Post-classical history

Select Further Reading

This is far from an exhaustive bibliography, merely an indicative one, primarily of obvious sources and secondary works in English. For more detailed pursuit of the subject, the notes should be consulted.



J. Bédier, Les Chansons de croisade (Paris 1909)

J. Brundage, The Crusades: A Documentary Survey (Milwaukee 1962)

F. Gabrieli, Arab Historians of the Crusades (London 1984)

J and L. Riley-Smith, The Crusades: Idea and Reality (London 1981)


M. Barber, The New Knighthood: A History of the Order of the Temple (Cambridge 1994)

J. Brundage, Medieval Canon Law and the Crusader (Madison 1969)

K. Erdmann, The Origin of the Idea of the Crusade, trans. M. W. Baldwin and W. Goffart (Princeton 1977)

J. Flori, La Guerre sainte (Paris 2001)

A. J. Forey, The Military Orders (London 1992)

J. Goni Gaztambide, Historia de la bula de la cruzada (Vitoria 1958)

C. Hillenbrand, The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives (Edinburgh 1999)

P. M. Holt, The Age of the Crusades: The Near East from the Eleventh Century to 1517 (London 1986)

B. Z. Kedar, Crusade and Mission (Princeton 1984)

M. Keen, Chivalry (New Haven 1984)

H. E. Mayer, The Crusades (2nd edn Oxford 1988)

J. Muldoon, Popes, Lawyers and Infidels (Liverpool 1979)

J. Richard, The Crusades (Cambridge 1999)

J. Riley-Smith, What Were the Crusades? (3rd edn London 2003)

J. Riley-Smith (ed.), The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades (Oxford 1995)

S. Runciman, A History of the Crusades (Cambridge 1951–4)

F. H. Russell, The Just War in the Middle Ages (Cambridge 1977)

K. Setton (ed.), A History of the Crusades (2nd edn Madison 1969–89)

E. Siberry, Criticism of Crusading 1095–1274 (Oxford 1985)

C. J. Tyerman, England and the Crusades 1095–1588 (Chicago 1988)

C. J. Tyerman, The Invention of the Crusades (Basingstoke 1998)

C. J. Tyerman, Fighting for Christendom: Holy War and the Crusades (Oxford 2004)

First Crusade


Albert of Aachen, Historia Hierosolymitana, RHC Occ., iv

Anna Comnena, The Alexiad, trans. E. R. A. Sewter (London 1969)

S. Eidelberg, The Jews and the Crusaders: The Hebrew Chronicles of the First and Second Crusades (Madison 1977)

The First Crusade ed. E. Peters (Philadelphia 1998)

Fulcher of Chartres, A History of the Expedition to Jerusalem 1095–1127, trans. F. R. Ryan (Knoxville 1969)

Gesta Francorum, trans. R. Hill (Oxford 1972)

H. Hagenmeyer, Die Kreuzzugsbriefe aus den Jahren 1088–1100 (Innsbruck 1902)

Raymond of Aguilers, Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalem, trans. J. H. and L. L. Hill (Philadelphia 1968)


A. Becker, Papst Urban II (Stuttgart 1964–88)

M. Bull, Knightly Piety and the Lay Response to the First Crusade (Oxford 1993)

R. Chazan, European Jewry and the First Crusade (Berkeley and Los Angeles 1987)

J. France, Victory in the East (Cambridge 1994)

J. Riley-Smith, The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading (London 1986)

J. Riley-Smith, The First Crusaders 1095–1131 (Cambridge 1997)

Twelfth-century Outremer


Beha al-Din Ibn Shaddad, The Rare and Excellent History of Saladin, trans. D. S. Richards (Aldershot 2002)

P. Edbury, The Conquest of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade (Aldershot 1998)

Ibn al-Qalanisi, The Damascus Chronicle of the Crusades Extracted and Translated from the Chronicle of Ibn al-Qalanasi, trans. H. A. R. Gibb (London 1932)

The Travels of Ibn Jubayr, trans. R. Broadhurst (London 1999)

Usamah Ibn-Munqidh, An Arab-Syrian Gentleman and Warrior in the Period of the Crusades: Memoirs of Usamah Ibn-Munqidh, trans. P. K. Hitti (reprint Princeton 1987)

William of Tyre, A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea, trans. E. A. Babcock and A. C. Krey (New York 1976, reprint of 1941 edn)


M. Benvenisti, The Crusaders in the Holy Land (Jerusalem 1970)

C. Cahen, La Syrie du Nord (Paris 1940)

R. Ellenblum, Frankish Rural Settlement in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (Cambridge 1998)

B. Hamilton, The Leper King and His Heirs (Cambridge 2000)

H. Kennedy, Crusader Castles (Cambridge 1994)

R.-J. Lilie, Byzantium and the Crusader States 1096–1204 (trans. Oxford 1993)

M. Lyons and D. Jackson, Saladin: The Politics of Holy War (Cambridge 1984)

J. Phillips, Defenders of the Holy Land. Relations between the Latin East and the West 1119–87 (Oxford 1996)

J. Prawer, The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (London 1972)

J. Prawer, Crusader Institutions (Oxford 1980)

R. Rogers, Latin Siege Warfare in the Twelfth Century (Oxford 1992)

R. C. Smail, Crusading Warfare (Cambridge 1956)

H. S. Tibble, Monarchy and Lordship in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem 1099–1291 (Oxford 1989)

Second Crusade


De expugnatione Lyxbonensi, ed. and trans. C. W. David (New York 1936, reprint 1976)

Odo of Deuil, De profectione Ludovici VII in orientem, ed. and trans. V. G. Berry (Columbia 1948)

Otto of Freising, The Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa, trans. C. C. Mierow (Columbia 1953)


G. Constable, ‘The Second Crusade as Seen by Contemporaries’, Traditio, 9 (1953), 213–79

M. Gervers, The Cistercians and the Second Crusade (New York 1992)

J. Phillips and M. Hoch (eds.), The Second Crusade (Manchester 2001)

Third Crusade


Ambroise, Estoire de la Guerre Sainte, trans. M. J. Hubert and J. L. Lamonte, The Crusade of Richard the Lion-Heart (New York 1976)

Gerald of Wales, Journey through Wales, trans. L. Thorpe (London 1978)

Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi, trans. H. Nicholson, The Chronicle of the Third Crusade (Aldershot 2001)


J. Gillingham, Richard I (New Haven and London 1999)

Fourth Crusade


A. J. Andrea, Contemporary Sources for the Fourth Crusade (Leiden 2000)

Geoffrey of Villehardouin, The Conquest of Constantinople, trans. M. R. B. Shaw (London 1963)

Gunther of Pairis, Historia Constantinopolitana, trans. A. J. Andrea, The Capture of Constantinople (Philadelphia 1997)

Nicetas Choniates, Annals, trans. H. J. Margoulias, O City of Byzantium (Detroit 1984)

Robert of Clari, The Conquest of Constantinople, trans. E. H. McNeal (New York 1966)


M. Angold, The Byzantine Empire 1025–1204 (London 1984)

M. Angold, The Fourth Crusade (London 2003)

J. Harris, Byzantium and the Crusades (London 2003)

P. Lock, The Franks in the Aegean 1204–1500 (Harlow 1995)

D. E. Queller and T. F. Madden, The Fourth Crusade: The Conquest of Constantinople (Philadelphia 1997)

Innocent III and the Fifth Crusade


Oliver of Paderborn, Capture of Damietta, trans. E. Peters, Christian Society and the Crusades 1198–1229 (Philadelphia 1971)


J. Powell, Anatomy of a Crusade 1213–21 (Philadelphia 1986)

Thirteenth-century Outremer and the Crusades


Continuation of William of Tyre, trans. J. Shirley, Crusader Syria in the Thirteenth Century (Aldershot 1999)

Ibn Furat, trans. M. Lyons and J. Riley-Smith, Ayyubids, Mamlukes and Crusaders (Cambridge 1971)

John of Joinville, The Life of St Louis, trans. M. R. B. Shaw, Chronicles of the Crusades (London 1963)

Philip of Novara, The Wars of Frederick II against the Ibelins, trans. J. La Monte and M. J. Hubert (New York 1936)

The Templar of Tyre: Part III of the ‘Deeds of the Cypriots’, trans. P. Crawford (Aldershot 2003)


P. Cole, Preaching of the Cross to the Holy Land (Cambridge, Mass. 1991)

P. Edbury, The Kingdom of Cyprus and the Crusades 1191–1374 (Cambridge 1991)

P. Edbury, John of Ibelin and the Kingdom of Jerusalem (Woodbridge 1997)

R. Irwin, The Middle East in the Middle Ages (London 1986)

W. C. Jordan, Louis IX and the Challenge of the Crusade (Princeton 1979)

S. Lloyd, English Society and the Crusade 1216–1307 (Oxford 1988)

C. T. Maier, Preaching the Crusades (Cambridge 1994)

J. Richard, St Louis: Crusader King of France, ed. S. Lloyd, trans. J. Birrell (Cambridge 1993)

P. Throop, Criticism of the Crusade (Amsterdam 1940)

Crusades in Europe


Helmold of Bosau, Chronica Slavorum, trans. F. J. Tschan, The Chronicle of the Slavs (New York 1966)

Henry of Livonia, Chronicle of Livonia, trans. J. Brundage (Madison 1961)

Peter of Les Vaux-de-Cernay, The History of the Albigensian Crusade, trans. W. A. and M. D. Sibly (Woodbridge 1998)

The Song of the Cathar Wars, trans. J. Shirley (Aldershot 1996)

William of Puylaurens, Chronicle, trans. W. A. and M. D. Sibly (Woodbridge 2003)


M. Barber, The Cathars (London 2000)

R. Bartlett, The Making of Europe (London 1993)

E. Christiansen, The Northern Crusades (2nd edn London 1997)

J. F. O’Callaghan, Reconquest and Crusade in Medieval Spain (Philadelphia 2003)

J. Sumption, The Albigensian Crusade (London 1978)

W. Urban, The Livonian Crusade (Washington, DC 1981)

W. Urban, The Prussian Crusade (Lanham 1980)

W. Urban, The Baltic Crusade (2nd edn Chicago 1994)

W. L. Wakefield, Heresy, Crusade and Inquisition in Southern France 1100–1250 (London 1974)

Later Middle Ages


N. Housley (ed.), Documents on the Later Crusades 1274–1580 (Basingstoke 1996)

William of Machaut, The Capture of Alexandria, trans. J. Shirley and P. Edbury (Aldershot 2004)


A. S. Atiya, The Crusade in the Later Middle Ages (London 1938)

M. Barber, The Trial of the Templars (Cambridge 1978)

N. Housley, The Italian Crusades (Oxford 1982)

N. Housley, The Avignon Papacy and the Crusades 1305–78 (Oxford 1986)

N. Housley, The Later Crusades (Oxford 1992)

N. Housley, Religious Warfare in Europe 1400–1536 (Oxford 2002)

N. Housley (ed.), Crusading in the Fifteenth Century (Basingstoke 2004)

C. Imber, The Ottoman Empire 1300–1481 (Istanbul 1990)

A. Leopold, How to Recover the Holy Land (Aldershot 2000)

A. Linder, Raising Arms: Liturgy in the Struggle to Liberate Jerusalem in the Late Middle Ages (Turnhout 2003)

D. Nicol, The Last Centuries of Byzantium 1261–1453 (London 1972)

J. Paviot, Les Ducs de Bourgogne, la croisade et l’Orient (Paris 2003)

S. Runciman, The Fall of Constantinople (Cambridge 1965)

K. Setton, The Papacy and the Levant 1204–1571 (Philadelphia 1971–84)

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