Post-classical history

Select List of Rulers

Papacy

Gregory VII 1073–85

(Anti-pope Clement 1080–1100)

Victor III 1086–7

Urban II 1088–99

Paschal II 1099–1118

Gelasius II 1118–19

Calixtus II 1119–24

Honorius II 1124–30

Innocent II 1130–43

(Anti-pope Anacletus 1130–38)

Celestine II 1143–4

Lucius II 1144–5

Eugenius III 1145–53

Anastasius IV 1153–4

Hadrian IV 1154–9

Alexander III 1159–81

Lucius III 1181–5

Urban III 1185–7

Gregory VIII 1187

Clement III 1187–91

Celestine III 1191–8

Innocent III 1198–1216

Honorius III 1216–27

Gregory IX 1227–41

Celestine IV 1241

Innocent IV 1243–54

Alexander IV 1254–61

Urban IV 1261–4

Clement IV 1265–8

Gregory X 1271–6

Innocent V 1276

Hadrian V 1276

John XXI 1276–7

Nicholas III 1277–80

Martin IV 1281–5

Honorius IV 1285–7

Nicholas IV 1288–92

Celestine V 1294

Boniface VIII 1294–1303

Benedict XI 1303–4

Clement V 1305–14

John XXII 1316–34

Benedict XII 1334–42

Clement VI 1342–52

Innocent VI 1352–62

Urban V 1362–70

Gregory XI 1370–78

Urban VI 1378–89

(Avignon Clement VII 1378–94)

Boniface IX 1389–1404

(Avignon Benedict XIII 1394–1423)

Innocent VII 1404–6

Gregory XII 1406–15

Alexander V 1409–10

John XXIII 1410–15

Martin V 1417–31

Eugenius IV 1431–47

(Anti-pope Felix V 1439–49)

Nicholas V 1447–55

Calixtus III 1455–8

Pius II 1458–64

Paul II 1464–71

Sixtus IV 1471–84

Innocent VIII 1484–92

Alexander VI 1492–1503

Pius III 1503

Julius II 1503–13

Leo X 1513–21

Hadrian VI 1522–3

Clement VII 1523–34

Paul III 1534–49

Julius III 1550–55

Marcellus II 1555

Paul IV 1555–9

Germany

(*denotes also Holy Roman Emperor)

Henry IV* 1056–1106

Henry V* 1106–25

Lothar III* 1125–37

Conrad III 1138–52

Frederick I* 1152–90

Henry VI* 1190–97

Philip of Swabia 1198–1208

Otto IV* 1198–1214

Frederick II* 1212–50

Conrad IV 1250–54

(Competed rule 1247–73)

Rudolf I 1273–91

Adolf of Nassau 1292–98

Albert I 1298–1308

Henry VII* 1308–13

Louis IV* 1314–47

Charles IV* 1346–78

Wenzel 1378–1400

Rupert 1400–1410

Sigismund* 1410–37

Albert II (I of Hungary) 1438–9

Frederick III* 1440–93

Maximilian* 1493–1519

Charles V* 1519–55

Byzantine Empire

Alexius I 1081–1118

John II 1118–43

Manuel I 1143–80

Alexius II 1180–83

Andronicus I 1183–85

Isaac II 1185–95; 1203–4

Alexius III 1195–1203

Alexius IV 1203–4

Nicholas 1204

Alexius V 1204

Latin Empire of Constantinople:

Baldwin I 1204–5

Henry 1205–16

Peter of Courtenay 1217–18

Robert of Courtenay 1221–8

Baldwin II 1228–61

John of Brienne (co-emperor) 1231–7

Michael VIII 1261–82

Andronicus II 1282–1328

Andronicus III 1328–41

John V 1341–7, 1354–77, 1379–90, 1390–91

John VI 1347–54

Andronicus IV 1376–79

John VII 1390

Manuel II 1391–1425

John VIII 1425–48

Constantine XI 1448–53

France

Philip I 1060–1108

Louis VI 1108–37

Louis VII 1137–80

Philip II 1180–1223

Louis VIII 1223–6

Louis IX 1226–70

Philip III 1270–85

Philip IV 1285–1314

Louis X 1314–16

John I 1316

Philip V 1316–22

Charles IV 1322–8

Philip VI 1238–50

John II 1350–64

Charles V 1364–80

Charles VI 1380–1422

Charles VII 1422–61

Louis XI 1461–83

Charles VIII 1483–98

Louis XII 1498–1515

Francis I 1515–47

England

William I 1066–87

William II 1087–1100

Henry I 1100–1135

Stephen 1135–54

Henry II 1154–89

Richard I 1189–99

John 1199–1216

Henry III 1216–72

Edward I 1272–1307

Edward II 1307–27

Edward III 1327–77

Richard II 1377–99

Henry IV 1399–1413

Henry V 1413–22

Henry VI 1422–61

Edward IV 1461–70

Henry VI 1470–71

Edward IV 1471–83

Edward V 1483

Richard III 1483–85

Henry VII 1485–1509

Henry VIII 1509–47

Edward VI 1547–53

Mary I 1553–58

Elizabeth I 1558–1603

Sicily

Roger I 1062–1101

Simon 1101–5

Roger II 1105–54

William I 1154–66

William II 1166–89

Tancred 1189–94

William III 1194

Henry I (VI of Germany) 1194–7

Frederick I (II of Germany) 1197–1250

Conrad I (IV of Germany) 1250–54

Conrad II (Conradin) 1254–8

Manfred 1258–66

Charles I 1266–85 (Naples only 1282–5)

Naples:

Charles II 1285–1309

Robert I 1309–43

Sicily:

Peter I (III of Aragon) 1282–5

James I (II of Aragon) 1285–96

Frederick II 1296–1337

(these kingdoms continued independent until the sixteenth century)

Castile

Ferdinand I 1036–65

Sancho II 1065–72

Alfonso VI 1072–1109

Urraca 1109–26

Alfonso VII 1126–57

Sancho III 1157–8

Alfonso VIII 1158–1214

Henry I 1214–17

Ferdinand III 1217–52

Alfonso X 1252–84

Sancho IV 1284–95

Ferdinand IV 1295–1312

Alfonso XI 1312–50

Peter I 1350–69

Henry II 1369–79

John I 1379–90

Henry III 1390–1406

John II 1406–54

Henry IV 1454–74

Isabella 1474–1504

Ferdinand V (II of Aragon) 1475–1516

as Spain:

Charles I (V of Germany) 1516–56

Philip II 1556–98

León

Ferdinand I 1037–65

Alfonso VI 1065–1109 (1109–57 as Castile)

Ferdinand II 1157–88

Alfonso IX 1188–1230

Ferdinand III 1230–52

(from 1252 as Castile)

Aragon

Sancho I 1063–94

Peter I 1094–1104

Alfonso I 1104–34

Ramiro II 1134–7

Petronilla and Ramon Berenguer 1137–62

Alfonso II 1162–96

Peter II 1196–1213

James I 1213–76

Peter III 1276–85

Alfonso III 1285–91

James II 1291–1327

Alfonso IV 1327–36

Peter III 1336–87

John I 1387–96

Martin I 1396–1410

Ferdinand I 1412–16

Alfonso V 1416–58

John II 1458–79

Ferdinand II 1479–1516

(from 1516 as Castile/Spain)

Hungary

Ladislas I 1077–95

Coloman 1095–1116

Stephen II 1116–31

Bela I 1131–41

Geza II 1141–62

Stephen III 1162, 1163–72

Stephen IV 1162–3

Bela III 1172–96

Emeric 1196–1204

Ladislas II 1204–5

Andrew II 1205–35

Bela IV 1235–70

Stephen V 1270–72

Ladislas III 1272–90

Charles 1290–95

Andrew III 1290–1301

Wenceslas III 1301–4

Otto of Bavaria 1304–8

Charles Robert 1308–42

Louis I 1342–82

Sigismund 1387–1437

Albert I 1438–9

Ladislas IV 1439–44

Ladislas V 1444–57

Matthias Corvinus 1458–90

Ladislas VI 1490–1516

Louis II 1516–26

Ottoman Empire

Osman d. 1326

Orkhan 1326–62

Murad I 1362–89

Bayezid I 1389–1403

Mehmed I 1413–21

Murad II 1421–51

Mehmed II 1451–81

Bayezid II 1481–1512

Selim I 1512–20

Suleiman I 1520–66

Selim II 1566–74

Jerusalem

Godfrey of Bouillon 1099–1100

Baldwin I 1100–1118

Baldwin II 1118–31

Fulk 1131–43 and Melisende 1131–52

Baldwin III 1143–63

Amalric 1163–74

Baldwin IV 1174–85

Baldwin V 1185–6

Guy of Lusignan 1186–92; with his wife Sybil 1186–90, daughter of Amalric

Isabella I 1192–1205; with Conrad I 1192;

Henry 1192–7; Aimery 1197–1205

Maria 1205–12

John of Brienne 1210–25

Isabella II 1212–28; with Frederick (II of Germany) 1225–8

Conrad II (IV of Germany) 1228–54

Conrad III (Conradin) 1254–68

Hugh I (III of Cyprus) 1268–84

John 1284–5

Henry I (II of Cyprus) 1285–1324

Antioch

Bohemund 1098–1105

Tancred regent 1101–3 and 1105–8;

prince 1108–12

Roger of Salerno 1113–19

Baldwin II of Jerusalem 1119–26; 1130–31

Bohemund II 1126–30

Fulk of Jerusalem 1130–36

Raymond of Poitiers 1136–49

Constance 1149–53; 1161–63

Reynald of Châtillon 1153–61

Bohemund III 1163–1201

Bohemund IV 1201–16; 1219–33

Raymond Roupen 1216–19

Bohemund V 1233–52

Bohemund VI 1252–68

Tripoli

Raymond IV of Toulouse, I of Tripoli 1102–5

William-Jordan 1105–9

Bertrand 1109–12

Pons 1112–37

Raymond II 1137–52

Raymond III 1152–87

Bohemund IV of Antioch 1187–1233

Bohemund V 1233–52

Bohemund VI 1252–75

Bohemund VII 1275–87

Edessa

Baldwin I of Boulogne 1098–1100

Baldwin II of Le Bourcq 1100–1118

Joscelin I of Courtenay 1119–31

Joscelin II 1131–50

(Joscelin III titular count 1150–88)

Valois Dukes of Burgundy

Philip the Bold 1363–1404

John the Fearless 1404–19

Philip the Good 1419–67

Charles the Rash 1467–77

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