaux and the Second Crusade, 1145–49

1. On the Second Crusade generally, see Phillips, Second Crusade, and the seminal article by G. Constable, “The Second Crusade as Seen by Contemporaries,” in Traditio 9 (1953), pp. 213–79.

2. C. Hillenbrand, “‘Abominable Acts’: The Career of Zengi,” in The Second Crusade: Scope and Consequences, eds. J. P. Phillips and M. Hoch (Manchester, 2001), pp. 111–32, text here from p. 123.

3. Nersēs Šnorhali, “Lament on Edessa,” tr. T. Van Lint, in East and West in the Crusader States II: Context, Contacts, Confrontations, eds. K. Ciggaar and H. Teule, Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 92 (Leuven, 1999), pp. 49–105, text here from p. 75.

4. Phillips, Second Crusade, pp. 1–16.

5. Ibid., pp. 37–60.

6. William of Malmesbury, Gesta Regum Anglorum: The Deeds of the Kings of England, eds. and trs. R. A. B. Mynors, R. M. Thomson, and M. Winterbottom, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1998–99), 2.655.

7. Translation in Riley-Smith, Crusades: Idea and Reality, p. 91; also in Phillips, Second Crusade, pp. 280–82.

8. Odo of Deuil, The Journey of Louis VII to the East: De profectione Ludovici in Orientem, ed. and tr. V. G. Berry (Columbia, 1948), pp. 8–9.

9. Phillips, Second Crusade, pp. 99–100.

10. Bernard of Clairvaux, Letters, p. 399.

11. Ibid., p. 462.

12. Ibid.

13. B. Ward, Miracles and the Medieval Mind, second edition (Aldershot, 1987), p. 182.

14. R. Chazan, “From the First Crusade to the Second: Evolving Perceptions of the Christian–Jewish Conflict,” in Jews and Christians in Twelfth-Century Europe, eds. M. A. Singer and J. Van Engen (Notre Dame, 2001), pp. 46–62; The Jews and the Crusaders, ed. and tr. S. Eidelberg (Madison, 1977); R. Chazan, European Jewry and the First Crusade; Bernard of Clairvaux, Letters, pp. 46–66; Otto of Freising, The Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa, tr. C. C. Mierow (New York, 1953), pp. 74–75.

15. Otto of Freising, Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa, p. 70.

16. Phillips, Second Crusade, pp. 94–95.

17. W. J. Purkis, Crusading Spirituality in the Holy Land and Iberia, c. 1095–c. 1187 (Woodbridge, 2008); J. F. O’Callaghan, Reconquest and Crusade in Medieval Spain (Philadelphia, 2003).

18. Translated in Riley-Smith, Crusades: Idea and Reality, p. 40.

19. Phillips, Second Crusade, pp. 244–68; S. A. Epstein, Genoa and the Genoese, 958–1528, pp. 49–53.

20. Phillips, Second Crusade, pp. 228–43; E. Christiansen, The Northern Crusades, second edition (Harmondsworth, 1997), pp. 1–49; K. Lotter, “The Crusade Idea and the Conquest of the Region East of the Elbe,” in Medieval Frontier Societies, eds. R. Bartlett and A. Mackay (Oxford, 1989), pp. 267–85.

21. Phillips, Second Crusade, p. 235.

22. Bernard of Clairvaux, Letters, p. 467.

23. K. Villads Jensen, “Denmark and the Second Crusade: The Formation of a Crusader State?,” in The Second Crusade: Scope and Consequences, eds. J. P. Phillips and M. Hoch (Manchester, 2001), pp. 164–79.

24. Phillips, Second Crusade, pp. xxviii–xxix, 238.

25. Ibid., pp. 136–67; Phillips, “Ideas of Crusade and Holy War in (De expugnatione Lyxbonensi) The Conquest of Lisbon,” in The Holy Land, Holy Lands and Christian History, ed. R. N. Swanson, Studies in Church History 36 (2000), pp. 123–41.

26. J. P. Huffman, The Social Politics of Medieval Diplomacy: Anglo-German Relations (1066–1307) (Ann Arbor, 2000), pp. 46–56.

27. The Conquest of Lisbon (De expugnatione Lyxbonensi), ed. and tr. C. W. David, with a new foreword and bibliography by J. P. Phillips (New York, 2001), pp. 56–57.

28. Ibid., pp. 68–69; Phillips, Second Crusade, pp. 145–46.

29. Conquest of Lisbon, pp. 78–79.

30. Ibid., pp. 90–93.

31. H. Kennedy, Muslim Spain and Portugal: A Political History of al-Andalus (Harlow, 1996), pp. 179–203.

32. Conquest of Lisbon, pp. 120–23.

33. Ibid., pp. 152–55.

34. Phillips, Second Crusade, pp. 99–103.

35. E. A. R. Brown and M. W. Cothren, “The Twelfth-Century Crusading Window of the Abbey of Saint-Denis,” in Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 49 (1986), pp. 1–40.

36. Odo of Deuil, Journey of Louis VII, pp. 16–19.

37. Harris, Byzantium and the Crusades, pp. 94–101; Phillips, Second Crusade, pp. 168–77.

38. Otto of Freising, Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa, pp. 80–81.

39. J. Roche, “Conrad III and the Second Crusade: Retreat from Dorylaion?,” in Crusades 5 (2006), pp. 85–94.

40. Phillips, Second Crusade, pp. 188–95.

41. John Kinnamos, The Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus by John Kinnamos, tr. C. M. Brand (New York, 1976), p. 69; Odo of Deuil, Journey of Louis VII, pp. 56–61.

42. Odo of Deuil, Journey of Louis VII, pp. 114–21; William of Tyre, 2.175–77; Phillips, Second Crusade, pp. 198–202.

43. Phillips, Second Crusade, pp. 207–9.

44. Michael the Syrian, Chronique de Michel le Syrien, patriarche jacobite d’Antioche (1166–1199), ed. and tr. J.-B. Chabot, 4 vols. (Paris, 1899–1910), 3.272.

45. William of Tyre, 2.193–95.

46. John of Salisbury, Historia Pontificalis, ed. and tr. M. Chibnall (London, 1956), p. 52.

47. Phillips, Second Crusade, pp. 210–12.

48. Ibid., p. 212.

49. M. Hoch, “The Choice of Damascus as the Objective of the Second Crusade: A Re-evaluation,” in Autour de la Première Croisade, ed. M. Balard, Byzantina Sorboniensia 14 (Paris, 1996), pp. 359–69; Phillips, Second Crusade, pp. 215–18.

50. Phillips, Second Crusade, pp. 218–23.

51. Sibt Ibn al-Jawzi, “Mirror of the Times,” in Arab Historians of the Crusades, tr. F. Gabrieli (Berkeley, 1969), p. 62; see also Ibn al-Qalanisi, Damascus Chronicles of the Crusades, p. 284; Phillips, Second Crusade, pp. 222–27.

52. Phillips, Second Crusade, pp. 269–71; John of Salisbury, Historia Pontificalis, pp. 11–12.

53. R. Hiestand, “The Papacy and the Second Crusade,” in The Second Crusade: Scope and Consequences, pp. 32–53.

54. William of Tyre, 2.196.

55. Phillips, Defenders, pp. 100–18; G. Constable, “The Crusading Project of 1150,” in Montjoie: Studies in Crusade History in Honour of Hans Eberhard Mayer, eds. B. Z. Kedar, J. S. C. Riley-Smith, and R. Hiestand (Aldershot, 1997), pp. 67–75; T. Reuter, “The Non-Crusade of 1149–1150,” in The Second Crusade: Scope and Consequences, pp. 150–63.

56. Phillips, Second Crusade, pp. 239–41.

57. Helmold of Bosau, The Chronicle of the Slavs, tr. F. J. Tschan (New York, 1935), pp. 180–81.

58. Phillips, Second Crusade, pp. 241–43.

59. Ibid., pp. 253–59. For a contemporary source, see the “Poem of Almeria,” in The World of El Cid, trs. S. Barton and R. A. Fletcher (Manchester, 2000), pp. 250–63.

60. Ibid., p. 251.

61. N. Jaspert, “Capta est Dertosa: clavis Christianorum. Tortosa and the Crusades,” The Second Crusade: Scope and Consequences, pp. 90–110.

62. For the contemporary writings of the Genoese consul Caffaro, see J. B. Williams, “The Making of a Crusade: The Genoese Anti-Muslim Attacks in Spain, 1146–1148,” in Journal of Medieval History 23 (1997), pp. 29–53, Caffaro’s text at pp. 48–53, charter cited at pp. 38–39.

63. C. Di Fabio, La cattedrale di Genova nel medioevo, secoli vi–xiv (Genoa, 1998), pp. 88–91.

5. Saladin, the Leper King, and the Fall of Jerusalem in 1187

1. Folda, Art of the Crusaders in the Holy Land, pp. 175–245.

2. Mayer, “Queen Melisende,” pp. 117–25; Hodgson, Women, Crusading and the Holy Land, pp. 183–85; William of Tyre, 2.204–7.

3. William of Tyre, 2.196–98; Ibn al-Qalanisi, Damascus Chronicles of the Crusades, pp. 291–92.

4. N. Elisséeff, “Les monuments de Nur ad-Din: inventaire, notes archéologiques et bibliographiques,” in Bulletin des Études Orientales 12 (1949–51), pp. 5–43.

5. William of Tyre, 2.225.

6. Y. Tabbaa, “Propagation of Jihad under Nur al-Din (1146–1174),” in The Meeting of Two Worlds: Cultural Exchange Between East and West During the Period of the Crusades, ed. V. P. Goss (Kalamazoo, 1986), pp. 223–40; H. Dajani-Shakeel, “Al-Quds: Jerusalem in the Consciousness of the Counter-Crusader,” in The Meeting of Two Worlds, pp. 201–22; Hillenbrand, Crusades: Islamic Perspectives, pp. 150–67; D. Talmon-Heller, Islamic Piety in Medieval Syria: Mosques, Cemeteries and Sermons Under the Zangids and Ayyubids (1146–1260) (Leiden, 2007); S. A. Mourad and J. E. Lindsay, “Rescuing Syria from the Infidels: The Contribution of Ibn Asakir of Damascus to the Jihad Campaign of Sultan Nur ad-Din,” in Crusades 6 (2007), pp. 37–56; N. Elisséeff, “The Reaction of Syrian Muslims After the Foundation of the First Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem,” in Crusaders and Muslims in Twelfth-Century Syria, ed. M. Shatzmiller (Leiden, 1993), pp. 162–72.

7. Ibn Jubayr, Travels, p. 262.

8. Cited in Hillenbrand, Crusades: Islamic Perspectives, p. 161.

9. William of Tyre, 2.273–75, 288–90; Phillips, Defenders, pp. 132–34, 142.

10. William of Tyre, 2.212–14, 224; Hodgson, Women, Crusading and the Holy Land, pp. 221–24.

11. B. Hamilton, “The Elephant of Christ: Reynald of Châtillon,” in D. Baker, ed., Studies in Church History 15 (Oxford, 1978), pp. 97–108; J. Richard, “Aux origines d’un grand lignage: des Paladii Reynald de Châtillon,” in Media in Francia: Recueil de mélanges offerts à Karl F. Werner (Paris, 1989), pp. 409–18.

12. William of Tyre, 2.235–36.

13. For a fine analysis of William’s writings and career, see P. W. Edbury and J. G. Rowe, William of Tyre: Historian of the Latin East (Cambridge, 1988).

14. William of Tyre, 2.300.

15. Ibid., 2.313.

16. Louis VII, “Epistolae,” in Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France, ed. M. Bouquet et al., 2 vols. (Paris, 1737–1904), 16.28.

17. By far the most comprehensive biography of Saladin is M. C. Lyons and D. E. P. Jackson, Saladin: The Politics of the Holy War (Cambridge, 1982); see pp. 1-29 for his early years. Note also D. S. Richards, “The Early Life of Saladin,” in Islamic Quarterly17 (1973), pp. 140–59. See also H. Möhring, Saladin: The Sultan and His Times, tr. D. S. Bachrach (Baltimore, 2008); Hillenbrand, Crusades: Islamic Perspectives, passim. For a more hostile view of his early career, see A. Ehrenkreutz, Saladin (Albany, 1972).

18. Imad ad-Din, tr. Richards, “Early Life,” p. 146. On this author, see also D. S. Richards, “Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani: Administrator, Litterateur and Historian,” in Crusaders and Muslims in Twelfth-Century Syria, ed. M. Shatzmiller (Leiden, 1993), pp. 133–46.

19. Ibn Abi Tayy, tr. Richards, “Early Life,” p. 147.

20. Y. Lev, Saladin in Egypt (Leiden, 1999).

21. Ibid., pp. 81–84.

22. Beha ad-Din, The Rare and Excellent History of Saladin, pp. 47–49; Ibn al-Athir, The Chronicle of Ibn al-Athir for the Crusading Period from al-Kamil fi’l-ta’rikh, Part 2: The Years 541–589/1146–1193: The Age of Nur al-Din and Saladin, tr. D. S. Richards (Aldershot, 2007), pp. 198–200.

23. William of Tyre, 2.360.

24. Phillips, Defenders of the Holy Land, pp. 168–208.

25. William of Tyre, 2.377–83.

26. John Kinnamos, Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus, p. 209.

27. Folda, Art of the Crusaders in the Holy Land, pp. 347–78; Phillips, Defenders of the Holy Land, pp. 156–57; A. Jotischky, “Manuel Comnenus and the Reunion of the Churches: The Evidence of the Conciliar Mosaics in the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem,” in Levant 26 (1994), pp. 207–23.

28. William of Tyre, 2.394.

29. Imad ad-Din, translation from Hillenbrand, Crusades: Islamic Perspectives, p. 166.

30. P. D. Mitchell, “An Evaluation of the Leprosy of King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem in the Context of the Medieval World,” in B. Hamilton, The Leper King and His Heirs: Baldwin IV and the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem (Cambridge, 2000), pp. 245–58.

31. William of Tyre, 2.398, 417.

32. Hamilton, Leper King, pp. 84–94.

33. William of Tyre, 2.402–4.

34. Ibn Jubayr, Travels, p. 324.

35. P. W. Edbury, “Propaganda and Faction in the Kingdom of Jerusalem: The Background to Hattin,” in Crusaders and Muslims in Twelfth Century Syria, ed. M. Shatzmiller (Leiden, 1993), pp. 173–89.

36. William of Tyre, 2.460.

37. Hamilton, Leper King, pp. 150–58.

38. Lyons and Jackson, Saladin, pp. 109–10.

39. Anonymi auctoris chronicon ad A.C. 1234 pertinens, tr. A. Abouna (Louvain, 1974), p. 141.

40. Hamilton, Leper King, pp. 135–36; Lyons and Jackson, Saladin, pp. 123–24.

41. P. D. Mitchell, Medicine in the Crusades, pp. 61–75.

42. Letter to Louis VII, translation from Hamilton, Leper King, p. 140.

43. Hamilton, Leper King, pp. 150–58.

44. “The Old French Continuation of William of Tyre,” in The Conquest of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade, tr. P. W. Edbury (Aldershot, 1996), pp. 43–44; B. Z. Kedar, “The Patriarch Heraclius,” in Outremer: Studies in the History of the Crusading Kingdom of Jerusalem, eds. B. Z. Kedar, H. E. Mayer, and R. C. Smail (Jerusalem, 1982), pp. 177–204.

45. William of Tyre, 2.461.

46. Lilie, Byzantium and the Crusader States, pp. 220–30.

47. Ibn Jubayr, Travels, pp. 51–53; Ibn al-Athir, Chronicle, Part 2, pp. 289–90; Hamilton, Leper King, pp. 178–85; A. Mallett, “A Trip Down the Red Sea with Reynald of Châtillon,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 18 (2008), pp. 141–53.

48. Ibn Jubayr, Travels, p. 52.

49. Hamilton, “Elephant of Christ,” p. 97.

50. Letter of Imad ad-Din, in Abu Shama, “Le livre des deux jardins,” Recueil des historiens des croisades: Historiens orientaux, 5 vols. (Paris, 1872–1906), 4.231–35.

51. B. Z. Kedar, “The General Tax of 1183 in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem,” English Historical Review 89 (1974), pp. 339–45; D. M. Metcalf, Coinage of the Crusades and the Latin East (London, 1995), pp. 44, 46–47.

52. Hamilton, Leper King, pp. 193–96.

53. William of Tyre, 2.498–501.

54. “Eracles Continuation of William of Tyre,” translation, p. 205; see also “Old French Continuation of William of Tyre,” p. 14.

55. Alexander III, “Epistolae et privilegia,” Patrologia Latina, ed. J. P. Migne, vol. 200, cols. 1294–96.

56. Phillips, Defenders, pp. 253–63; C. J. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, 1095–1588 (Chicago, 1988), pp. 50–54.

57. Records of the Templars in England in the Twelfth Century. The Inquest of 1185, ed. B. A. Lees (London, 1935), p. 163.

58. Imad ad-Din, Conquête de la Syrie et de la Palestine par Saladin, tr. H. Massé (Paris, 1972), pp. 18–19.

59. “Lyon Eracles,” translated in The Conquest of Jerusalem, pp. 154–55.

60. Roger of Wendover, The Flowers of History, tr. J. A. Giles, 2 vols. (London, 1849), 2.59.

61. “Old French Continuation of William of Tyre,” p. 46.

62. Ibn al-Athir, Chronicle, Part 2, pp. 315–16.

63. Ibid., p. 316.

64. For an account of the battle, see The Conquest of Jerusalem, pp. 156–57; M. Barber, The New Knighthood: A History of the Order of the Temple (Cambridge, 1994), pp. 111–13.

65. Ibn al-Athir, Chronicle, Part 2, p. 320.

66. The best summary and analysis of the battle is B. Z. Kedar, “The Battle of Hattin Revisited,” in The Horns of Hattin, ed. B. Z. Kedar (Jerusalem, 1992), pp. 190–207. See also Beha ad-Din, Rare and Excellent History, pp. 72–75; the documents collected inThe Conquest of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade, tr. P. W. Edbury (Aldershot, 1996), pp. 158–63.

67. Ibn al-Athir, Chronicle, Part 2, p. 321.

68. “Old French Continuation of William of Tyre,” pp. 38–39.

69. C. P. Melville and M. C. Lyons, “Saladin’s Hattin Letter,” in The Horns of Hattin, ed. B. Z. Kedar, p. 211.

70. Beha ad-Din, Rare and Excellent History, p. 73.

71. Imad ad-Din, Conquête, pp. 25–26.

72. R. Lewis of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem is conducting a detailed topographical study of the Battle of Hattin.

73. Ibn al-Athir, Chronicle, Part 2, p. 322.

74. Ibid., p. 323.

75. Imad ad-Din, Conquête, pp. 29–30.

76. Beha ad-Din, Rare and Excellent History, pp. 74–75; “Old French Continuation of William of Tyre,” pp. 47–48.

77. Peter of Blois, “Passio Reginaldi,” in Tractatus Duo, ed. R. B. C. Huygens, Corpus Christianofum Continuatio Mediaevalis 194 (Turnhout, 2002).

78. Z. Gal, “Saladin’s Dome of Victory at the Horns of Hattin,” in The Horns of Hattin, ed. B. Z. Kedar, pp. 213–15.

79. Imad ad-Din, Arab Historians of the Crusades, p. 147.

80. N. Jaspert, “Zwei unbekannte Hilfsersuchen des Patriarchen Eraclius vor dem Fall Jerusalems (1187),” Deutsches Archiv 60 (2005), pp. 515–16.

81. Ibn al-Athir, Chronicle, Part 2, p. 332.

82. There is some disagreement in the sources on the precise sums agreed, but the outline scale is consistent. See Ibn al-Athir, Chronicle, Part 2, p. 333; Beha ad-Din, Rare and Excellent History, p. 228; “Old French Continuation of William of Tyre,” pp. 59–63.

83. Ibn al-Athir, Chronicle, Part 2, p. 334.

84. Al-Maqrizi, A History of the Ayyubid Sultans of Egypt, tr. R. J. C. Broadhurst (Boston, 1980), pp. 89–90.

85. Talmon-Heller, Islamic Piety in Medieval Syria, pp. 101–2; Hillenbrand, Crusades: Islamic Perspectives, pp. 189–91.

86. The Minbar of Saladin, ed. L. Singer (London, 2008).

87. “Old French Continuation of William of Tyre,” p. 64.

88. Ibid., pp. 77–78.

6. “Nowhere in the World Would Ever Two Such Princes Be Found”: Richard the Lionheart, Saladin, and the Third Crusade

1. Beha ad-Din, Rare and Excellent History of Saladin, p. 153.

2. Itinerarium peregrinorum et gesta regis Ricardi, tr. H. J. Nicholson (Aldershot, 1997), p. 378.

3. Ibid., p. 367.

4. Beha ad-Din, Rare and Excellent History of Saladin, p. 216.

5. Gregory VIII, Audita tremendi, in Riley-Smith, Crusades: Idea and Reality, pp. 64–65.

6. Bertrand de Born, “Nostre seigner somonis el mezeis,” in The Poems of the Troubadour Bertran de Born, eds. and trs. W. D. Paden Jr., T. Sankovitch, and P. H. Stäblein (Berkeley, 1986), no. 36, pp. 384–87.

7. J. B. Gillingham, Richard I (London, 1999), pp. 140–41, 254–68. This is an excellent—and generally very favorable—biography of the king. Similarly positive in tone, and with more of an emphasis on the chivalric context, is J. Flori, Richard the Lionheart: King and Knight, tr. J. Birell (Edinburgh, 2006). More critical voices are those of R. V. Turner and R. R. Heiser, The Reign of Richard the Lionheart: Ruler of the Angevin Empire, 1189–1199 (Harlow, 2000), although this, as the subtitle suggests, is not especially concerned with events on the crusade.

8. Chrétien de Troyes, Arthurian Romances, tr. W. W. Kibler (London, 1991).

9. J. B. Gillingham, “Richard I and the Science of War,” in Richard Coeur de Lion: Kingship, Chivalry and War in the Twelfth Century (London, 1984), pp. 211–26.

10. Richard’s preparations are expertly covered in C. J. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 59–84.

11. D. Jacoby, “Conrad of Montferrat and the Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1187–92,” in Atti del Congresso internazionale “Dai feudi monferrine e dal Piemonte ai nuovi mondi oltre gli Oceani,” Alessandria, 2-6 aprile 1990, Biblioteca della Società di storia, arte e archeologia per le province di Alessandria e Asti, 27 (Alessandria, 1993), pp. 187–238.

12. Itinerarium peregrinorum, p. 42.

13. Ibid., p. 73.

14. Lyons and Jackson, Saladin, pp. 298–330; for the details of the Muslim camp, see p. 329; Gillingham, Richard I, pp. 155–71.

15. Ibn Jubayr, Travels, pp. 54–55; Lyons and Jackson, Saladin, pp. 97–253.

16. “The Old French Continuation of William of Tyre,” p. 89.

17. Beha ad-Din, Rare and Excellent History of Saladin, p. 106.

18. Al-Fadil quoted in Lyons and Jackson, Saladin, p. 313.

19. Beha ad-Din, Rare and Excellent History of Saladin, pp. 100–1.

20. Itinerarium peregrinorum, p. 122.

21. Abu Shama, “Le livre des deux Jardins,” vol. 4, p. 436.

22. Beha ad-Din, Rare and Excellent History of Saladin, pp. 144–45.

23. Ibid., pp. 147–48.

24. Roger of Howden, Gesta, tr. Gillingham, Richard I, p. 131.

25. Beha ad-Din, Rare and Excellent History of Saladin, p. 146.

26. Flori, Richard the Lionheart, pp. 401–6, discusses Richard and the Arthur legend.

27. Roger of Howden, Gesta, pp. 146–47.

28. Letter of Richard to the justiciar of England, August 1191, The Conquest of Jerusalem, p. 179.

29. “Eracles Continuation of William of Tyre,” The Conquest of Jerusalem, p. 178.

30. Ambroise, The History of the Holy War: Ambroise’s Estoire de la Guerre Sainte, ed. and tr. M. Ailesard M. C. Barber, vols. (Woodbridge, 2003) p. 95.

31. Richard of Devizes, The Chronicle of Richard of Devizes of the Time of King Richard the First, ed. and tr. J. T. Appleby (London, 1963), p. 39.

32. Beha ad-Din, Rare and Excellent History of Saladin, p. 150.

33. Ambroise, History of the Holy War, pp. 95–102.

34. Ibid., p. 102.

35. Beha ad-Din, Rare and Excellent History of Saladin, p. 161; Itinerarium peregrinorum, pp. 218–20.

36. Beha ad-Din, Rare and Excellent History of Saladin, p. 161.

37. Richard of Devizes, Chronicle of Richard of Devizes, pp. 46–47.

38. Rigord, Histoire de Philippe Auguste, eds. and trs. E. Carpentier, G. Pon, and Y. Chauvin (Paris, 2006), pp. 303–7; J. Bradbury, Philip Augustus: King of France, 1180–1223 (London, 1998), pp. 76–97.

39. Itinerarium peregrinorum, p. 223.

40. See, for example, the comments by Tariq Ali in Richard the Lionheart and Saladin: Holy Warriors, BBC2, March 26, 2005.

41. Beha ad-Din, Rare and Excellent History of Saladin, pp. 164–65.

42. Gillingham, Richard I, pp. 167–71. See also Richard’s own letter, The Conquest of Jerusalem, pp. 179–81. This issue is discussed by Flori, Richard the Lionheart, pp. 360–61.

43. Beha ad-Din, Rare and Excellent History of Saladin, pp. 168–70.

44. Ambroise, History of the Holy War, p. 110.

45. Ibid.

46. Ibid., p. 117; see also Beha ad-Din, Rare and Excellent History of Saladin, p. 170.

47. Ibid., p. 175.

48. Ambroise, History of the Holy War, p. 120; Beha ad-Din, Rare and Excellent History of Saladin, p. 223.

49. Ambroise, History of the Holy War, p. 120.

50. Ibid., p. 127.

51. Beha ad-Din, Rare and Excellent History of Saladin, p. 193.

52. Ambroise, History of the Holy War, p. 135.

53. P. W. Edbury, The Kingdom of Cyprus and the Crusades, 1191–1374 (Cambridge, 1991), pp. 27–29.

54. Ambroise, History of the Holy War, pp. 153–54.

55. Ibid., p. 162.

56. Beha ad-Din, Rare and Excellent History of Saladin, p. 210.

57. Ambroise, History of the Holy War, p. 172.

58. Beha ad-Din, Rare and Excellent History of Saladin, pp. 222–23.

59. Itinerarium peregrinorum, p. 355.

60. Ibid., p. 367.

61. Beha ad-Din, Rare and Excellent History of Saladin, pp. 226–34.

62. Ambroise, History of the Holy War, pp. 187–91.

63. Ibid., p. 193.

64. Gillingham, Richard I, pp. 222–53.

65. Ibn al-Athir, The Chronicle of Ibn al-Athir, Part 2, p. 387.

66. Itinerarium peregrinorum, p. 382.

67. Abd al-Latif, cited in Ibn Abi Usay’bia, translated in B. Lewis, Islam: From the Prophet Muhammad to the Capture of Constantinople. Volume 1: Politics and War (Oxford, 1987), pp. 66–67.

7. “An Example of Affliction and the Works of Hell”: The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople, 1204

1. Innocent III, “Epistolae et privilegia,” Innocent to the patriarch of Antioch, June 1211, in Patrologia Latina, ed. J. P. Migne, vol. 216, cols. 435–36.

2. C. Maier, “Mass, the Eucharist and the Cross: Innocent III and the Relocation of the Crusade,” in Pope Innocent III and His World, ed. J. C. Moore (Aldershot, 1999), pp. 351–60.

3. E. N. Johnson, “The Crusades of Frederick Barbarossa and Henry VI,” in A History of the Crusades, ed. K. M. Setton, 6 vols. (Wisconsin, 1969–89), 2.87–122.

4. E. Kennan, “Innocent III and the First Political Crusade,” in Traditio 27 (1971), pp. 231–49; N. Housley, “Crusades Against Christians: Their Origins and Early Development, c. 1000–1216,” in Crusade and Settlement, ed. P. W. Edbury (Cardiff, 1985), pp. 17–36. See also The Deeds of Pope Innocent III by an Anonymous Author, ed. and tr. J. M. Powell (Washington, 2004), pp. 19–49.

5. Die Register Innocenz’ III, ed. O. Hageneder et al. (Vienna, 1964), 2.413–14.

6. Deeds of Pope Innocent III, p. 46, translating “remissione” as “indulgence” rather than Powell’s “blessing.”

7. For overviews of the Fourth Crusade, see J. P. Phillips, The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople (London, 2004); D. E. Queller and T. F. Madden, The Fourth Crusade: The Conquest of Constantinople, second edition (Philadelphia, 1997); M. Angold,The Fourth Crusade: Event and Context (Harlow, 2003).

8. Innocent III, Sources for the History of the Fourth Crusade, tr. A. Andrea (Leiden, 2000), pp. 10–11.

9. Phillips, Fourth Crusade, pp. 39–47.

10. Geoffrey of Villehardouin (henceforth GV), “The Conquest of Constantinople,” in Joinville and Villehardouin: Chronicles of the Crusades, tr. C. Smith (London, 2008).

11. J. Longnon, Les Compagnons de Villehardouin: Recherches sur les croisés de la quatrième croisade (Geneva, 1978).

12. Madden, Enrico Dandolo, pp. 63–68, 90–116.

13. Gunther of Pairis, The Capture of Constantinople, ed. and tr. A. J. Andrea (Philadelphia, 1997), p. 97.

14. See the comments on this figure by Smith in GV, “Conquest,” pp. 350–51, n. 14.

15. GV, “Conquest,” p. 9.

16. Ibid., p. 10.

17. D. E. Queller and T. F. Madden, “Some Further Arguments in Defence of the Venetians on the Fourth Crusade,” in Byzantion 62 (1992), pp. 433–73.

18. GV, “Conquest,” pp. 9–11.

19. Phillips, Fourth Crusade, p. 66.

20. Ibid., pp. 67–72.

21. GV, “Conquest,” p. 12.

22. H. de Jubainville, Histoire des ducs et des comtes de Champagne, 8 vols. (Paris, 1859–69), 4.96.

23. Phillips, Fourth Crusade, pp. 81–87.

24. Ibid., pp. 90–95.

25. Robert of Clari, The Conquest of Constantinople, tr. E. H. McNeal (New York, 1936), p. 40.

26. Madden, Enrico Dandolo, p. 16.

27. GV, “Conquest,” p. 20.

28. Robert of Clari, Constantinople, p. 42.

29. GV, “Conquest,” p. 24.

30. Peter of les Vaux-de-Cernay (henceforth PVC), The History of the Albigensian Crusade, trs. W. A. and M. D. Sibly (Woodbridge, 1998), p. 58.

31. Innocent III, Sources, pp. 41–45.

32. Phillips, Fourth Crusade, pp. 120–23.

33. GV, “Conquest,” p. 26.

34. Phillips, Fourth Crusade, pp. 130–34.

35. GV, “Conquest,” p. 27; Robert of Clari, Constantinople, p. 66.

36. Innocent III, Sources, p. 48.

37. GV, “Conquest,” p. 34.

38. Ibid., p. 38.

39. Phillips, Fourth Crusade, pp. 165–68.

40. GV, “Conquest,” pp. 42–43.

41. Ibid., p. 46.

42. Letter of Hugh of Saint-Pol, Sources, p. 197.

43. GV, “Conquest,” p. 48.

44. Niketas Choniates, O City of Byzantium: Annals of Niketas Choniates, tr. H. J. Magoulias (Detroit, 1984), p. 299.

45. GV, “Conquest,” p. 50.

46. Letter of Hugh of Saint-Pol, Sources, pp. 187–89; Phillips, Fourth Crusade, pp. 193–96.

47. Ibid., p. 199.

48. Ibid., pp. 199–200.

49. Letter of Alexius IV to Innocent III, Sources, p. 79.

50. Niketas Choniates, Annals, p. 302.

51. GV, “Conquest,” p. 52.

52. Phillips, Fourth Crusade, pp. 197–205.

53. Ibid., pp. 206–10.

54. GV, “Conquest,” p. 57.

55. Robert of Clari, Constantinople, p. 84.

56. GV, “Conquest,” p. 58.

57. Niketas Choniates, Annals, p. 307.

58. Robert of Clari, Constantinople, p. 89.

59. Niketas Choniates, Annals, p. 312.

60. Phillips, Fourth Crusade, pp. 233–36.

61. Robert of Clari, Constantinople, pp. 91–92.

62. Innocent III, Sources, pp. 140–44; Phillips, Fourth Crusade, pp. 237–40.

63. Ibid., pp. 240–47.

64. GV, “Conquest,” p. 64.

65. Robert of Clari, Constantinople, p. 95.

66. Ibid., pp. 96–98.

67. GV, “Conquest,” pp. 66–67.

68. Letter of Baldwin of Flanders, Sources, p. 107.

69. Gunther of Pairis, The Capture of Constantinople, p. 111.

70. Ibid., pp. 122–28; “The Anonymous of Soissons,” Sources, pp. 230–38; “The Deeds of the Bishops of Halberstadt,” Sources, pp. 260–63.

71. Nicholas Mesarites, translated in C. M. Brand, Byzantium Confronts the West, 1180–1204 (Cambridge, MA, 1968), p. 269.

72. Niketas Choniates, Annals, p. 317.

73. Phillips, Fourth Crusade, pp. xi–xii, 270–75.

74. Innocent III, Sources, p. 147.

75. Phillips, Fourth Crusade, pp. 281–91; P. Lock, The Franks in the Aegean, 1204–1500 (Harlow, 1995); N. Chrissis, “Crusading in Romania: A Study of Byzantine-Western Relations and Attitudes,” Ph.D. thesis, Royal Holloway, University of London, 2007.

76. Phillips, Fourth Crusade, pp. 298–303.

77. Innocent III, Sources, p. 114.

78. Ibid., p. 135.

79. Ibid., p. 166.

80. Ibid., p. 173.

81. Ibid., p. 176.

8. From “Little Foxes in the Vines” and the Children’s Crusade to the Greatest Church Council of the Age

1. Several excellent books on this subject exist: R. I. Moore, The Birth of Popular Heresy (London, 1975); M. Lambert, Medieval Heresy, third edition (Oxford, 2002). On the Cathars and the Albigensian Crusade more broadly, see M. Barber, The Cathars: Dualist Heretics in Languedoc in the High Middle Ages (Harlow, 2000); M. G. Pegg, A Most Holy War: The Albigensian Crusade and the Battle for Christendom (Oxford, 2008); M. Costen, The Cathars and the Albigensian Crusade (Manchester, 1997); L. W. Marvin, The Occitan War: A Military and Political History of the Albigensian Crusade, 1209–1218 (Cambridge, 2008); J. Sumption, The Albigensian

2. R. I. Moore, The Formation of a Persecuting Society, second edition (Oxford, 2007).

3. William of Tudela in The Song of the Cathar Wars: A History of the Albigensian Crusade, tr. J. Shirley (Aldershot, 1996), p. 13.

4. Barber, Cathars, pp. 71–106.

5. Decrees of the Third Lateran Council, 1179, in Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils, ed. N. Tanner, 2 vols. (Washington, 1990), 1.224–25.

6. Henry of Marcy, abbot of Clairvaux, mission to Languedoc 1178, translated in Moore, The Birth of Popular Heresy, pp. 116–22.

7. Pegg, Most Holy War, pp. 59–60.

8. William of Tudela, Song, p. 12.

9. There is an account of the murder in PVC, pp. 31–34.

10. William of Tudela, Song, p. 14.

11. Innocent III to French provinces, in PVC, pp. 303–4.

12. Ibid., p. 45.

13. Ibid., p. 24.

14. Innocent III to Raymond VI of Toulouse, May 1207, in PVC, pp. 304–5.

15. Ibid., p. 24.

16. William of Tudela, Song, p. 123.

17. C. F. O’Meara, The Iconography of the Façade of Saint-Gilles-du-Gard (New York, 1977).

18. William of Tudela, Song, pp. 15–16; PVC, pp. 42–45.

19. For accounts of the siege see Song of the Cathar Wars, pp. 19–23; PVC, pp. 47–51; Marvin, Occitan War, pp. 37–45.

20. William of Tudela, Song, p. 20.

21. For a discussion of this evidence see PVC, Appendix B, pp. 289–93. It should be noted that the source for this comment was not present at the siege. Even if, however, it is not accurate, the sentiment conveyed shows the Church attitude toward the Cathars.

22. PVC, pp. 56–57; Marvin, Occitan War, pp. 45–62.

23. William of Tudela, Song, p. 74.

24. PVC, pp. 78–79.

25. William of Tudela, Song, p. 116.

26. Ibid., p. 172.

27. Ibid., p. 176.

28. R. Kay, The Council of Bourges, 1225: A Documentary History (Aldershot, 2002).

29. Barber, Cathars, pp. 139–44.

30. B. Hamilton, The Medieval Inquisition (London, 1981); J. B. Given, Inquisition and Medieval Society: Power, Discipline and Resistance in Languedoc (Ithaca, 1997); W. L. Wakefield, Heresy, Crusade and Inquisition in Southern France, 1100–1250(London, 1974); Barber, Cathars, pp. 144–52, 169–75; Costen, Cathars and the Albigensian Crusade, pp. 161–74.

31. William of Puylaurens, Chronicle: The Albigensian Crusade and Its Aftermath, tr. W. A. and M. D. Sibly (Woodbridge, 2003), pp. 82–86.

32. The Manual for Inquisitors is translated in Wakefield, Heresy, Crusade and Inquisition in Southern France, pp. 250–58. See also William of Puylaurens, Chronicle, pp. 91–98.

33. Good accounts of the siege are in Costen, Cathars and the Albigensian Crusade, pp. 159–60; Sumption, Albigensian Crusade, pp. 236–41.

34. William of Puylaurens, Chronicle, p. 108.

35. G. Dickson, The Children’s Crusade: Medieval History, Modern Mythistory (Basingstoke, 2007).

36. Ibid., pp. 131–57.

37. Ibid., p. 126.

38. Translation in ibid., p. 55.

39. “Laon Anonymous,” translation in ibid., p. 76.

40. Innocent III, Quia maior, translated in Riley-Smith, Crusades: Idea and Reality, pp. 118–24.

41. O’Callaghan, Reconquest and Crusade in Medieval Spain, pp. 50–77; D. J. Smith, Innocent III and the Crown of Aragon: The Limits of Papal Authority (Aldershot, 2004).

42. Kennedy, Muslim Spain and Portugal, pp. 200–36.

43. O’Callaghan, Reconquest and Crusade in Medieval Spain, pp. 61, 63, 142, 179–83; Kennedy, Muslim Spain and Portugal, pp. 244–47.

44. Kennedy, Muslim Spain and Portugal, pp. 249–56.

45. O’Callaghan, Reconquest and Crusade in Medieval Spain, pp. 72–73, 142–43.

46. The letter is translated in The Crusades: A Reader, eds. S. J. Allen and E. Amt (Peterborough, Ontario, 2003), pp. 309–13.

47. D. J. Smith, “‘Soli Hispani?’ Innocent III and Las Navas de Tolosa,” in Hispania Sacra 51 (1999), pp. 487–513.

48. The best discussions of crusading in northern Europe are I. Fonnesberg-Schmidt, The Popes and the Baltic Crusades, 1147–1254 (Leiden, 2007); Christiansen, Northern Crusades; Jerusalem in the North: Denmark and the Baltic Crusades, 1100–1522, eds. A. Bysted, C. S. Jensen, and K. Villads Jensen (Turnhout, 2009).

49. From Fonnesberg-Schmidt, Baltic Crusades, p. 93.

50. Ibid., pp. 133–86.

51. Morton, Teutonic Knights in the Holy Land.

52. W. L. Urban, The Baltic Crusade, second edition (Chicago, 1994).

53. Housley, “Crusades Against Christians,” p. 30.

54. Translated in Riley-Smith, Crusades: Idea and Reality, pp. 118–24. See also P. J. Cole, The Preaching of Crusades to the Holy Land, 1095–1270 (Cambridge, MA, 1991), pp. 104–9.

55. Moore, Pope Innocent III, pp. 228–52; S. Kuttner and A. García y García, “A New Eyewitness Account of the Fourth Lateran Council,” in Traditio 20 (1964), pp. 115–78; translated in C. Fasolt, in Readings in Western Civilisation: Medieval Europe, eds. J. Kishner and K. F. Morison (Chicago, 1986), pp. 369–76.

56. This decree of the Fourth Lateran Council is translated in Riley-Smith, Crusades: Idea and Reality, pp. 124–29. The full set of these decrees is edited and translated in Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils, 1.227–71.

57. James of Vitry, see: Jacques de Vitry, Lettres, ed. R. B. C. Huygens, new edition (Turnhout, 2000), pp. 551–52.

58. Comment observed by Moore, Pope Innocent III, p. 289.

9. “Stupor Mundi”—The Wonder of the World: Frederick II, the Fifth Crusade, and the Recovery of Jerusalem

1. Sibt Ibn al-Jawzi, Arab Historians of the Crusades, p. 275.

2. D. Abulafia, Frederick II: A Medieval Emperor (London, 1988).

3. J. Johns, Arabic Administration in Norman Sicily: The Royal Diwan (Cambridge, 2002).

4. The best monograph on the Fifth Crusade is J. M. Powell, Anatomy of a Crusade, 1213–1221 (Philadelphia, 1986).

5. C. N. Johns, Pilgrims’ Castle (Atlit), David’s Tower (Jerusalem) and Qal’at ar-Rabad (Ajlun) (Aldershot, 1997).

6. Oliver of Paderborn, “Capture of Damietta,” in Christian Society and the Crusades, 1198–1229, tr. E. Peters (Philadelphia, 1971), pp. 63–69.

7. Letter of Robert Aboland, in R. Röhricht, Testimonia minora de Quinto bello sacro (Geneva, 1882), p. 83.

8. James of Vitry, Lettres, p. 510.

9. For a striking analysis of this famous meeting and its consequences, see J. V. Tolan, Saint Francis and the Sultan: The Curious History of a Christian–Muslim Encounter (Oxford, 2009).

10. James of Vitry, Lettres, p. 576.

11. B. Hamilton, “Continental Drift: Prester John’s Progress Through the Indies,” in Prester John, the Mongols and the Ten Lost Tribes, eds. C. F. Beckingham and B. Hamilton (Aldershot, 1996), pp. 237–69.

12. Ibid., pp. 243–46.

13. Metcalf, Coinage of the Crusades and the Latin East, pp. 80–86.

14. Ibn al-Athir, The Chronicle of Ibn al-Athir for the Crusading Period, Part 3: The Years 589–629/1193–1231: The Ayyubids After Saladin and the Mongol Menace, tr. D. S. Richards (Aldershot, 2008), p. 179.

15. James of Vitry, Lettres, pp. 633–44.

16. D. O. Morgan, The Mongols, second edition (Oxford, 2007), pp. 60–62.

17. Oliver of Paderborn gives the dates of the Nile flood, “Capture of Damietta,” p. 85.

18. Ibn al-Athir, Chronicle, Part 3, p. 180.

19. Ibid.

20. William the Clerk, Le bezant de Dieu, translated in P. Throop, Criticism of the Crusade: A Study of Public Opinion and Crusade Propaganda (Amsterdam, 1940), p. 32.

21. S. C. Aston, Peirol, Troubadour of Auvergne (Cambridge, 1953), p. 163.

22. J. H. Pryor, “The Crusade of Emperor Frederick II, 1220–1229: The Implications of the Maritime Evidence,” in The American Neptune 52 (1992), pp. 123–27.

23. On this issue, see T. C. Van Cleve, The Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen: Immutator Mundi (Oxford, 1972), pp. 165–67.

24. N. E. Morton, Teutonic Knights in the Holy Land (Woodbridge, 2009).

25. Roger of Wendover, Flowers of History, 2.499.

26. Ibid., 2.507.

27. Ibid., 2.493.

28. Ibid., 2.511.

29. Ibn Wasil, Arab Historians of the Crusades, pp. 268–69.

30. Pryor, “Crusade of Emperor Frederick II,” pp. 131–32.

31. Sibt Ibn al-Jawzi, Arab Historians of the Crusades, pp. 273–74.

32. Ibn Wasil, Arab Historians of the Crusades, p. 272.

33. Sibt Ibn al-Jawzi, Arab Historians of the Crusades, p. 275.

34. Abulafia, Frederick II, pp. 186–88.

35. Frederick II to Henry III of England, from Roger of Wendover, Flowers of History 2.522–24; translated in Christian Society and the Crusades, pp. 162–63.

36. Patriarch Gerold to the Christian faithful, from Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, translated in Christian Society and the Crusades, pp. 165–70, here at p. 166.

37. Abulafia, Frederick II, pp. 191–201.

38. M. Lower, The Barons’ Crusade: A Call to Arms and Its Consequences (Philadelphia, 2005) is by far the best study of this crusade.

39. N. Vincent, The Holy Blood: King Henry III and the Westminster Blood Relic (Cambridge, 2001). See also M. Reeve, “The Painted Chamber at Westminster, Edward I and the Crusade,” in Viator 37 (2006), pp. 189–221.

40. M. Barber, “Western Attitudes to Frankish Greece in the Thirteenth Century,” in Latins and Greeks in the Eastern Mediterranean after 1204, eds. B. Arbel, B. Hamilton, and D. Jacoby (London, 1989), pp. 111–28.

41. Rothelin, Crusader Syria in the Thirteenth Century, tr. J. Shirley (Aldershot, 1999), p. 48.

42. Lower, Barons’ Crusade, pp. 167–71.

43. Rothelin, Crusader Syria in the Thirteenth Century, p. 54.

44. Ibid., p. 57.

45. Lower, Barons’ Crusade, pp. 175–77.

46. Rothelin, Crusader Syria in the Thirteenth Century, p. 54.

47. B. Weiler, “Gregory IX, Frederick II and the Liberation of the Holy Land,” in Holy Land and Holy Lands, ed. R. L. Swanson, Studies in Church History 36 (2000), pp. 192–206.

48. N. Barbour, “Frederick II’s Relations with the Muslims,” in Orientalia Hispanica: Sive studia F. M. Pareja octogenario dictata, ed. J. M. Barral, 2 vols. (Leiden, 1974), 1.89–90.

49. Ibid., p. 80.

10. “To Kill the Serpent, First You Must Crush the Head”: The Crusade of Louis IX and the Rise of the Sultan Baibars

1. Morgan, Mongols, pp. 60–62; Ibn al-Athir, Chronicle, Part 3, pp. 204–31; al-Maqrizi, A History of the Ayyubid Sultans of Egypt, pp. 273–75.

2. “The Eracles Continuation of William of Tyre,” in Crusader Syria in the Thirteenth Century, tr. J. Shirley (Aldershot, 1999), p. 132.

3. Rothelin, Crusader Syria in the Thirteenth Century, p. 64.

4. For accounts of Louis’s life, see J. Richard, Saint Louis, Crusader King of France, ed. Lloyd, tr. J. Birell (Cambridge, 1992); W. C. Jordan, Louis IX and the Challenge of the Crusade (Princeton, 1979); J. Le Goff, Saint Louis, tr. G. E. Gollrad (Notre Dame, 2009). For Louis’s legacy, see M. C. Gaposchkin, The Making of Saint Louis: Kingship, Sanctity and Crusade in the Later Middle Ages (Ithaca, 2008).

5. Jordan, Louis IX and the Challenge of the Crusade, pp. 35–133.

6. John of Joinville, “The Life of Saint Louis,” in Joinville and Villehardouin: Chronicles of the Crusades, tr. C. Smith (London, 2008), p. 178.

7. Ibid., pp. 296–97.

8. Ibid., p. 296.

9. D. Weiss, Art and Crusade in the Age of Saint Louis (Cambridge, 1998).

10. Jean de Jandun, cited in Weiss, Art and Crusade in the Age of Saint Louis, p. 33.

11. C. Smith, Crusading in the Age of Joinville (Aldershot, 2006).

12. John of Joinville, “Life of Saint Louis,” p. 176.

13. Ibid., p. 177.

14. Ibn Wasil, in P. Jackson, The Seventh Crusade: Sources and Documents (Aldershot, 2007), pp. 129–30.

15. The Testament of Ayyub, unpublished translation by P. Jackson. See also C. Cahen and I. Chabbouh, “Le testament d’al-Malik as-Salih Ayyub,” in Bulletin d’Études Orientales de l’Institut Français de Damas 29 (1977), pp. 97–114.

16. Ibn Wasil, Arab Historians of the Crusades, p. 286.

17. John of Joinville, “Life of Saint Louis,” p. 190.

18. Foundation Charter of the Church of Damietta, in Jackson, Seventh Crusade, pp. 95–97.

19. Rothelin, Crusader Syria in the Thirteenth Century, p. 89.

20. John of Joinville, “Life of Saint Louis,” p. 196.

21. Ibid.

22. Rothelin, Crusader Syria in the Thirteenth Century, pp. 95–96.

23. John of Joinville, “Life of Saint Louis,” p. 201.

24. Ibid., p. 206.

25. Ibid., pp. 205–6.

26. Ibid., p. 202.

27. Ibid., p. 206.

28. Ibn Wasil, Arab Historians of the Crusades, p. 292.

29. Ibid.

30. John of Joinville, “Life of Saint Louis,” p. 220.

31. Ibid., p. 221.

32. Ibn Wasil, Arab Historians of the Crusades, p. 294.

33. Deposition by Charles of Anjou during the canonization process of Saint Louis, in Jackson, Seventh Crusade, p. 116.

34. Ibn Wasil, in Jackson, Seventh Crusade, p. 149.

35. Ibid., pp. 150–53; John of Joinville, “Life of Saint Louis,” pp. 231–33.

36. John of Joinville, “Life of Saint Louis,” pp. 229–30.

37. Ibid., p. 243.

38. Ibid., pp. 249–54.

39. Louis IX to his subjects in France, before August 10, 1250, in Jackson, Seventh Crusade, p. 113.

40. Ibid., p. 114.

41. C. J. Marshall, Warfare in the Latin East, 1191–1291 (Cambridge, 1992).

42. On this period of his rule see Jordan, Louis IX and the Challenge of the Crusade, pp. 135–213.

43. Ibid., pp. 127–28.

44. Matthew Paris, The Chronicles of Matthew Paris: Monastic Life in the Thirteenth Century, tr. R. Vaughan (Gloucester, 1984), pp. 248–49.

45. R. Irwin, The Middle East in the Middle Ages: The Early Mamluk Sultanate, 1250–1382 (Beckenham, 1986), pp. 26–29.

46. Morgan, Mongols, pp. 130–37; Ibn Kathir in Lewis, Islam: From the Prophet Muhammad to the Capture of Constantinople, pp. 80–84.

47. P. Jackson, “The Crisis in the Holy Land in 1260,” in English Historical Review 95 (1980), pp. 481–513. For a broader study of Mongol–Christian relations, see the same author’s splendid The Mongols and the West, 1221–1405 (Harlow, 2005).

48. R. Amitai-Preiss, Mongols and Mamluks (Cambridge, 1995), pp. 27–35; letter of Hulegu Khan to Saint Louis, 1262, P. Meyvaert, “An Unknown Letter of Hulegu, Ilkhan of Persia to King Louis IX of France,” in Viator 11 (1980), pp. 252–59.

49. Al-Maqrizi in Lewis, Islam: From the Prophet Muhammad to the Capture of Constantinople, pp. 84–85.

50. Amitai-Preiss, Mongols and Mamluks, pp. 35–45; M. Piana, Burgen und Städte der Kreuzzugszeit (Petersberg, 2008), pp. 44–46; Irwin, The Middle East in the Middle Ages, pp. 32–34.

51. Ibn Abd al-Zahir, Baybars I of Egypt, tr. F. Sadeque (Dacca, 1956), p. 93.

52. D. Jacoby, “New Venetian Evidence on Crusader Acre,” The Experience of Crusading, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 2003), vol. 2, eds. P. W. Edbury and J. P. Phillips, pp. 240–56.

53. The best modern biography of Baibars is P. Thorau, The Lion of Egypt: Sultan Baibars I and the Near East in the Thirteenth Century, tr. P. M. Holt (Harlow, 1992); see also Irwin, Middle East in the Middle Ages, pp. 37–61.

54. Ibn Abd al-Zahir, Baybars I, pp. 115–16. On Baibars’s legitimacy and good rule, see pp. 96–121.

55. Ibn al-Furat, Ayyubids, Mamluks and Crusaders: Selections from the Tarikh al-Duwal wa’l-Muluk of Ibn al-Furat, eds. and trs. U. and M. C. Lyons and J. S. C. Riley-Smith, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1971), 1.124.

56. Ibn al-Nafis, The Theologus autodidactus, eds. and trs. M. Meyerhof and J. Schacht (Oxford, 1968), pp. 68–69.

57. Kennedy, Crusader Castles, pp. 120–79; Marshall, Warfare in the Latin East, pp. 233–36, 244; Ibn al-Furat, Ayyubids, Mamluks and Crusaders, 1.88–96.

58. Kennedy, Crusader Castles, pp. 145–63; Thorau, Lion of Egypt, pp. 204–5; D. J. Cathcart King, “The Taking of Le Krak des Chevaliers in 1271,” in Antiquity 23 (1949), pp. 83–92.

59. Richard, Saint Louis, pp. 329–35; Jordan, Louis IX and the Challenge of the Crusade, pp. 214–18.

60. John of Joinville, “Life of Saint Louis,” p. 329.

61. S. D. Lloyd, English Society and the Crusade, 1216–1307 (Oxford, 1988).

62. Thorau, Lion of Egypt, pp. 220–50; P. M. Holt, Early Mamluk Diplomacy (1260–1290): Treaties of Baibars and Qalawun with Christian Rulers (Leiden, 1995).

63. Ibn Abd al-Zahir, Baibars I, pp. 77–78.

64. D. P. Little, “The Fall of Akka in 690/1291: The Muslim Version,” in Studies in Islamic History and Civilisation in Honour of Professor David Ayalon, ed. M. Sharon (Jerusalem and Leiden, 1986), pp. 159–81; Marshall, Warfare in the Latin East, pp. 232–38, 244–55; Irwin, Middle East in the Middle Ages, pp. 62–76; Amitai-Preiss, Mongols and Mamluks, pp. 179–201.

65. The “Templar of Tyre”: Part III of the “Deeds of the Cypriots,” tr. P. Crawford (Aldershot, 2003), pp. 104–5.

66. Ibid., p. 109.

67. Ibid., p. 111.

68. Ibn al-Furat in Little, “The Fall of Akka in 690/1291,” p. 181.

11. From the Trial of the Templars to Ferdinand and Isabella, Columbus, and the Conquest of the New World

1. M. Barber, The Trial of the Templars, second edition (Cambridge, 2006), pp. 59–61. This is by far the best account of the end of the Templars, although see also the arguments of J. S. C. Riley-Smith, “Were the Templars Guilty?,” and “The Structures of the Orders of the Temple and the Hospital in c.1291,” both in The Medieval Crusade, ed. S. Ridyard (Woodbridge, 2004).

2. The Templars, trs. M. Barber and K. Bate (Manchester, 2002), pp. 244–48.

3. A. Demurger, The Last Templar: The Tragedy of Jacques de Molay, Last Grand Master of the Temple (London, 2002), pp. 144–52; S. Menache, “The Last Master of the Temple: James of Molay,” in Knighthoods of Christ: Essays on the History of the Crusades and the Knights Templar, Presented to Malcolm Barber, ed. N. Housley (Aldershot, 2007) pp. 229–40.

4. S. Menache, Clement V (Cambridge, 1998), pp. 13–34.

5. The Templars, p. 246.

6. Barber, Trial of the Templars, pp. 67–87.

7. Ibid., pp. 79–80, 88–90.

8. The Templars, p. 290.

9. Frale, “The Chinon Chart: Papal Absolution to the Last Templar, Master Jacques de Molay,” in Journal of Medieval History 30 (2004), pp. 109–34.

10. The Templars, pp. 292–95.

11. Ibid., p. 299.

12. Barber, Trial of the Templars, pp. 217–58; A. Gilmour-Bryson, The Trial of the Templars in Cyprus: A Complete English Edition (Leiden, 1998), pp. 40–41.

13. Ibid., pp. 30–31.

14. Barber, Trial of the Templars, pp. 141–201.

15. Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils, 1.331–49, here at p. 336; Barber, Trial of the Templars, pp. 267–70.

16. Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils, 1.341–42.

17. The Templars, pp. 323–28.

18. Demurger, Last Templar, pp. 194–200.

19. Translation from ibid., pp. 197–98.

20. Barber, New Knighthood, pp. 314–34.

21. S. Schein, “Gesta Dei per Mongolos 1300. The Genesis of a Non-Event,” in English Historical Review 94 (1979), pp. 805–19; Jackson, Mongols and the West, pp. 165–95.

22. Leopold, How to Recover the Holy Land: The Crusade Proposals of the Late Thirteenth and Early Fourteenth Centuries (Aldershot, 2000); S. Schein, Fideles Crucis: The Papacy, the West, and the Recovery of the Holy Land, 1274–1314 (Oxford, 1991).

23. For 1309, see N. Housley, “Pope Clement V and the Crusades of 1309–1310,” in Journal of Medieval History 8 (1982), pp. 29–42; for 1320, see M. Barber, “The Pastoureaux of 1320,” in Journal of Ecclesiastical History 32 (1981), pp. 143–66.

24. Documents on the Later Crusades, 1274–1580, ed. and tr. N. Housley (Basingstoke, 1996), p. 67.

25. M. Keen, Chivalry (London, 1984), pp. 44–63; N. Housley, “The Crusading Movement, 1274–1700,” in The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, p. 272.

26. M. Keen, “Chaucer’s Knight, the English Aristocracy and the Crusade,” in English Court Culture in the Later Middle Ages, eds. V. J. Scattergood and J. W. Sherborne (London, 1983), pp. 45–61.

27. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 259–75.

28. J. S. Roskell, “Sir Richard de Waldegrave of Bures Saint Mary, Speaker in the Parliament of 1381–1382,” in Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology 27 (1957), pp. 154–75.

29. Edbury, The Kingdom of Cyprus and the Crusades, pp. 161–79; S. Bliznyuk, “A Crusader of the Later Middle Ages: King Peter I of Cyprus,” in The Crusades and the Military Orders: Expanding the Frontiers of Medieval Latin Christianity, eds. Z. Hunyadi and J. Laszlovsky (Budapest, 2001), pp. 51–57; Philip of Mézières, “Account of the Alexandria Crusade,” in Documents on the Later Crusades, p. 86; Guillaume de Machaut, The Capture of Alexandria, tr. J. Shirley and P. W. Edbury (Aldershot, 2001), p. 56.

30. Philip of Mézières, “Account of the Alexandria Crusade,” p. 86.

31. Ibid., pp. 87–88.

32. Guillaume de Machaut, Capture of Alexandria, p. 86.

33. Ibid., pp. 186–91.

34. The Earl of Derby’s Expeditions to Prussia and the Holy Land, 1390-139 and 1392–1393, ed. L. Toulmin Smith, Camden Society 52 (London, 1894); F. R. H. Du Boulay, “Henry of Derby’s Expeditions to Prussia, 1390-1391 and 1392,” in The Reign of Richard II: Essays in Honour of May McKisack, eds. F. R. H. Du Boulay and C. M. Barron (London, 1971), pp. 153–72; I. Mortimer, The Fears of Henry IV: The Life of England’s Self-Made King (London, 2007), pp. 84–115.

35. Christiansen, Northern Crusades, pp. 167–76.

36. Ibid., pp. 139–46; 164–67.

37. Thomas Walsingham, Chronica Majora, trs. D. Preest and J. G. Clark (Wood-bridge, 2005), pp. 278–79.

38. AS. Cook, “Beginning the Board in Russia,” in Journal of English and German Philology 14 (1915), pp. 375–88.

39. Earl of Derby’s Expeditions, pp. 116–17.

40. Christiansen, Northern Crusades, pp. 227–31.

41. Documents on the Later Crusades, pp. 351–75.

42. Earl of Derby’s Expeditions, pp. lx–lxiii; 222, 275–76.

43. Ibid., pp. lxiii–lxxi; 226, 277–78.

44. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 332–42.

45. Hussite Manifesto from Prague, 1420, in T. A. Fudge, The Crusade Against Heretics in Bohemia, 1418–1437: Sources and Documents for the Hussite Crusades (Aldershot, 2002), pp. 59–60—part of an exemplary collection of documents to study these events. See also F. G. Heymann, “The Crusades Against the Hussites,” in History of the Crusades, ed. K. M. Setton, 6 vols. (Madison, 1969–89), 3.586–646; Documents on the Later Crusades, pp. 249–59.

46. Fudge, Crusade Against Heretics in Bohemia, pp. 24–25.

47. Biography of Marshal Boucicaut, cited in Documents on the Later Crusades, pp. 105–6.

48. A.S. Atiya, The Crusade of Nicopolis (London, 1936); V. Laszlo, “Some Remarks on Recent Historiography of the Crusade of Nicopolis (1396),” in The Crusades and the Military Orders: Expanding the Frontiers of Medieval Latin Christianity, eds. Z. Hunyadi and J. Laszlovsky (Budapest, 2001), pp. 223–30.

49. C. Imber, The Ottoman Empire, 1300–1481 (Istanbul, 1990); Imber, The Ottoman Empire, 1300–1650: The Structure of Power (Basingstoke, 2002), pp. 5–27; H. Inalcik, The Ottoman Empire: The Classical Age (London, 1973), pp. 5–22; D. Goffman, The Ottoman Empire and Early Modern Europe (Cambridge, 2002), pp. 29–54.

50. Michael Doukas, The Decline and Fall of Byzantium to the Ottoman Turks, tr. H. J. Magoulias (Detroit, 1984), p. 181.

51. C. Imber, The Crusade of Varna, 1443–1445 (Aldershot, 2006), p. 51.

52. A splendid account remains that of S. Runciman, The Fall of Constantinople, 1453 (Cambridge, 1965). Another accessible account is R. Crowley, 1453: The Holy War for Constantinople and the Clash of Islam and the West (London, 2005). See also the fine analysis of D. Nicolle, Constantinople 1453 (Oxford, 2000).

53. Nicolò Barbaro, Diary of the Siege of Constantinople, 1453, tr. J. R. Melville-Jones (New York, 1969), pp. 29–30.

54. Leonard of Chios, in The Siege of Constantinople 1453: Seven Contemporary Accounts, tr. J. R. Melville-Jones (Amsterdam, 1972), p. 26.

55. K. DeVries, “Gunpowder Weapons at the Siege of Constantinople, 1453,” in War and Society in the Eastern Mediterranean, 7th–15th Centuries, ed. Y. Lev (Leiden, 1997), pp. 343–62.

56. Michael Kritovoulos, History of Mehmet the Conqueror, tr. C. T. Riggs (Princeton, 1954), p. 37.

57. H. Inalcik, “Mehmet the Conqueror (1432–1481) and His Time,” in Speculum 35 (1960), pp. 411–12.

58. Nicolò Barbaro, Diary, p. 40; Leonard of Chios, p. 24.

59. Nicolò Barbaro, Diary, pp. 50–51.

60. Ibid., p. 54.

61. Ibid., p. 56.

62. Inalcik, “Mehmet the Conqueror,” pp. 411–12.

63. Nicolò Barbaro, Diary, p. 60.

64. Ibid., p. 64.

65. Ibid., p. 67.

66. Leonard of Chios, The Siege of Constantinople, p. 38.

67. Pius II, The Commentaries of Pius II, tr. F. A. Gragg (Northampton, 1937), p. 69.

68. R. Vaughan, Philip the Good: The Apogee of Burgundy (London, 1970); K. DeVries, “The Failure of Philip the Good to Fulfil His Crusade Promise of 1454,” in The Medieval Crusade, ed. S. J. Ridyard (Woodbridge, 2004), pp. 157–70.

69. Letter of J. De Pleine concerning the Feast of the Pheasant, translated in Vaughan, Philip the Good, pp. 144–45.

70. Ibid., p. 297.

71. Ibid., pp. 358–72, text at pp. 366–67.

72. R. N. Bain, “The Siege of Belgrade by Muhammad II, July 1–23, 1456,” in English Historical Review 7 (1892), pp. 235–45.

73. J. Goni Gaztambide, “The Holy See and the Reconquest of the Kingdom of Granada (1479–1492),” in Spain in the Fifteenth Century, ed. R. Highfield (London, 1972), p. 361.

74. Ibid., p. 371. See also P. K. Liss, Isabel the Queen (Oxford, 1992).

75. Purkis, Crusading Spirituality in the Holy Land and Iberia, pp. 130–32; Documents on the Later Crusades, pp. 304–8.

76. C. Delaney, “Columbus’ Ultimate Goal: Jerusalem,” in Comparative Studies in Society and History 48 (2006), pp. 260–92; A. Hamdani, “Columbus and the Recovery of Jerusalem,” in Journal of the American Oriental Society 99 (1979), pp. 39–48.

77. Pius II cited in Documents on the Later Crusades, p. 107. For the conflict between Charles and Suleyman, see the summary in Goffman, Ottoman Empire, pp. 98–112.

78. V. H. Aksan, Ottoman Wars, 1700–1870: An Empire Besieged (Harlow, 2007).

12. New Crusaders? From Sir Walter Scott to Osama bin Laden and George W. Bush

1. Thomas Fuller quoted in R. Ellenblum, Crusader Castles and Modern Histories (Cambridge, 2007), p. 5.

2. Ibid., pp. 5–6.

3. Voltaire, taken from K. Munholland, “Michaud’s History of the Crusades and the French Crusade in Algeria Under Louis-Philippe,” in The Popularisation of Images: Visual Culture Under the July Monarchy, eds. P. ten-Doesschate Chu and G. P. Weis-berg (Princeton, 1994), p. 145; Dickson, Children’s Crusade, pp. 233–34; R. Irwin, For Lust of Knowing: The Orientalists and Their Enemies (London, 2006), p. 117.

4. Heller in Ellenblum, Crusader Castles, p. 8.

5. Ralph Waldo Emerson cited in Constable, “Historiography of the Crusades,” p. 8.

6. S. Runciman, A History of the Crusades (London, 1951–54), 3.480.

7. Ibid., 2.48.

8. M. Bloch, The Historian’s Craft, fifth edition (Paris, 1964).

9. This paragraph is drawn from E. Siberry, The New Crusaders: Images of the Crusades in the 19th and 20th Centuries (Aldershot, 2000), pp. 112–30. On Scott, see also M. Girouard, The Return to Camelot: Chivalry and the English Gentleman (London, 1981), pp. 29–54.

10. Siberry, New Crusaders, pp. 114–15.

11. W. Scott, The Talisman, (London, 1832), p. 2.

12. J. S. C. Riley-Smith, “Islam and the Crusades in History,” in Crusades 2 (2003), p. 154.

13. Scott, The Talisman, p. 18.

14. Ibid., p. 75.

15. Ibid., p. 70.

16. Ibid., p. 35.

17. Ibid., p. 89; see also p. 125.

18. Siberry, New Crusaders, pp. 175–87.

19. E. Bar-Yosef, The Holy Land in English Culture, 1799–1917: Palestine and the Question of Orientalism (Oxford, 2005), pp. 18–181; Siberry, New Crusaders, pp. 64–72; Scott, The Talisman, pp. 1–2.

20. Dickson, Children’s Crusade, pp. 173–74.

21. Munholland, “Michaud’s History of the Crusades,” pp. 144–65; Ellenblum, Crusader Castles, pp. 18–23. See the similar comments of M. Jubb, The Legend of Saladin in Western Literature and Historiography (Lewiston, NY, 2000), pp. 197–206.

22. For a sophisticated demolition of “ethnic nationalism” in the medieval period and a view on the construction of modern “national” identities, see P. J. Geary, The Myth of Nations: The Medieval Origins of Europe (Princeton, 2002), pp. 15–40.

23. Michaud, Histoire des croisades (1825), 1.510, 522–24, taken from Munholland, “Michaud’s History of the Crusades,” p. 150.

24. J.-F. Michaud and J.-J. Pujoulet, Correspondance d’Orient, 7 vols. (Paris, 1833–35), 1.2. At times Michaud’s letters are an almost endless list of excited reports of sites he has seen that were connected to the history of the crusades; ibid., 1.23–25, 28, 67, 69, etc.

25. Munholland, “Michaud’s History of the Crusades,” pp. 159–64; Siberry, New Crusaders, pp. 169–70, 208–11.

26. C. Constans, Musée national du château de Versailles: Les peintures, 3 vols. (Paris, 1995).

27. Taken from Munholland, “Michaud’s History of the Crusades,” p. 164.

28. Siberry, New Crusaders, p. 52; R.-H. Bautier, “La collection de chartes de croisade dite ‘Collection Courtois’,” in Comptes-rendus des séances de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres (1956), pp. 382–85.

29. G. Degeorge, Damascus (Paris, 2004), pp. 218–27.

30. Cited in ibid., p. 224.

31. A. Knobler, “Holy Wars, Empires, and the Portability of the Past: The Modern Uses of Medieval Crusades,” in Comparative Studies in Society and History 48 (2006), p. 296; Siberry, New Crusaders, p. 83.

32. Siberry, New Crusaders, p. 83.

33. P. Pic, Syrie et Palestine (Paris, 1924), p. vii.

34. Cited by Riley-Smith, “Islam and the Crusades in History,” p. 158. In this connection, see also E. Sivan, “Modern Arab Historiography of the Crusades,” in Asian and African Studies 8 (1972), pp. 117–19.

35. C. Duggan, The Force of Destiny: A History of Italy Since 1796 (London, 2007), esp. pp. 125–33.

36. Ibid., p. 126.

37. J. Mazzini, Mazzini’s Letters, tr. A. De Rosen Jervis (London, 1930), pp. x–xi, 172–73.

38. Siberry, New Crusaders, pp. 135–36.

39. Duggan, Force of Destiny, pp. 171–72.

40. Ellenblum, Crusader Castles, pp. 26–27; for Godfrey’s status as a crusading hero, see Siberry, New Crusaders.

41. Knobler, “Holy Wars,” pp. 297–98.

42. R. A. Fletcher, The Search for El Cid (London, 1989).

43. J. M. Sanchez, The Spanish Civil War as a Religious Tragedy (Notre Dame, 1987), pp. 152–53.

44. P. Preston, Franco: A Biography (London, 1993); M. Vincent, “The Martyrs and the Saints: Masculinity and the Construction of the Francoist Crusade,” in History Workshop Journal 47 (1999), pp. 69–98; S. G. Payne, The Franco Regime, 1936–1975(London, 2000), esp. pp. 197–208; N. Cooper, “The Church: From Crusade to Christianity,” in Spain in Crisis: The Evolution and Decline of the Franco Regime, ed. P. Preston (Hassocks, 1976), pp. 48–81; Sanchez, The Spanish Civil War as a Religious Tragedy, pp. 91, 152–56.

45. M. Vincent, Catholicism in the Second Spanish Republic: Religion and Politics in Salamanca, 1930–1936 (Oxford, 1996), pp. 248–9.

46. Preston, Franco, pp. 184–85; Vincent, “The Martyrs and the Saints,” p. 72.

47. Preston, Franco, p. 290.

48. Ibid., p. 291.

49. Ibid., p. 351.

50. Ibid., pp. 640–41; Fletcher, Quest for El Cid, pp. 201–5.

51. O. Anderson, “The Reactions of Church and Dissent Towards the Crimean War,” in Journal of Ecclesiastical History 16 (1965), pp. 209–20; Siberry, New Crusaders, pp. 83–84.

52. R. Jenkins, Gladstone (London, 1995), p. 400.

53. Ibid., p. 403.

54. R. T. Shannon, Gladstone and the Bulgarian Agitation, 1876, second edition (Hassocks, 1975), pp. 80–81, 187–88, 213, 217.

55. Ibid., p. 187, n. 2.

56. Knobler, “Holy Wars,” pp. 310–13.

57. Cramb cited in Knobler, “Holy Wars,” p. 315.

58. A. Marrin, The Last Crusade: The Church of England in the First World Aar (Durham, 1974); Girouard, Return to Camelot, pp. 275–93.

59. A. Horne, Macmillan: 1894–1956 (London, 1988), pp. 39–40; see also pp. 131, 307. Grateful thanks to my father for finding these references.

60. Siberry, New Crusaders, p. 91.

61. Note that Pershing himself did not describe his campaign in France in such terms, although he did refer to it as “this great war for civilization.” See J. J. Pershing, My Experiences in the World War, 2 vols. (New York, 1931), 1.45.

62. S. Goebel, The Great War and Medieval Memory: War, Remembrance and Medievalism in Britain and Germany, 1914–1940 (Cambridge, 2006), pp. 127–47.

63. Ibid.

64. R. F. Eldridge, “The Crusaders’ Monument,” in The Carthusian (June 1916), p. 608. I am grateful to Reverend William Lane for this reference.

65. Siberry, New Crusaders, p. 92.

66. Ibid., pp. 94–97; Knobler, “Holy Wars,” pp. 315–16.

67. Bar-Yosef, The Holy Land in English Culture, p. 249.

68. Ibid., pp. 251–53.

69. Ibid., p. 249.

70. Ibid., pp. 251–64.

71. Ibid., p. 264.

72. Ibid., p. 267.

73. V. Gilbert, The Romance of the Last Crusade: With Allenby to Jerusalem (New York, 1923), the scene mentioned here at pp. 204–16.

74. Ibid., pp. 116, 171.

75. Bar-Yosef, The Holy Land in English Culture, p. 293.

76. Siberry, New Crusaders, pp. 99–100; Goebel, Great War and Medieval Memory, p. 91.

77. Dickson, Children’s Crusade, p. 194.

78. Siberry, New Crusaders, p. 103.

79. Goebel, Great War and Medieval Memory, pp. 300–1.

80. K. Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse-Five, or The Children’s Crusade: A Duty Dance with Death (New York, 1969), p. 77.

81. Cited in M. Burleigh, Germany Turns Eastwards (Cambridge, 1988), p. 6.

82. M. G. Carpenter, The Crusade: Its Origins and Development at Washington Court House and Its Results (Columbus, 1893), p. 20.

83. M. Perry, The Jarrow Crusade: Protest and Legend (Sunderland, 2005), esp. pp. 153–57.

84. Ibid., p. 154.

85. Ibid., pp. 171–82.

86. This paragraph is a summary of F. C. R. Robinson, “Other-Worldly and This-Worldly Islam and the Islamic Revival. A Memorial Lecture for Wilfred Cantwell Smith,” in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Series 3 (2004), pp. 50–51.

87. R. Irwin, “Islam and the Crusades, 1096–1699,” in The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, pp. 250–57.

88. J. Miot, Memoirs of My Service in the French Expedition to Egypt and Syria (Paris, 1997), p. 13.

89. J. T. Johnson, The Holy War Idea in Western and Islamic Traditions (University Park, PA, 1997), p. 165.

90. J. C. G. Röhl, Wilhelm II: The Kaiser’s Personal Monarchy, 1888–1900 (Cambridge, 2004), pp. 944–54.

91. J. S. C. Riley-Smith, The Crusades, Christianity and Islam (New York, 2008), pp. 63–64.

92. M. C. Lyons, “The Crusading Stratum in the Arabic Hero Cycles,” in Crusaders and Muslims in Twelfth-Century Syria, ed. M. Shatzmiller (Leiden, 1993), pp. 147–61; M. C. Lyons, The Arabic Epic: Heroic and Oral Storytelling, vols. (Cambridge, 1995), esp. 1.1–28, 105–7. For a vivid background to storytelling, see R. Irwin, The Arabian Nights: A Companion (London, 1994), pp. 103–19; for the western travelers, see A. Russell, The Natural History of Aleppo, 2 vols. (London, 1794), 1.148–49; E. W. Lane, An Account of the Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians (London, 1860), pp. 360–91. For the Sirat al-Zahir Baibars, see M. C. Lyons, “The Sirat Baibars,” in Orientalia Hispanica, ed. F. Pareja Casanas (Leiden, 1974), pp. 490–503.

93. Sivan, “Modern Arab Historiography of the Crusades,” pp. 109–49.

94. A Özcan, Pan-Islamism: Indian Muslims, the Ottomans and Britain (1877–1924) (Leiden, 1997), pp. 61–63.

95. R. Peters, Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam: A Reader (Princeton, 1996), pp. 56–57.

96. J. L. Gelvin, Divided Loyalties: Nationalism and Mass Politics in Syria at the Close of Empire (Berkeley, 1998), pp. 254–55.

97. Ibid., pp. 2–3.

98. President Gamal Abdel-Nasser’s Speeches and Press Interviews 1958 (Cairo, 1959), p. 63.

99. Ibid., p. 18; President Gamal Abdel-Nasser’s Speeches and Press Interviews 1959 (Cairo, 1960), p. 382.

100. President Gamal Abdel-Nasser’s Speeches and Press Interviews 1959, pp. 140–41, 217–18.

101. Ibid., pp. 217–18.

102. Ibid., pp. 382–83, 427–28.

103. N. Rejwan, Nasserist Ideology: Its Exponents and Critics (Jerusalem, 1974), pp. 21–22.

104. President Gamal Abdel-Nasser’s Speeches and Press Interviews 1959, pp. 428–29.

105. Ibid., p. 429.

106. Ibid.

107. J. Aberth, A Knight at the Movies: Medieval History on Film (London, 2003), pp. 91–107; J. M. Ganim, “Reversing the Crusades: Hegemony, Orientalism, and Film Language in Youssef Chahine’s Saladin,” in Race, Class and Gender in “Medieval” Cinema, eds. L. T. Ramey and T. Pugh (Basingstoke, 2007), pp. 45–58; P. B. Sturtevant, “SaladiNasser: Nasser’s Political Crusade in El Naser Salah Ad-Din,” in Hollywood in the Holy Land: Essays on Film Depictions of the Crusades and Christian–Muslim Clashes, eds. N. Haydock and E. L. Risden (Jefferson, NC, 2009), pp. 123–46.

108. Aberth, Knight at the Movies, p. 104.

109. Ibid., p. 103.

110. Speech by President Anwar el Sadat to the Knesset, 20 November 1977 (Cairo, 1978), p. 20.

111. M. Ma’oz, Asad: The Sphinx of Damascus—A Political Biography (New York, 1988).

112. Hillenbrand, Crusades: Islamic Perspectives, pp. 595–600.

113. Ma’oz, Asad: The Sphinx of Damascus, p. 45.

114. Ibid., pp. 44–45.

115. O. Bengio, Saddam’s Word: Political Discourse in Iraq (Oxford, 1998), pp. 171–75.

116. Johnson, Holy War Idea, p. 166.

117. J. E. Carter, Keeping Faith: Memoirs of a President (New York, 1982), pp. 267–409.

118. Peters, Jihad, p. 158.

119. J. J. G. Jansen, The Neglected Duty: The Creed of Sadat’s Assassins and the Islamic Resurgence in the Middle East (New York, 1986).

120. Ibid.

121. Osama bin Laden, Messages to the World: The Statements of Osama bin Laden, ed. B. Lawrence, tr. J. Howarth (London, 2005), p. 28.

122. Awan, “Virtual Propagation of Jihadist Media and Its Effects,” in RUSI Journal 152 (2007), pp. 76–81.

123. Osama bin Laden, Messages to the World, pp. 5, 9, 11, 26, 42, 61, 80, 118, 229, 249–50.

124. Ibid., p. xvii.

125. Ibid., for example, pp. 25, 108.

126. Ibid., p. 121.

127. Ibid., pp. 121–22.

128. Ibid., p. 121.

129. Ibid., pp. xxi–xxiii.

Conclusion: In the Shadow of the Crusades

1. Matthew Paris, The Illustrated Chronicles of Matthew Paris: Observations of Thirteenth-Century Life, tr. R. Vaughan (Stroud, 1993), p. 100.

2. Cited in The Fourth Crusade: Event, Aftermath and Perceptions, ed. T. F. Madden (Aldershot, 2008), pp. vii–viii.

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