Post-classical history

Notes

The following abbreviations are used in the notes.

MGH

Monumenta Germaniae Historica (Hanover etc. 1826ff.)

MGHS

Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptores, ed. G. H. Pertz et al. (Hanover 1826ff.)

MGH SS

MGH Scriptores in Folio et Quarto (Hanover etc. 1826–1934)

PL

Patrologia cursus completus. Series Latina, ed. J. P. Migne (Paris 1844–64)

RHC

Recueil des historiens des croisades (Paris 1844–1906)

RHC Arm.

RHC Documents arméniens (Paris 1869–1906)

RHC Occ.

RHC Documents occidentaux (Paris 1844–95)

RHC Or.

Documents orientaux (Paris 1872–1906)

RHGF

Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France (Paris 1738–1876)

1: The Origins of Christian Holy War

1. Recueil des chartes de l’abbaye de Cluny, ed. A. Bruel, v (Paris 1894), 51–3, no. 3703; Cartulaire de l’abbaye de Saint-Victor de Marseille, ed. M. Guérard (Paris 1857), i, 167–8, no. 143.

2. H. Hagenmeyer, Die Kreuzzugsbriefe aus den Jahren 1088–1100 (Innsbruck 1902), pp. 138–40, 141–2, 144, 146–9, 150, 151, 157, 160, 162; and pp. 136–7 for Urban’s letter to the Flemish, J. and L. Riley-Smith, The Crusades: Idea and Reality (London 1981), p. 38.

3. De expugnatione Lyxbonensi, ed. C. W. David (New York 1936; reprint 1976), p. 81, as part of a comprehensive justification for holy war put in the mouth of the bishop of Oporto; for the identity of the author, H. Livermore, ‘“The Conquest of Lisbon” and its Author’, Portuguese Studies, 6 (1990), 1–16.

4. From De laude novae militiae, Sancti Bernardi Opera, ed. J. Leclercq et al. (Rome 1963), pp. 214–15; J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, p. 102.

5. S. Runciman, A History of the Crusades (Cambridge 1951–4), iii, 480.

6. Raymond of Aguilers, Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalem, RHC Occ., iii, 300, trans. J. H. and L. L. Hill (Philadelphia 1968), p. 128; for biblical citations P. Alphandéry, ‘Les Citations biblique chez les historiens de la première croisade’, Revue de l’histoire des religions, 99 (1929), 139–57, esp. p. 154, note 4; cf. Hagenmeyer,Kreuzzugsbriefe, pp. 153–5.

7. Die Traditionsbücher des Benediktinerstiftes Güttweig, ed. A. Fuchs (Vienna and Leipzig 1931), Fontes rerum Austriacum, lxix, no. 55.

8. For a summary, F. H. Russell, The Just War in the Middle Ages (Cambridge 1977), pp. 1–39.

9. St Augustine, City of God, bk XIX, c. 7; cf. bk I, c. 21, trans. H. Bettenson (London 1984), pp. 32, 862.

10. C. Erdmann, The Origin of the Idea of the Crusade, trans. M. W. Baldwin and W. Goffart (Princeton 1977), p. 19.

11. Bede, Ecclesiastical History of the English People, ed. B. Colgrave and R. A. B. Mynors (Oxford 1969), pp. 214–15, 231, 240–43, 251.

12. A. Bruckner and R. Marichal, Chartae Latinae antiquores, xii (Zurich 1987), 74, no. 543; P. D. King, Charlemagne: Translated Sources (Kendal 1987), pp. 223, 309–10; Einhard, Vita Caroli magni imperatoris, ed. L. Halphen (Paris 1981), pp. 22–8, trans. L. Thorpe as Life of Charlemagne (London 1969), pp. 61–4; M. McCormick, ‘The Liturgy of War in the Early Middle Ages’, Viator, 15 (1984), 1–23.

13. King, Charlemagne, pp. 78, 112; cf. Walafrid Strabo c.840/2 for St Martin’s cappa, De Exordiis et Incrementis, MGH, Capitularia, ii (Hanover 1890), 515; and Notker the Stammerer, Two Lives of Charlemagne, trans. L. Thorpe (London 1969), p. 96.

14. P. Godman, Poetry of the Carolingian Renaissance (Oxford 1985), pp. 189, 255, 276–7; cf. K. Leyser, ‘Early Medieval Canon Law and the Beginnings of Knighthood’, Communications and Power in Medieval Europe, i, ed. T. Reuter (Woodbridge 1994); J. Nelson, ‘Ninth Century Knighthood; the Evidence of Nithard’, Studies in Medieval History Presented to R. A. Brown, ed. C. Harper-Bill et al. (Woodbridge 1989).

15. Godman, Poetry, pp. 128–9, 300–301, 302–3.

16. MGH, Epistolarum, v (Berlin 1898), p. 601 s.a. 853; vii (Berlin 1912), pp. 126–7, no. 150; Erdmann, Origin, p. 27.

17. Annales Fuldenses, ed. F. Kurze, MGH SS (Hanover 1891), p. 120, a. 891; C. J. Tyerman, England and the Crusades 1095–1588 (Chicago 1988), p. 10 and note 4 for Alfred.

18. Abbo of St Germain, De bello Parisiaco, ed. G. H. Pertz, MGH SS (Hanover 1871), pp. 9–10, bk I, ll. 108–10; trans. Godman, Poetry, p. 313; for the Benedict story, Adelarius, Miraculi S. Benedicti, ed. O. Holder-Egger, MGH SS, xv–i (Hanover 1887), 499–500.

19. The Dream of the Rood, ed. B. Dickins and A. S. C. Ross (London 1954), pp. 20–35.

20. G. R. Murphy, The Saxon Saviour (New York/Oxford 1989), esp. pp. 6, 19–20, 58, 62, 65, 70, 71 et seq., 98, 99, 102–3, 105, 106, 109–10, 113.

21. English Historical Documents, i, ed. D. Whitelock (London 1955), 293–7.

22. La Chanson d’Antioche, ed. S. Duparc-Quioc (Paris 1977–8), i, 25–8 for passage; extracts J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, pp. 72–3.

23. Aelfric, Lives of the Saints, ed. W. W. Skeat, Early English Text Society (London 1890), ii, ll. 688–704; cf. 966 foundation charter of King Edgar for New Minster, Winchester, quoted in R. W. Southern, Western Church and Society in the Middle Ages (London 1970), pp. 224–5 and similar views of the emperor, Louis the Pious, in 817, MGH, Capitularia, i, 349–51.

24. Aelfric, Saints, ii, 66–143, 324–5; Maccabees ll. 681–2 for quotation; Abbo of Fleury, Passio Sancti Eadmundi, in Carolla Sancti Edmundi: the Garland of St Edmund King and Martyr, ed. and trans. Lord F. Hervey (London 1907), esp. pp. 20, 26, 30, 32.

25. P. Rousset, ‘L’idéal chevaleresque dans deux Vitae clunisienne’, Etudes de civilisation médiévale, Mélanges offerts à E. R. Labande (Poitiers 1974), pp. 623–33; PL, 133, esp. cols. 647–8.

26. Ralph Glaber, Historarium Libri Quinti, ed. J. France (Oxford 1989), p. 61.

27. H. E. J. Cowdrey, ‘The Peace and Truce of God in the Eleventh Century’, Past and Present, xlvi (1970), 53 and, in general, 42–67; cf. a contrary perspective based on evidence from the Limousin, M. G. Bull, Knightly Piety and the Lay Response to the First Crusade (Oxford 1993).

28. The Penitentiary of Ermenfrid bishop of Sitten is translated by D. C. Douglas, English Historical Documents, ii (London 1963), 606–7; for Burchard of Worms, Decretum Libri XX, PL, cxl, esp. bk VI, De Homicidiis, e.g. chap. 23; cf. J. Gilchrist, ‘The Erdmann Thesis and the Canon Law’, Crusade and Settlement, ed. P. Edbury (Cardiff 1985), pp. 3–45.

29. Bonizo of Sutri, Liber de Vita Christiana, ed. E. Perels (Berlin 1930), esp. bk II, cc. 3, 43; bk III, c. 89; bk VII, c. 28; bk X, c. 79, pp. 35, 56, 101, 248–9, 336; cf. H. E. J. Cowdrey, ‘Pope Gregory VII and the Bearing of Arms’, Montjoie: Studies in Crusade History in Honour of H. E. Mayer, ed. B. Kedar, J. Riley-Smith, R. Hiestand (Aldershot 1997), pp. 21–35; I. S. Robinson, ‘Gregory VII and the Soldiers of Christ’, History, lviii (1973), 161–92.

30. Gregory VII to people of the archdiocese of Ravenna, 11 Dec. 1080, trans. E. Emerton, The Correspondence of Pope Gregory VII (New York 1969), p. 165.

31. Benzo of Alba, Ad Heinricum IV. imperatorem, ed. H. Seyffert (Hanover 1996), pp. 240, 242, 248 (‘Cornefredus’), 300 (‘Grugnefredus’).

32. Orderic Vitalis, The Ecclesiastical History, ed. M. ChIbnall (Oxford 1969–80), iii, 216, 226, 260–62.

33. Emerton, Correspondence of Gregory VII, pp. 23, 25–6, 33, 39, 56–8, 60–61 for translations of some, but not all, the relevant letters of 1074 (cf. p. 165 for the 1080 reference to the ‘enemies of the Cross of Christ’); Cowdrey, ‘Gregory VII and Bearing of Arms’, esp. p. 30 and note 35 for refs. to Gregory’s Register, especially Gregory VII,Regestrum, ed. E. Caspar, MGH, Epistolae Selectae, 2, i–ii (Berlin 1920–23), bk I, nos. 46, 49; bk II, nos. 31, 37, pp. 69–71, 75–6, 165–8, 172–3; The Epistolae vagantes of Pope Gregory VII, ed. and trans. H. E. J. Cowdrey (Oxford 1972), no. 5, pp. 10–13; Cowdrey, ‘Pope Gregory VII’s “Crusading” Plans of 1074’, Outremer, ed. B. Kedar, H. E. Mayer and R. C. Smail (Jerusalem 1982), pp. 27–40.

34. Chanson de Roland, v. 1015.

35. William of Tyre, Chronicon, ed. R. B. C. Huygens, Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaevalis, lxiii (Turnhout 1986), bk I, cc. 1–2, pp. 105–7 (Rubric to first chapter: ‘Quod tempore Eraclii… Homar… universam occupaverit Syriam’). Runciman, History of the Crusades, i, 3–5 has a famous purple passage on the fall of Jerusalem in 638; cf. a controversial alternative vision, P. Cronne and M. Cook, Hagarism: the Making of the Islamic World (Cambridge 1977), p. 51; for a conventional account, L. V. Vaglieri, ‘The Patriarchal and Umayyad Caliphates’, Cambridge History of Islam, ed. P. M. Holt et al. (Cambridge 1970), i, 62. Umar must have cut a striking figure; huge, with a long beard, he used to patrol the streets of Medina wielding a bullwhip.

36. R. Fletcher, Moorish Spain (London 1992), p. 75.

37. Storia de’ Normanni di Amato di Montecassino, ed. V. de Bartholomaeis (Rome 1935), v. 12, p. 234; quoted in C. Morris, The Papal Monarchy (Oxford 1989), p. 142 and, for this period in general, pp. 79–153.

38. Epistolae pontificum Romanorum ineditae, ed. S. Löwenfeld (Leipzig 1885), no. 82, p. 43; Cowdrey, ‘Gregory VII and Bearing of Arms’, p. 28, note 31; Bull, Knightly Piety, pp. 72–8; A. Ferreiro, ‘The Siege of Barbastro’, Journal of Medieval History, ix (1983), 133–5.

39. Glaber, Historiarum, pp. 134–7; for Sergius’s bull, Morris, Papal Monarchy, p. 146–7 and note 16; cf. A. Gieysztor, ‘The Genesis of the Crusades: the Encyclical of Sergius IV’, Medievalia et Humanistica, 5 (1949), 3–23, and 6 (1950), 3–34; for a Muslim view of western pilgrims c.1047 Naser-e Khosraw, Book of Travels (Saparnama), trans. W. M. Thackston Jnr (New York 1986), pp. 21, 35, 37–8.

40. Ademar of Chabannes, Chronicon, ed. P. Bourgain, Opera Omnia, i, Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaevalis, cxxix (Turnhout 1999), bk III, cc. 38, 39, 45, 47, 52, 55, 65, 68, 69, pp. 159, 160, 165–7, 171, 174, 184, 188–9.

41. Glaber, Historiarum, pp. 37, 61, 83, 84–5, 118–21, 194–5, 196, 198–205, 206–7, 208–9, 212–15.

42. See discussion by J. Riley-Smith, The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading (London 1986), pp. 18–19 and notes 27, 29; Gregory VII, Regestrum, bk II, no. 37, p. 173.

2: The Summons to Jerusalem

1. Sigebert of Gembloux, Chronica, MGHS, vi, p. 368.

2. Modern literature on the First Crusade is very extensive; for recent works in English in particular see Riley-Smith, First Crusade; idem, The First Crusaders 1095–1131 (Cambridge 1997); J. France, Victory in the East (Cambridge 1994); Runciman, History of the Crusades, vol. i remains a compelling read.

3. Raymond of Aguilers, Historia, trans. J. H. and L. L. Hill, p. 15.

4. The phrase is that of the anonymous Gesta Francorum, ed. and trans. R. Hill (Oxford 1972), p. 1.

5. Bernold of St Blasien, Chronicon, MGHS, v. p. 462; for Alexius and the West, see esp. J. Shepard, ‘Aspects of Byzantine Attitudes and Policy Towards the West’, Byzantium and the West c. 850–c. 1200, ed. J. D. Howard-Johnston (Amsterdam 1988), pp. 102–18.

6. Bernold of St Blasien, Chronicon, p. 462.

7. R. Somerville, ‘The Council of Clermont’, in Papacy, Councils and Canon Law (London 1990), VII, p. 58 and passim; cf. ibid. V, ‘French Councils of Pope Urban II’ and VIII, ‘The Council of Clermont and the First Crusade’; for Baldwin, Albert of Aachen, Historia Hierosolymitana, RHC Occ., iv, 626.

8. Annales S. Benigni Divionensis, MGHS, v, p. 43; Annales Besuensis (i.e. Blaise near Dijon), MGHS, ii, 250. For Urban’s itinerary, A. Becker, Papst Urban II (Stuttgart 1064–88), ii, 435–57.

9. Hagenmeyer, Kreuzzugsbriefe, pp. 136–8; W. Wiederhold, ‘Papsturkunden in Florenz’, Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft des Wissenschaften zu Göttingen (Göttingen 1901), pp. 313–14; Fulk IV of Anjou, Gesta Andegavensium peregrinorum, RHC Occ., v, 345–6; Sigebert of Gembloux, Chronica, p. 367.

10. H. E. J. Cowdrey, ‘Pope Urban II and the Idea of the Crusade’, Studi Medievali, 3rd series, 36 (1995), 737–8; Chroniques des comtes d’Anjou et des seigneurs d’Amboise, ed. L. Halphen et al. (Paris 1913), pp. 100–101.

11. Geoffrey abbot of Vendôme, Epistolae, no. XXI, PL, clvii, col. 162; J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, p. 38 for translation of Flemish letter; for the Clermont decrees, R. Somerville, The Councils of Urban II, i: Decreta Claromontensia (Amsterdam 1972) and above, note 7; J. D. Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima Collectio, xx (Venice 1775), cols. 816–19.

12. William of Malmesbury, Gesta Regum Anglorum, ed. R. A. B. Mynors et al., i (Oxford 1998), pp. 593–4.

13. For a vivid reconstruction of Clermont, Runciman, History of the Crusades, pp. 107–8 and p. 108, note 1 for refs.

14. Gerald of Wales, Journey Through Wales, trans. L. Thorpe (London 1978), p. 75.

15. Hagenmeyer, Kreuzzugsbriefe, pp. 137–8; Vita Altmanni episcopi Pataviensis, MGHS, xii, 230; cf. Riley-Smith, First Crusaders, pp. 62–3, 81–3, 97. For penance and pilgrimage in crusade charters, ibid., esp. chaps. 3 and 4 and idem, First Crusade, esp. chap. 2.

16. Becker, Papst Urban II, ii, 352–62 (esp. pp. 352–3), 374–6, 398–9.

17. Urban to Bolognese, 19 Sept. 1096, Hagenmeyer, Kreuzzugsbriefe, pp. 137–8; J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, p. 39.

18. Robert the Monk (of Rheims), Historia, RHC Occ., iii, 727–30.

19. Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum, xx, col. 816; Somerville, Decreta Claromontensia, p. 74; in general, H. E. J. Cowdrey, ‘Pope Urban II’s Preaching of the First Crusade’, History, 55 (1970), 177–88; for the Bologna letter, J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, p. 39.

20. Hagenmeyer, Kreuzzugsbriefe, pp. 136–7; J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, p. 38.

21. Fulk of Anjou, Gesta Andegavensium, RHC Occ., v, 345; J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, p. 39.

22. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, p. 13.

23. Henry of Huntingdon, De captione Antiochae a Christianis, RHC Occ., v, 374.

24. Glaber, Historiarum, pp. 200–201.

25. Adhemar of Chabannes, Chronicon, bk III, c. 47, pp. 166–7.

26. Vita Altmanni, p. 230.

27. Benzo of Alba, Ad Heinricum IV. Imperatorem Libri VII, MGHS, xi, 605, 606, 616–17, 652; MGHS, lxv, 144; J. Shepard, ‘Cross-purposes: Alexius Comnenus and the First Crusade’, The First Crusade, ed. J. Phillips (Manchester 1997), pp. 107–29 and note 5 above.

28. Cowdrey, ‘Urban II and the Idea of Crusade’, pp. 721–42; cf. G. J. C. Snoek, Medieval Piety: From Relics to the Eucharist (Leiden 1995), pp. 25–6, 35; Adhemar of Chabannes, Opera, PL, cxli, col. 110.

29. Snoek, Medieval Piety, p. 87.

30. Winchester Annals, Annales Monastici, ed. H. R. Luard, Rolls Series (London 1864–69), ii, 38.

31. Hagenmeyer, Kreuzzugsbriefe, pp. 142, 164; Gesta Francorum, p. 7 (for the date, often recorded as Sept. 1096, E. Jamison, ‘Some Notes on the Anonymi Gesta Francorum’, Studies in French Medieval Literature Presented to M. K. Pope (Manchester 1939), pp. 183–208.

32. R. Chazan, European Jewry and the First Crusade (Berkeley and Los Angeles 1987), p. 77; cf. S. Eidelberg, The Jews and the Crusaders: The Hebrew Chronicles of the First and Second Crusades (Madison 1977), pp. 21–115.

33. Baldric of Bourgeuil, Historia Jerosolimitana, RHC Occ., iv, 12.

34. Hagenmeyer, Kreuzzugsbriefe, p. 136.

35. Note 21 above; Hagenmeyer, Kreuzzugsbriefe, pp. 136–44, 176, 179; Urban’s letters, J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, pp. 38–40; for Limoges, RHC Occ., v, 350–53; for Amanieu, Cartulaire du prieuré de Sainte-Pierre de la Réole, ed. C. Grellet-Balguerie, Archives historiques de la Gironde, v (1863), 140.

36. Hill, Gesta Francorum, pp. 19–20.

37. Riley-Smith, First Crusaders, p. 62 and ref. note 41; PL, clvii, col. 162.

38. Hagenmeyer, Kreuzzugsbriefe, p. 138; cf. p. 154 for the leaders talking of pilgrimage in 1098; see note 15 above for pilgrimage motifs in charters.

39. Notitiae duae Lemoviensis de praedicatione crucis in Aquitania, RHC Occ., v, 350–53. For the importance of Christocentric festivals, see the deal between Cluny and Achard of Montmerle on 12 April, i.e. Easter Saturday, 1096, Bruel, Chartes de Cluny, v, 51–3.

40. Riley-Smith, First Crusaders, p. 75; France, Victory, p. 45.

41. For monkish touts, Cartulaires de l’abbaye de Molesme 916–1250, ed. J. Laurent (Paris 1907–11), ii, 83–4; Cartulaire de l’abbaye de Noyers, Mémoires de la société archéologique de Touraine, xxii (1872), ed. C. Chevalier, pp. 274–5; Cartulaire du prieuré de Notre Dame de Longpont de l’ordre de Cluny, ed. A. Marion (Lyons 1879), pp. 189–90; for the inculcation of a crusader’s sense of sin, Cartulaire Manceau de Marmoutier, ed. E. Laurain (Laval 1911–45), ii, 86–9.

42. Hill, Gesta Francorum, p. 2.

43. Caffaro, De liberatione civitatum Orientis, RHC Occ., v, 49.

44. The chief primary sources for Peter are Albert of Aachen, Historia, RHC Occ., iv, 271–4; Guibert of Nogent, Gesta Dei per Francos, RHC Occ., iv, 142–3 (p. 140 for ‘great rumour’); Anna Comnena, The Alexiad, trans. E. R. A. Sewter (London 1969), pp. 309–11; cf. Orderic Vitalis, Ecclesiastical History, ed. and trans. M. ChIbnall (Oxford 1969–79), v, 29. See E. O. Blake and C. Morris, ‘A Hermit Goes to War: Peter and the Origins of the First Crusade’, Monks, Hermits and the Ascetic Tradition, ed. W. J. Shields, Studies in Church History, xxii (1985), 79–109, which challenges the orthodoxy established by H. Hagenmeyer, Peter der Eremite (Leipzig 1879); the patriarch’s letter is translated by E. Peters, The First Crusade (2nd edn Philadelphia 1998), pp. 283–4; I am grateful to Jonathan Shepard for discussion on some of these points.

45. Hill, Gesta Francorum, p. 2, ‘The Gauls organised themselves into three parts. One group of Franks entered the region of Hungary, namely Peter the Hermit and Duke Godfrey…’

46. Riley-Smith, First Crusaders, p. 56.

47. Adhemar of Chabannes, Chronicon, bk III, c. 47, pp. 166–7; Gieysztor, ‘Genesis of Crusades.

48. Albert of Aachen, Historia, p. 272; for Peter’s retirement and foundation of the Augustinian abbey at Neumoustier near Huy, dedicated to the Holy Sepulchre and John the Baptist ‘in remembrance and veneration of the church of Jerusalem’, Chronica Albrici monarchi Trium Fontium a monarcho novi monasterii Hoiensis interpolata, MGHS, xxiii, 815; Giles of Orval, Gesta episcoporum Leodiensium, MGHS, xxv, 93.

49. Naser-e Khosraw, Book of Travels, p. 39; C. Cahen, ‘La Chronique abrégé d’al-Azimi’, Journal Asiatique, 230 (1938), 430; C. Hillenbrand, The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives (Edinburgh 1999), p. 50.

50. C. De Vic and J Vaissete, Histoire générale de Languedoc, v (Toulouse 1875), col. 737–8; Riley-Smith, The First Crusade, p. 21.

51. France, Victory, p. 194; Albert of Aachen, Historia, pp. 348–9; for Alexius and westerners see the articles by J. Shepard, ‘Aspects of Byzantine Attitudes’; ‘Alexius and the First Crusade’; ‘When Greek Meets Greek: Alexius Comnenus and Bohemund in 1097–8’, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies, 12 (1988), 185–277; ‘The English in Byzantium’, Traditio, 29 (1973), 52–93. The Sicilian point I owe to Dr Jeremy Johns.

52. Orderic Vitalis, Ecclesiastical History, iii, 134–6; v, 156–9.

53. Frutolfi et Ekkehardi Chronica, ed. F.-J. Schmale and I. Schmale (Darmstadt 1972), p. 106. C. Haskins, ‘A Canterbury Monk at Constantinople’, English Historical Review, 25 (1910), 293–5; Shepard, ‘Cross-purposes’, pp. 116–22.

54. Duparc-Quioc, La Chanson d’Antioche, v, 3449.

55. J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, pp. 44, 52.

56. Hill, Gesta Francorum, pp. 19–20.

57. Jerusalem Mirabilis, in R. L. Crocker, ‘Early Crusade Songs’, The Holy War, ed. T. P. Murphy (Columbus, Ohio 1976), pp. 78–98.

58. Guibert of Nogent, Gesta Dei, pp. 140–41.

59. By Riley-Smith, First Crusaders, esp. pp. 93–105.

60. RHC Occ., iii, 727–30.

61. Duparc-Quioc, Chanson d’Antioche, v, 7921.

62. Guibert of Nogent, Gesta Dei, p. 124.

63. Fulcher of Chartres, A History of the Expedition to Jerusalem 1095–1127, trans. F. R. Ryan, intro. H. S. Fink (Knoxville 1969), pp. 66–7.

64. These cited by Riley-Smith, First Crusaders, pp. 113–14.

65. Ralph of Caen, Gesta Tancredi, RHC Occ., iii, 605–6; for Thomas of Marle, Suger of St Denis, Vita Ludovici Grossi regis, ed. H. Waquet (Paris 1929), pp. 30–34, 174–8 and pp. 150–51 for Stephen of Blois; Guibert of Nogent, Gesta Dei, p. 79 for William; for Raimbold, PL, clxii, cols. 144–5 and C. J. Tyerman, The Invention of the Crusades (Basingstoke, 1998), pp. 11–12.

66. Quoted by Somerville, Prolegomena to the Decreta Claromontensia, in Papacy, Councils and Canon Law, VI, pp. 33–5.

67. Guibert of Nogent, Gesta Dei, p. 251; Deeds of God through the Franks, trans. R. Levine (Woodbridge 1997), p. 156.

68. Vita Altmanni, p. 230.

69. Sigebert of Gembloux, Chronica, p. 367; for his hostility to papal use of indulgences for war, MGH, Libelli de Lite Imperatorem et Pontificum, ii (Hanover 1892), 464.

3: The March to Constantinople

1. Sigebert of Gembloux, Chronica, p. 367; Albert of Aachen, Historia, pp. 274, 277, 289, 340; Raymond of Aguilers, Historia iii, 244; Hill, Gesta Francorum, pp. 2–3; Guibert of Nogent, Gesta Dei, p. 136 and passim; Riley-Smith, First Crusade, esp. pp. 111–12, 141–2, 147–8; Hagenmeyer, Kreuzzugsbriefe, pp. 141–2, 146; France,Victory, pp. 148, 210.

2. The best modern account of the campaign is France, Victory.

3. Raymond of Aguilers, Historia, trans. J. H. and L. L. Hill. p. 91.

4. The Lorraine and German expeditions are the prime concern of Albert of Aachen, Historia, p. 272 et seq. For chronology, see J. W. Nesbitt, ‘The Rate of March of Crusading Armies’, Traditio, 19 (1963), who amends H. Hagenmeyer, Chronologie de la première croisade (Paris 1902).

5. Guibert of Nogent, Gesta Dei, pp. 140–92 and 142–3 for his hostile account of Peter; cf. F. Duncalf, ‘The Peasants’ Crusade’, American Historical Review, 26 (1920–21), 440–53, esp. p. 441.

6. Guibert of Nogent, Gesta Dei, pp. 183–4.

7. Anna Comnena, Alexiad, p. 286 and pp. 293–308; Shepard, ‘Cross-purposes’, esp. p. 115 for comments on this background.

8. Nesbitt, ‘Rate of March’, esp. p. 173; Albert of Aachen, Historia, pp. 278–82 for the size of the army and length of line in the Balkans.

9. Albert of Aachen, Historia, p. 280.

10. Albert of Aachen, Historia, p. 288.

11. Chazan, European Jewry p. 23 and, in general, pp. 1–37.

12. R. Chazan, ‘1007–1012: Initial Crisis for Northern European Jewry’, Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research, 38–9 (1970–71), 101–17.

13. Chazan, European Jewry, p. 36.

14. Runciman, History of Crusades, i, 137 and pp. 134–41 for the pogrom; cf. Chazan, European Jewry, pp. 50–136; the chief Jewish sources are translated by S. Eidelberg, Jews and the Crusaders, pp. 21–75, 79–93, 99–115. Emich of Flonheim used to be known to historians as Emich of Leinengen, A. V. Murray, ‘The Army of Godfrey de Bouillon: Structure and Dynamics of a Contingent on the First Crusade’, Revue Belge de Philologie et d’Histoire, 70 (1992), 315–22.

15. Eidelberg, Jews and Crusaders, p. 36.

16. Eidelberg, Jews and Crusaders, p. 50.

17. Albert of Aachen, Historia, p. 295.

18. Guibert of Nogent, De vita sua, ed. E.-R. Labande (Paris 1981), pp. 246–8; Albert of Aachen, Historia, p. 293; Ekkehard of Aura, Hierosolymita, RHC Occ., v, 20.

19. Eidelberg, Jews and Crusaders, p. 108 (the Mainz Anonymous); in general Chazan, European Jewry, pp. 72–84; cf. the awkward passages in Riley-Smith, First Crusade, pp. 53–7.

20. Eidelberg, Jews and Crusaders, pp. 21, 112.

21. Hagenmeyer, Kreuzzugsbriefe, pp. 138, 139.

22. Cf. Riley-Smith, First Crusade, p. 50.

23. Chazan, European Jewry, p. 145.

24. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, p. 19; Hagenmeyer, Kreuzzugsbriefe, pp. 137–8.

25. Actes des comtes de Flandres 1071–1128, ed. F. Vercauteren (Brussels 1938), pp. 65–6, no. 22; the count of Roucy is a witness.

26. Fulcher of Chartres, History, p. 74.

27. Preserved in mangled form by Anna Comnena, Alexiad, pp. 313–14.

28. ‘Elias who had deserted from the emperor…’, Alexiad, p. 314.

29. H. E. Mayer, Mélanges sur l’histoire du royaume Latin de Jérusalem (Paris 1984), pp. 17, 22–7, 43, 44, 49; Murray ‘The Army of Godfrey de Bouillon’, pp. 301–29, esp. pp. 314, 327.

30. Hill, Gesta Francorum, p. 2; G. Paris, ‘La Chanson du pèlerinage de Charlemagne’, Romania, 9 (1880), 1–50; J. Flori, ‘Pur eschalier sainte crestienté. Croisade, guerre sainte et guerre juste dans les anciennes chansons de geste françaises’, Le Moyen Age, 97 (5th series vol. v, 1991), 171–87.

31. Albert of Aachen, Historia, p. 274.

32. Albert of Aachen, Historia, p. 311, and pp. 305–11 for the Constantinople stand-off.

33. This, at least, is the impression given by Albert of Aachen, who listened to them.

34. See now J. D. Howard-Johnston, ‘Anna Komnene and the Alexiad’, in Alexios Komnenos, ed. M. E. Mullett and D. Smythe (Belfast 1996); J. France, ‘Anna Comnena, the Alexiad and the First Crusade’, Reading Medieval Studies, 10 (1983), 20–32.

35. Runciman, History of Crusades, i, 157–8.

36. On Bohemund’s expedition, Hill, Gesta Francorum, pp. 7–9 et seq., whose author was with it; E. Jamison, ‘Some Notes on the Anonymi Gesta Francorum’; on Bohemund’s position on the crusade, J. Shepard, ‘When Greek Meets Greek’, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies, 12 (1988), 185–276.

37. Marquis de la Force, ‘Les Conseillers latins du basileus Alexis Comnene’, Byzantion, xi (1936), 153–65; D. Nicol, ‘Symbiosis and Integration; Some Greco-Latin Families in Byzantium’, Byzantinische Forschungen, 7 (1979), 113–35; W. B. McQueen, ‘Relations between the Normans and Byzantium 1071–1112’, Byzantion, 56 (1986), 427–76.

38. Shepard, ‘Greek Meets Greek’ for these details.

39. Raymond of Aguilers, Historia, trans. J. H. and L. L. Hill, p. 22.

40. France, Victory, p. 98.

41. For Spain, Bull, Knightly Piety, p. 83.

42. Raymond of Aguilers, Historia, trans. J. H. and L. L. Hill, p. 18.

43. According to William of Poitiers, see Shepard, ‘Aspects of Byzantine Attitudes towards the West’.

44. On Robert’s crusade and career, C. W. David, Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy (Cambridge, Mass. 1920); cf. William of Malmesbury, Gesta Regum, ed. W. Stubbs, Rolls Series (London 1887–9), ii, 433, 460, 461 for later myths and gossip.

45. France, Victory, p. 129.

46. Hagenmeyer, Kreuzzugsbriefe, p. 149.

47. Fulcher of Chartres, History, pp. 75–6.

48. J. H. Pryor, ‘The Oath of the Leaders of the First Crusade to the Emperor Alexius Comnenus: Fealty, Homage’, Parergon, 2 (1984), 111–41; France, Victory, pp. 107–21 for a trenchant account; cf. Shepard, ‘Cross-purposes’ and ‘Greek Meets Greek’.

49. France, Victory, p. 154.

50. Anna Comnena, Alexiad, pp. 315, 325, 327, etc.

51. Raymond of Aguilers, Historia, trans. J. H. and L. L. Hill, p. 73.

52. Raymond of Aguilers, Historia, trans. J. H. and L. L. Hill, p. 24.

53. Anna Comnena, Alexiad, p. 329; cf. the embarrassed Gesta Francorum, p. 12.

54. Hagenmeyer, Kreuzzugsbriefe, p. 140.

4: The Road to the Holy Sepulchre

1. France, Victory, pp. 165–9 and, for Egyptian negotiations in general, pp. 211, 252–4 302, 304, 317, 325–6; cf. R. J. Lilie, Byzantium and the Crusader States 1096–1204 (Eng. trans. Oxford 1993), chap. 1, pp. 1–60.

2. Ibn al-Qalanisi, The Damascus Chronicle of the Crusades Extracted and Translated from the Chronicle of Ibn al-Qalanisi, trans. H. A. R. Gibb (London 1932), p. 41; G. Dedeyan, ‘Les Colophons de manuscrits arméniens comme sources pour l’histoire des croisades’, The Crusades and their Sources: Essays Presented to Bernard Hamilton, ed. J. France and W. G. Zajac (Aldershot 1998), pp. 89–110; P. M. Holt, The Age of the Crusades (London 1986), p. 27 for the translation of al-Sulami.

3. Hill, Gesta Francorum, p. 21 and throughout the account of the siege of Antioch, pp. 28 et seq. For an account of the Christian communities in the Levant, see below pp. 226.

4. Emerton, Correspondence of Gregory VII, p. 94.

5. See the discussion and references in R. Ellenblum, Frankish Rural Settlement in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (Cambridge 1998), pp. 20–22.

6. For brief general surveys, see Holt, Age of Crusades and R. Irwin, The Middle East in the Middle Ages (London 1986).

7. Hill, Gesta Francorum, p. 21.

8. Fulcher of Chartres, History, p. 85; for the best modern account of the battle and its location, France, Victory, pp. 169–85, which also provides the most detailed narrative of the crusaders’ campaigns in Asia Minor, Syria and Palestine.

9. Hill, Gesta Francorum, pp. 19–20.

10. Raymond of Aguilers, Historia, trans. J. H. and L. L. Hill, pp. 28–9; Hill, Gesta Francorum, p. 23; Fulcher of Chartres, History, pp. 87–8; Albert of Aachen, Historia, pp. 340–42.

11. Albert of Aachen, Historia, pp. 347–8.

12. Hill, Gesta Francorum, pp. 25–6.

13. On this Armenian strategy, France, Victory, pp. 190–96.

14. Fulcher of Chartres, History, pp. 88–92 (p. 90 for the number of knights).

15. For the Chanson d’Antioche, see the edition of S. Duparc-Quioc (Paris 1977–8); R. F. Cook, ‘Chanson d’Antioche’, chanson de geste: le cycle de la croisade est-il épique? (Amsterdam 1980); for other stories, Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 22–3; cf. the stained glass sequence on the crusade at St Denis, c.1146–7.

16. Anna Comnena, Alexiad, pp. 438–9.

17. For Bohemund’s ambitions, J. Shepard, ‘When Greek Meets Greek’; T. S. Asbridge, The Creation of the Principality of Antioch 1098–1130 (2000), pp. 15–42.

18. Raymond of Aguilers, Historia, trans. J. H. and L. L. Hill, p. 31.

19. Usamah Ibn-Munqidh, An Arab-Syrian Gentleman and Warrior in the Period of the Crusades: Memoirs of Usamah Ibn-Munqidh, trans. P. K. Hitti (reprint Princeton 1987), pp. 149–50.

20. Raymond of Aguilers, Historia, trans. J. H. and L. L. Hill, p. 35.

21. J. A. Brundage, ‘Prostitution, Miscegenation and Sexual Purity in the First Crusade’, Crusade and Settlement, ed. P. Edbury (Cardiff 1985), pp. 57–65.

22. Raymond of Aguilers, Historia, pp. 36–7; J. Richard, ‘La Confrérie de la première croisade: à propos d’un episode de la première croisade’, Etudes de civilisation médiévale: mélanges offert à E. R. Labande, ed. B. Jeannau (Poitiers 1974), pp. 617–22.

23. Hagenmeyer, Kreuzzugsbriefe, pp. 141–2, 144–6, 146–9.

24. Albert of Aachen, Historia, p. 435; France, Victory, pp. 209–20 and refs.

25. Hill, Gesta Francorum, pp. 34–5; Raymond of Aguilers, Historia, trans. J. H. and L. L. Hill, p. 37; cf. Shepard, ‘Greek Meets Greek’.

26. Hagenmeyer, Kreuzzugsbriefe, p. 150.

27. Hagenmeyer, Kreuzzugsbriefe, p. 149; Raymond of Aguilers, Historia, trans. J. H. and L. L. Hill, p. 59; Gesta Francorum, p. 63.

28. Hill, Gesta Francorum, p. 46 and, for the author’s apparently eyewitness and certainly dramatic account of the episode, pp. 44–8.

29. The butcher may have been a shepherd, according to the thirteenth-century Ibn al-Athir, Arab Historians of the Crusades, trans. F. Gabrieli (London 1984), pp. 6–7; for other references, France, Victory, p. 267.

30. Hagenmeyer, Kreuzzugsbriefe, p. 150.

31. Orderic Vitalis, Ecclesiastical History, v, 98; vi, 18.

32. A leading figure in these events left the most detailed record: Raymond of Aguilers, Historia, trans. J. H. and L. L. Hill, pp. 51–61, but cf. Hill, Gesta Francorum, pp. 57–60, 65–6 and the letters accepting the Lance’s authenticity, of Anselm of Ribemont, July 1098, and the crusade leaders, Sept. 1098, Hagenmeyer, Kreuzzugsbriefe, pp. 159–60, 163; C. Morris, ‘Policy and Visions: the Case of the Holy Lance at Antioch’, War and Government in the Middle Ages, ed. J. Gillingham and J. C. Holt (Woodbridge 1984), pp. 33–45.

33. Dedeyan, ‘Les Colophons’, pp. 94–5.

34. Raymond of Aguilers, Historia, trans. J. H. and L. L. Hill, p. 52.

35. For Peter’s later visions, Raymond of Aguilers, Historia, trans. J. H. and L. L. Hill, pp. 66–72, 76–8, 93–103; cf. France, Victory, p. 322; Morris, ‘Policy and Visions’, pp. 42–3; Runciman, History of the Crusades, i, 273–4.

36. Raymond of Aguilers, Historia, trans. J. H. and L. L., Hill, pp. 108, 110, 122–3, 128; on relics in general, cf. pp. 111–13.

37. Fulcher of Chartres, History, p. 106; Hill, Gesta Francorum, p. 67 and Orderic Vitalis, Ecclesiastical History, v, 108 for Herluin the interpreter; France, Victory, pp. 270–96.

38. Cf. Anna Comnena, Alexiad, pp. 348–50 with Hill, Gesta Francorum, pp. 63–5, Lilie, Byzantium and the Crusader States, esp. pp. 32–60.

39. Hagenmeyer, Kreuzzugsbriefe, pp. 161–5; cf. the earlier letter from the princes April/July 1098, which lacks anti-Greek vitriol, pp. 153–5.

40. Hagenmeyer, Kreuzzugsbriefe, pp. 155–6.

41. See note 1 above and refs. for Egyptian negotiations.

42. Raymond of Aguilers, Historia, trans. J. H. and L. L. Hill, pp. 74–5 (‘peace of discord’).

43. For cannibalism at Ma ‘arrat Gesta Francorum, p. 80; Raymond of Aguilers, Historia, trans. J. H. and L. L. Hill, p. 81; in general, Guibert of Nogent, Gesta Dei, pp. 241–2; the main ‘source’ is the later Chanson d’Antioche which places the first outbreak at Antioch: L. A. M. Sumberg, ‘The “Tafurs” and the First Crusade’, Medieval Studies, 21 (1959), 224–46, esp. 235–46. Sumberg argues for a Flemish origin of the Tafurs and their ‘king’. Albert of Aachen, usually a rich source for north-eastern Frenchmen, does not mention them.

44. Raymond of Aguilers, Historia, trans. J. H. and L. L. Hill, pp. 81–3; Hill, Gesta Francorum, p. 81.

45. For the events at Arqah, Raymond of Aguilers, Historia, pp. 87–113; Hill, Gesta Francorum, pp. 83–5; France, Victory, pp. 316–26 and pp. 326–31 for march to Jerusalem. For Urban II’s alleged decree on the right of conquest, R. Somerville, ‘The Council of Clermont and the First Crusade’, Studia Gratiana, 20 (1976), 335–7, but cf. J. Richard, The Crusades (Cambridge 1999), p. 112.

46. Raymond of Aguilers, Historia, trans. J. H. and L. L. Hill, p. 113 comments on their rotting timbers.

47. Raymond of Aguilers, Historia, trans. J. H. and L. L. Hill, p. 116; Hill, Gesta Francorum, p. 87.

48. The best modern accounts are J. Prawer, ‘The Jerusalem the Crusaders Captured’, Crusade and Settlement, ed. Edbury, pp. 1–16; France, Victory, pp. 330–57.

49. Albert of Aachen, Historia, p. 470; Hill, Gesta Francorum, p. 90; Raymond of Aguilers, Historia, trans. J. H. and L. L. Hill, pp. 121–3.

50. Albert of Aachen, Historia, pp. 476–7.

51. Gesta Francorum, p. 91; Raymond of Aguilers, Historia, trans. J. H. and L. L. Hill, pp. 127–8.

52. S. Goitein, ‘Contemporary Letters on the Capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders’, Journal of Jewish Studies, 3 (1952), pp. 165, 173 and, in general, pp. 162–77.

53. Raymond of Aguilers, Historia, trans. J. H. and L. L. Hill, p. 127; Hill, Gesta Francorum, p. 92; Goitein, ‘Contemporary Letters’, p. 172; idem, ‘Geniza Sources for the Crusader Period’, Outremer, ed. B. Kedar, H. Mayer, R. Smail (Jerusalem 1982), p. 312 and, generally, pp. 306–14.

54. See notes 52 and 53 above.

55. Hill, Gesta Francorum, p. 92; Raymond of Aguilers, Historia, trans. J. H. and L. L. Hill, p. 128.

56. The aftermath of the capture and the battle of Ascalon are dealt with contrastingly by Runciman, History of the Crusades, i, 289–302; France, Victory, pp. 356–66.

57. Fulcher of Chartres, History, p. 89; Murray, ‘The Army of Godfrey de Bouillon’, pp. 301–29.

58. A. E. Laiou, Constantinople and the Latins: The Foreign Policy of Andronicus II 1282–1328 (Cambridge, Mass. 1972), pp. 130–99; K. Setton, The Papacy and the Levant 1204–1571 (Philadelphia 1976–84), i, 163–4, 168–9, 441–56.

59. J. France, ‘Crusading Warfare and Its Adaptation to Eastern Conditions in the Twelfth Century’, Mediterranean Historical Review, 15 (2000), 49–66.

60. Hagenmeyer, Kreuzzugsbriefe, pp. 138–40, 144–6, 149–52, 156–60.

5: The Foundation of Christian Outremer

1. Translation in M. Biddle, The Tomb of Christ (Stroud 1999), pp. 92–4, generally pp. 91–5; for building dates, M. de Vogue, Les Eglises de la Terre Sainte (Paris 1860), esp. p. 218; for Fulk, William of Tyre, Historia, trans. E. A. Babcock and A. C. Krey, A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea (New York 1976, reprint of 1941 edn), ii, 62 (hereafter William of Tyre, History).

2. See the examples discussed by C. Morris, ‘Picturing the Crusades’, The Crusades and their Sources, ed. J. France and W. G. Zajac (Aldershot 1998), pp. 195–216; cf. Biddle, The Tomb of Christ.

3. H. W. C. Davis, ‘Henry of Blois and Brian FitzCount’, English Historical Review, 25 (1910), 301–3.

4. J. Delaville le Roulx (ed.), Cartulaire général de l’ordre des Hospitaliers de S. Jean de Jerusalem 1100–1310 (Paris 1894–1906), no. 309, i, 222–3, no. 309; Robert of Rheims, Historia Iherosolimitana, RHC Occ., iii, 723.

5. B. Hamilton, The Latin Church in the Crusader States (London 1980), pp. 61–2; J. Richard, The Crusades c. 1071–c.1291 (Cambridge 1999), pp. 100, 119; for the refashioning of the Holy Land in the twentieth century, see M. Benvenisti, Sacred Landscape: The Buried History of the Holy Land since 1948 (London 2000).

6. In general for the 1100–1101 expeditions, Riley-Smith, First Crusade, pp. 120–34; Riley-Smith, First Crusaders, pp. 75–7 and passim; Runciman, History of the Crusades, ii, 18–31; J. L. Cate, ‘The Crusade of 1101’, History of the Crusades, ed. K. Setton (2nd edn Madison 1969–89), i, 343–67; cf. Hagenmeyer, Kreuzzugsbriefe, pp. 141–2, 144–55, 156–65, 174–9. For numbers, France,Victory, pp. 122–42; J. Riley-Smith, ‘Casualties on the First Crusade’, Crusades, 1 (2002), 13–28; Orderic Vitalis, Ecclesiastical History, iii, 182–3 (written before 1130) for his reference to the 1107–8 crusade as the third journey (tercia profectio) to Jerusalem, implying that the 1101–2 was regarded as the second.

7. Cartulaire de St Cyr de Nevers, ed. R. de Lespinasse (Nevers/Paris 1916), no. 96.

8. Orderic Vitalis, Ecclesiastical History, v, 324.

9. Hagenmeyer, Kreuzzugsbriefe, pp. 175–6, no. XX and pp. 144–6, 155–6 for the letters; Guibert of Nogent, Gesta Dei, p. 219 for their circulation.

10. Quoted by M. Angold, The Byzantine Empire 1025–1204 (London 1984), p. 150; for Anna Comnena’s gloss, Alexiad, pp. 355–7.

11. Albert of Aachen, Historia, p. 563.

12. Ekkehard of Aura, Hierosolymita, v, 30.

13. Hagenmeyer, Kreuzzugsbriefe, p. 150.

14. Fulcher of Chartres, History, pp. 284–8, 300–302; for general accounts of twelfth-century Outremer, J. Prawer, The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (London 1972); Richard, The Crusades, pp. 77–215; J. Riley-Smith, The Crusades: A Short History (London 1990), pp. 40–87; H. E. Mayer, The Crusades (2nd edn Oxford 1988), pp. 58–136, 152–95. The main western chronicle accounts are, up to the late 1120s, Fulcher of Chartres, Albert of Aachen and, thereafter, William of Tyre.

15. M. Benvenisti, The Crusaders in the Holy Land (Jerusalem 1970), pp. 14, 132; J. Riley-Smith, ‘The Survival in Latin Palestine of Muslim Administration’, The Eastern Mediterranean Lands in the Period of the Crusades, ed. P. M. Holt (Warminster 1977), pp. 9–22 and esp. p. 16.

16. Fulcher of Chartres, History pp. 132, 150; William of Tyre, History, i, 408; for the accounts of the Englishman Saewulf (1101×3) and the Russian abbot Daniel (1106×8), J. Wilkinson, The Jerusalem Pilgrimage 1099–1185, Hackluyt Society, NS, 167 (1988), 100, 108, 145, 148–50, 154, 162.

17. H. E. Mayer and M. L. Favreau, ‘Das Diplom Balduins I für Genua und Genuas Goldene Inschrift in der Grabeskirche’, Quellen und Forschungen aus italianischen Archiven und Bibliotheken, 55–6 (1976), 22 et seq.; other scholars still maintain the authenticity of both 1104 privilege and the inscription.

18. Caffaro of Genoa, De Liberatione Civitatum Orientis Liber, RHC Occ., v.

19. Richard, The Crusades, pp. 98–9.

20. Fulcher of Chartres, History, pp. 149–50.

21. Hillenbrand, Crusades, pp. 73–4 and, generally, pp. 69–76.

6: The Latin States

1. Fulcher of Chartres, History, pp. 271–2.

2. Apart from the general accounts by Riley-Smith, Mayer, Richard and Prawer (above chap. 5 note 14), see for the Muslim perspective Holt, Age of Crusades, pp. 23–59; C. Cahen, La Syrie du Nord (Paris 1940); and the chapters by H. S. Fink, R. L. Nicholson and H. A. R. Gibb in History of the Crusades, ed. Setton, vol. i. There is no surviving Edessan Latin chronicle, but cf. that of the Armenian Matthew of Edessa, trans. A. E. Dostourian, Armenia and the Crusades (New York and London 1993); William of Tyre et al. have much to say as well. On Edessa generally, J. B. Segal, Edessa, ‘The Blessed City’ (Oxford 1970).

3. On Antioch/Edessa relations, T. S. Asbridge, Creation of the Principality of Antioch, esp. pp. 50–91, 104–28.

4. William of Tyre, History, ii, 52.

5. H. Kennedy, Crusader Castles (Cambridge 1994), p. 18.

6. William of Tyre, History, ii, 201, cf. pp. 140–41.

7. In general and specifically, Asbridge, Creation of the Principality; Cahen, Syrie du Nord; Lilie, Byzantium and Crusader States; there survives an Antiochene chronicle by Walter the Chancellor, The Antiochene Wars, trans. T. S. Asbridge and S. B. Edgington (Aldershot 1999).

8. Although he was: Walter the Chancellor, Antiochene Wars, p. 163; Usamah, An Arab-Syrian Gentleman, p. 149; Ibn al-Qalanisi, Damascus Chronicle, p. 149.

9. Lilie, Byzantium and Crusader States, pp. 103–4; Mayer, Crusades, p. 115; Runciman, History of the Crusades, ii, 364–5 and note 1.

10. P. Deschamps, Les Châteaux des Croisés en Terre Sainte (Paris 1934–73), iii, 191–9; Asbridge, Creation of Principality, pp. 73, 175; Mayer, Crusades, p. 163.

11. Asbridge, Creation of Principality, pp. 176–7 and refs.

12. Cahen, Syrie de Nord, pp. 41–2, 343–4, 405, 540; B. Z. Kedar, ‘The Subjected Muslims of the Frankish Levant’, Muslims under Latin Rule, ed. J. M. Powell (Princeton 1990), pp. 137, 156–7; for Alan of al-Atharib, Asbridge, Creation of Principality, p. 169.

13. Cahen, Syrie du Nord, p. 278.

14. Walter the Chancellor, Antiochene Wars, pp. 87–9.

15. Mayer, Crusades, p. 192; Runciman, History of the Crusades, ii, 346–7; William of Tyre, History, ii, 235–6.

16. Richard, The Crusades, pp. 113–14.

17. Anna Comnena, Alexiad, p. 434 and 424–34 for text of treaty; Lilie, Byzantium and Crusader States, pp. 72–82; Asbridge, Creation of the Principality, pp. 94–103.

18. Lilie, Byzantium and Crusader States, passim.

19. William of Tyre, History, ii, 77–8.

20. Runciman, History of the Crusades, ii, 182–3 and refs.; William of Tyre, History, ii, 199.

21. J. H. and L. L. Hill, Raymond IV Count of Toulouse (New York 1962); Kennedy, Crusader Castles, p. 63.

22. Ibn al-Qalanisi, Damascus Chronicle, p.89.

23. For their fortifications, Kennedy, Crusader Castles, pp. 64–7; For the end of the Embriacos, below p. 732.

24. Damascus Chronicle, pp. 287–8; Runciman, History of the Crusades, ii, 287–8 for further refs.

25. William of Tyre, History, ii, 214; Holt, Age of Crusades, pp. 28, 39–40; B. Lewis, ‘The Isma’ilites and the Assassins’, History of the Crusades, ed. Setton, i, 99–132.

26. E.g. William of Tyre, History, ii, 192–3 (reactions after the debacle of the siege of Damascus 1148); ii, 418–20, 434–5 (for the tensions surrounding the visit of Count Philip of Flanders 1177, on which see B. Hamilton, The Leper King and his Heirs (Cambridge 2000), pp. 119–33).

27. Only one twelfth-century verse epic, the Chanson des Chétifs, originated in Outremer, at Antioch, probably at the court of Raymond of Poitiers (d. 1149), but other chanson cycles were known there as in the west; for a summary, Mayer, Crusades, pp. 192–3.

28. A. V. Murray, ‘The Accession of Baldwin I of Jerusalem’, From Clermont to Jerusalem: The Crusade and Crusade Societies 1095–1500 (Turnhout 1998), pp. 81–102.

29. On titles, J. France, ‘The Election and Title of Godfrey de Bouillon’, Canadian Journal of History, 18 (1983), 321–30; cf. J. Riley-Smith, ‘The Title of Godfrey de Bouillon’, Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, 52 (1979), 83–6; A. V. Murray, ‘The Title of Godfrey de Bouillon as Ruler of Jerusalem’, Collegium Medievale, 3 (1990), 163–78; Richard, The Crusades, p. 78; H. E. Mayer, ‘Latins, Muslims and Greeks in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem’, History, 63 (1978), 175.

30. William of Tyre, History, i, 416; Mayer, Mélanges, esp. pp. 11, 17, 30–72.

31. William of Tyre, History, i, 487–8; for the Latin text, William of Tyre, Chronicon, bk 11, c. 14, p. 518.

32. Fulcher of Chartres, History, p. 222.

33. Fulcher of Chartres, History, p. 222; William of Tyre, who used Fulcher, removes all mention of non-Latins in his account.

34. S. Tibble, Monarchy and Lordship in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem 1099–1291 (Oxford 1989); cf. the review by H. E. Mayer in Göttingischen Gelehrten Anzeigen, 245 (1993), 59–70.

35. H. E. Mayer, ‘Angevin versus Normans: The New Men of King Fulk of Jerusalem’, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 133 (1989), 1–25.

36. E. de Rozière (ed.), Cartulaire de l’église du Saint Sépulchre de Jérusalem, v (Paris 1849), 17, no. 15; in general, H. E. Mayer, ‘The Succession to Baldwin II of Jerusalem’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 39 (1985), 139–47.

37. William of Tyre, History, ii, 47; as a boy in Jerusalem, William may have seen King Fulk in person.

38. William of Tyre, History, ii, 51.

39. Riley-Smith, First Crusaders, pp. 169–88.

40. C. J. Tyerman, England and the Crusades 1095–1588 (Chicago 1988), pp. 50–51; cf. Hamilton, The Leper King, pp. 212–14.

41. P. Edbury and J. G. Rowe, William of Tyre (Cambridge 1988), pp. 61–84.

42. For a summary, J. Folda, ‘Art in the Latin East’, The Oxford History of the Crusades, ed. J. Riley-Smith (Oxford 1999), p. 141.

43. Alexander III, Opera Omnia, PL, 200, col. 1294; Hamilton, The Leper King, passim for a modern positive gloss on Baldwin.

44. William of Tyre, History, ii, 446, 460.

45. R. C. Smail, ‘The Predicaments of Guy of Lusignan 1183–87’, Outremer, ed. Kedar et al., pp. 159–76.

46. B. Z. Kedar, ‘The General Tax of 1183 in the Crusading Kingdom of Jerusalem’, English Historical Review, 89 (1974), 339–45; William of Tyre, History, ii, 486–7.

7: East is East and East is West: Outremer in the Twelfth Century

1. William of Tyre, History, ii, 397–8; E. Kohlberg and B. Z. Kedar, ‘A Melkite Physician in Frankish Jerusalem and Ayyubid Damascus’, in B. Z. Kedar, The Franks in the Levant (Aldershot 1993), chap. XII, pp. 113–15; C. Cahen, ‘Indigènes et croisés’, Syria, 15 (1934), 351–60; on William of Tyre, Edbury and Rowe, William of Tyre, esp. pp. 1–22 and passim for his historical interpretation.

2. Livres des Assises de la Cour des Bourgeois, c. 241, RHC Lois (Paris 1843), ii, 172.

3. Guibert of Nogent, Gesta Dei, p. 245; Orderic Vitalis, Ecclesiastical History, v, 136–7; Richard, The Crusades, pp. 144–5.

4. Ellenblum, Settlement, pp. 9, 14–19.

5. Fulcher of Chartres, History, pp. 149–50, 271–2; The Travels of Ibn Jubayr, trans. R. J. C. Broadhurst (London 1952), p. 325; Usamah, An Arab-Syrian Gentleman, p. 170.

6. A. de Barthélemy, ‘Libre Exercise de commerce octroyé à un pèlerin champanois’, Archives de l’Orient Latin, i (1881), 535–6; in general, Ellenblum, Settlement, passim; cf. Prawer, The Latin Kingdom; idem, ‘Colonization Activities in the Latin Kingdom’, Crusader Institutions (Oxford 1980), pp. 102–42.

7. Le Cartulaire du chapitre du Saint-Sépulchre de Jérusalem, ed. G. Bresc-Bautier (Paris 1984), no. 121, pp. 246–7; Hugh le Poitevin, Chronique de l’abbaye de Vézelay, Monumenta Vizeliacensis, ed. R. B. C. Huygens (Turnhout 1976), pp. 400, 402.

8. H. E. Mayer, ‘Abu’ alis Spuren am Berliner Tiergarten’, Archiv für Diplomatik, 38 (1992), 132–3; William of Tyre, History, ii, 292–4; note 1 above.

9. Ralph Niger, De Re Militari et Triplici Via Peregrinationis Ierosolimitanae, ed. L. Schmugge (Berlin 1977), pp. 186–7, 193–9; William of Tyre, History, ii, 192–3; for a rehabilitation of Heraclius, B. Z. Kedar, ‘The Patriarch Eraclius’, Outremer, ed. Kedar et al., pp. 177–204.

10. John of Würzburg, in Jerusalem Pilgrimage, ed. Wilkinson, Hakluyt Society NS 167 (1988), pp. 259, 266; John Phocas, ibid., p. 324.

11. Theoderic, Jerusalem Pilgrimage, ed. Wilkinson, p. 310.

12. C. Kohler, ‘Documents inédits concernant l’Orient Latin et les croisades’, Revue de l’Orient Latin (Paris 1893–1911), vii, 1–9.

13. B. Z. Kedar’s phrase, ‘The Subjected Muslims of the Frankish Levant’, Muslims under Latin Rule, ed. Powell, p. 174; idem, ‘A Second Incarnation in Frankish Jerusalem’, The Experience of Crusading, ii, ed. P. Edbury and J. Phillips (Cambridge 2003), p. 89.

14. Kemal al-Din, Chronicle of Aleppo, RHC Or., iii (Paris 1884), 597–8.

15. William of Tyre, History, ii, 374–5; the levels of military obligations were derived from lists collected by John of Ibelin in the mid-thirteenth century.

16. On lordships, Tibble, Monarchy and Lordships.

17. Prawer, ‘Colonization’, p. 140 and refs.

18. Wilkinson, Jerusalem Pilgrimage, pp. 120–71, 215–18, 220–22; for Jerusalem clergy and burgesses, see the witness lists in charters in R. Röhricht, Regesta regni Hierosolymitani (Innsbruck 1893, 1904), passim.

19. Wilkinson, Jerusalem Pilgrimage, pp. 264–5, 267, 273, 319, 330, 335–6.

20. Delaville le Roulx, Cartulaire général de l’ordre des Hospitaliers, no. 399, i, 272–3; Bresc-Bautier, Cartulaire du Saint-Sépulchre, no. 117, pp. 237–9; Ellenblum, Settlement, pp.74–82; Prawer, ‘Colonization’, pp. 119–21, 127–8.

21. Prawer, ‘Colonization’, pp. 140–41 and note 162; Ellenblum, Settlement, pp. 65–8.

22. Barthélémy, ‘Libre Exercise’, pp. 535–6; Ellenblum, Settlement, p. 84 and note 16; C. J. Tyerman, ‘Who Went on Crusades to the Holy Land?’, Horns of Hattin, ed. B. Z. Kedar (Jerusalem 1992), pp. 13–26; and, generally, pp. 82–5; Röhricht, Regesta regni, passim.

23. For a summary of legal processes with references to debated aspects, Mayer, The Crusades, chap. 8, pp. 152 et seq.

24. The phrase is Prawer’s, ‘Colonization’, p. 105. For general discussions, Prawer, ‘Colonization’; Ellenblum, Settlement, esp. Part II.

25. Discussed by Prawer, ‘Colonization’, p. 110.

26. Cartulaire général de l’ordre des Hospitaliers, no. 309, i, 222–3.

27. This is the central insight of Ellenblum, Settlement, pp. 111–44 and Part IV; cf. D. Pringle, ‘Churches and Settlement in Crusader Palestine’, Experience of Crusading, ed. Edbury and Phillips, ii, 161–78.

28. C. E. Bosworth, ‘The “Protected Peoples” in Medieval Egypt and Syria’, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, 62 (1979–80), 11–36.

29. In general, the works of Prawer, Mayer and Riley-Smith; on Jews, J. Prawer, The History of the Jews in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (Oxford 1988); for Muslim headman, Broadhurst, Ibn Jubayr, p. 317.

30. Broadhurst, Ibn Jubayr, p. 316; in general, Kedar, ‘The Subjected Muslims of the Frankish Levant’.

31. Broadhursts, Ibn Jubayr, p. 322; William of Tyre, History, ii, 214; Fulcher of Chartres, History, p.146.

32. But see B. Z. Kedar, Crusade and Mission (Princeton 1984), pp. 75–6, note 95; in general pp. 74–83.

33. Broadhurst, Ibn Jubayr, pp. 321–2; Hillenbrand, Crusades, pp. 408–14.

34. Fulcher of Chartres, History, p. 232; Broadhurst, Ibn Jubayr, pp. 316–21, 323; Kedar, ‘The Subjected Muslims of the Frankish Levant’; Mayer, ‘Latins, Muslims and Greeks’, pp. 175–92, esp. pp. 177–80.

35. Usamah, An Arab-Syrian Gentleman, pp. 164, 167–9; Chronique d’Ernoul et de Bernard le Trésorier, ed. L. de Mas Latrie (Paris 1871), pp. 82–4; B. Z. Kedar, ‘The Samaritans in the Frankish Period’, Franks in the Levant, ed. idem, chap. XIX, pp. 86–7; J. Drory, ‘Hanbalis of the Nablus Region’, The Medieval Levant: Studies in Memory of Eliyahu Ashtor, ed. B. Z. Kedar and U. L. Udovitch (Haifa 1988), pp. 95–112; E. Sivan, ‘Refugiés Syro-palestiniens au temps des croisades’, Revue des Etudes Islamiques, 35 (1967), 138–40.

36. William of Tyre, History, ii, 20–21, 76–7; Usamah, An Arab-Syrian Gentleman, pp. 93–6, 149–50, 159–60, 163–4, 169–70; Kedar, Crusade and Mission, pp. 74–83.

37. Assises des Bourgeois, c. 241, RHC Lois, i, 172; in general, Kedar, ‘Subjected Muslims of the Frankish Levant’.

38. B. Z. Kedar, ‘Gerald of Nazareth’, Franks in the Levant, ed. idem, chap. IV, pp. 55 et seq.; Mayer, ‘Latins, Muslims and Greeks’, pp. 187–92; Runciman, History of the Crusades, ii, 232, 321–3; Röhricht, Regesta regni, no. 502; Ellenblum, Settlement, pp. 119–20, 125–8; Abbé Martin, ‘Les Premiers Princes croisades et les Syriens jacobites’, Journal asiatique, 12 (1888), 471–90; 13 (1889), 33–79; Dedeyan, ‘Les Colophons’, pp. 96–7 and note 38.

39. See the map, Ellenblum, Settlement, p. xviii and passim; D. Pringle, Secular Buildings in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem (Cambridge 1997), esp. pp. 4–5; D. Pringle, The Red Tower (Edinburgh 1986).

40. Usamah, An Arab-Syrian Gentleman, pp. 95, 130.

41. Pringle, Red Tower, pp. 58–63; Tibble, Monarchy and Lordships, pp. 103–4, 108–10, 113, 141–3; Ellenblum, Settlement, pp. 198–204.

42. Ambroise, Estoire de la Guerre Sainte, trans. M. J. Hubert and J. L. Lamonte, The Crusade of Richard the Lion-Heart (New York 1976), ll. 7121–5, p. 281. (Hereafter Ambroise, Crusade of Richard.)

43. Hillenbrand, Crusades, pp. 342 and 343 for Abu Shama’s account of Reynald of Sidon; Runciman, History of the Crusades, ii, 469; iii, 59, 489; for Ibn Shaddad’s account of the bilingual diplomacy, Gabrieli, Arab Historians, pp. 228–9.

44. Röhricht, Regesta regni, no. 502; A. E. Dostourian, Armenia and the Crusades: The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa (New York/London 1993), pp. 245–57.

45. For a useful summary, Mayer, Crusades, pp. 189–93 and refs.; and the articles by J. Folda and D. Pringle in J. Riley-Smith (ed.), The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades (Oxford 1995).

46. De constructione castri Saphet, trans. Kennedy, Crusader Castles, p. 194, but see n. 7 p. 211; Broadhurst, Ibn Jubayr, p. 322.

47. Usamah, An Arab-Syrian Gentleman, pp. 169–70.

48. Pringle, Red Tower, p. 178; Cartulaire du Saint-Sépulchre de Jerusalem, no. 117, pp. 237–9; G. A. Loud, ‘Norman Italy and the Holy Land’, Horns of Hattin, ed. Kazar, p. 52 and note 14.

49. Runciman, History of the Crusades, ii, 317 and note 2.

50. Cited by Mayer, Crusades, p. 183 and note 97.

51. See B. Z. Kedar’s comments, Horns of Hattin, pp. 350–53, 359–60, 363 and J. Prawer’s reaction, ibid., esp. pp. 365–6.

52. Cf. Prawer, Latin Kingdom, and Kedar, Crusade and Mission, p. 78.

53. Thietmar, Peregrinatio, Peregrinationes Medii Aevi Quatuor, ed. J. C. M. Laurent (Leipzig 1873), ii, 37.

8: A New Path to Salvation? Western Christendom and Holy War 1100–1145

1. Guibert of Nogent, Gesta Dei p. 124; Ekkehard of Aura, Hierosolymita, v, 39.

2. Riley-Smith, First Crusaders, p. 167 and, generally, pp. 144–68; Riley-Smith, Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, pp. 80–81.

3. H. W. C. Davis, ‘Henry of Blois and Brian FitzCount’, English Historical Review, 25 (1910), 301–3.

4. Chronicon S. Andreae in Castro Cameracesii, ed. L. C. Bethmann, MGH SS, vii (Hanover 1846), 544–5; in general, C. Morris, ‘Propaganda for War’, Studies in Church History, xx, ed. W. J. Shields (Woodbridge 1983), 79–101.

5. Gesta Francorum, pp. 50–56, 66–7; for the First Crusade histories, Riley-Smith, First Crusade, pp. 60–61, 135–52.

6. P. Rousset, Les Origines et les caractères de la première croisade (Geneva 1945); K. Skovgaard-Petersen, A Journey to the Promised Land: Crusading Theology in the Historia de profectione Danorum in Hierosolymam (Copenhagen 2001); R. Hiestand, ‘Il cronista medievale e il suo pubblico’, Annali della facolta di lettere e filosofia dell’universita di Napoli, 27 (1984–5), 207–27; Gunther of Pairis, Historia Constantinopolitana, ed. Comte Riant, Exuviae Constantinopolitanae, i (Geneva 1877), 60–66, now trans. A. J. Andrea, The Capture of Constantinople (Philadelphia 1997) (hereafter Gunther of Pairis, Capture); Gunther of Pairis, Solymarius, Archives de l’Orient Latin, i (1881), 555–61; for the abbot’s presentation to Frederick I, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, MS Vat. Lat. 2001, fol. 1 recto.

7. Orderic Vitalis, Ecclesiastical History, vi, 71, cf. pp. 68–9; Ekkehard of Aura, Chronicon, ed. G. Weitz, PL, 154, col. 987 for 1101 sermon; for 1108 appeal against the Wends, W. Wattenbach, ‘Handschriftliches’, Neues Archiv (1882), vii, 624–6, trans. J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, pp. 75–7.

8. Gaimar, Lestoire des Engleis, ed. T. D. Hardy and C. T. Martin, Rolls Series (London 1888–9), i, 244–5; cf. William of Malmesbury, Gesta Regum Anglorum, ed. W. Stubbs, Rolls Series (London 1887–9), ii, 433, 460, 461.

9. Orderic Vitalis, Ecclesiastical History, vi, 352–5.

10. Quoted by Morris, ‘Propaganda for War’, p. 93.

11. D. Denny, ‘A Romanesque Fresco in Auxerre Cathedral’, Gesta, 25 (1986), 197–202.

12. See M. Biddle, Tomb of Christ (Stroud 1999), p. 31.

13. R. L. Crocker, ‘Early Crusade Songs’, The Holy War, ed. T. P. Murphy (Columbus 1976), pp. 78–98.

14. Sigebert of Gembloux, Epistola Leodicensium adversus Paschalem Papam, Libelli de Lite Imperatorum et Pontificum, ii, MGH (Hanover 1892), 451–2; D. Girgensohn, ‘Das Pisaner Konzil von 1135 in der Überlieferung des Pisaner Konzils von 1409’, Festschrift für Hermann Heimpel (Göttingen 1972), ii, 1,099–100.

15. Duparc-Quioc, Chanson d’Antioche, i, 171; Suger of St Denis, The Deeds of Louis the Fat, trans. R. C. Cusimo and J. Moorhead (Washington, DC 1992), pp. 37, 106–9.

16. Gouffier of Lastours, according to Geoffrey of Vigeois, Chronicon, Receuil des historiens des Gaules et de la France, ed. M. Bouquet et al. (Paris 1737–1904), xii, 428; the story describes a crusading Androcles and the Lion, the knight and the lion becoming inseparable after Gouffier had freed the beast from the clutches of a serpent. The tale is probably more exotic than true.

17. Orderic Vitalis, Ecclesiastical History, vi, 162.

18. Orderic Vitalis, Ecclesiastical History, vi, 287.

19. Suger, Louis the Fat, p. 84; Gesta Ambaziensium Dominorum, Chroniques d’Anjou, ed. P. Marchegay and A. Salmon (Paris 1856), pp. 181–205, esp. pp. 188–90, 193, 205; Orderic Vitalis, Ecclesiastical History, v, 168; vi, 158; Ivo of Chartres, Epistolae, PL, 162, cols. 144–5, no. 135.

20. Orderic Vitalis, Ecclesiastical History, vi, 240, 410.

21. Henry of Huntingdon, Historia Anglorum, ed. T. Arnold, Rolls Series (London 1879), pp. 262–3; Geoffrey of Monmouth, Historia Regum Britanniae, ed. A. Griscom and R. Ellis Jones (London 1929), pp. 437–8, trans. L. Thorpe, The History of the Kings of Britain (London 1966), p. 216.

22. PL, 163, col. 508, no. 25 for Gelasius’s letter of 10 Dec. 1118; Song of Roland, trans. D. L. Sayers (London 1975), p. 135, l. 2197.

23. Snorri Sturluson, Heimskringla, trans. L. M. Hollander (Austin 1964), pp. 688–97; P. Riant, Expéditions et pèlerinages des Scandinaves en Terre Sainte au temps des croisades (Paris 1865), pp. 156, 161–3; William of Malmesbury, Gesta Regum Anglorum, ed. R. A. B. Mynors, R. M. Thomson, M. Winterbottom (Oxford 1998–9), i, 740–43.

24. Annales Hildesheimensis, ed. G. Waitz, MGH (Hanover 1878), pp. 50–51; Otto of Freising, Chronica, ed. A Hofmeister, MGH (Hanover and Leipzig 1912), p. 318; Ekkehard of Aura, Chronicon, col. 987; Die Briefe Heinrichs IV, ed. C. Erdmann, MGH (Leipzig 1937), pp. 39–40, no. 31.

25. Romuald of Salerno, Chronicon, in The History of the Tyrants of Sicily, ed. G. Loud and T. Weidemann, p. 231, cf. p. 242; Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, ed. J. C. Robertson and J. B. Sheppard, Rolls Series (London 1875–85), iv, 163, 174; Roger of Howden, Chronica, ed. W. Stubbs, Rolls Series (London 1868–71), ii, 17; F. Barlow, Thomas Becket (London 1986), pp. 258–9.

26. Robert of Ely, De Vita et Miracula S. Canuti Ducis, Vitae Sanctorum Danorum, ed. M. C. Gertz (Copenhagen 1908–12), esp. pp. 236–7.

27. Orderic Vitalis, Ecclesiastical History, vi, 379.

28. Walter of Thérouanne, Vita Karoli, ed. R. Koepke, MGH SS, xii (Hanover 1866), 540, and p. 568 for Galbert of Bruges’s account; Ekkehard of Aura, Chronicon Universale, ed. D. G. Waitz, MGH SS, vi (Hanover 1844), 262.

29. John of Würzburg in Jerusalem Pilgrimage, ed. Wilkinson, p. 265; in general for references to early twelfth-century crucesignati, Riley-Smith, First Crusaders, pp. 148, 158–88.

30. For the military orders, A. J. Forey, The Military Orders (London 1992); J. Riley-Smith, The Knights of St John in Jerusalem and Cyprus c.1050–1310 (London 1967); M. Barber, The New Knighthood: A History of the Order of the Temple (Cambridge 1994).

31. Orderic Vitalis, Ecclesiastical History, vi, 308–10; cf. Riley-Smith, First Crusaders, pp. 159–65.

32. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle sub anno 1128, trans. S. I. Tucker, English Historical Documents 1042–1189, ed. D. C. Douglas and G. W. Greenaway (London 1953), ii, p. 195.

33. Quoted Barber, New Knighthood, pp. 49–50; for Bernard’s De Laude, S. Bernardi Opera, iii, ed. J. Leclercq and H. M. Rochais (Rome 1963), trans. C. Greenia, Works of St Bernard, vii (Kalamazoo 1977).

34. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae (Editiones Paulinae Rome 1962), Secunda Secundae, quaestio 188, articulus 3, p. 1,843, col. 2.

35. Barber, New Knighthood, pp. 26–7; E. Lourie, ‘The Confraternity of Belchite, the Ribat and the Temple’, Viator, 13 (1982), 159–76; for a translation of Saxo Grammaticus’s account of the Roskilde confraternity in Gesta Danorum, bk 14.6, K. V. Jensen, ‘Denmark and the Second Crusade’, The Second Crusade, ed. J. Phillips and M. Hoch (Manchester 2001), p. 176.

36. Otto of Freising, Gesta Frederici I Imperatoris, trans. C. C. Mierow (New York 1966), p. 102: Otto, Conrad’s half-brother, probably stayed there too.

37. J. Brundage, Medieval Canon Law and the Crusader (Madison 1969), pp. 157–8 and note 83.

38. In Eugenius III’s bull of Dec. 1145, Quantum praedecessores, P. Rassow, ‘Der Text der Kreuzzugsbulle Eugens III’, Neues Archiv, 45 (1924), 302–5; trans:. J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, pp. 57–9.

39. Ivo of Chartres, Epistolae, PL, 162, cols. 170–74, 176–7, nos. 168–70, 173.

40. Libellus de Vita et Miraculis S. Godrici Heremitae de Finchale, ed. J. Stevenson, Surtees Society (1847), pp. 33–4, 52–7; William of Newburgh, Historia rerum Anglicarum, ed. R. Howlett, Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, Henry II and Richard I, Rolls Series (London 1884), i, p. 149; Chartes de St Julien de Tours, ed. L. J. Denis (Le Mans 1912–13), i, 87–8, no. 67; Chronica de Gestis Consulum Andegavorum, Chroniques d’Anjou, ed. Machegay and Salmon, p. 152.

41. Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils, ed. N. P. Tanner (London and Washington 1990), pp. 191–2 for Canon XX of 1123 Lateran Council, Eis Qui Hierosolymam; Ivo of Chartres, Epistolae, PL, 162, cols. 170–74, 176–7, nos. 168–70, 173.

42. Epistolae pontificum Romanorum ineditae, ed. Löwenfeld, no. 199, pp. 103–4; R. Hiestand, ‘The Papacy and the Second Crusade’, The Second Crusade, ed. Phillips and Hoch, p. 36; in general, Tyerman, Invention of the Crusades.

43. J. G. Rowe, ‘Paschal II, Bohemund of Antioch and the Byzantine Empire’, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, 49 (1966), 165–202; for a full account possibly based on eyewitness evidence, Orderic Vitalis, Ecclesiastical History, vi, 68–73, 100–104.

44. Orderic Vitalis, Ecclesiastical History, vi, 70–71.

45. Anna Comnena, Alexiad, p. 422, 424–34.

46. Orderic Vitalis, Ecclesiastical History, iv, 264–5.

47. J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, pp. 75–6.

48. For Urban’s post-Clermont letter to the Catalan counts equating Spain and Jerusalem, J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, p. 40. See below p. 662.

49. Historia Compostellana, España sagrada, ed. H. Florez, xx (Madrid 1791), 428, trans. Riley-Smith, Short History, p. 92; R. Fletcher, ‘Reconquest and Crusade in Spain’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th series, 38 (1987), 31–47. See below, Chapter 20.

50. S. Barton and R. Fletcher, World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest (Manchester 2000), p. 250.

51. Robert of Ely, De Vita S. Canuti Ducis, pp. 234–41; Jensen, ‘Denmark and the Second Crusade’, pp. 165–72.

52. On this affinity, Riley-Smith, First Crusaders, pp. 169–88.

53. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, sub anno 1128, English Historical Documents, ii, p. 195.

54. Historia Ducum Veneticorum, ed. H. Somerfeld, MGH SS, xiv (Hanover 1883), pp. 73–4; Translatio mirifici Martyris Isidori a Chio insula in civitate Venetam, RHC Occ., v, 322–3; William of Tyre, History, i, 548–56; ii, 7–21.

9: God’s Bargain: Summoning the Second Crusade

1. Ibn al-Qalanisi, Damascus Chronicle, p. 271.

2. Gregory the Priest’s Continuation of Matthew of Edessa’s Chronicle, Dostourian, Armenia and the Crusades, pp. 243–57; in general, H. A. R. Gibb, ‘Zengi and the Fall of Edessa’, History of the Crusades, ed. Setton, pp. 449–62.

3. Holt, Age of Crusades, p. 42 and generally pp. 38–45.

4. E. Sivan, ‘Réfugiés Syro-palestiniens’, p. 142; Hillenbrand, Crusades, p. 115; C. Hillenbrand, ‘“Abominable Acts”: The Career of Zengi’, The Second Crusade, ed. J. Phillips and M. Hoch (Manchester 2002), pp. 111–32, esp. pp. 120–27.

5. D. S. Richards, ‘Imad al-Din al-Isfahani’, Crusaders and Muslims in Twelfth-century Syria, ed. M. Shatzmiller (Leiden 1993), pp. 133–46.

6. Hillenbrand, Crusades, pp. 150–61 and, in general, pp. 89–170; N. Elisséef, ‘The Reaction of the Syrian Muslims after the Foundation of the First Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem’, Crusaders and Muslims, ed. Shatzmiller, pp. 162–72.

7. Sivan, ‘Réfugiés Syro-palestiniens’, esp. p. 145; Hillenbrand, Crusades, pp. 69–71, 78–9; 114–15; Holt, Age of Crusades, pp. 24–5, 27–8.

8. Hillenbrand, Crusades, pp. 108–10.

9. Hillenbrand, Crusades, p. 110–11 and note 35; Hillenbrand, ‘“Abominable Acts”’, p. 122.

10. Holt, Age of Crusades, p. 27; Elisséef, ‘Reaction of Syrian Muslims’, pp. 162–6; Hillenbrand, Crusades, pp. 69, 105–8; Richard, The Crusades, p. 124.

11. Otto of Freising, The Two Cities: A Chronicle of Universal History to the Year 1146 AD, ed. and trans. C. C. Mierow (Columbia 1928), pp. 440–3; R.-J. Lilie, Byzantium and the Crusader States, pp. 144–53; P. Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos 1143–1180 (Cambridge 1993), esp. pp. 37–51.

12. E. Caspar, ‘Die Kreuzzugsbullen Eugens III’, Neues Archive der Gesellschaft für ältere Deutsche Geschichtskunde, 45 (1924), 285–305 (text 300–305); J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, pp. 57–9.

13. R. W. Southern, ‘England’s First Entry into Europe’, Medieval Humanism and Other Studies (Oxford 1970), p. 147; cf. M. Pacaut, Louis VII et son royaume (Paris 1964), esp. pp. 221–3.

14. Walter Map, De Nugis Curialum, ed. C. N. L. Brooke and R. A. B. Mynors (Oxford 1983), pp. 450–51.

15. Otto of Freising, The Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa, trans. C. C. Mierow (Columbia 1953), p. 70; Odo of Deuil, De Profectione Ludovici VII in orientem, ed. and trans. V. G. Berry (Columbia 1948), pp. 6–7.

16. Abbreviationes Chronicorum of Ralph of Diceto, Opera historica, ed. W. Stubbs, Rolls Series (London 1876), i, 256; A. Grabois, ‘The Crusade of Louis VII’, Crusade and Settlement, ed. Edbury, pp. 94–104.

17. Cartulaire général de l’Yonne, ed. M. Quantin (Auxerre 1854–60), i, 428–9, no. 277; cf. Cartulaire du Chapitre de l’église métropolitaine Ste-Marie d’Auch, ed. C. Lacave la Plagne Barris (Paris and Auch 1899), pp. 65–6, no. 64; Archives administratives de la ville de Rheims, ed. P. Varin, i (Paris 1839), 318–20, no. 95.

18. Cartulaire de l’abbaye cardinale de la Trinité de Vendê me, ed. C. Metais (Paris 1893–7), ii, 353–5, no. 520.

19. Ralph of Diceto, Opera historia, i, 256–7; De Tributo Floriacensibus imposito, RHGF, xii, 94–5; cf. letter of John abbot of ‘Ferraricensis’ to Suger, RHGF, xv, 497 and Peter the Venerable to Louis VII, RHGF, xv, 641–3.

20. Odo of Deuil, De profectione, pp. 20–21.

21. Odo of Deuil, De profectione, pp. 6–9; Otto of Freising, Frederick, p. 70; in general, W. Williams, Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (Manchester 1935), pp. 262–88; V. G. Berry, ‘The Second Crusade’, History of the Crusades, ed. Setton, pp. 463–512 and, especially, G. Constable, ‘The Second Crusade as Seen by Contemporaries’, Traditio, 9 (1953), 213–79.

22. Bernard of Clairvaux, Letters, trans. B. S. James, 2nd edn (Stroud 1998), nos. 32, 216, 217, 395, 396; Snoek, Medieval Piety, pp. 114–15.

23. Otto of Freising, Frederick, p. 70.

24. RHGF, xv, 439–40; Bernard of Clairvaux, Letters, no. 323, to Eugenius III, beginning ‘God forgive you, what have you done?’

25. Odo of Deuil, De profectione, pp. 8–11; Bernard of Clairvaux, Letters, no. 391; cf. nos. 392–4.

26. Odo of Deuil, De profectione, pp. 8–9.

27. Ex Chronico Mauriniacensis, RHGF, xii, 88; letter from Bernard’s secretary, Nicholas, to the count and barons of Brittany, RHGF, xv, 607.

28. RHGF, xv, 607.

29. Bernard of Clairvaux, Letters, no. 323; for his itinerary, Williams, Bernard of Clairvaux, esp. pp. 268–81, 397–8; J. Phillips, ‘Bernard of Clairvaux, the Low Countries and the Lisbon Letter of the Second Crusade’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 48 (1997), pp. 485–97.

30. Papsturkunden für Kirchen im Heiligen Lande, ed. R. Hiestand (Göttingen 1985), pp. 193–5.

31. PL 185, cols. 373–419; Otto of Freising, Frederick, pp. 75–6.

32. Annales Rodenses, ed. G. H. Pertz, MGH, xvi (Hanover 1869).

33. Otto of Freising, Frederick, p. 74; Williams, Bernard of Clairvaux, p. 266.

34. Bernard of Clairvaux, Letters, no. 393; Otto Freising, Frederick, p. 74.

35. Rabbi Ephraim of Bonn, Sefer Zekhirah (The Book of Remembrance), Jews and the Crusaders, trans. Eidelberg, p. 122; in general on the attacks on Jews pp. 121–33; Otto of Freising, Frederick, p. 74.

36. RHGF, xv, 641–3; for William of Norwich, see R. Finucane, Miracles and Pilgrims (London 1977).

37. Bernard of Clairvaux, Letters, no. 393.

38. Ephraim of Bonn, Sefer Zekhirah, pp. 126–31.

39. Ephraim of Bonn, Sefer Zekhirah, p. 130; Chevalier, Mult Estes Guariz, Les Chansons de Croisade, ed. J. Bédier and P. Aubry (Paris 1909), p. 9.

40. Ephraim of Bonn, Sefer Zekhirah, pp. 123–4.

41. The phrase is Rabbi Ephraim’s, Sefer Zekhirah, p. 127; Otto of Freising, Frederick, p. 75 for Radulf at Mainz.

42. Ephraim of Bonn, Sefer Zekhirah, p. 124; Bernard of Clairvaux, Letters, no. 393.

43. Otto of Freising, Frederick, p. 74.

44. Ephraim of Bonn, Sefer Zekhirah, pp. 122–3, and for the persecution in general, pp. 121–33.

45. A. Momigliano, ‘A Medieval Jewish Autobiography’, History and Imagination, ed. H. Lloyd-Jones et al. (London 1981).

46. Annales Rodenses, MGH, xvi, 718.

47. PL, 185, col. 383; Annales Herbipolenses, MGH, xvi, 3 (for the bishop of Würzburg’s mission); F. Dolger, Regesten der Kaiserurkunden des Ostromischen Reiches, (Munich and Berlin 1924–65), ii, pp. 206–7, nos. 1348–50; for Franco-Byzantine diplomacy, RHGF, xv, 440–41; xvi, pp. 9–10.

48. Otto of Freising, Frederick, p. 78; in general, R. Hiestand, ‘Kingship and Crusade in Twelfth Century Germany’, England and Germany in the High Middle Ages, ed. A. Haverkamp and H. Vollrath (Oxford 1996), pp. 235–65; F. Lotter, ‘The Crusading Idea and the Conquest of the Region East of the Elbe’, Medieval Frontier Societies, ed. R. Bartlett and A. Mackay (Oxford 1989), pp. 267–306; J. Phillips, ‘Papacy, Empire and the Second Crusade’, The Second Crusade, ed. Phillips and Hoch, pp. 15–31.

49. Otto of Freising, Frederick, pp. 74–5; PL, 185, cols. 381–6.

50. Otto of Freising, Frederick, pp. 75–6.

51. PL, 185, col. 339.

52. Above notes 21 and 29; P. Jaffé, Regesta Pontificum Romanorum, ii (Leipzig 1888), 40–58 for Eugenius’s itinerary; R. Hiestand, ‘The Papacy and the Second Crusade’, Second Crusade, ed. Phillips and Hoch, pp. 32–53; Phillips, ‘Papacy, Empire and the Second Crusade’, ibid., pp. 18–19, 25–6.

53. Odo of Deuil, De profectione, pp. 10–13; RHGF, xv, 440–41; xvi, 9–10.

54. Odo of Deuil, De profectione, pp. 13–16.

55. Odo of Deuil, De profectione, pp. 32–3.

56. Chronicon Turonense, RHGF xii, 473; C. Devic and J. Vaissete, Histoire générale de Languedoc (Toulouse 1872–1904), iii, 754; v, c.29; Odo of Deuil, De profectione, pp. 78–9.

57. Apart from Quantum praedecessores, cf. Odo of Deuil, De profectione, pp. 58–9, 130–31.

58. Odo of Deuil, an eyewitness, pp. 14–19.

59. Otto of Freising, Frederick, pp. 78–9; Berry, ‘Second Crusade’, pp. 478–9.

60. Otto of Freising, Frederick, p. 76; Bernard of Clairvaux, Letters, no. 394.

61. PL, 180, cols. 1203–4.

62. Monumenta Corbeiensia, ed. P. Jaffé, Biblioteca rerum Germanicorum, i (Berlin 1865), 245; E. Christiansen, The Northern Crusades (2nd edn London 1997), pp. 50–59.

63. Otto of Freising, Frederick, pp. 74–6, 79, 102; Odo of Deuil, De profectione, pp. 50–51, 92–3.

64. John of Salisbury, Historia Pontificalis, ed. M. ChIbnall (London 1956), p. 55; Hiestand, ‘Papacy and Second Crusade’, pp. 38, 41–2.

65. Otto of Freising, Frederick, p. 79.

66. Odo of Deuil, De profectione, pp. 114–15 and, generally, passim; William of Tyre, History, xvi, 24; for Itier of Magnac, ii, 176–7 supplementing Odo of Deuil, De profectione, pp. 122–3.

67. Runciman, History of the Crusades, ii, 262; David, De Expugnatione Lyxbonensi, pp. 56–7 (mulieres).

68. Odo of Deuil, De profectione, pp. 6–7, 22–3, 24–5, 28–9, 54–5, 70–71, 74–9.

69. Most of the gossip is from John of Salisbury, Historia Pontificalis, pp. 54–6.

70. John of Salisbury, Historia Pontificalis, p. 56 for the count’s linguistic skills and friendship with Conrad III.

71. Odo of Deuil, De profectione, pp. 122–3; William of Tyre, History, ii, 176–7.

72. Bédier and Aubry, Chansons, p. 9.

73. Bernard of Clairvaux, Letters, no. 391.

74. David, De Expugnatione Lyxbonensi, pp. 52–7; for Templars, RHGF, xvi, 9–10; xv, 496; Odo of Deuil, De profectione, pp. 124–7; Tyerman, England and the Crusades, p. 31 and notes.

75. Löwenfeld, Epistolae pontificum, pp. 103–4, no. 199; Otto of Freising, Frederick, p. 76; local arrangements are dotted throughout surviving cartularies of religious houses.

76. Chartes et documents pour servir à l’histoire de l’abbaye de Saint-Maixent, ed. A. Richard, Archives historiques de Poitou, xvi (Poitiers 1886), 349–50, no. cccxxxi.

77. RHGF, xiv, 324.

78. RHGF, xii, 94–5.

79. Register of St Benet of Holme, ed. J. West, Norfolk Record Society, nos. 2 and 3 (1932), i, 54, 87, nos. 92, 155.

80. Annales Rodenses, MGH, xvi, 718–19.

81. Otto of Freising, Frederick, p. 102; RHGF xv, 496; Odo of Deuil, De profectione, pp. 122–5, 130–33, 136–7.

82. Phillips, ‘Bernard of Clairvaux and the Low Countries’.

83. For translations of Winand’s letter to the archbishop of Cologne and Duodechin’s to the abbot of Disibodenberg, S. Edgington, ‘Albert of Aachen, St Bernard and the Second Crusade’, The Second Crusade, ed. Phillips and Hoch, pp. 61–7.

84. Odo of Deuil, De profectione, pp. 20–21.

85. David, De Expugnatione Lyxbonensi, pp. 56–7, 104–5, 176–7.

86. Odo of Deuil, De profectione, pp. 124–7.

87. David, De Expugnatione Lyxbonensi, pp. 56–7 and note 5, pp. 57–9.

88. Chronicle of Pierre de Langtoft, ed. T. Wright, Rolls Series (London 1866–8), i, 495.

89. David, De Expugnatione Lyxbonensi, pp. 176–7.

90. Quantin, Cartulaire général de l’Yonne, i, 437, no. 283.

10: ‘The Spirit of the Pilgrim God’: Fighting the Second Crusade

1. Otto of Freising, Frederick, pp. 25–7; Helmold of Bosau, Cronica Slavorum, ed. J. M. Lappenberg and B. Smeidler, MGH (Hanover 1937), p. 115; The Chronicle of the Slavs, trans. F. J. Tschan (New York 1966), p. 172.

2. Helmold, Cronica, p. 118; Otto of Freising, Frederick, p. 130; Henry of Huntingdon, Historia Anglorum, ed. and trans. D. Greenway (Oxford 1996), pp. 752–3; Eugenius III’s bull Divina dispensatione, 11 April 1147, PL, 180, cols. 1,203–4; Bernard of Clairvaux, Letters, trans. James, no. 394.

3. Christiansen, The Northern Crusades, pp. 50–65; PL, 180, cols. 1,203–4; K. V. Jensen, ‘Denmark and the Second Crusade’, The Second Crusade, ed. Phillips and Hoch, pp. 164–5, 168 and refs.

4. Helmold of Bosau, Chronicle, pp. 187–8.

5. Helmold of Bosau, Chronicle, p. 180 and, for his account of the 1147 campaigns, pp. 170–82.

6. Vincent of Prague, Annales, ed. G. H. Pertz, MGH SS (Hanover 1861), pp. 662–3.

7. Vincent of Prague, Annales, p. 663.

8. What follows is based on the eyewitness accounts by Raol, De Expugnatione Lyxbonensi, ed. David; and by the writers of the so-called ‘Lisbon Letter’, ed. S. Edgington, ‘Albert of Aachen, St Bernard and the Second Crusade’, The Second Crusade, ed. Phillips and Hoch, pp. 62–7; cf. M. Bennett, ‘Military Aspects of the Conquest of Lisbon’, ibid., pp. 71–89.

9. David, De Expugnatione, pp. 160–61.

10. David De Expugnatione, pp. 100–104, 110–11 for Veils; for Flemish recruitment, J. Phillips, ‘Bernard of Clairvaux and the Low Countries’, pp. 485–97.

11. David, De Expugnatione, pp. 68–9, 98–9, 100–101; Edgington, ‘Lisbon Letter’, p. 63; Phillips ‘Bernard of Clairvaux and the Low Countries’, but the letter from Bernard to Afonso, Bernard of Clairvaux, Letters, no. 469, is probably a forgery.

12. David, De Expugnatione, pp. 78–9; and, for his sermon, pp. 68–85.

13. Possibly Raol himself, David, De Expugnatione, pp. 154–5.

14. Bédier and Aubry, Chansons, p. 8.

15. David, De Expugnatione, pp. 60–61, 68–85, 102–3.

16. David, De Expugnatione, pp. 100–11 for debate; for Raol’s authorship and career, H. Livermore, ‘The Conquest of Lisbon and its Author’, Portuguese Studies, 6 (1990), 1–16.

17. David, De Expugnatione, pp. 110–15.

18. David, De Expugnatione, pp. 136–7.

19. Loc. cit.

20. Edgington, ‘Lisbon Letter’, p. 64.

21. For the Pisan, Edgington, ‘Lisbon Letter’, p. 64; David, De Expugnatione, pp. 162–3.

22. David, De Expugnatione, pp. 176–7 for pillage and murder.

23. David, De Expugnatione, pp. 178–81 and note 5 for Gilbert of Hastings.

24. Edgington, ‘Lisbon Letter’, p. 67, cf. Duodechin version, MGH SS, xvii, 28; Annales Elmarenses, Les Annales de Saint-Pierre de Gand et de Saint-Amand, ed. P. Grierson (Brussels 1937), pp. 111–12; G. Constable, ‘A Note on the Route of the Anglo-Flemish Crusaders of 1147’, Speculum, 28 (1953), 525–6.

25. N. Jaspert, ‘Tortosa and the Crusades’, The Second Crusade, ed. Phillips and Hoch, esp. pp. 90–91, 95, 97–100 and refs.

26. Odo of Deuil, De Profectione, esp. pp. 88–97; Helmold of Bosau, Chronicle, p. 174; John Kinnamos, Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus, trans. C. M. Brand (New York 1976), p. 68; Conrad III to Wibald of Corvey, late Feb. 1148, Die Urkunden der Deutschen Könige und Kaiser, ix, Die Urkunden Konrads III, ed. F. Hausmann, MGH (Vienna, Cologne, Graz 1969), no. 195; in general, Berry, ‘Second Crusade’, History of the Crusades, ed. Setton, i, 483–512.

27. Kinnamos, Deeds, p. 60.

28. Odo of Deuil, De Profectione, pp. 94–5.

29. J. W. Nesbitt, ‘The Rate of March of Crusading Armies in Europe’, Traditio, 19 (1963), 177; for the German march, Otto of Freising, Frederick, pp. 79–81; Kinnamos, Deeds, pp. 58–68; Odo of Deuil, De Profectione, pp. 32–5, 40–51.

30. For Manuel’s policy, Lilie, Byzantium and the Crusader States, pp. 145–63; Magdalino, Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, pp. 46–53.

31. Odo of Deuil, De Profectione, pp. 94–5.

32. Hausmann, Urkunden Konrads III, no. 195.

33. For a detailed if biased eyewitness account, Odo of Deuil, De Profectione, pp. 20–143.

34. Odo of Deuil, De Profectione, pp. 40–41.

35. Odo of Deuil, De Profectione, pp. 58–9, 54–5 for attacks on the bishop of Langres and William of Warenne.

36. Odo of Deuil, De Profectione, pp. 68–9.

37. Odo of Deuil, De Profectione, pp. 68–73.

38. Odo of Deuil, De Profectione, pp. 70–71.

39. Odo of Deuil, De Profectione, pp. 76–83.

40. Kinnamos, Deeds, p. 70.

41. The French march across Asia Minor is vividly and painfully described by Odo of Deuil, De Profectione, pp. 82–143; cf. Kinnamos, Deeds, pp. 70–71.

42. RHGF, xvi, 149; O City of Byzantium, Annals of Nicetas Choniates, trans. H. J. Margoulias (Detroit 1984), pp. 38–9.

43. Kinnamos, Deeds, pp. 70–71; Hausmann, Urkunden Konrads III, no. 195.

44. Odo of Deuil, De Profectione, pp. 122–3; cf. pp. 136–41.

45. Odo of Deuil, De Profectione, pp. 118–21; pp. 124–7 for Templar fraternity.

46. William of Tyre, History, ii, 179.

47. Ibn al-Qalanisi, Damascus Chronicle, pp. 281–2.

48. William of Tyre, History, ii, 179–80.

49. Otto of Freising, Frederick, pp. 101–2; William of Tyre, History, ii, 181–2; and note 24 above.

50. Hausmann, Urkunden Konrads III, no. 195; on the options in 1148, M. Hoch, ‘The Choice of Damascus as the Objective of the Second Crusade’, Autour de la première Croisade, ed. M. Balard (Paris 1996), pp. 359–69; idem, ‘The Crusaders’ Strategy against Fatimid Ascalon’, The Second Crusade and the Cistercians, ed. M. Gervers (New York 1992), pp. 119–29; idem, ‘The Price of Failure’, The Second Crusade, ed. Phillips and Hoch, pp. 180–200; A. J. Forey, ‘The Failure of the Siege of Damascus in 1148’, Journal of Medieval History, 10 (1984), 13–23.

51. William of Tyre, History, ii, 181–3.

52. John of Salisbury, Historia Pontificalis, pp. 52–3; cf. the dark hints in William of Tyre, History, ii, 180–81.

53. Otto of Freising, Frederick, p. 102; Hausmann, Urkunden Konrads III, no. 195.

54. For the Acre council and the campaign of 1148, William of Tyre, History, ii, 184–95; cf. Otto of Freising, Frederick pp. 102–3; for the Jerusalem royal feud, H. E. Mayer, ‘Studies in the History of Queen Melisende of Jerusalem’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 26 (1972), 93–182.

55. Ibn al-Qalanisi, Damascus Chronicle, p. 283 and, for the siege, pp. 282–7.

56. Hausmann, Urkunden Konrads III, no. 197; William of Tyre, History, ii, 190–94; Otto of Freising, Frederick, p. 103; John of Salisbury, Historia Pontificalis, pp. 57–8; Berry, ‘Second Crusade’, p. 509.

57. Hausmann, Urkunden Konrads III, no. 197; William of Tyre, History, ii, 195.

58. Otto of Freising, Frederick, pp. 105–6.

59. RHGF, xv, 502, 508, 508–9, 509; John of Salisbury, Historia Pontificalis, p. 60; Kinnamos, Deeds, p. 72.

60. For the 1150 plan, Bernard of Clairvaux, Letters, nos. 399–400; T. Reuter, ‘The “Non-crusade” of 1149–50’, The Second Crusade, ed. Phillips and Hoch, pp. 150–63; Stephen of Paris, Fragmentum Historicum de Ludovico VII, RHGF, xii, 89–91.

61. Eugenius III’s letter, PL, 180, col. 1414; Hadrian IV’s letter, ibid., 188, cols. 1,615–17.

62. Annales Herbipolenses, MGH SS, xvi, 5. In general see E. Siberry, Criticism of Crusading 1095–1274 (Oxford 1985).

63. Vincent of Prague, Annales, p. 663.

64. Otto of Freising, Frederick, pp. 103–6; for a translation of De Consideratione, II (PL, 182, cols. 741–5), J. Brundage, The Crusades: A Documentary Survey (Milwaukee 1962), pp. 122–4, p. 124 for quotation; Bernard of Clairvaux, Letters, no. 399.

65. Vita Prima of Bernard by his former notary Geoffrey, PL, 185, cols. 366–7.

66. William of Tyre, History, ii, 193.

67. Otto of Freising, Frederick, p.27; Helmold of Bosau, Chronicle, p. 174.

68. Brundage, Crusades, p. 123.

11: ‘A Great Cause for Mourning’: The Revival of Crusading and the Third Crusade

1. Gregory VIII, Audita Tremendi, October/November 1187, in response to news of the battle of Hattin, J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, p. 65.

2. PL, 197, cols. 187–8; cf. William of Tyre, History, ii, 360, 417–23, 425, 434–5.

3. Gerald of Wales, De Principis instructione, Opera, ed. J. S. Brewer, Rolls Series (London 1861–91), viii, 207.

4. Ralph Niger, De Re Militari, pp. 193–4; cf. pp. 186–7 for other comments on the vices of the Jerusalemites.

5. William of Tyre, History, ii, 407–8.

6. For an equivocal eyewitness account, Ibn al-Qalanisi, Damascus Chronicle, pp. 317–21.

7. Ibn Munir of Tripoli, trans. Hillenbrand, Crusades, p. 150 and, in general, pp. 118–67; for the bathing incident, Holt, Age of Crusades, p. 44.

8. Translated in Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 71, and pp. 70–72 for a flattering appreciation.

9. Taken from the inscription on Nur al-Din’s Aleppo/Jerusalem minbar, trans. Hillenbrand, Crusades, p. 152 and generally pp. 151–61.

10. William of Tyre, History ii, 235, and pp. 253–4 for the Cyprus raid.

11. On Manuel’s Antioch policy, P. Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, pp. 66–76; Lilie, Byzantium and the Crusader States, pp. 174–83.

12. Beha al-Din Ibn Shaddad, The Rare and Excellent History of Saladin, trans. D. S. Richards (Aldershot 2002), p. 45.

13. Accounts differ between Saladin’s own, M. Lyons and D. Jackson, Saladin: The Politics of Holy War (Cambridge 1984), p. 47 and the version possibly given later by Saladin to his friend Ibn Shaddad, Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, p. 47.

14. According to Ibn al-Athir, Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 69; cf. Ibn Shaddad’s more specious version, Saladin, p. 49.

15. The best modern biography is Lyons and Jackson, Saladin. His full name translates as ‘the king, the governor, the goodness of the world and the Faith, father of Mustafa, Joseph, son of Ayyub, son of Shadhi the Kurd’.

16. Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi, trans. H. Nicholson, The Chronicle of the Third Crusade (Aldershot 2001), p. 27 and note. (Hereafter Itinerarium).

17. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, p. 117 and note 26.

18. Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, ll. 5,499–5,500, p. 227; J. Gillingham, Richard I (New Haven and London 1999), pp. 188, 216, 262.

19. Gabrieli, Arab Historians, pp. 69, 119, 141; for Saladin’s reputation in the Islamic world, Hillenbrand, Crusades, pp. 193–5, 592–600.

20. Lyons and Jackson, Saladin, pp. 87–90, 105–6; B. Lewis, The Assassins (London 1967), chap. 5.

21. Recorded by his secretary, Imad al-Din Isfahani, Gabrieli, Arab Historians, pp. 171–2.

22. M. Lyons, ‘Saladin’s Hattin Letter’, The Horns of Hattin, ed. Kedar, pp. 208–12.

23. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, pp. 28–9.

24. Tibble, Monarchy and Lordships, esp. pp. 134–5, 166.

25. William of Tyre, History, ii, 314.

26. William of Tyre, History, ii, 486–9; Kedar, ‘The General Tax of 1183’, pp. 339–45.

27. Most recently, B. Hamilton, The Leper King.

28. John of Ibelin, Livre des Assises c. xiii, ed. P. Edbury, John of Ibelin and Kingdom of Jerusalem (Woodbridge 1997), pp. 118–20.

29. The Old French Continuation of William of Tyre, trans. P. Edbury, The Conquest of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade, ed. idem (Aldershot 1998), p. 33; for the siege of Jerusalem, ibid., pp. 55–67; Mas Latrie, Chronique d’Ernoul, p. 175; L’Estoire de Eracles, RHC Occ., ii (Paris 1859), p. 70; Nicholson, Chronicle of the Third Crusade, pp. 38–9 (fourteen is the number of knights given here); Libellus de expugnatione Terrae Sanctae per Saladinum, ed. J. Stevenson, Rolls Series (London 1875), pp. 241–51.

30. Roger of Howden, Gesta Regis Henrici Secundi, ed. W. Stubbs, Rolls Series (London 1867), i, 328.

31. As suggested by H. E. Mayer, ‘The Beginnings of King Amalric of Jerusalem’, Horns of Hattin, ed. Kedar, pp. 121–35.

32. William of Tyre, History, ii, 296–8 where the king is also accused of financial greed, a common charge against hard-pressed rulers.

33. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, p. 90; Hamilton, The Leper King, p. 34, note 62.

34. On the state of Baldwin’s health and the diagnosis of leprosy, see Piers Mitchell, ‘An Evaluation of the leprosy of King Baldwin IV’, in Hamilton, The Leper King, pp. 245–58.

35. P. Edbury, Propaganda and Faction in the Kingdom of Jerusalem’, Crusaders and Muslims, ed. Shatzmiller, pp. 173–89; cf. Runciman, History of the Crusades, ii, 403–73.

36. On William of Tyre’s prejudices, P. Edbury and J. Rowe, William of Tyre: Historian of the Latin East (Cambridge 1988).

37. The chronicle attributed to Ernoul; see now Edbury, Conquest of Jerusalem, pp. 1–8.

38. William of Tyre, History, ii, 417–34.

39. Hamilton, The Leper King, p. 139, note 50 for references.

40. Hamilton, The Leper King, p. 167, notes 40–41.

41. See the reconstruction in Hamilton, The Leper King, pp. 179–85.

42. William of Tyre, History, ii, 491–8 for the events of the 1183 campaign; Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, pp. 61–2.

43. William of Tyre, History, ii, 498–504, 507–9.

44. Edbury, Conquest of Jerusalem, pp. 11–16. For a convincing reconstruction of the events of 1184–5 based largely on the variant continuations of William of Tyre, Hamilton, The Leper King, pp. 198–210.

45. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, pp. 68–9.

46. Edbury, Conquest of Jerusalem, pp. 24–30, 154–5; despite the continuations of William of Tyre’s sympathetic glossing towards Raymond, the inference is unavoidable.

47. Ibn Jubayr, Travels, trans. R. J. C. Broadhurst (London 1952), p. 301 and generally on Outremer in the autumn of 1184, pp. 315–25.

48. For the events culminating in the battle at the springs of Cresson, Gabrieli, Arab Historians, pp. 114–18; Edbury, Conquest of Jerusalem, pp. 30–34, 156–7; Stevenson, Libellus de expugatione Terrae Sanctae, pp. 211–17. For the legends, Nicholson, Chronicle of the Third Crusade, pp. 25–6.

49. On the Hattin campaign, Gabrieli, Arab Historians, pp. 118–39; Edbury, Conquest of Jerusalem, pp. 34–49, 158–62; Libellus de expugnatione Terrae Sanctae, trans. Brundage, Crusades, pp. 153–63; Lyons and Jackson, Saladin, pp. 258–64; Lyons, ‘Saladin’s Hattin Letter’; R. C. Smail, ‘The Predicaments of Guy of Lusignan 1183–7’,Outremer, ed. Kedar et al., pp. 159–76; and, for the topography and details of the fighting itself, especially, B. Z. Kedar, ‘The Battle of Hattin Revisited’, Horns of Hattin, pp. 190–207.

50. Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 130.

51. Ibn al-Athir, Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 123.

52. Peter of Blois, Passio Reginaldis Principis Antiocheni, PL, 207, cols. 957–76.

53. Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 125.

54. For the siege and fall of Jerusalem, Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, pp. 77–8; Gabrieli, Arab Historians, pp. 139–75; Edbury, Conquest of Jerusalem, pp. 55–65, 162–3, 165–6.

55. Edbury, Conquest of Jerusalem, pp. 73–6.

56. For full references Gillingham, Richard I, p. 87, note 36.

57. Translated by J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, pp. 64–7.

12: The Call of the Cross

1. Pipe Roll 1 Richard I, ed. J. Hunter (London 1844), p. 20; Pipe Roll 3 Richard I, The Great Rolls of the Pipe (Pipe Roll Society, London 1884–), pp. 28, 33, 58, 76.

2. For references, see Tyerman, Invention of the Crusades, esp. p.27.

3. Text in J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, pp. 64–7; cf. Benedict of Peterborough, recte Roger of Howden, Gesta Henrici Secundi, ii, 15–19.

4. Itinerarium, pp. 43–4; Edbury Conquest of Jerusalem, pp. 73–5 for an account in a continuation of the chronicle of William of Tyre.

5. Gillingham, Richard I, p. 87, note 36 for a full list of references, esp. Ralph of Diceto.

6. Historia de expeditione Friderici Imperatoris, ed. A. Chroust, Quellen zur Geschichte des Kreuzzuges Kaiser Friedrichs I, MGHS (Berlin 1928), esp. pp. 5–15.

7. De Profectione Danorum in Hierosolymam, Scriptores Minores Historiae Danicae, ed. M. C. Gertz (Copenhagen 1970 reprint), ii, 464–8; in general pp. 457–92.

8. Gervase of Canterbury, Historical Works, ed. W. Stubbs, Rolls Series (London 1879–80), i, 389.

9. Historia de expeditione, Chroust, Quellen, p. 14, cf. p. 12 for Henry of Albano’s summons ‘ad curiam Iesu Christi’; Gilbert of Mons, Chronicon Hanoniense, ed. G. H. Pertz, MGHS (Hanover 1869), pp. 182–4.

10. Epistolae Cantuariensis, Chronicles and Memorials of Richard I, ed. W. Stubbs, Rolls Series (London 1865), ii, nos. 158, 167; cf. Gervase of Canterbury, Historical Works, i, 394 et seq. for the local context.

11. For the French nobles, Rigord, Oeuvres, ed. H. F. Delaborde, i, 83–4 and 84–5 for the March assembly in Paris; for Anglo-Norman sources for the Gisors meeting, Tyerman, England and the Crusades, p. 392 note 7 and, for English preparations in general, pp. 57–85.

12. Gerald of Wales, Journey, p. 201.

13. Roger of Howden, Gesta Henrici Secundi, ii, 44–5.

14. Itinerarium, p. 143.

15. E.g. the French landowner Heraclius of Montboissier, Recueil des actes de Philippe Auguste, i, ed. H. F. Delaborde et al. (Paris 1916), no. 286 (Dec. 1189).

16. Henry of Albano, Tractatus de peregrinatione civitate Dei, PL, 204, col. 353.

17. Peter of Blois, De Hierosolymitana Peregrinatione Acceleranda, PL, 207, col. 1063 and generally cols. 1,058–70, which is part of a longer piece, originally combined with Dialogus inter regem Henricum secundum et abbatem Bonnevallensem, PL, 207, cols. 975–88; cf. his other great crusade propaganda work, De passione Reginaldi, PL, 207, cols. 957–76.

18. Alan of Lille, Sermo de cruce domini, Textes inédits, ed. M. T. Alverny, Etudes de philosophie médiévale, 52 (Paris 1965), pp. 281–2.

19. J. and L. Riley Smith, Crusades, p. 66.

20. Historia de expeditione, Chroust, Quellen, p. 10.

21. Gerald of Wales, Journey, p. 114.

22. De Profectione Danorum, Gertz, Scriptores, p. 467.

23. Rigord, Oeuvres, p. 84.

24. Cartulaire de l’abbaye Notre-Dame de Bonnevaux, ed. U. Chevalier, Bulletin de l’Académie Delphinale, 4th series, ii (Grenoble 1889, dated 1887–8), no. 310, pp. 143–4.

25. For these tracts see above, notes 16 and 17.

26. Gerald of Wales, Opera, viii, 207.

27. Ralph Niger, De Re Militari, esp. pp. 194–9.

28. Reported to Henry II’s court by Peter of Blois, Roger of Howden, Gesta Henrici Secundi, ii, 15.

29. De profectione Danorum, Gertz, Scriptores, p. 467; cf. K. Skovgaard-Petersen, A Journey to the Promised Land (Copenhagen 2001), esp. pp. 75–6.

30. A. Macquarrie, Scotland and the Crusades 1095–1560 (Edinburgh 1985), pp. 27–32.

31. Gerald of Wales, Journey, p. 184.

32. Ordinatio de predicatione S. Crucis in Angliae, ed. R. Röhricht, Quinti Belli Sacri Scriptores Minores, Société de l’Orient Latin, ii (Geneva 1879), p. 24 and generally pp. 1–26.

33. Rigord, Oeuvres, p. 99.

34. Gerald of Wales, De Rebus a se gestis, trans. H. Butler, The Autobiography of Giraldus Cambrensis (London 1937), pp. 99–101. (Hereafter Gerald of Wales, Autobiography.)

35. Ibn al-Athir in Gabrieli, Arab Historians, pp. 182–3; Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, p. 125.

36. Gerald of Wales, Journey, pp. 1–209.

37. Gerald of Wales, Journey, p. 75; Opera, i, 74; Autobiography, p. 99.

38. Gerald of Wales, Autobiography, pp. 99–101, 104.

39. Historia de expeditione, Chrust, Quellen, pp. 11–13, 14; Rigord, Oeuvres, pp. 84–5.

40. Gerald of Wales, Journey, pp. 114, 185–6; Opera, vi, 55 ‘conversi sunt’.

41. Cf. Roger of Howden’s account of a miraculous appearance of Christ on the cross in the sky near Dunstable, Gesta Henrici Secundi, ii, 47.

42. Ordinatio, passim, esp. pp. 18–26; for Gerald of Wales’s anecdote, Journey, p. 172.

43. Roger of Howden, Gesta Henrici Secundi, ii, 26–8; for identity of Berthier, J. W. Baldwin, The Government of Philip Augustus (Berkeley and Los Angeles 1986), pp. 462, note 38 and 572 note 30.

44. Conon of Béthune, Ahi! Amours, con dure departie, Bédier and Aubry, Chansons, no. iii, pp. 32–5; cf. pp. 45–7, Bien me Deusse Targier.

45. Actes des Comtes de Namur 946–1196, ed. F. Rousseau (Brussels 1936), no. 28, pp. 61–4.

46. Ralph Niger, Chronica, ed. H. Krause (Frankfurt 1985), p. 288. For details of Frederick’s crusade, Historia de expeditione, Chroust, Quellen, passim.

47. Roger of Howden, Chronica, iii, 8; for Philip II’s deals, L. Delisle, Catalogue des Actes de Philippe Auguste (Paris 1856), no. 327A; Rigord, Oeuvres, p. 99; Delaborde et al., Recueil des actes de Philippe Auguste, i, no. 252; for Richard, Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 75–85.

48. Ralph Niger, Chronica, p. 288; Historia de expeditione, Chroust, Quellen, p. 96.

49. Rigord, Oeuvres, p. 106, 116–17; Ambroise, Crusade of Richard ll. 4,575–99, 4,686–90; Itinerarium, p. 204; Roger of Howden, Gesta Henri Secundi, ii, 176; Richard of Devizes, Chronicle, ed. J. T. Appelby (London 1963), pp. 43–4; Gillingham, Richard I, p. 166.

50. Roger of Howden, Gesta Henri Secundi, ii, 32.

51. Jocelin of Brakelond, Chronicle, ed. H. E. Butler (London 1949), pp. 39–40, 51, 53–4, 123, 138–9; Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 64–5, 78.

52. Roger of Howden, Gesta Henri Secundi, ii, 47–8 for a crooked collector in England, a Templar Gilbert of Hogestan; for a poetic accusation of official greed and fraud, perhaps by Conon of Béthune, Bien me Deusse Targier, Bédier and Aubry, Chansons, p. 45.

53. Delaborde et al., Recueil des Actes de Philippe Auguste, i, no. 252.

54. Delaborde et al., Recueil des Actes de Philippe Auguste, i, no. 237.

55. Itinerarium, p. 148.

56. Roger of Howden, Gesta Henri Secundi, ii, 32.

57. Historical Manuscripts Commission, Report on Various Collections, i (London 1901), pp. 235–6.

58. Itinerarium, pp. 48, 142.

59. Above, note 24.

60. Itinerarium, p. 48.

61. Arnold of Lübeck, Chronica Slavorum, ed. G. H. Pertz, MGHS (Hanover 1868), p. 127; cf. pp. 126–8.

62. Richard of Devizes, Chronicle, pp. 10–11, 15, 27–8 for backsliders.

63. E.g. Geoffrey FitzPeter, William Brewer and Hugh Bardolf, as well as Justiciar Hugh du Puiset, Tyerman, England and the Crusades, p. 65.

64. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 83–4.

65. Roger of Howden, Gesta Henri Secundi, ii, 132–3; cf. Richard of Devizes, Chronicle, p. 17.

66. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 64–75 for the details that follow.

67. Itinerarium, p. 48.

68. Gerald of Wales, Journey, p. 204.

69. Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, l. 5680; cf. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 61–3.

70. Historical Manuscripts Commission, Fifth Report, Appendix (London 1872), p. 462.

71. Roger of Howden, Gesta Henri Secundi, ii, 30. For Normans, Itinerarium, p. 99; Rigord, Oeuvres esp. pp. 83–4 for French.

72. Gilbert of Mons, Chronicon Hanoniense, ed. L. Vanderkindere (Brussels 1904), pp. 206–7.

73. Translation from Historia de expeditione by E. N. Johnson, ‘The Crusades of Frederick Barbarossa and Henry VI’, History of the Crusades, ed. Setton, ii (Madison 1969), p. 90, and for German recruitment that follows, pp. 50, 89–93.

74. Historia de expeditione, p. 22 and, for recruits, pp. 18–24; Itinerarium, p. 77.

75. B. Arnold, German Knighthood 1050–1300 (Oxford 1985), pp. 24, 101.

76. Narratio Itinere Navalis ad Terram Sanctam, Historia de expeditione, pp. 179–96; Chronica Regia Colonesis, ed. G. Waitz, MGHS (Hanover 1880), p. 140 and pp. 142–4.

77. Historia de expeditione, pp. 96–8.

13: To the Siege of Acre

1. Itinerarium, p. 44; cf. p. 160 and note 62 refs.

2. The story is in the thirteenth-century Old French Continuation of William of Tyre, trans. Edbury, Conquest of Jerusalem, p. 66.

3. There is, at the time of writing, no modern scholarly account of the Third Crusade. See the general books by Mayer, Runciman, Riley-Smith, Setton (general editor), vol. 2.

4. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, p. 81 and passim for Saladin and the Third Crusade; on Saladin, Lyons and Jackson, Saladin.

5. Thietmar, Peregrinatio, ii, 37. For Frankish rural settlement, Ellenblum, Settlement, and pp. 66–71 for Casal Imbert.

6. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, pp. 90–91, 93, 95–7, 108; Edbury, Conquest of Jerusalem, pp. 71–3.

7. Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 182.

8. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, passim, and p. 80 for his entry into Saladin’s service.

9. Runciman, History of the Crusades, iii, 22.

10. Edbury, Conquest of Jerusalem, p. 169; Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, p. 91.

11. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, p. 106.

12. The chronology of arrivals is largely derived from Itinerarium, pp. 71–83, possibly based on an eyewitness report.

13. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, p. 104.

14. Waitz, Chronica Regia Colonensis, pp. 140–44; Itinerarium, pp. 73–4.

15. Historia de expeditione, Chroust, Quellen, pp. 23–4; Itinerarium, pp. 74–7, 81–3.

16. Itinerarium, p. 74; and pp. 25–6 and 34 for the uplifting stories of Templars Jakelin de Mailly and Nicholas at the battles of Cresson and Hattin in 1187 current at the siege of Acre.

17. Itinerarium, pp. 81, 83.

18. Narratio Itineris Navalis ad Terram Sanctam, Historia de expeditione, pp. 179–96; Itinerarium, p. 74.

19. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, p. 106.

20. Ibn al-Athir in RHC Or., II-i, p. 15; Abu Shama, The Book of the Two Gardens, RHC Or., iv, 412.

21. Gabrieli, Arab Historians, pp. 204–6.

22. Itinerarium, p. 89; cf. Imad al-Din’s shocked view of women warriors, Gabrieli, Arab Historians, pp. 206–7.

23. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, pp. 118–20; Itinerarium, pp. 94–6; Edbury, Conquest of Jerusalem, p. 171.

24. Edbury, Conquest of Jerusalem, p. 94.

25. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, pp. 106, 113–17, 121–2, 125 for the reception in Saladin’s camp of news of German progress.

26. Itinerarium, p. 49; loc. cit. pp. 49–68 for a German source on Frederick’s crusade and, for the most detailed contemporary account, Historia de expeditione, pp. 1–115.

27. From Henry, provost of Schäftlarn, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, MS Vat. Lat. 2001 fol. 1 recto.

28. Historia de expeditione, p.39; Arnold of Lübeck, Chronica Slavorum, pp. 130–31; Itinerarium, p. 60; J. W. Nesbitt, ‘The Rate of March’, pp. 178–9.

29. Arnold of Lübeck, Chronica Slavorum pp. 10–21.

30. Historia de expeditione, pp. 15–16; Waitz, Chronica Regia Colonesis, p. 140; for spurious letters of defiance between Frederick and Saladin, Itinerarium, pp. 49–54.

31. Henry of Albano, Tractatus de peregrinatione, PL, 204, col. 360.

32. Itnerarium, p. 55.

33. Historia de expeditione, pp. 24–5; Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, pp. 114–16.

34. Historia de expeditione, pp. 85, 86; Die Urkunden der Deutchen Könige und Kaiser, x, pt IV, Die Urkunden Friedrichs I, ed. H. Appelt, MGH (Hanover 1990), pp. 301, 303.

35. In general, Angold, Byzantine Empire; iden, The Fourth Crusade (London 2003); Magdalino, Empire of Manuel I Komnenos; Lilie, Byzantium and the Crusader States.

36. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, pp. 121–2.

37. A fifth was created at Philipoppolis, Historia de expeditione, pp. 34–5.

38. O City of Byzantium, Annals of Nicetas Choniates, trans. H. J. Margoulias (Detroit 1984), pp. 220–26. (Hereafter Nicetas.)

39. Die Urkunden Friedrichs I, pp. 302–6; cf. his letter of the same period to Leopold of Austria, pp. 306–7 and his earlier correspondence with Henry, pp. 301–2.

40. Historia de expeditione, p. 71.

41. Nicetas, pp. 233–4.

42. Epistola de Morte Friderici Imperatoris, Historia de expeditione, p. 175; Iitnerarium, pp. 60–61.

43. Edbury, Conquest of Jerusalem, p. 89, but cf. p. 76 for an opposite memory of Saladin fortifying these strongholds.

44. Historia de expeditione, pp. 91–2; Epistola de Morte, pp. 177–8; Itinerarium, pp. 65–6; Ibn al-Athir, in Gabrieli, Arab Historians, pp. 209–10; Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, pp. 113–17; Edbury, Conquest of Jerusalem, pp. 87–8.

45. Itinerarium, p. 67; Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, p. 125.

46. Itinerarium, p. 106; Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, ll. 3625–60, pp. 162–3.

47. For the marriage of Conrad and Isabella, Edbury, Conquest of Jerusalem, pp. 95–7, 171, 172–4; Itinerarium, pp. 100–102, 121–6; Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, pp. 177–80; Imad al-Din, Conquête de la Syrie, trans. H. Masse (Paris 1972), pp. 105–6.

48. Edbury, Conquest of Jerusalem, pp. 89–90; cf. H. E. Mayer, Crusades, p. 142 and note 71, p. 304.

49. Edbury, Conquest of Jerusalem, pp. 171–2.

50. Itinerarium, p. 143; this echoes the outrage of observers such as Henry of Albano and Peter of Blois.

51. In general on the Franco-English crusade, see Gillingham, Richard I, pp. 85–154; Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 57–85; the main chroniclers include the Itinerarium; Ambroise; the Englishmen Roger of Howden, Ralph of Diceto and William of Newburgh; and the Frenchman Rigord.

52. The Complete Peerage, by G. E. C. (reprint Gloucester 1987), iv, 194 note a.

53. Itinerarium, p. 99, cf. pp. 74, 76, 82, 96–8; the Latin text is in Itinerarium peregrinorum et gesta Regis Ricardi, ed. W. Stubbs, Rolls Series (London 1864), p. 93; for Londoners, Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 73–4, 183.

54. Itinerarium, p. 108.

55. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 68, 70–72, 179.

56. Delaborde et al., Recueil des actes de Philippe Auguste, i, 305–6, no. 252 (although some doubt on the authenticity of this act exists; see Baldwin, The Government of Philip Augustus, pp. 53–4 and note 86).

57. Gillingham, Richard I, p. 114.

58. Gerald of Wales, Journey, p. 184; Tyerman, England and the Crusades, p. 60.

59. Roger of Howden, Gesta Henrici Secundi, ii, 132–3; Richard of Devizes, Chronicle, p. 17.

60. For all the English financial and logistic preparations, Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 75–83.

61. Roger of Howden, Gesta Henrici Secundi, ii, 90; William of Newburgh, Historia rerum Anglicarum, ed. H. C. H. Hamilton (London 1856), ii, 121; Richard of Devizes, Chronicle, p. 9.

62. Richard of Devizes, Chronicle, p. 15; a monk of St Swithun’s, Winchester, he may have been close to royal servants in the city involved in the organization of the expedition; cf. Roger of Howden, Gesta Henrici Secundi, ii, 117.

63. Richard of Devizes, Chronicle, p. 28 for the size of the fleet.

64. Roger of Howden, Gesta Henrici Secundi, ii, 116–24 for a full account of Richard’s fleet March – August 1190.

65. Roger of Howden, Chronica, iii, 8.

66. Hunter, Pipe Roll 1 Richard I, p. 5.

67. Rigord, Oeuvres i, 99; Delaborde, et al., Recueil des actes de Philippe Auguste, i, no. 292; Codice diplomatico della repubblica de Genova, ed. C. Imperiale de Sant’Angelo (Genoa 1936–42), ii, 366–8.

68. Roger of Howden, Gesta Henrici Secundi, ii, 113, 129; Rigord, Oeuvres, i, 106.

69. Roger of Howden, Gesta Henrici Secundi, ii, 83–4; William of Newburgh, Historia Chronicles, ed. Howlett, i, 294–9.

70. William of Newburgh, Historia, Chronicles, ed. Howlett, i, 308–24 has the fullest narrative; cf. R. B. Dobson, The Jews of Medieval York and the Massacre of 1190, Borthwick Papers, no. 45 (York 1974).

71. Chazan, European Jewry, pp. 139–42, 170–71.

72. Roger of Howden, Gesta Henrici Secundi, ii, 92–3.

73. Roger of Howden, Gesta Henrici Secundi, ii, 162–3.

74. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, p. 67 and p. 395 note 56 for refs.

75. Itinerarium, p. 151; Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, p. 44; Gillingham, Richard I, p. 128 and note 13.

76. Itinerarium, p. 151 for the collapsing bridge; for Philip see Roger of Howden, Gesta Henrici Secundi, ii, 157–9.

77. Roger of Howden, Gesta Henrici Secundi, ii, 112 and pp. 112–15 and 124–6 for Richard’s cruise to Sicily; Howden was by this time in the king’s company.

78. Itinerarium, p. 167; Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, p. 64. These two closely linked accounts of Richard’s journey east seem to reflect versions of events derived from eyewitnesses. For an excellent modern narrative of events in Sicily, Gillingham, Richard I, pp. 131–44.

79. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, pp. 145, 146; Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, pp. 191–2; Itinerarium, pp. 203–4.

80. Above, notes 62 and 63; the most vivid account of the Cyprus campaign is by Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, pp. 74–108; cf. P. Edbury, The Kingdom of Cyprus and the Crusades 1191–1374 (Cambridge 1991), pp. 5–9.

81. ‘Epistolae Cantuarienses’, Chronicles and Memorials of the Reign of Richard I, Rolls Series (London 1864–5), ii, 347.

82. For the Cyprus deals, Edbury, Cyprus, pp. 7–9; Gillingham, Richard I, pp. 152–3, 196–7.

83. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, pp. 150–51; cf. Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, pp. 108–18; Itinerarium, pp. 195–203; Roger of Howden, Gesta Henrici Secundi, ii, 167–9.

14: The Palestine War 1191–2

1. Edbury, Conquest of Jerusalem, p. 98 and, for the Palestine war generally, pp. 98–9, 104–21.

2. The main narratives for the events of 1191–2 by or derived closely from eyewitnesses include Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, pp. 145–234; Itinerarium, pp. 201–380; Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, pp. 114–18, 191–448; Roger of Howden, Gesta Henrici Secundi, ii, 169–92, 230–31. The best secondary accounts are Gillingham, Richard I, pp. 155–221, a vigorous, critical but admiring apologia for Richard I, and Lyons and Jackson, Saladin, pp. 295–361. On the siege, R. Rogers, Latin Siege Warfare in the Twelfth Century (Oxford 1992), pp. 212–35.

3. Itinerarium, pp. 208–10.

4. Roger of Howden, Gesta Henri Secundi, ii, 170; Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, p. 196; Itinerarium, p. 204; Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, p. 153.

5. Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, pp. 207–8; cf. pp. 203–4 for Philip doing the same thing; cf. Itinerarium, pp. 210, 213–14.

6. Edbury, Conquest of Jerusalem, pp. 108–9.

7. Roger of Howden, Gesta, Henrici Secundi, ii, 159; Itinerarium, p. 190.

8. Itinerarium, p. 202; Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, p. 115 for ‘cœur de lion’.

9. Roger of Howden, Gesta Henrici Secundi, ii, 171–2.

10. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, pp. 153, 155; Itinerarium, pp. 83, 92.

11. Itinerarium, p. 214, cf. p. 204; Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, p. 208.

12. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, p. 162, cf. pp. 156–7.

13. Richard of Devizes, Chronicle, pp. 46–7.

14. Edbury, Conquest of Jerusalem, p. 179.

15. Edbury, Conquest of Jerusalem, p. 179; for Philip’s reputation, see Gillingham, Richard I, pp. 164–6; for his return journey to Europe, see the account by Roger of Howden, who went with him as one of Richard’s spies, Gesta Henrici Secundi, ii, 192–9, 203–6, 227–30.

16. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, p. 163.

17. Edbury, Conquest of Jerusalem, pp. 179–80, to the abbot of Cîteaux on 1 October 1191.

18. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, pp. 164–5.

19. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, pp. 165.

20. Itinerarium, pp. 218–19.

21. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, p. 173; for mutilation and execution, pp. 168–9.

22. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, pp. 173–4.

23. For the battle, Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, pp. 249–73; Itinerarium, pp. 247–61; for the dragon banner, Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, p. 250 and, for the armed cart or tower on which it was carried, Itinerarium, p. 237 and Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, p. 170; armed war wagons became familiar in the early fifteenth century, for instance in the Hussite crusades.

24. Edbury, Conquest of Jerusalem, p. 180.

25. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, p. 165 and notes 53 and 54, p. 411.

26. Roger of Howden, Gesta Henrici Secundi, ii, 185–6; Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, p. 229; Itinerarium, p. 232; Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, p. 165.

27. See Gillingham, Richard I, pp. 179–80; cf. Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, p. 277, ll. 7,025–30.

28. The letter of 11 October 1191 is translated in Edbury, Conquest of Jerusalem, pp. 181–2.

29. For these diplomatic excursions, Ibn Shaddad, pp. 187–8, 191–2, 194–6, and Gillingham, Richard I, pp. 21, 184–9 and refs.

30. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, p. 196.

31. Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, p. 291 and generally, pp. 289–91; Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, p. 193.

32. Ibn al-Athir, RHC Or., ii, pt i, 55–6.

33. Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, p. 303.

34. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, p. 197; Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, p. 307; Itinerarium, p. 287.

35. Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, p. 303, ll. 7,783–4, cf. Ambroise, L’Estoire de la Guerre Sainte, ed. G. Paris (Paris 1897), col. 208.

36. Saladin’s view was confided to Bishop Hubert Walter of Salisbury in September 1192, Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, p. 442.

37. Gillingham, Richard I, p. 192; cf. D. Pringle, ‘King Richard I and the Walls of Ascalon’, Palestine Exploration Quarterly, 116 (1984).

38. Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, p. 290; Itinerarium, p. 272. Richard’s great-grandfather in the male line was Count Fulk V of Anjou, who became king of Jerusalem and the father of Baldwin III and Amalric.

39. For a full discussion, Gillingham, Richard I, pp. 197–202, 226–7.

40. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, p. 198.

41. Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, pp. 355–64; Itinerarium, pp. 321–6.

42. Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, pp. 368–9; Itinerarium, p. 328.

43. Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, pp. 393–4; Itinerarium, p. 346.

44. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, p. 211.

45. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, pp. 211–12; the intelligence was excellent, cf. Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, pp. 377–9.

46. Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, p. 393; Itinerarium, p. 346.

47. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, p. 212.

48. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, p. 223 and pp. 219–26; Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, pp. 399–426; Itinerarium, pp. 349–69.

49. Sine feminalibus in Latin, Stubbs, Itinerarium, p. 415.

50. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, pp. 228–33.

51. Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, pp. 363–4; Itinerarium, p. 325.

52. Ambroise, Crusade of Richard, p. 444.

53. Ibn Shaddad, Saladin, p. 26; William of Newburgh, Historia, Chronicles, ed. Howlett, p. 374; cf. pp. 372–81, 379–81 for general reflections.

54. Ambroise, Estoire de la Guerre Sainte, ed. G. Paris (Paris 1927), l. 12,255, col. 329.

55. Albert von Johansdorf, a German minnesinger, quoted by Siberry, Criticism of Crusading, p. 193.

56. Gislebertus of Mons, Chronicon Hanoniense, ed. L. Vanderkindere (Brussels 1904), p. 272.

15: ‘Ehud’s Sharpened Sword’

1. Judges 3:16; Ehud was an Israelite hero who killed Eglon, king of the Moabites.

2. Sermon 1213×1218 for the Fifth Crusade, trans. by J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, p. 134.

3. J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, pp. 77–8 (letter to Waldemar II of Denmark for ‘the Lord’s war’), 79 (letter to Philip II 1207), 119–24 (Quia Maior), p. 119 for the Matthew text: the italics are mine; Selected Letters of Pope Innocent III concerning England 1198–1216, ed. C. R. Cheney and W. H. Semple (London 1953), p. 4 (‘ab obsequio Iesu Christi’, describing Richard I’s crusade); cf. p. 91, to Leopold VI of Austria, who has taken the cross ‘to follow Christ’.

4. J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, p. 123.

5. Translation by C. Morris, The Holy Land, Holy Lands and Christian History, ed. R. N. Swanson, Studies in Church History, 36 (Woodbridge 2000), p. xvi.

6. Gerald of Wales, Journey, p. 114; James of Vitry, Letters, ed. R. B. C. Huygens (Leiden 1960), p. 77; Gunther of Pairis, Historia, p. 66, cf. Capture, p. 73; Caesarius of Heisterbach, Dialogus Miraculorum, ed. J. Strange (Cologne, Bonn and Brussels 1851), i, 12–13; James of Vitry, Historia Occidentalis, ed. J. F. Hinnebusch (Friburg 1972), pp. 20–21.

7. Cheney and Semple, Selected Letters of Innocent III, pp. 207, 208, 216, 218, 219.

8. Quoted in J. Gilchrist, ‘The Lord’s War as the Proving Ground of Faith; Pope Innocent III and the Propagation of Violence’, Crusaders and Muslims, ed. Shatzmiller, p. 69 and generally pp. 65–83.

9. On this see Tyerman, Invention of the Crusades, pp. 27, 50, 76–83, 86; M. Markowski, ‘Crucesignatus: Its Origins and Early Usage’, Journal of Medieval History, 10 (1984).

10. J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, p. 139.

11. J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, pp. 119–29.

12. Tyerman, Invention of the Crusades, pp. 14–15 and note 35; the 1198 bull sent to England is included in Roger of Howden, Chronica, iv, 70–75.

13. J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, pp. 145–8.

14. J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, p. 123, and pp. 119–24 in general for what follows.

15. J.-M. Canivez (ed.), Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Cisterciensis ab anno 1116 ad annum 1786 (Louvain 1933–41), i, 122, 172, 181–2, 208, 210, 268, 270, etc.; Snoek, Medieval Piety, pp. 168–9 and refs.

16. J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, p. 124; Councils and Synods with Other Documents Relating to the English Church, gen. ed. F. M. Powicke (Oxford 1964–81), ii, 175.

17. The letter from the patriarch of Jerusalem on behalf of the First Crusaders at Antioch, January 1098, is translated in Peters, The First Crusade pp. 283–4; Roger of Howden, Chronica, iii, 317–19; iv, 165–7; cf. C. Cheney, Hubert Walter (London 1967), pp. 124–32.

18. Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts, Fifth Report, Appendix (London 1872), p. 462; idem, Report on Various Collections, i (London 1901), 235–6; Roger of Howden, Chronica, iv, 108–12; Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 168–72.

19. Coutumiers de Normandie, ed. E. J. Tardif (Rouen 1881–1903), iii, 91; cf. for general discussions of privileges, J. Brundage, Canon Law and the Crusader; Tyerman, Invention of the Crusades, pp. 55–62; idem, England and the Crusades, pp. 187–228; S. Lloyd, English Society and the Crusade 1216–1307 (Oxford 1988).

20. Delaborde, et al., Receuil des actes de Philippe Auguste, nos. 228, 1360; Rigord, Oeuvres, i, 84–8.

21. Curia Regis Rolls (London and Woodbridge 1922–), iii, 193.

22. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 71, 135, 204, 219, 221.

23. F. M. Stenton, ‘Early Manumissions at Staunton’, English Historical Review, 26 (1911), 95–6; P. R. Hyams, Kings, Lords and Peasants (Oxford 1980), p. 32 and note 37.

24. Curis Regis Rolls, x, 293; Bracton’s Note Book, ed. F. W. Maitland (London 1887), ii, 159–60, 196; J. Brundage, ‘The Crusader’s Wife: A Canonistic Quandary’, Studia Gratiana, 12 (1967), 427–41.

25. Cheney and Semple, Selected Letters of Innocent III, pp. 144–7.

26. Christiansen, The Northern Crusades, p. 98.

27. J. D. Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, xxii (Venice 1778), cols. 231–3.

28. For a full contemporary account, Arnold of Lübeck, Chronica Slavorum, pp. 195–212; cf. Waitz, Chronica Regia Colonensis, pp. 157–61.

29. Nicetas, pp. 261–3.

30. Jaffé, Regesta Pontificum Romanorum, ii, nos. 17,226, 17,270, 17,274; Ralph of Diceto, Ymagines Historiarum, Opera Historica, ed. Stubbs, ii, 132–5; Waitz, Chronica Regia Colonensis, p. 157.

31. Edbury, Conquest of Jerusalem, p. 139 and, generally, pp. 136–45.

32. Arnold of Lübeck, Chronica Slavorum, p. 195.

33. On these negotiations, Edbury, Cyprus, p. 33 and refs.

34. Die Register Innocenz’ III, ed. O. Hageneder et al. (Graz-Cologne, Rome and Vienna 1964–), i, no. 336; cf. Roger of Howden, Chronica, iv, 70–75.

35. Geoffrey of Villehardouin, The Conquest of Constantinople, trans. M. R. B. Shaw (London 1963), p. 29.

36. Runciman, History of the Crusades, iii, 130.

37. J. Crosland, William Marshal: Knighthood, War and Chivalry (London 2002), pp. 78–81; Histoire de Guillaume le Maréchal, ed. P. Meyer (Paris 1891–1901), ll. 11,373–688.

38. See Innocent III’s letter, 5 November 1198, C. Tyerman (ed.), An Eyewitness History of the Crusades, Folio Society (London 2004), iv, The Fourth Crusade, 4.

39. Roger of Howden, Chronica, iv, 76–7.

40. James of Vitry, Historia Occidentalis, pp. 89–90; cf. pp. 96–101; for Fulk, see Roger of Howden, Chronica, iv, 76–7; Ralph of Coggeshall, Chronicon Anglicanum, ed. J. Stevenson, Rolls Series (London 1875), pp. 80–83, 130, 131 for a very flattering account; Winchester Annals, Annales Monastici, ed. Luard, ii, 67–8 for a hostile view; Villehardouin, Conquest, pp. 29, 38; Robert of Clari,The Conquest of Constantinople, trans. E. H. McNeal (New York 1966), pp. 31, 34, 38.

41. According to Gunther of Pairis, Capture, p. 67.

42. Robert of Clari, Conquest, p. 31 and p. 38 for the alleged use of Fulk’s money; James of Vitry, Historia Occidentalis, p. 101. For other accounts of Fulk, his controversial personality and the disposal of his money, see the Devastatio Constantinopolitana, the account of the crusade by the so-called Anonymous of Soissons, and the colourful chronicle by the Cistercian Alberic of Trois Fontaines, trans. A. J. Andrea, Contemporary Sources for the Fourth Crusade (Leiden 2000), pp. 213, 233, 293; and Mas-Latrie, Chronique d’Ernoul, p. 233.

43. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 160–70 and refs.

44. Roger of Howden, Chronica, iv, 111; J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, pp. 145–8.

45. Innocent III, Hageneder et al., Register, i, no. 555; ii, no. 212; E. Kennan, ‘Innocent III and the First Political Crusade’, Traditio, 27 (1971), 231–49; N. Housley, ‘Crusades against Christians’, Crusade and Settlement, ed. Edbury, pp. 27–8.

16: The Fourth Crusade: Preparations

1. Villehardouin, Conquest, p. 93. In general, D. E. Queller and T. F. Madden, The Fourth Crusade: The Conquest of Constantinople (Philadelphia 1997); M. Angold, The Fourth Crusade (London 2003).

2. At least once he rather belatedly found out about the violence and pillage, see his letter of 12 July 1205, translated in Andrea, Sources, pp. 163–8.

3. Andrea, Sources, p. 294.

4. Villehardouin, Conquest, pp. 29–31.

5. J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, pp. 145–8.

6. For Germany, Gunther of Pairis, Capture, pp. 67–72 and p. 149 note 28 and ref. For the British Isles, Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 96, 160, 162, 163, 167, 168, 170; A. Macquarrie, Scotland and the Crusades, pp. 32–3.

7. Andrea, Sources, pp. 19–21.

8. Ralph of Coggeshall, trans. Andrea, Sources, p. 280; Mas-Latrie, Chronique d’Ernoul, p. 338; cf. Devastatio Constantinopolitana, trans. Andrea, Sources, p. 213.

9. Gunther of Pairis, Capture, pp. 67–77, 149 note 28; placing the sermon less plausibly given the subsequent chronology of Martin’s crusade in 1200, C. Maier, ‘Kirche, Kreuz und Ritual’, Deutches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters, 55 (1999); Villehardouin, Conquest, pp. 38–9, 51.

10. Gunther of Pairis, Capture, p. 68.

11. Villehardouin, Conquest, p. 29.

12. For biographical information, J. Longnon, Les Compagnons de Villehardouin (Geneva 1978).

13. Robert of Clari, Conquest, pp. 33–4, 102, 117–18.

14. Deeds of the Bishops of Halberstadt, trans. Andrea, Sources, p. 246 and, generally, pp. 246–64.

15. Andrea, Sources, p. 250.

16. Hugues de Berzé, S’Onques nus hom pour dure departie, written in Lombardy in June 1202, Bédier and Aubry, Chansons, pp. 126–9.

17. Andrea, Sources, p. 186.

18. Villehardouin, Conquest, pp. 36–7; Robert of Clari, Conquest, p. 34; J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, p. 147 (‘in stipendia bellatorum’ in Latin, Roger of Howden, Chronica, iv, 111); Andrea, Sources, p. 188.

19. Villehardouin, Conquest, pp. 40–41, 52–3.

20. A. Wauters (ed.), Table chronologique des chartes et diplômes imprimés concernant l’histoire de la Belgique (Brussels 1866–1965), iii, 174.

21. Andrea, Sources, p. 247.

22. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, p. 96 and p. 400, note 35 and refs.; Baldwin, The Government of Philip Augustus, pp. 96 and 480 note 62.

23. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, p. 191.

24. According to the contemporary Devastatio Constantinopolitana, Andrea, Sources, p. 213.

25. Collection des principaux cartulaires du diocese de Troyes, vi, Cartulaire de Montier-le-Celle, ed. C. Lalone (Paris-Troyes 1882), pp. 10–11, no. 9; Pèlerins Champenois en Palestine, ed. A. de Barthelemy, Revue de l’Orient Latin, 1 (1898), p. 366.

26. Chartes de Chapitre de Sainte-Waudru de Mons, ed. L. Devillers (Brussels 1899–1913), i, no. XLV, pp. 84–6.

27. Röhricht, Regesta, pp. 202–3; for the possible reply suggesting negotiation not war, J. Bongars (ed.), Gesta Dei Per Francos (Hanover 1611), pp. 1,125–9.

28. For the text of the treaty, G. L. Tafel and G. M. Thomas, Urkunden zur alteren Handelsund Staatsgeschichte der Republik Venedig (Vienna 1856–7), i, 362–73; cf. Villehardouin, Conquest, p. 33.

29. Villehardouin, Conquest, pp. 40, 52–3.

30. Andrea, Sources, pp. 33–9; cf. J. M. Powell, ‘Innocent III and Alexius III: a Crusade Plan that Failed’, The Experience of Crusading, i, ed. M. Bull and N. Housley (Cambridge 2003), pp. 96–102.

31. Andrea, Sources, pp. 46–54, 61–4.

32. Villehardouin, La Conquête de Constantinople, ed. E. Faral, i (Paris 1961), p. 14.

33. Robert of Clari, Conquest, p. 37; Roger of Howden, Chronica, iv, 73.

34. The Anonymous Monk of St Nicholas of the Lido, Historia de Translatione, RHC Occ., v, 253–78 and above pp. 255–6.

35. Tafel and Thomas, Urkunden, i, 362–73; Villehardouin, Conquest, pp. 33–5. Cf. the insightful discussion by J. Pryor, ‘The Venetian Fleet for the Fourth Crusade and the Diversion to Constantinople’, Experience of Crusading, ed. Bull and Housley, i, 103–23.

36. E.g. the Anonymous of Soissons reflecting, perhaps, the views of Bishop Nivelo concerning the Venetians’ ‘excessive’ demands, Andrea, Sources, p. 233; cf. Robert of Clari, Conquest, pp. 37–41.

37. Robert of Clari, Conquest, p. 40.

38. Pryor, ‘Venetian Fleet’, esp. pp. 114–17 and note 6; Nicetas, pp. 295–6; the Devastatio Constantinopolinana and Hugh of St Pol, Andrea, Sources, pp. 186–201, 212–21.

39. Angold, Fourth Crusade, pp. 52–8 is a sensitive reading.

40. Nicetas, p. 295.

41. Andrea, Sources, p. 23.

42. William of Tyre, History, i, 552–6.

43. Villehardouin, Conquest, pp. 35–41 for this and what follows.

44. Gunther of Pairis, Capture, pp. 76–7; Villehardouin, Conquest, p. 45.

45. Villehardouin, Conquête, p. 42.

46. Villehardouin, Conquête, p. 42 cf. Queller and Madden, Fourth Crusade, pp. 25–7 and refs. for a different view of Boniface as a ‘brilliant choice’; I am grateful to Dr Jean Dunbabin for her thoughts on the French royal dimension.

47. Gesta Innocenti, chap. 83, PL, ccxiv, col. 132; Villehardouin, Conquest, p. 38; Baldwin, The Government of Philip Augustus, p. 481 note 1. King Philip could have argued he was formally involved, his putative approval having been anticipated in the Treaty of Venice, Tafel and Thomas, Urkunden, i, 367.

48. Gunther of Pairis, Capture, pp. 107–8. Boniface’s fame was also gilded by a personal publicist, his friend the troubadour Raimbaut of Vaqueiras.

49. Villehardouin, Conquest, pp. 37–8; Tafel and Thomas, Urkunden, i, 369.

50. Villehardouin, Conquest, p. 45.

51. Gunther of Pairis, Capture, pp. 76–7; Villehardouin, Conquest, p. 45; Devastatio, probably reflecting a Rhinelander experience, Andrea, Sources, p. 213.

52. Villehardouin, Conquest, p. 41.

17: The Fourth Crusade: Diversion

1. Andrea, Sources, p. 166 and for the whole letter, pp. 163–8.

2. The main narratives are Villehardouin, Robert of Clari and Gunther of Pairis; important shorter accounts by Hugh of St Pol, the Anonymous of Soissons, the author of The Deeds of the Bishops of Halberstadt and the Devastatio Constantinopolitana, are translated in Andrea, Sources, pp. 186–264; the useful Chronicle of Novgorod is translated by J. Gordon, Byzantion, 43 (1973), 297–311; cf. Innocent’s letters and his Gesta in PL, 214.

3. Villehardouin, Conquest, p. 42; Robert of Clari, Conquest, p. 40.

4. Andrea, Sources, p. 213.

5. Robert of Clari, Conquest, p. 40; Villehardouin, Conquest, p. 42.

6. Villehardouin, Conquest, p. 43; Robert of Clari, Conquest, p. 41; Andrea, Sources, pp. 213, 233; Gunther of Pairis, Capture, pp. 77–8.

7. Robert of Clari recorded 36,000 marks, Conquest, p. 41.

8. Villehardouin, Conquest, pp. 43–4.

9. Robert of Clari, Conquest, p. 42.

10. Villehardouin, Conquest, p. 43; Andrea, Sources, p. 250 and pp. 35–48; for Innocent’s correspondence cf. Gunther of Pairis, Capture, p. 78.

11. Villehardouin, Conquest, pp. 47–8.

12. Robert of Clari, Conquest, p. 44.

13. Peter of Les Vaux-de-Cernay, The History of the Albigensian Crusade, trans. W. A. and M. D. Sibly (Woodbridge 1998), p. 58, and pp. 57–9 for the events at Zara in general; Peter was Abbot Guy’s nephew.

14. Villehardouin, Conquest, p. 54.

15. For the term, Villehardouin, Conquête, ed. Faral, p. 200; Robert of Clari, La Conquête de Constantinople, ed. P. Lauer (Paris 1924), p. 81; Andrea, Sources, pp. 188, 213. For clarifying thoughts and discussion of this and related points on the structure of the army, I am indebted to a paper by Jonathan Riley-Smith given in Oxford in January 2004.

16. Villehardouin, Conquête, ed. Faral, p. 100.

17. Villehardouin, Conquête, ed. Faral, pp. 148–52.

18. Gunther of Pairis, Capture, p. 78.

19. Robert of Clari, Conquête, p. 16.

20. PL, 214, cols. 1,123–5; Andrea, Sources, pp. 35–9.

21. Villehardouin, Conquest, p. 50.

22. For useful surveys, Angold, Byzantine Empire and Fourth Crusade; Magdalino, Empire of Manuel I Comnenus; J. Harris, Byzantium and the Crusades (London 2003).

23. Villehardouin, Conquest, p. 99.

24. Nicetas, p. 296.

25. As in C. Brand, Byzantium Confronts the West (Cambridge, Mass. 1968); but cf. more nuanced views, e.g. A. M. Bryer’s in D. Baker (ed.), Relations between East and West in the Middle Ages (Edinburgh 1973).

26. Quoted in Angold, Byzantine Empire, p. 150.

27. Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, ed. H. R. Luard, Rolls Series (London 1872–84), v, 284–7.

28. Nicetas, pp. 323–4.

29. Andrea, Sources, pp. 163–8.

30. PL, 214, cols. 130 et seq., chap. 82; cols. 1,123–5; Villehardouin, Conquest, pp. 44–5.

31. See note 30.

32. See his correspondence, Andrea, Sources, pp. 35–98.

33. Andrea, Sources, p. 188.

34. Gunther of Pairis, Capture, pp. 90–91.

35. Villehardouin, Conquest, p. 52; Robert of Clari, Conquête, p. 40.

36. Devastatio Constantinopolitana, Andrea, Sources, p. 216.

37. Andrea, Sources, pp. 46–59.

38. Andrea, Sources, p. 48.

39. Andrea, Sources, pp. 62–3.

40. For the disputes at Corfu, Villehardouin, Conquest, pp. 54–6; Robert of Clari, Conquest, pp. 58–9, 66; Andrea, Sources, pp. 188 et seq., 216 et seq., 250.

41. Nicetas, p. 297; Andrea, Sources, p. 254.

42. Andrea, Sources, p. 255.

43. The phrase in Innocent III’s in his letter of November 1202, above, notes 20 and 30.

44. Andrea, Sources, p. 199.

45. Robert of Clari, Conquest, p. 67.

46. Nicetas, p. 301.

47. Villehardouin, Conquest, pp. 74–5.

48. Robert of Clari, Conquest p. 81, who has 36,000 marks as the debt against Villehardouin’s possibly more informed 34,000, p. 43.

49. Villehardouin, Conquest, pp. 76–7.

50. Villehardouin, Conquête, ed. Faral, p. 200.

51. Villehardouin, Conquest, p. 77.

52. Villehardouin, Conquest, p. 78; Hugh of St Pol, Andrea, Sources, pp. 199–201.

53. Villehardouin, Conquest, p. 78–9; Robert of Clari, Conquest pp. 81–2; Devastatio Constantinopolitana, Andrea, Sources, p. 218; Nicetas, p. 304.

54. Nicetas, pp. 302–4.

55. Nicetas, p. 305.

56. Nicetas, pp. 304–6; Villehardouin, Conquest pp. 81–3; Robert of Clari, Conquest p. 82.

57. Nicetas, pp. 306–12, p. 309 for the murder; Villehardouin, Conquest, pp. 83–6; Andrea, Sources, p. 105, for the lurid details in Baldwin of Flanders’s circular after his election as emperor.

58. Anonymous of Soissons, writing before 1207 with material from Bishop Nivelo, Andrea, Sources, p. 234.

59. Tafel and Thomas, Urkunden, i, 445; Andrea, Sources, pp. 140–44; Villehardouin, Conquest, p. 88; Robert of Clari, Conquest, pp. 91–2.

60. Villehardouin, Conquest, pp. 84–5; Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum, xxii, cols. 231–3.

61. Robert of Clari, Conquest, p. 94.

62. Villehardouin, Conquest, pp. 91–5; Robert of Clari, Conquest, pp. 99–102; Nicetas, pp. 314–25; Nicholas Mesarites in Brand, Byzantium, p. 269; Gunther of Pairis, Capture, pp. 106–13; Andrea, Sources, pp. 100–112, 221, 235–7, 255, 261–3; Chronicle of Novgorod, pp. 309–10.

63. Gunther of Pairis, Capture, p. 107, perhaps special pleading to exonerate his abbot of guilt by association; a usefully calm discussion is by Angold, Fourth Crusade, pp. 111–13 and refs.

64. The phrase is Gunther of Pairis’s, describing his abbot, Capture, p. 111; the figures are discussed in Queller and Madden, Fourth Crusade, pp. 294–5; cf. Villehardouin, Conquest pp. 94–5.

65. Angold, Fourth Crusade, pp. 111–12; cf. Nicetas, pp. 323–5.

66. Robert of Clari, Conquête, p. 81 for the phrase ‘quemun de l’ost’; Robert of Clari, Conquest, pp. 100–102.

67. Villehardouin, Conquest, pp. 94–5; Devastatio Constantinopolitana, Andrea, Sources, p. 221; Robert of Clari, Conquest, pp. 101–2.

68. Villehardouin, Conquest p. 93.

69. Andrea, Sources, pp. 100–112. For the Latin Empire, Angold, Fourth Crusade, part 2, esp. pp. 113–50; P. Lock, The Franks in the Aegean 1204–1500 (Harlow 1995); D. Jacoby, ‘The Encounter of Two Societies’, American Historical Review, 78 (1973), 873–906.

70. PL, 215, cols. 1,372–5, of March 1208; the initiative may have come from Theodore Lascaris; see Angold, Fourth Crusade, pp. 195–8.

71. Robert of Clari, Conquest, pp. 86–8.

72. Alberic of Trois Fontaines, Andrea, Sources, p. 306 and note.

73. Angold, Fourth Crusade, pp. 148, 237–40.

74. Gunther of Pairis, Capture, pp. 109–12, 119–27; Angold, Fourth Crusade, pp. 228–47.

75. Andrea, Sources, pp. 235–7, 261–3; Robert of Clari, Conquest p. 5.

76. Ralph of Coggeshall, Chronicon Anglicanum, pp. 201–3, trans. Andrea, Sources, pp. 288–90. In general, M. Barber, ‘Western Attitudes to Frankish Greece in the Thirteenth Century’, Latins and Greeks in the Eastern Mediterranean after 1204, ed. B. Arbel et al. (London 1989), pp. 111–28.

77. Andrea, Sources, p. 108.

78. Runciman, History of the Crusades, iii, 477.

18: The Albigensian Crusades 1209–29

1. Peter of Les Vaux-de-Cernay, Historia Albigensis, translated as The History of the Albigensian Crusade by W. A. and M. D. Sibly (Woodbridge 1998), p. 197. (Hereafter PVC.)

2. In general, in English, A. P. Evans, ‘The Albigensian Crusades’, History of the Crusades, ed. Setton, ii, 277–324; W. L. Wakefield, Heresy, Crusade and Inquisition in Southern France, 1100–1250 (London 1974); J. Sumption, The Albigensian Crusade (London 1978); M. Barber, The Cathars (London 2000).

3. Mainly on the evidence of mishaps and losses, including the death of Louis VIII, Roger of Wendover, Flores Historiarum, ed. H. G. Hewlett, Rolls Series (London 1886–9), ii, 315.

4. Wakefield, Heresy, p. 245.

5. Barber, Cathars, passim; for general surveys, M. D. Lambert, Medieval Heresy (2nd edn Oxford 1992); idem, The Cathars (Oxford 1998); R. I. Moore, The Origins of European Dissent (Oxford 1985).

6. William of Newburgh, Historia, ed. Howlett, pp. 131–4; J. Sayers, Innocent III (London 1994), p. 157 and note 55.

7. P. Biller, ‘The Cathars of Languedoc and Written Materials’, Heresy and Literacy 1000–1350, ed. P. Biller and A. Hudson (Cambridge 1994), p. 63 and, generally, pp. 61–82.

8. For a summary, see L. M. Paterson, The World of the Troubadours (Cambridge 1993), pp. 249–52 and refs.

9. William Pelhisson, Chronicle, trans. Wakefield, Heresy, p. 210.

10. William of Puylaurens, Chronicle, trans. W. A. and M. D. Sibly (Woodbridge 2003), p. 12 (hereafter WP); Barber, Cathars, pp. 21–2 and note 43, and passim for Sacconi; Wakefield, Heresy, pp. 139, 143 and 192 note 4 for Robert; PVC, p. 18 for Theodoric.

11. See the important article by B. Hamilton, ‘Wisdom from the East’, Heresy and Literacy, pp. 38–60.

12. For the St Félix Council, Barber, Cathars, esp. pp. 21–2 and 71–3.

13. Wakefield, Heresy, pp. 68–81.

14. WP, p. 25.

15. WP, pp. xxix – xxx and notes for a discussion of the term.

16. WP, p. 22.

17. Paterson, World of Troubadours, pp. 70–71; Barber, Cathars, pp. 55–8.

18. Wakefield, Heresy, p. 52.

19. La Chanson de la croisade contre les Albigeois, trans. J. Shirley, The Song of the Cathar Wars (Aldershot 1996), pp. 84–5. (Hereafter Song.)

20. Decree 27.

21. Gervase of Canterbury, Historical Works, i, 270–71.

22. Barber, Cathars, p. 52 and note 62.

23. PVC, p. 117; WP, p. 40; Song, p. 41.

24. A point made in order to damn Raymond VI by WP, pp. 16–18.

25. Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum, xxii, cols. 231–3.

26. WP, p. 12 and note 36 to refs. to the narratives of the 1181 expedition.

27. Ketzer und Ketzerbekampfung im Hochmittelalter, ed. J. Fearns (Göttingen 1968), pp. 61–3.

28. PVC, p. 8.

29. On Innocent III, Barber, Cathars, esp. pp. 115–20; Wakefield, Heresy, pp. 86–91.

30. PL, 215 cols. 358–60 for Arnold Aimery’s appointment; col. 362 for talk of the spiritual virtue of the ‘material sword’.

31. See, for example, PVC, pp. 16–22; WP, pp. 23–9.

32. PVC, p. 19.

33. Innocent’s letter is translated in J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, pp. 78–80.

34. PVC, pp. 31–8 for Innocent III’s account; cf. Song, p. 13 for the culprit.

35. PVC, p. 33.

36. PVC, pp. 31–8.

37. See papal letters in PL, 215, nos. clvi–clviii; Siberry, Criticism of Crusading, p. 107 and note 215.

38. Recueil des Chartes de l’abbaye de Cluny, ed. Bruel, v, nos. 4,452–3, pp. 826–8.

39. PVC, p. 116.

40. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, p. 164 and ref.

41. Quoted Riley-Smith, Oxford History of the Crusades, pp. 10–11.

42. Sigeberti Gemblacensis chronica auctarium Mortui Maris, ed. G. H. Pertz, MGH SS, vi (Hanover 1844), p. 467.

43. N. P. Tanner, Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils (London and Washington 1990), p. 234.

44. WP, pp. 35–6, 39; Song, p. 32.

45. PVC, p. 97.

46. Loc. cit.

47. Roger of Wendover, Flores, ii, 312–13.

48. Anecdotes historiques, légendes et apologues d’Etienne de Bourbon, ed. A. Lecoy de la Marche (Paris 1877), pp. 36–7.

49. PVC, p. 209.

50. Translated in PVC, Appendix F, p. 308.

51. PVC, pp. 250–51 and note 29; Wakefield, Heresy, p. 73.

52. For a clear narrative, Sumption, pp. 77–87.

53. PL, 216, cols. 97–9.

54. PVC, p. 56.

55. PVC, p. 60.

56. PVC, pp. 44–5 and note 75 and refs.; Song, pp. 13–18; WP, p. 32 (misdates Raymond’s overtures to Philip II and Otto IV).

57. Translated WP, Appendix A, pp. 127–9; for a full discussion in English of the massacre and the sources, PVC, Appendix B, pp. 289–93.

58. WP, p. 128.

59. Caesarius of Heisterbach, Dialogus Miraculorum, ed. J. Strange (Cologne etc. 1851), i, 302.

60. WP, p. 128.

61. Song, pp. 19–22; PVC, p. 291.

62. For a discussion of this, see Barber, Cathars, pp. 133–5.

63. PVC, p. 189, quoting a papal letter of 21 May 1213.

64. PVC, pp. 299–301, Appendix D, for mercenaries; 144; Song, pp. 181–9; WP, pp. 64–5.

65. PVC, pp. 62–3.

66. PVC, pp. 84–5, 117, 120; WP, pp. 40–41; Song, pp. 41, 48; H. C. Lea, A History of the Inquisition (New York and London 1888), i, 162.

67. PVC, p. 70, 71–2, 163, 237–8 and note 98.

68. WP, pp. 65–6; Song, pp. 181–3.

69. Quoted by M. Routledge in Riley-Smith, Oxford History of the Crusades, p. 109.

70. Song, pp. 26–8; PVC, pp. 55–9 and Appendix C, pp. 294–8; J. R. Maddicott, Simon de Montfort (Cambridge 1994), pp. 1–5.

71. See Innocent III’s letters of January and May, PVC, pp. 186–9, 308.

72. PVC, pp. 154, 228 and note 50, 232, 234 and note 90.

73. PVC, p. 95.

74. WP, p. 58.

75. PVC, pp. 98–9 and 90–100; Song, pp. 34–6.

76. PVC, pp. 63–4 and note 105.

77. WP, p. 42, precipitated by the treachery at Castelnaudary in 1211 of William Cat, a former intimate; cf. PVC, pp. 134–5.

78. Translated PVC, pp. 320–29.

79. PVC, p. 310; for the correspondence, pp. 308–11.

80. PVC, pp. 186–9; J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, p. 122.

81. PVC, pp. 203–17; Song, pp. 68–71 and WP, pp. 45–9 are later but informed.

82. PVC, pp. 242–5.

83. Song, pp. 74–5.

84. Translated PVC, pp. 311–12.

85. WP, p. 56.

86. Song, p. 172 (and cf. p. 176 for a wonderfully hostile obituary notice); PVC, pp. 276–7; WP, pp. 61–2.

87. WP, p. 65.

88. R. Kay, ‘The Albigensian Twentieth of 1221–3’, Journal of Medieval History, vi (1980), 307–16.

89. Chronicon Turonense, RHGF, ed. Bouquet et al., xviii, 314; cf. Siberry, Criticism of Crusading, p. 131 and refs. to Honorius III’s letters and bulls.

90. Its terms are translated in WP, Appendix C, pp. 138–44.

91. For a useful recent summary, Barber, Cathars, pp. 141–75, which has full references.

92. Wakefield, Heresy, pp. 179–89, 193.

93. WP, pp. 107–8; Barber, Cathars, pp. 154–8 and refs.

94. An incident made famous by E. Le Roi Ladurie, Montaillou (Eng. trans. London 1978), a rather misleading work (cf. comments by L. E. Boyle, ‘Montaillou Revisited’, Pathways to Medieval Peasants, ed. J. Raftis (Toronto 1981), pp. 119–40); for a scholarly recent discussion of the revival, Barber, Cathars, pp. 176–202.

95. See J. H. Mundy, Society and Government at Toulouse in the Age of the Cathars (Toronto 1997).

96. G. Langlois, Olivier de Termes: Le Cathare et le croisé (Toulouse 2001) for a recent study (note 509, p. 269 corrects the date of his death usually cited) and for other ‘Cathar crusaders’, ibid., pp. 121ff; WP, p. 111; Barber, Cathars, p. 164; Wakefield, Heresy, p. 187 and p. 213 (William Pelhisson’s chronicle: ‘there were at that time [1229] many who had taken the cross to go overseas because of their acts against the faith’).

97. WP, p. 67 and note 93.

98. WP, p. 111–12, note 26 and refs.

19: The Fifth Crusade 1213–21

1. J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, pp. 91–2.

2. The best modern account is J. M. Powell, Anatomy of a Crusade 1213–21 (Philadelphia 1986).

3. On the general phenomenon, M. Clanchy, From Memory to Written Record (London 1979).

4. PVC, p. 50; Legates’ report, WP, p. 127.

5. Above pp. 525, 530, 540–41, 542, 547, 551–2, 554.

6. In general, P. Raedts, ‘The Children’s Crusade of 1212’, Journal of Medieval History, 3 (1977), 279–323 and, especially, G. Dickson, ‘La Genèse de la croisade des enfants (1212)’, Bibliothèque de l’Ecole des Chartes, 153 (1995), 53–102 and idem, ‘Stephen of Cloyes, Philip Augustus and the Children’s Crusade of 1212’, Journeys towards God: Pilgrimage and Crusade, ed. B. N. Sarget-Baur (Kalamazoo 1992), pp. 83–105.

7. PVC, pp. 142, 150–51.

8. Waitz, Chronica Regia Colonesis, p. 234; cf. translation in E. Peters (ed.), Christian Society and the Crusades 1198–1229 (Philadelphia 1971), p. 36.

9. Sigeberti Gemblacenses chronica auctarium Mortui Maris, ed. W. Pertz, MGH SS, vi, 467; Annales Admuntenses, ed. W. Wattenbach, MGH SS, ix, 579–93.

10. PVC, p. 151; for the Cologne version see note 8 above.

11. See note 6 above.

12. For the sources, with stories of heavenly letters and visions of Christ, see Dickson, ‘Stephen of Cloyes’, pp. 84–6 and notes 7, 27, pp. 98, 101.

13. Wattenbach, Annales Admuntenses, p. 592.

14. See translation in PVC, p. 308.

15. Quotation from Quia Maior, trans. J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, pp. 120–21. The full text is at pp. 119–24.

16. Robert of Courçon, Summa, x, 15, cited by J. W. Baldwin, Masters, Princes and Merchants: The Social Views of Peter the Chanter and His Circle (Princeton 1970), ii, 148–9 note 37, and see i, 211; cf. Russell, Just War, pp. 225–6 and note 37.

17. See Innocent’s letter to members of the German clergy, c.May 1213, trans. J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, pp. 130–31; for a list of crusaders being kept by one Master Hubert in England, Roger of Wendover, Flores historiarum, ii, 323.

18. J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, pp. 131–2 for Innocent’s correspondence and pp. 134–5 for an example of James of Vitry’s preaching; for the abbot’s letter book, F. Kempf, ‘Das Rommersdorfer Briefbuch des 13 Jahrhunderts’, Mitteilungen des Österreichischen Instituts für Geschichtsforschung, Erganzungsband, 12 (1933), 502–71.

19. Magna Carta, Clauses 52, 53 and 57.

20. On England, Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 135, 136, 139; for Frederick, Powell, Anatomy, pp. 3, 23, 74, 75.

21. PL, 216, col. 830, no. xxxv.

22. For some of the letters of summons, see PL, 216, cols. 823–31.

23. Tanner, Decrees, p. 234.

24. Tanner, Decrees, pp. 267–71; J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, pp. 125–9.

25. Delaborde et al., Recueil des Actes de Philippe Auguste, no. 1,360.

26. Official hostility was reflected in Guillaume le Breton’s comments, R. Röhricht, ed., Testimonia Minora de quinto bello sacro, Société de l’Orient Latin, iii (Geneva 1882), 78–9 (trans. Powell, Anatomy, p. 35).

27. Cf. Powell, Anatomy, pp. 44–5 and note 50.

28. The forum for implementing Clause 12, ‘no scutage or aid shall be imposed… unless by the common counsel of our kingdom’, was explained in Clause 14, which details the composition and summoning of a representative assembly of clerical and lay magnates and all tenants-in-chief.

29. Oliver of Paderborn, Die Schriften des Kölner Domscholasters, ed. H. Hoogeweg (Tübingen 1984), pp. 285–6, the account in a letter to the count of Namur; for other copies circulated, D. U. Baratier, ‘A Propos de Jacques de Vitry’, Revue Bénédictine, 27 (1910), 521–4, and for a translation, J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, pp. 135–6; for the story in Oliver’s account of the Damietta campaign, Peters, Christian Society, pp. 60–61.

30. Waitz, Chronica Regia Colonensis, pp. 192–3.

31. Burchardus Urspergensis, MGH SS, xxiii, 378–9.

32. E. Baratier, ‘Une Prédication de la croisade à Marseille en 1224’, Economies et sociétés au moyen age: Mélanges offerts à Edouard Perroy (Paris 1973), pp. 690–69.

33. James of Vitry, Lettres, p. 77; cf. his own misogynist exemplum, from his Sermones Vulgares, ed. T. F. Crane (London 1890), p. 56.

34. Registro del Cardinale Ugolino d’Ostia, ed. G. Levi (Rome 1890), esp. pp. 128–33; cf. pp. 7–9, 11–13, 19–24, 101, 109–10, 113–14, 138–40, 152–3; Powell, Anatomy, esp. pp. 33–50 (for Courçon’s mission to France), 67–87.

35. Ordinatio de predicatione S. Crucis in Angliae, Quinti Belli Sacri Scriptores Minores, ed. R. Röhricht, Société de l’Orient Latin, ii (Geneva 1879), vii – x and 1–26; p. 24 for the definition of exempla.

36. Röhricht, Ordinatio, p. 22.

37. C. T. Maier, Preaching the Crusades (Cambridge 1994), pp. 118, 173. For Frisian pole-vaulters, J. A. Mol, ‘Frisian Fighters and the Crusade’, Crusades, 1 (2002), pp. 107–8.

38. Powell, Anatomy, esp. p. 35 and above, note 26.

39. Powell, Anatomy, pp. 38–9 for a discussion, and refs. at note 22, p. 48; Abbot Gervase of Premontré’s account of popular unease, RHGF, xix, 604–5; Delaborde et al., Recueil des Actes de Philippe Auguste, no. 1360. For the agreement with Genoa for transport by the counts of Nevers and La Marche, Annales Genuenses, Rohricht,Testimonia minora, p. 238.

40. E.g. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 217–24.

41. James of Vitry, Lettres, p. 116.

42. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 95–101, 133–44, 180, 201, 205, 211, 227, 329.

43. For Savaric in Languedoc, and a note of his other crusading exploits, PVC, p. 130 and note 12.

44. E.g. by Oliver of Paderborn, Capture of Damietta, trans. Peters, Christian Society, pp. 49–139. (Hereafter Oliver of Paderborn.) (The Latin text is in Hoogeweg’s 1894 Tübingen edition.)

45. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 98–9 and p. 401 notes 49 and 50 for refs.

46. Frederick’s role is exhaustively discussed in Powell, Anatomy, passim.

47. Powell, Anatomy, p. 116.

48. James of Vitry, Lettres, pp. 73–4.

49. Thomas of Split, Historia pontificum Spalatensis, ed. L. von Heineman, MGH SS, xxix, 577–9, for Andrew’s crusade; for the Venice treaty, Monumenta spectantia historiam Slavorum meridionalium, i (1868), 29–31; T. Van Cleve, ‘The Fifth Crusade’, History of the Crusades, ed. Setton, pp. 387–9; J. R. Sweeny, ‘Hungary and the Crusades’, International History Review, 3 (1981), 467–81.

50. The two main sources are the Gesta Crucigerorum Rhenanorum and De Itinere Frisonum in Röhricht, Scriptores Minores, pp. 29–56 and 59–70.

51. Oliver of Paderborn, p. 61 and pp. 53–9 for the Palestine campaigns of 1217–18. In general, also, see Röhricht, Scriptores Minores and Testimonia Minora; for Ibn al-Athir, see the extracts in Gabrieli, Arab Historians, pp. 255–66, and, for French translation, RHC Or., ii–i, and Abu Shamah’s compilation, RHC Or., v. Powell, Anatomy, pp. 128–93 provides a thorough analytical account of the war in Palestine and Egypt with full references to eastern as well as western accounts and some discussion of sources.

52. Thomas of Split, Historia, pp. 578–9.

53. Mas Latrie Chronique d’Ernoul, pp. 414, 436; James of Vitry, Lettres, pp. 100, 102; Patriarch Aymar of Jerusalem’s 1199 advice to Innocent III on Damietta, Bongars, Gesta Dei Per Francos, p. 1,128.

54. For this curious incident, J. M. Powell, ‘Francesco d’Assisi e la Quinta Crociata’, Schede Medievali, 4 (1983), 68–77; Kedar, Crusade and Mission, pp. 126–31.

55. Oliver of Paderborn, p. 62.

56. The Eracles Continuation of William of Tyre, RHC Occ., ii, 329.

57. Oliver of Paderborn, pp. 80, 104; cf. p. 115 for his largesse on the advance in July 1221.

58. Epistolae selectae saeculi XIII, ed. C. Rodenberg, MGH SS, i, no. 124, pp. 89–91 dated 24 July 1220. For a tabulation of the sums received and sent, Powell, Anatomy, p. 100.

59. RHC Occ., ii, 349.

60. Oliver of Paderborn, p. 102.

61. Oliver of Paderborn, pp. 122–3; E. Blochet, ‘Extraits de l’histoire des patriarches d’Alexandrie relatifs au siège de Damiette’, Revue de l’Orient Latin, II (1908), 260.

62. Letter trans. Peters, Christian Society, p. 141. Cf. James of Vitry, Lettres, pp. 150, 152; Oliver of Paderborn, p. 89.

63. As emphasized by Oliver of Paderborn, p. 124.

64. See the convenient table, Powell, Anatomy, p. 117 and the discussion pp. 166–72 and 187.

65. Oliver of Paderborn, pp. 107–8, perhaps somewhat ben trovato.

66. As revealed by James of Vitry, Lettres, p. 106; Oliver of Paderborn, p. 65 is modestly reticent.

67. Ibn al-Athir, Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 257.

68. Powell’s guess, Anatomy, p. 148.

69. Ibn al-Athir, Gabrieli, Arab Historians, pp. 257–8.

70. RHC Occ., ii, 336.

71. Oliver of Paderborn, pp. 122, 125; Ibn al-Athir, Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 261.

72. Ibn al-Athir, Gabrieli, Arab Historians, pp. 257–8 and 260.

73. Ibn al-Athir, Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 260; Oliver of Paderborn, p. 108.

74. The gloom on the Ayyubid side is well captured by Ibn al-Athir, no friend to the dynasty, Gabrieli, Arab Historians, pp. 257–61.

75. Oliver of Paderborn, p. 114, figures based on those from the ‘estimators of the army’.

76. Oliver of Paderborn, p. 105.

77. Above note 54 and Kedar, Crusade and Mission, passim.

78. Oliver of Paderborn, pp. 85–6; Blochet, ‘Histoire des patriarches’, p. 253; Eracles, RHC Occ., ii, 341–2; James of Vitry, Lettres, pp. 124–5; Ibn al-Athir, Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 260. Cf. Ernoul, p. 435.

79. Ibn al-Athir, Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 262; Oliver of Paderborn, p. 124.

80. See the end of the first section, addressed to Cologne, finished soon after the fall of Damietta in November 1219, Oliver of Paderborn, p. 89.

81. James of Vitry, Lettres, p. 141.

82. James of Vitry, Lettres, pp. 135, 139; cf. William of Tyre, History, bk V, chap. 10.

83. For these prophetic works and the rumours of ‘David’ and ‘Prester John’, Oliver of Paderborn, pp. 89–91, 112–14; James of Vitry, Lettres, pp. 141–53; Ibn al-Athir, Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 260; P. Pelliot, ‘Deux passages de la La Prophétie de Hanna, fils d’Isaac’, Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, Mémoires, 44 (1951), 73–96; cf. J. Richard, ‘L’Extrème-Orient légendaire au moyen âge’, Orient et Occident (Paris 1976), no. XXVI; Mayer, Crusades, p. 226; Powell, Anatomy, pp. 178–9.

84. Ibn al-Athir, Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 264.

85. Richard of San Germano, Chronica, quoted by Powell, Anatomy, p. 196. For a survey of other reactions, see Siberry, Criticism of Crusading, pp. 34–5, 85–6, 102–3, 107–8, 152–3, 165, 193.

86. John of Tubia, De Johanne Rege Ierusalem, Scriptores Minores, ed. Röhricht, pp. 138–9; Eracles, RHC Occ., ii, 346, 348–9. Oliver of Paderborn provides a highly sanitized account, pp. 95–7.

87. Oliver of Paderborn, p. 104.

88. Oliver of Paderborn, pp. 101–2, 103–4; Eracles, RHC Occ., ii, 347, 349; Ernoul, in Röhricht Testimonia Minora, 300–301.

89. Van Cleve, ‘Fifth Crusade’, pp. 422–8; Powell, Anatomy, pp. 180–91. Cf. Oliver of Paderborn, pp. 114–34, and the letters recorded by Roger of Wendover, trans. pp. 142–5; Eracles, RHC Occ. ii, 350–52; Gabrieli, Arab Historians, pp. 261–6.

90. Peters, Christian Society, p. 144; cf. a similar image Oliver of Paderborn, p. 123.

91. Oliver of Paderborn, p. 132.

92. See below pp. 745–7.

93. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 99–101.

94. Although some resistance to further preaching was recorded in Germany, H. Hoogeweg, ‘Die Kreuzzpredigt des Jahres 1224’, Deutsche Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaft, 4 (1890), 72–3.

20: Frontier Crusades 1: Conquest in Spain

1. Trans. Holt, Age of Crusades, p. 27.

2. Trans. J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, p. 40.

3. In general, see now J. F. O’Callaghan, Reconquest and Crusade in Medieval Spain (Philadelphia 2003); for the myth, P. Linehan, History and the Historians in Medieval Spain (Oxford 1993).

4. R. Fletcher, Moorish Spain (London 1992), a very accessible introduction, esp. pp. 35–8, based on R. W. Bulliet, Conversion to Islam in the Medieval Period (Cambridge, Mass. 1979).

5. The central study of the crusade bulls from the eleventh to the twentieth century is J. Goni Gaztambide, Historia de la bula de la cruzada (Vitoria 1958).

6. As in R. I. Burns, The Crusader Kingdom of Valencia, 2 vols. (Cambridge, Mass. 1967) and his other pioneering works on the region.

7. See texts quoted by O’Callaghan, Reconquest, p. 5.

8. O’Callaghan, Reconquest, pp. 185–7.

9. Quoted, Fletcher, Moorish Spain, p. 75.

10. Glaber, Historiarum, pp. 82–5.

11. D. Wasserstein, The Rise and Fall of the Party Kings (Princeton 1985); for a corrective view of Spain and holy war, Bull, Knightly Piety.

12. Trans. Fletcher, Moorish Spain, p. 99.

13. Fletcher, Moorish Spain, pp. 100–110; idem, The Quest for El Cid (London 1989).

14. Trans. O’Callaghan, Reconquest, pp. 8, 30.

15. A. Ubieto Arteta, Coleccion diplomatica de Pedro I de Aragon y Navarra (Zaragoza 1951), p. 115 note 9.

16. O’Callaghan, Reconquest, p. 24 and note 6, p. 228; in general, R. Fletcher, ‘Reconquest and Crusade in Spain c. 1050–1150’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 37 (1987), 31–47.

17. The phrase is R. Menendez Pidal’s, La España del Cid (Madrid 1947), i, 147.

18. E. Emerton, The Correspondence of Gregory VII (New York 1969), p. 6; O’Callaghan, Reconquest, p. 29.

19. Contacts that impressed Bishop Pelayo of Orviedo (1101–30, 1142–3) in his Chronicon regum Legionensium, trans. S. Barton and R. Fletcher, The World of El Cid (Manchester 2000), pp. 87–8.

20. See, for example, the texts in Barton and Fletcher, World of El Cid, passim.

21. O’Callaghan, Reconquest, pp. 31–2 for translation; cf. Riley-Smith, First Crusade, pp. 18–20.

22. Ubieto Atreta, Diplomatica Pedro I, pp. 113 note 6 and 115 note 9.

23. Historia Silense, in Barton and Fletcher, World of El Cid, pp. 50–52.

24. The Poem of the Cid, ed. and trans. R. Hamilton, J. Perry and I. Michael (London 1984); Barton and Fletcher, World of El Cid, pp. 90–147 for the Historia Roderici.

25. See the discussion of this by R. Bartlett, The Making of Europe (London 1994), pp. 240–42.

26. See the discussion by N. Housley, Religious Warfare in Europe 1400–1536 (Oxford 2002), esp. pp. 75–82, 201–4.

27. Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum, xxi (Venice 1776), col. 284; for a narrative, O’Callaghan, Reconquest, pp. 32–41.

28. J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, p. 74.

29. R. Fletcher, St James’s Catapult (Oxford 1984), pp. 298–9.

30. E. Lourie, ‘The Will of Alfonso I’, Speculum, 50 (1975), 635–51; A. Forey, ‘The Will of Alfonso I’, Durham University Journal, 73 (1980), 59–65; O’Callaghan, Reconquest, p. 40.

31. Caffaro, Annales Ianuenses and the Ystoria captionis Almarie et Turtuose, ed. L. T. Belgrano, Fonti per la Storia d’Italia, ii (Rome 1890), 33–5, 79–89; G. Constable, ‘The Second Crusade as Seen by Contemporaries’, Traditio, 9 (1953), 226–35; Eugenius III, ‘Epistola et privilegia’, PL clxxx, cols. 1,203–4.

32. Coleccion de documentos ineditos de la Corona de Aragon, ed. P. Bofarull et al. (Barcelona 1847–1910), iv, 314–15, no. 128; cf. N. Jaspert, ‘Tortosa and the Crusades’, The Second Crusade, ed. Phillips and Hoch, pp. 90–110.

33. Fletcher, Moorish Spain, p. 123.

34. O’Callaghan, Reconquest, pp. 62–4, and cf. pp. 59–61.

35. Above, notes 33 and 34.

36. In general see Forey, The Military Orders, pp. 23–32.

37. O’Callaghan, Reconquest, pp. 148–9.

38. For a recent discussion, O’Callaghan, Reconquest, pp. 70–76; for the financial precedents, ibid., pp. 152–76.

39. O’Callaghan, Reconquest, pp. 102, 119; in general see Bartlett, Making of Europe, esp. pp. 197–242.

40. See P. E. Russell, Prince Henry the Navigator (New Haven and London 2000); idem, ‘Some Fifteenth Century Eyewitness Accounts of Travel in the Atlantic Ocean before 1492’, Historical Research, 66 (1993), 115–28.

41. In general, see J. Muldoon, Popes, Lawyers and Infidels (Liverpool 1979).

42. Housley, Religious Warfare, esp. pp. 75–82, 201–4.

43. Toribio Motolinia, History of the Indians of New Spain, trans. E. A. Foster (Berkeley 1950), pp. 110–17. I am grateful to J.- J. Lopez Portillo for bringing this incident to my attention.

44. Quoted Housley, Religious Warfare, p. 202.

21: Frontier Crusades 2: the Baltic and the North

1. Bernard of Clairvaux, Letters, no. 394, p. 467; see above pp. 292–3, 304–5.

2. J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, pp. 75–77.

3. Above pp. 221, 243–7.

4. Above pp. 251–3; in general, Lotter, ‘The Crusading Idea’.

5. H. Richter, ‘Militia Dei’, Journeys Towards God, ed. B. N. Sargent-Baur (Michigan 1992), pp. 107–26.

6. The best general account is by Christiansen, Northern Crusades; see also W. Urban, The Baltic Crusade (2nd edn Chicago 1994) and Bartlett, Making of Europe; A. V. Murray (ed.), Crusade and Conversion on the Baltic Frontier 1150–1500 (Aldershot 2001), esp. the bibliography pp. 278–85, with important refs.

7. See note 1 above; Lotter, ‘The Crusading Idea’, p. 292; see rebuttals of Lotter in reviews by H. E. J. Cowdrey, English Historical Review, 94 (1979), 166–7; and J. Brundage, Speculum, 54 (1979), 172–3.

8. Jensen, ‘Denmark and the Second Crusade’, p. 169. This is the tone of much of Helmold of Bosau’s account, below, note 9.

9. Helmold of Bosau, Chronicle, pp. 169, 176–7.

10. Otto of Freising, Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa, p. 76, cf. p. 79 for the rejection of Henry the Lion’s suit at Frankfurt; above, pp. 292–3.

11. Helmold of Bosau, Chronicle, p. 180.

12. Jaffé, Monumenta Corbeiensia, p. 245; above pp. 305–8.

13. Jensen, ‘Denmark and the Second Crusade’, esp. pp. 165–72; see, in general, T. Riis, Les Institutions politiques centrales du Danemark 1100–1332 (Odense 1977).

14. De Profectione Danorum, Gertz, Scriptores, ii, 465–7.

15. Trans. Christiansen, Northern Crusades, p. 69, and ref. note 37.

16. PL, 200, cols. 860–61.

17. Helmold of Bosau, Chronicle, p. 188.

18. Henry of Antwerp, Tractatus de captione urbis Brandenburg, ed. O. Holder-Egger, MGH (Hanover 1880), p. 484; trans. Bartlett, Making of Europe, p. 35.

19. Helmold of Bosau, Chronicle, p. 221.

20. Cf. trans. J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, p. 77.

21. On the 1172 pilgrimage, Arnold of Lübeck, Chronica Slavorum, p. 10; generally, Helmold of Bosau, Chronicle, pp. 233, 242–5, 254–64, 266–7, 274–5, 281–2; Christiansen, Northern Crusades, pp. 61–2, 69–70, 72; Bartlett, Making of Europe, pp. 268, 274–8.

22. Arnold of Lübeck, Chronica Slavorum, p. 215.

23. Henry of Livonia, Chronicon Livoniae, ed. L. Arbusow and A. Bauer (Hanover 1955) (cf. trans. J. Brundage, The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia (Madison 1961)), XIV, 11; Christiansen, Northern Crusades, p. 95.

24. Henry of Livonia, Chronicon, p. 9.

25. Innocent III to Valdemar II, J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, p. 78.

26. For summaries, Forey, The Military Orders, esp. pp. 32–9; Christiansen, Northern Crusades, pp. 79–83, 99–103, 128.

27. Gregory IX, Registres, ed. L. Auvray et al. (Paris 1890–1955), no. 2,097 (cf. nos. 2,098–2,102); Henry of Livonia, Chronicon, pp. 23, 29, 31, 34, 92, 132; Christiansen, Northern Crusades, esp. pp. 127–8; Bartlett, Making of Europe, p. 195.

28. Christiansen, Northern Crusades, pp. 95–7, 221–2, 224–5.

29. Trans. Christiansen, Northern Crusades, p. 128.

30. See, e.g., refs. and trans. of Bacon’s Opus Maius and Humbert’s Opusculum tripartitum, Christiansen, Northern Crusades, p. 152.

31. Arnold of Lübeck, ‘De conversione Livonie’, Chronica Slavorum, pp. 212–31; Henry of Livonia, Chronicon, pp. 6–12 et seq.

32. PL, 215, cols. 428–30.

33. Christiansen, Northern Crusades, p. 98; Bartlett, Making of Europe, p. 268 for Riga’s Fifth Crusade contribution.

34. For Livonia, W. Urban, Baltic Crusade; Christiansen, Northern Crusade, esp. pp. 93–104.

35. For Livonia after 1300, W. Urban, The Livonian Crusade (Washington, DC 1981). In general, N. Housley, The Later Crusades (Oxford 1992).

36. Apart from the general surveys, see T. Lindkvist, ‘Crusades and Crusading Ideology in the Political History of Sweden’, Crusade and Conversion, ed. Murray, pp. 119–30; Jensen, ‘Denmark and the Second Crusade’.

37. PL, 200, cols. 860–61.

38. Henry of Livonia, Chronicon, p. 43.

39. Christiansen, Northern Crusades, esp. pp. 109–13, 132–7.

40. See note 39 and ibid., pp. 177–98.

41. For refs. to the Revelationes S. Brigittae, Christiansen, Northern Crusades, p. 276 note 135 and pp. 190–92.

42. W. Urban, The Prussian Crusade (Lanham 1980); Christiansen, Northern Crusades, pp. 104–9 and pp. 199–226.

43. Gregory IX, Registres, no. 2,097.

44. Codex Diplomaticus Prussicus, ed. J. Voigt (Königsberg 1836–61), i, 59–60.

45. See, apart from the general works cited, M. Burleigh, ‘The Military Orders in the Baltic’, New Cambridge Medieval History, v, ed. D. Abulafia (Cambridge 1999), pp. 743–53.

46. E. N. Johnson, ‘The German Crusade in the Baltic’, History of the Crusades, ed. Setton, iii, esp. pp. 572–3.

47. Epistolae saeculi XIII e regestis pontificum romanorum, ed. G. H. Pertz and C. Rodenberg, MGH, ii (Berlin 1887), no. 5.

48. Voigt, Codex Diplomaticus Prussicus, i, 59–60.

49. Alexander IV, Registres, ed. C. Bourel de la Roncière et al. (Paris 1895–1953), no. 3,068.

50. In general, Urban, Livonian Crusade; Christiansen, Northern Crusades, pp. 138–98; A. Ehlers, ‘The Crusade of the Teutonic Knights Reconsidered’, Crusade and Conversion, ed. Murray, pp. 21–44.

51. Bruno of Olmütz’s Relatio, ed. C. Hofler, ‘Analecta zur Geschichte Deutschlands und Italiens’, Abhandlungen der historischen Classe der Königlich Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 3rd series, 4 (1846), 1–28.

52. Liv-, Esth-, und Curländisches Urkundenbuch, ed. F. G. Bunge (Revel and Riga 1853–1910), ii, no. 630.

53. In general, W. Paravicini, Die Preussenreisen des europäischen Adels (Sigmaringen 1989–).

54. G. Chaucer, General Prologue to The Canterbury Tales, ll. 52–4.

55. For what follows, Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 266–76; M. Keen, ‘Chaucer’s Knight, the English Aristocracy, and the Crusade’, English Court Culture in the Later Middle Ages, ed. V. J. Scattergood and J. W. Sherborne (London 1983).

56. Calendar of Patent Rolls (Public Record Office, London 1901–), 1367–70, pp. 24, 56, 57, 58, 64, 72, 127, 128.

57. Calendar of Papal Registers, ed. W. T. Bliss et al. (London 1893–1960), iv, 19.

58. J. Capgrave, De Illustribus Henricis, ed. F. C. Hingeston, Rolls Series (London 1858), p. 99; cf. Ehlers, ‘Crusade of the Teutonic Knights’.

59. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, p. 272 and note 55 for ref. to Henry’s accounts.

60. Calendar of Close Rolls (Public Record Office, London 1902–), 1374–77, p. 11.

61. For these commercial aspects, Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 272–4.

62. In general, Christiansen, Northern Crusades, pp. 227–58; M. Burleigh, Prussian Society and the German Order 1410–66 (Cambridge 1984).

63. See the discussion, Christiansen, Northern Crusades, pp. 231–41.

22: Survival and Decline: the Frankish Holy Land in the Thirteenth Century

1. In general, Holt, Age of the Crusades, esp. pp. 53–106, 138–53; Irwin, Middle East, esp. pp. 21–84.

2. E.g. Runciman, History of the Crusades, iii, passim. Cf. Mayer, Crusades, esp. pp. 247–59, 272–88.

3. Edbury, Cyprus.

4. Eracles, RHC Occ., ii, 313–15, 318, 347–8, 349.

5. E.g. John of Jaffa’s Livre des Assises (1264×66).

6. See the work on Acre by D. Jacoby, Studies on the Crusader States and on Venetian Expansion (Northampton 1989).

7. J. Riley-Smith, The Feudal Nobility and the Kingdom of Jerusalem 1174–1277 (London 1973), p. 48 and refs.; Mayer, Crusades, pp. 278–9.

8. D. Jacoby, ‘Montmusard, Suburb of Crusader Acre’, Outremer, ed. Kedar et al., pp. 205–17.

9. Matthew Paris, ‘Itinéraire de Londres à Jerusalem’, ed. H. Michelant and G. Raynaud, Itinéraires à Jerusalem (Geneva 1882), p. 137.

10. Eracles, p. 428 mentions the Frankish army at the battle of Gaza included 600 knights, more or less exactly the figure estimated as the kingdom’s levy in the 1180s. For trade, E. Ashtor, Levant Trade in the Later Middle Ages (Princeton 1983).

11. Riley-Smith, Feudal Nobility, pp. 175–84, 208–9; Edbury, John of Ibelin pp. 67–8.

12. Willibrand of Olbenburg’s description of the Ibelin palace in Beirut, which he visited in 1212, Peregrinatores medii aevi quatuor, ed. J. C. M. Laurent (Leipzig 1864), pp. 166 et seq.

13. Marino Sanudo Torsello, Secreta Fidelium Crucis, ed. J. Bongars (Hanau 1611), ii, 1–33 (Book I).

14. Mayer, Crusades, pp. 278–9.

15. D. Jacoby, ‘L’Expansion occidentale dans le Levant: les Vénitiens à Acre dans la seconde moitié du treizième siècle’, Journal of Medieval History, 3 (1977), 225–64.

16. Trans. Kennedy, Crusader Castles, pp. 190–98, at p. 194.

17. Les Gestes des Chiprois, RHC Arm. ii (Paris 1906), bk III, trans. P. Crawford, The Templar of Tyre: Part III of the ‘Deeds of the Cypriots’ (Aldershot 2003), chap. 382.

18. John of Joinville, The Life of St Louis, trans. M. R. B. Shaw, Chronicles of the Crusades (London 1963), p. 252.

19. See Crawford, Templar of Tyre, pp. 4–5.

20. Holt, Age of Crusades, p. 93.

21. Above p. 509.

22. E.g. above, note 9.

23. Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, iv, 488–9.

24. Gregory X, Registres, ed. J. Guiraud and E. Cadier (Paris 1892–1906), nos. 160–61; cf. no. 220; this advice is discussed by P. Throop, Criticism of the Crusade (Amsterdam 1940).

25. M. Barber, ‘The Crusade of the Shepherds in 1251’, Proceedings of the 10th Annual Meeting of the Western Society for French History, ed. J. F. Sweet (Lawrence 1984); G. Dickson, ‘The Advent of the Pastores (1251), Revue Belge de Philologie et d’Histoire, 66 (1988), 249–67.

26. For the treaties, see T. Van Cleve, ‘The Crusade of Frederick II’, History of the Crusades, ed. Setton, ii, 455–6; P. Jackson, ‘The Crusades of 1239–41 and Their Aftermath’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 50 (1987), 32–60.

27. Eracles, pp. 427–31; cf. pp. 562–6 for the Rothelin Continuation version.

28. Holt, Age of Crusades, esp. pp. 86–8, 91–2, 102; Irwin, Middle East, pp. 37–102; C. Cahen, ‘The Mongols and the Near East’, History of the Crusades, ii, 715–32.

29. For references to the arrivals of foreign troops, Eracles, pp. 441–78; C. J. Marshall, ‘The French Regiment in the Latin East 1254–91’, Journal of Medieval History, 15 (1989); on Geoffrey of Sergines, J. Riley-Smith, What Were the Crusades?, (3rd edn London 2003), pp. 77–80; for Olivier of Termes, Langlois, Olivier de Termes, pp. 128–34, 137–42, 211–32.

30. J. R. Strayer, ‘The Crusade of Louis IX’, History of the Crusades, ed. Setton, ii, 508.

31. Gregory X, Registres, nos. 802–3; Eracles, p. 462.

32. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, p. 125 and note 59, p. 405.

33. In general, Runciman, History of the Crusades, iii, 76–104, 171–233, 293–348, 387–423; Mayer, Crusades, esp. pp. 239–59, 272–88; Riley-Smith, Feudal Nobility, passim; Edbury, John of Ibelin, pp. 1–103; idem, Cyprus, pp. 23–100; Holt, Age of the Crusades, pp. 60–66, 82–104.

34. Eracles, p. 305.

35. Charles of Anjou, who in 1277 bought Maria of Antioch’s claim to the throne of Jerusalem, below pp. 731–2, 817–18.

36. Eracles, p. 220; Runciman, History of the Crusades, iii, 93 and note 2.

37. Edbury, Cyprus, p. 32.

38. Edbury, Cyprus, pp. 39–73.

39. Eracles, pp. 306–10.

40. See above chapter 19.

41. The main source, if heavily biased against the Hohenstaufen and in favour of the Ibelins, is Philip of Novara, The Wars of Frederick II Against the Ibelins, trans. J. La Monte and M. J. Hubert (New York 1936).

42. Riley-Smith, Feudal Nobility, pp. 177–84.

43. P. Jackson, ‘The End of Hohenstaufen Rule in Syria’, Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, 59 (1986), 20–36; D. Jacoby, ‘The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Collapse of Hohenstaufen Power in the Levant’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 40 (1986), 83–101.

44. Above note 11. Simon played the leading role in establishing the Commune of England in 1258.

45. Cf. Riley-Smith, What Were the Crusades?, pp. 77–80.

46. Jacoby, ‘L’Expansion occidentale’.

47. Edbury, John of Ibelin, esp. pp. 96–7; Riley-Smith, Feudal Nobility, pp. 215–7.

48. Edbury, John of Ibelin, esp. p. 96; for examples, see Gabrieli, Arab Historians, pp. 312–16, 323–33.

49. Ibn Furat’s chronicle trans. M. C. Lyons and J. Riley-Smith, Ayyubids, Mamlukes and Crusaders, ii, 104–5, 113, 135, 164; Eracles, pp. 462, 479; Runciman, History of the Crusades, pp. 342–3; idem, ‘The Crusader States 1243–91’, History of the Crusades, ed. Setton, ii, 580, 584, 586; Riley-Smith, Feudal Nobility, pp. 28, 224; Edbury,Cyprus, pp. 91, 96 and note 84.

50. On John and his lawbook, Edbury, John of Ibelin, passim, esp. pp. 58–106. The text of John’s book is in RHC Lois, i.

51. John of Joinville, Life of Louis, pp. 203–4, 269–70, 295, 297.

52. Edbury, John of Ibelin, p. 106. For the redating of ‘Bracton’, De Legibus et consuetudinibus Angliae, ed. and trans. S. E. Thorne (Cambridge, Mass. 1968–77).

53. H. Buchtal, Miniature Painting in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (Oxford 1957); J. Folda, Crusader Manuscript Illumination at Saint-Jean d’Acre 1275–91 (Princeton 1976); idem, ‘Art in the Latin East’, Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Riley-Smith, pp. 66–90.

54. E.g. Kennedy, Crusader Castles; D. Pringle, ‘Architecture in the Latin East’, Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Riley-Smith, pp. 160–83.

55. A. Jotischky, The Perfection Solicitude: Hermits and Monks in the Crusader States (Philadelphia 1995).

56. John of Joinville, Life of Louis, p. 297.

57. For a commentary, Edbury, Cyprus, esp. pp. 39–73 and idem, John of Ibelin, pp. 1–103.

58. Riley-Smith, Feudal Nobility, pp. 220–28; Edbury, Cyprus, pp. 90–100; Mayer, Crusades, pp. 282–7.

59. Gestes des Chyprois, Arm. ii, Bk iii, and Crawford, Templar of Tyre, chap. 410; Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 343.

60. Gabrieli, Arab Historians, pp. 326–33.

61. See below, pp. 818–22.

62. Ludolph of Suchem, Liber de Itinere Terrae Sanctae, ed. F. Deycks (Stuttgart 1851), p. 89.

23: The Defence of the Holy Land 1221–44

1. Waverley Annals, Annales Monastici, ed. Luard, ii, 295.

2. Regesto del cardinale Ugolino d’Ostia, ed. G. Levi (Rome 1890).

3. Baratier, ‘Une prédication de la croisade à Marseille’, pp. 690–99.

4. Archives de l’Hôtel Dieu de Paris, ed. L. Briele (Paris 1894), no. 203, pp. 87–8.

5. E.g. the 1237 case of Peter of Erdington’s land in Shropshire, Curia Regis Rolls (London 1922–), xvi, 31 no. 115.

6. Roger of Wendover, Flores, ii, 323.

7. N. Vincent, Peter des Roches (Cambridge 1996), p. 234.

8. Tyerman, Invention of the Crusades, p. 86 and notes 249–51 for refs.

9. S. Lloyd, ‘Political Crusades in England c.1215–17 and c.1263–5’, Crusade and Settlement, ed. Edbury, pp. 113–20; Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 144–51.

10. F. M. Powicke, The Thirteenth Century (Oxford 1962), p. 80.

11. Theobald of Champagne, Seigneurs, sachiez: oui or ne s’en ira l. 18 ‘the ashy people will remain behind’, trans. M. Routledge, An Eyewitness History of the Crusades, ed. C. J. Tyerman, Folio Society (London 2004), iv, 269; Rutebeuf, La desputizions dou croisié et dou descroisié in Onze poèmes concernant la croisade, ed. J. Bastin and E. Faral (Paris 1946), pp. 84–94.

12. Vincent, Peter des Roches, p. 252 and refs. at note 118.

13. In general, T. C. Van Cleve, The Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen (Oxford 1972), pp. 158–233; idem, ‘The Crusade of Frederick II’, 429–62; D. Abulafia, Frederick II (London 1988), pp. 148–201; Mayer, Crusades, pp. 228–38.

14. Van Cleve, Frederick II, p. 229.

15. Above p. 491.

16. The contemporary Ibn Wasil’s account in Gabrieli, Arab Historians, pp. 267–8, 269–70; Maqrizi, Histoire d’Egypte, trans. E. Blocquet, Revue de l’Orient Latin, 9 (1901), 509–10 seems based on this.

17. MGH Constitutiones et Acta publica Imperatorum et Regum, iv (Hanover 1896), ed. L. Weiland, IV-ii, 129–31, no. 102.

18. Richard of San Germano, Chronica, ed. G. H. Pertz, MGH SS, xix (Hanover 1866), 347–9, cf. pp. 343–4; Vincent, Peter des Roches, pp. 238–9 and refs. notes 52 and 53.

19. Vincent, Peter des Roches, pp. 233–4.

20. Above, note 13.

21. Vincent, Peter des Roches, pp. 229–58; K. R. Giles, ‘Two English Bishops in the Holy Land’, Nottingham Medieval Studies, 31 (1987), 46–57; Lloyd, English Society, in index under ‘Peter des Roches’, ‘William Brewer’, etc.; Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 99–101.

22. Calendar of Patent Rolls 1225–32, pp. 90–91; Vincent, Peter des Roches, pp. 235–9 for Bishop Peter’s finances.

23. Roger of Wendover, Flores, ii, 323; Calendar of Liberate Rolls (Public Record Office, London 1916–64), 1226–40, p. 93 for Aubigny.

24. A. Forey, ‘The Military Order of St Thomas of Acre’, English Historical Review, 92 (1977), 481–503.

25. Holt, Age of Crusades, pp. 63–5; cf. R. S. Humphreys, From Saladin to the Mongols: The Ayyubids of Damascus (Albany 1977).

26. John of Joinville, Histoire de St Louis, ed. N. M. Wailly (Paris 1868), pp. 69–70.

27. Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 268.

28. Sibt Ibn al-Jauzi, Gabrieli, Arab Historians, pp. 273–4; cf. pp. 272–3 for Ibn Wasil’s account.

29. Giovanni Codagnelli (a Piacenza notary fl. 1200–30), Annales Placentini, ed. O. Holder-Egger, Scriptores Rerum Germanicarum (Hanover 1901), pp. 85–6.

30. J. L. Huillard-Bréholles, Historia Diplomagtica Friderici Secundi (Paris 1852–61), iii, 23–30; Gregory IX, Registres, nos. 178–9.

31. According to the hostile Philip of Novara, Wars of Frederick II, p. 73; for preparations, Richard of San Germano, Chronica, pp. 348–9.

32. Roger of Wendover, Flores, ii, 351–2 and generally, pp. 364–73. For the events of 1227–9, Eracles, pp. 363–75; Philip of Novara, Wars of Frederick II, pp. 73–92 (who emphasizes Frederick’s confrontation with the Ibelins in Cyprus).

33. For these and other exchanges, Eracles, pp. 369–72; Gabrieli, Arab Historians, pp. 267–75.

34. Translations, Van Cleve, Frederick II, p. 217 and see notes 3 and 4.

35. Van Cleve, Frederick II, p. 217 note 5.

36. Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 270.

37. Van Cleve, Frederick II, pp. 219–20, reconstructs the treaty that has not survived.

38. Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 271; in general pp. 270–71, 273–4.

39. Gerold’s encyclical letter condemning Frederick is translated in Peters, Christian Society, pp. 165–70, taken from Matthew Paris’s version.

40. Riley-Smith, Feudal Nobility, pp. 171–2.

41. Trans. Peters, Christian Society, pp. 164–5.

42. Richard of San Germano, Chronica, p. 355.

43. Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 270.

44. Roger of Wendover, Flores, ii, 372; trans. Peters, Christian Society, p. 156.

45. Above pp. 725–7.

46. Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 275.

47. Philip of Novara, Wars of Frederick II, p. 91; cf. pp. 87–92 for opposition to Frederick.

48. Van Cleve, Frederick II, p. 528 and note 1.

49. The Rothelin Continuation of William of Tyre, Eracles, pp. 526–7, and, for what follows, pp. 526–56 and, for Eracles Continuation itself, pp. 413–22, trans. J. Shirley, Crusader Syria in the Thirteenth Century (Aldershot 1999), p. 38 and, generally, pp. 38–58, 123–9.

50. For 1239–41, apart from the general surveys for background, S. Painter, ‘The Crusade of Theobald of Champagne and Richard of Cornwall’, History of the Crusades, ed. Setton, ii, 463–85; Lloyd, English Society, esp. pp. 22, 58, 83, 86, 90, 92–3, 136, 149, 151, 178, 182; Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 101–8; P. Jackson, ‘The Crusades of 1239–41 and Their Aftermath’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 50 (1987), 32–60.

51. Theobald of Champagne, ‘Seigneurs Sachiez: oui or ne s’en ira’, trans. Routledge, Eyewitness History of the Crusades, ed. Tyerman, iv, 268.

52. Roger of Wendover, Flores, iii, 104–7; Gregory IX, Registres, nos. 2,180–9.

53. Gregory IX, Registres, no. 2,664.

54. Gregory IX, Registres, nos. 3,923, 3,926.

55. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 104–6 for Richard’s financial arrangements.

56. Gregory IX, Registres, no. 4,107; Painter, ‘Crusade’, p. 466.

57. Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, iii, 368–9.

58. Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, iv, 7; Dunstable Annals, Annales Monastici, ed. Luard, iii, 152.

59. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 104–5; Painter, ‘Crusade’, p. 466.

60. Eracles, pp. 527–8; Thomas Wykes, Chronicon, Annales Monastici, ed. Luard, iv, 86–7.

61. Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, iii, 620; in general, Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 102–4, 107.

62. Lloyd, English Society, pp. 83–4, 136; Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 103–4.

63. Painter, ‘Crusade’, p. 469.

64. The most detailed account is in the Rothelin continuation of William of Tyre, Eracles, pp. 531–46; trans. Shirley, Crusader Syria, pp. 41–50, p. 46 for quotation.

65. Eracles, p. 554; Shirley, Crusader Syria, p. 57.

66. Painter, ‘Crusade’, p. 482.

67. Gregory IX, Registres, nos. 3,363, 3,633, 4,027, cf. 4,315.

68. Burton Annals, Annales Monastici, ed. Luard, i, 265–7; Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, iv, 38–43.

69. Mathew Paris, Chronica Majora, iii, 620.

70. Trans. Routledge, Eyewitness History of the Crusades, ed. Tyerman, iv, 290; cf. Shirley, Crusader Syria, p. 55.

71. Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, iv, 71.

72. Lloyd, English Society, Appendix 5 for the contract and pp. 135–7 for a discussion of it.

73. Eracles, p. 532; Shirley, Crusader Syria, p. 42.

74. Eracles, pp. 531–2; Shirley, Crusader Syria, p. 41.

75. Eracles, pp. 533–6, 538–9; Shirley, Crusader Syria, pp. 42–4, 45–6.

76. The best analysis of these manoeuvres is Jackson, ‘Crusades of 1239–41’.

77. Eracles, p. 554; Shirley, Crusader Syria, p. 57.

78. Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, iv, 138–44.

79. Above p. 726.

80. D. Pringle, ‘King Richard I and the Walls of Ascalon’, pp. 143–6.

81. Eracles, p. 421; Shirley, Crusader Syria, p. 129.

82. Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, iv, 107, 143–5, 211–12, 218.

83. Eracles, p. 556; Shirley, Crusader Syria, p. 58.

24: Louis IX and the Fall of Mainland Outremer 1244–91

1. See above Chapter 22.

2. Eracles, p. 564 and generally pp. 561–6; Shirley, Crusader Syria, p. 65 and pp. 62–6.

3. Holt, Age of the Crusades, p. 66; Irwin, Middle East, pp. 18–19.

4. A. Potthast, Regesta Pontificum Romanorum (Berlin 1874–5), no. 11,491, 31 Dec. 1244.

5. The classic, if not necessarily accurate, account, written over sixty years later, is John of Joinville, Life of Louis, p. 191; cf. Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, iv, 397–8 for mystical implications of the cross; cf. Tyerman, Invention of the Crusades, pp. 82–3. For modern general discussions in English, see especially W. C. Jordan, Louis IX and the Challenge of the Crusade (Princeton 1979), esp. pp. 3–13; J. Richard, St Louis: Crusader King of France, ed. S. Lloyd, trans. J. Birrell (Cambridge 1993), pp. 99–112; Strayer, ‘Crusades’, pp. 487–508.

6. Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, iv, 397–8; v, 3–4; for William, see P. Biller, The Measure of Multitude (Oxford 2000), chap. 3, and esp. p. 85.

7. Potthast, Regesta, no. 11,492; Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, iv, 410–12; cf. p. 391 for a meeting between Louis, Innocent IV and another future crusader, the duke of Burgundy, at Cîteaux on Holy Cross Day, 14 September 1244.

8. Potthast, Regesta, no. 11,491; T. Rymer, Foedera, (3rd edn London 1745), 1-i, 148–9 (crusade bull to Henry III, 23 Jan. 1245); F. M. Delorme, ‘Bulle d’Innocent IV pour la croisade’, Archivum Franciscanum Historicum, 6 (1913), 386–9; cf. Maier, Preaching, p. 62 et seq.

9. Analecta Novissima Spicilegii Solesmensis, ed. J. P. Pitra (Paris 1885–8), ii, 331–2 (Odo of Châteauroux’s Sermon XII); in general for his crusade sermons, nos. XI, XII, XIV, XV, pp. 328–33.

10. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, esp. pp. 111–13 and refs.

11. Maier, Preaching, p. 70 and, generally, pp. 62–70.

12. Innocent IV, Registres, ed. E. Berger (Paris 1884–1921), no. 2,935.

13. Maier, Preaching, pp. 67, 140–42; Eudes Rigaud, Regestum visitati, ed. E. Bonnin (Rouen 1853), p. 733; Tyerman, Invention of the Crusades, pp. 44–5.

14. Maier, Preaching, pp. 101–2.

15. For recruitment, Jordan, Louis IX, pp. 14–34, 65–104; Richard, St Louis, pp. 99–112; Strayer, ‘Crusades’, pp. 487–93.

16. Jordan, Louis IX, p. 66.

17. Innocent IV, Registres, no. 2,644.

18. Etablissements et coutumes, assises et arrest de l’échiquier de Normandie au treizième siècle, ed. M. A. J. Marnier (Paris 1839), p. 201; Layettes du Trésor des Chartes, ed. A. Teulet et al. (Paris 1863–1909), ii, no. 3,560.

19. John of Joinville, Life of Louis, p. 192.

20. See especially Jordan, Louis IX, pp. 35–64; R. Bartlett, ‘Louis IX, Towns and Enquêteurs Réformateurs’, Journal of Medieval History, 5 (1979).

21. Jordan, Louis IX, p. 49.

22. RHGF, xxi, 404. For finances, Jordan, Louis IX, pp. 65–104.

23. For figures and calculations, Jordan, Louis IX, pp. 94–9.

24. RHGF, xxi, 540; Innocent IV, Registres, no. 3,708.

25. Eudes de Rigaud, Regestum visitati, p. 733.

26. Innocent IV, Registres, no. 3,708.

27. Maier, Preaching, p. 67.

28. See the case of Hugh of Rodez, Maier, Preaching, pp. 143–5.

29. RHGF, xxi, 532–40; Jordan, Louis IX, pp. 79–82; Strayer, ‘Crusades’, pp. 490–91.

30. John of Joinville, Life of Louis, p. 198.

31. Jordan, Louis IX, pp. 100–102, and table p. 102.

32. RHGF, xxi, 513–15, trans. J. and L. Riley-Smith, Crusades, pp. 149–52 for the 1250–53 expenses; cf. Jordan, Louis IX, pp. 78–104; Strayer, ‘Crusades’, pp. 492, 504.

33. A. Jal, Pacta Naulorum, Documents historiques inédits, ed. M. Champollion-Figéac (Paris 1841–3), i, 605–9; ii, 51–7; L. T. Belgrano, ‘Une charte de nolis de S. Louis’, Archives de l’Orient Latin, 2 (1884), 231–6.

34. Jal, Pacta Naulorum, ii, 66–7; RHGF, xxi, 283, cf. pp. 223–4, 260–84.

35. John of Joinville, Life of Louis, pp. 320–1; Jal, Pacta Naulorum, p. 63; Strayer, ‘Crusades’, p. 492; Jordan, Louis IX, p. 103.

36. Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, v, 93; WP, pp. 112–3.

37. John of Joinville, Life of Louis, p. 197; Jordan, Louis IX, p. 76 note 82 for discussion and refs. re. salt pork.

38. John of Joinville, Life of Louis, p. 191–2, 194–7.

39. John of Joinville, Life of Louis, p. 195.

40. Richard, St Louis, pp. 99–112 summarizes Louis’s plans, preparations and departure; for the relics of the Passion, see Angold, Fourth Crusade, pp. 237–40.

41. John of Joinville, Life of Louis, p. 197. For modern narratives and discussion in English of the Egyptian campaign, Strayer, ‘Crusades’, pp. 493–504; Richard, St Louis, pp. 113–52; Holt, Age of Crusades, pp. 82–4; Irwin, Middle East, pp. 19–27. The most vivid chronicle account is John of Joinville, Life of Louis, pp. 195–264; the Rothelin continuation of William of Tyre included an important letter from Jean Sarasin and other details, Eracles, pp. 566–71, 589–623; Shirley, Crusader Syria, pp. 66–9, 85–108.

42. John of Colonna, RHGF, xxiii, 19 for the vessels.

43. For a recent discussion, P. Jackson, The Mongols and the West (London 2005), esp. chaps. 3–7.

44. Jackson, Mongols, pp. 87–93 and refs.

45. Described by the well-informed Jean Sarasin, Eracles, pp. 569–71; Shirley, Crusader Syria, pp. 68–9; John of Joinville, Life of Louis, pp. 197–8, 282–3; cf. Jackson, Mongols, pp. 98–100.

46. John of Joinville, Life of Louis, p. 288, and generally pp. 282–8.

47. See the lurid but serious fascination shown by Matthew Paris throughout his Chronica Majora, e.g. iv, 76–8, 270–77, 386–9; for his drawing of alleged Mongol cannibalism, M. R. James (ed.), ‘The Drawings of Matthew Paris’, Walpole Society, 14 (1925–6), no. 86. For the cultural and intellectual significance of such opening of the east to direct western scrutiny, Biller, Measure of Multitude, chap. 9, esp. pp. 227–35.

48. For numbers, Strayer, ‘Crusades,’ pp. 493–4.

49. On this contingent, Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 108–10; Lloyd, English Society, p. 137, and notes 105–6 for refs.

50. Eracles, p. 571; Shirley, Crusader Syria, p. 69.

51. John of Joinville, Life of Louis, pp. 203–4.

52. John of Joinville, Life of Louis, p. 214.

53. Eracles, p. 592; Shirley, Crusader Syria, p. 87.

54. Ibn Wasil, Gabrieli, Arab Historians, pp. 286, 288 and, generally for the Nile campaign, pp. 284–302.

55. John of Joinville, Histoire (French text), p. 140; John of Joinville, Life of Louis, p. 262 omits the detail that the Frenchman had come to Egypt with the Fifth Crusade.

56. John of Joinville, Life of Louis, p. 210.

57. After her own interlude in power in the summer of 1250, she promptly married her successor, the Turkish emir Aybak.

58. Eracles, pp. 594–5; Shirley, Crusader Syria, p. 89.

59. For the timber for war machines, John of Joinville, Life of Louis, pp. 213–17; Eracles, p. 600; Shirley, Crusader Syria, pp. 92–3.

60. For the victory and defeat at Mansourah, John of Joinville, Life of Louis, pp. 218–42; cf. the Rothelin version, Eracles, pp. 599–616; Shirley, Crusader Syria, pp. 92–103; Gabrieli, Arab Historians, pp. 288–95.

61. Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 90.

62. John of Joinville, Life of Louis, p. 225.

63. John of Joinville, Life of Louis, p. 222.

64. John of Joinville, Life of Louis, p. 224.

65. John of Joinville, Life of Louis, p. 222.

66. P. Cole, D. L. d’Avray, J. Riley-Smith, ‘Application of Theology to Current Affairs: Memorial Sermons on the Dead of Mansourah and on Innocent IV’, Historical Research, 62 (1990), 227–47, esp. Odo of Châteauroux’s sermon on 2 King’s 1:18, David’s lament over Jonathan.

67. For the Longspee heroics and early legend, Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, v, 76–7, 105–9, 116–17, 130–34, 138–44, 147–75, 201–4 (p. 154 for ‘manifest martyr’), 254, 280–81. S. Lloyd, ‘William Longspee II: The Making of an English Hero’, Nottingham Medieval Studies, 35 (1991), 41–69 and, with T. Hunt, 36 (1992), 79–125.

68. Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 291.

69. John of Joinville, Life of Louis, p. 239.

70. Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 292; John of Joinville, Life of Louis, p. 237; Eracles, p. 610; Shirley, Crusader Syria, p. 99.

71. Eracles, p. 611; Shirley, Crusader Syria, p. 100.

72. Quoted Richard, St Louis, p. 125.

73. John of Joinville, Life of Louis, p. 243.

74. Ibn Wasil, Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 294.

75. Richard, St Louis, p. 125; John of Joinville, Life of Louis, captures the chaos, dejection and fear, pp. 240–44.

76. Abu Shamah, Livre des Deux Jardins, RHC Or., v (Paris 1906), 196; cf. Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 302, from Maqrizi’s fifteenth-century compilation.

77. John of Joinville, Life of Louis, p. 263; an exaggerated sum.

78. John of Joinville, Life of Louis, pp. 246–50.

79. Ibn Wasil’s comment, Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 298; for the coup, pp. 295–8; John of Joinville, Life of Louis, pp. 251–6.

80. John of Joinville, Life of Louis, pp. 258–60.

81. John of Joinville, Life of Louis, p. 256.

82. Above pp. 777–9. And chap. 22, p. 727.

83. The Mission of Friar William of Rubruck, ed. P. Jackson with D. Morgan, Hakluyt Society, 2nd series, no. 173 (London 1990), pp. 1–55 (Introduction); pp. 59–278 for the friar’s report to Louis IX; Jackson, Mongols, pp. 99–100.

84. A possible reading of Joinville’s account: why was the king wading up to his chest? Why did the southerly wind matter so much on the march south in November 1249? Cf. similar doubts Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, vi, Additamenta, p. 154; Guillaume de Nangis, RHGF, xx, 370.

85. The sense of Maqrizi’s account of the defiance and refusal to contemplate a negotiated accommodation, Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 301.

86. Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, v, 105–6.

87. Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, v, 160–61; cf. Richard, St Louis, pp. 119, 127.

88. Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, v, 107; vi, 163; cf., v, 116–7 for money sent to Louis from the west. For Arabic hints of the same policy, Gabrieli, Arab Historians, pp. 294, 299, 300–301.

89. Liber Secretorum fidelium Crucis, Gesta Dei Per Francos, ed. Bongars, vol. 2.

90. Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, v, 147; for other reactions v, 170–73, 254, 280–81. Cf. trans., R. Vaughan, Chronicles of Matthew Paris (London 1984), p. 239, and p. 256 for Italian disturbances.

91. John of Joinville, Life of Louis, p. 241.

92. The Chronicon of St Laud of Rouen, RHGF, xxiii, 395. In general, M. Barber, ‘The Crusade of the Shepherds in 1251’, Proceedings of the 10th Annual Meeting of the Western Society for French History, ed. J. Sweet (Lawrence 1984), pp. 1–23; G. Dickson, ‘The Advent of the Pastores (1251)’, Revue Belge de Philologie et d’Histoire, 66 (1988), 249–67.

93. For some primary sources, the chronicles of Primat, John of Colonna and St Laud, RHGF, xxiii, 8–9, 123–4, 395–6; Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, v, 246–54, p. 248 for emphasis on the Lamb as a symbol; Salimbene of Adam, Chronicle, ed. and trans. J. L. Baird (Binghampton 1986), p. 453.

94. Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, v, 253.

95. John of Joinville, Life of Louis, p. 318.

96. See, apart from Jordan and Richard, J. Le Goff, St Louis (Paris 1996).

97. Chartes de Terre Sainte provenant de l’Abbaye de Notre Dame de Josaphat, ed. H.-F. Delaborde (Paris 1880), pp. 105–6, no. L.

98. Jackson, Mongols, esp. pp. 113–28 for a recent survey; cf. Holt, Age of Crusades, p. 86–92; Irwin, Middle East, pp. 30–36.

99. Eracles, pp. 635–8; Shirley, Crusader Syria, pp. 117–19.

100. For Baibars, Irwin, Middle East, pp. 37–61; Holt, Age of Crusades, pp. 90–98. The best account of his campaigns is by Ibn Furat, Ayyubids, Mamluks and Crusaders, ed. and trans. U. and M. C. Lyons and J. S. C. Riley-Smith (Cambridge 1971).

101. The best detailed modern narrative is Richard, St Louis, pp. 293–332; cf. Strayer, ‘Crusades’, pp. 508–18; Jordan, Louis IX, pp. 214–18.

102. Jal, Pacta Naulorum, i, 516 et seq. The main French chronicle accounts are by the St Denis monks Primat, RHGF, xxiii, 39–61 and the associated account by Guillaume de Nangis in his biography of Louis IX, RHGF, xx, 438–62.

103. Diplomatic Documents (Chancery and Exchequer), i, ed. P. Chaplais (London 1964), no. 419.

104. Lloyd, English Society, chap. 4, ‘The Crusade of 1270–1272: A Case Study’ and Appendix 4 contain the best account of the organization of the expedition; cf. Strayer, ‘Crusades’, pp. 509–13, 515; Richard, St Louis, pp. 306–15; Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 124–32.

105. On these preparations, Richard St Louis, pp. 315–29.

106. John of Joinville, Life of Louis, p. 345.

107. Thomas Wykes, Chronicon, Annales Monastici, ed. Luard, iv, 217–18.

108. J. R. Maddicott, ‘The Crusade Taxation of 1268–70 and the Development of Parliament’, Thirteenth Century England, ed. P. Coss and S. Lloyd, ii (Woodbridge 1990).

109. Eracles, pp. 457–8.

110. The Dominican Geoffrey of Beaulieu, RHGF, xx, 20, and generally pp. 20–24.

111. An aspiration confirmed by Louis’s Dominican confessor Geoffrey of Beaulieu, RHGF, xx, 21, 25.

112. The pleasing legend is in William of Saint-Pathus, Vie de St Louis, ed. H.-F. Delaborde (Paris 1899), pp. 153–5; but cf. Geoffrey of Beaulieu, RHGF, xx, p. 23 and Guillaume de Nangis, RHGF, xx, 460–61, confirmed by the testimony of another eyewitness, one of Louis’s sons, Peter of Alencçon, John of Joinville, Life of Louis, p. 349; for Geoffrey administering the last rites, Primat, RHGF, xxiii, 57.

113. Richard, St Louis, pp. 329–32; Strayer, ‘Crusades’, pp. 516–17.

114. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 131 and 407; for Edward’s crusade, above note 104 and pp. 720, 722.

115. Lloyd, English Society, pp. 144–8; Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 126–30.

116. John of Joinville, Life of Louis, p. 163, cf. p. 351.

117. E.g. by the officials of Philip VI in the 1330s.

118. Mayer, Crusades, p. 283; Throop, Criticism, p. 232 and passim.

119. Throop, Criticism, pp. 229–30 for the account by James I of Aragon, who was there.

120. For a discussion of these, Throop, Criticism, pp. 69–213; but cf. Siberry, Criticism of Crusading, for a different view, on which see Mayer, Crusades, pp. 320–21.

121. Ed. H. Finke, Konzilienstudien zur Geschichte des 13 Jahrhunderts (Munster 1891), Anhang, pp. 113–17; trans. N. Housley, Documents on the Later Crusades 1274–1580 (Basingstoke 1996), pp. 16–21. See the comments of Riley-Smith, Short History, pp. 176–8.

122. Throop, Criticism, p. 228.

123. Gregory X, Registres, no. 569.

124. P. Guido, Rationes decimarum Italiae nei secoli XIIIe Xiv. Tuscia: la decima degli anni 1274–1290, Studi e Testi, LVIII (Vatican City 1932), esp. pp. xli – xliii.

125. Jackson, Mongols, pp. 165–95.

126. Salimbene of Adam, Chronicle, pp. 504, 505.

127. Mayer, Crusades, p. 286.

128. Holt, Age of Crusades, p. 102.

129. Gestes des Chiprois, iii, and Crawford, Templar of Tyre, chaps, 473 and 474; Runciman, History of the Crusades, iii, 405–6.

130. Above, chapter 22, p. 732; the best Frankish local account is that of the Templar of Tyre, trans. Crawford, chap. Templar of Tyre, 396–516.; cf. Ibn Furat, Ayyubids.

131. Ismai il Abu’l-Fida, trans. Holt, Age of Crusades, p. 104; for an inside view on the siege of Acre, Crawford, Templar of Tyre, chaps. 482–508; cf. Runciman, History of the Crusades, iii, 414, note 2 for western sources; Gabrieli, Arab Historians, pp. 344–50.

132. Holt, Age of Crusades, p. 104.

133. Gestes des Chyprois, iii and Crawford, Templar of Tyre, chap. 513.

134. Runciman, History of the Crusades, iii, 423; Mayer, Crusades, p. 287.

25: The Eastern Crusades in the Later Middle Ages

1. J. Moorman, A History of the Franciscan Order (Oxford 1968), p. 436.

2. B. Kedar and S. Schein, ‘Un projet de “passage particulier”’, Bibliothèque de l’Ecole des Chartes, 137 (1979), 221; Philippe de Mézières, Epistre Lamentable, ed. K. de Lettenhove in Froissart, Chroniques, xvi (Brussels 1872), 491.

3. Philippe de Mézières, Le Songe du Vieil Pèlerin, ed. G. W. Coopland (Cambridge 1969); N. Iorga, Philippe de Mézières (1327–1405) et la croisade au XIVe siècle (Paris 1896); C. J. Tyerman, ‘Marino Sanudo Torsello and the Lost Crusade: Lobbying in the Fourteenth Century’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th series, vol. 32 (1982), 57–73.

4. John Froissart, Chronicles of England, France, Spain etc., trans. T. Johnes (London 1839), ii, 584–8; Tyerman, ‘Sanudo’.

5. Bibliothèque Nationale (Paris), MS Latin 11015 fols. 32 recto–54 verso for Guy’s treatise, fols. 39 recto–41 recto for the section on poisons.

6. Bongars, Gesta Dei Per Francos, ii, 30–31, 36–7, 75–7; F. Cardini, ‘I costi della crociata’, Studi in memoria di Frederigo Melis (Naples 1978), pp. 179–210; N. Housley, ‘Costing the Crusade’, The Experience of Crusading, i, ed. M. Bull and N. Housley (Cambridge 2003), 48.

7. Le Voyage d’Outremer de Bertrandon de la Brocquière, ed. C. Schéfer, Recueil de voyages et de documents pour server à l’histoire de la géographie depuis le xiiie jusqu’à la fin du xvie siècle, xii (Paris 1892), 267–74, esp. p. 274.

8. Benedetto Accolti, De bello a Christiani contra Barbaros Gesta, RHC Occ., v, 532–3 et seq.; cf. a useful summary, M. Meserve, ‘Italian Humanists and the Problem of the Crusade’, Crusading in the Fifteenth Century, ed. N. Housley (Basingstoke 2004), pp. 13–38.

9. For a useful general survey, N. Housley, The Later Crusades (Oxford 1992).

10. C. J. Tyerman, ‘Philip V of France, the Assemblies of 1319–20 and the Crusade’, Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, 57 (1984), 15–34; idem, ‘Sed Nihil Fecit? The Last Capetians and the Recovery of the Holy Land’, War and Government in the Middle Ages, ed. Gillingham and Holt, pp. 170–81.

11. C. J. Tyerman, ‘Philip VI and the Recovery of the Holy Land’, English Historical Review, 100 (1985), 25–52.

12. Philip V to Louis count of Clermont, July 1319, Archives Nationales (Paris) MS JJ 60, no. 100.

13. Philippe de Mézières, Songe du Vieil Pèlerin, i, 399.

14. P. Edbury, ‘The Crusading Policy of Peter I of Cyprus’, Eastern Mediterranean Lands, ed. P. M. Holt (Warminster 1977), pp. 90–105; idem, Cyprus, pp. 161–79; Setton, Papacy and the Levant, i, 225–84.

15. Reproduced in Riley-Smith, Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, opposite p. 276.

16. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 289–93; A. Luttrell, ‘English Levantine Crusaders 1363–1367’, Renaissance Studies, 2 (1988), 143–53.

17. Philippe de Mézières, The Life of St Peter Thomas, ed. J. Smet (Rome 1954); Guilluame de Machaut, La Prise d’Alexandre, ed. L. de Mas Latrie (Geneva 1877), now trans. J. Shirley and P. Edbury, The Capture of Alexandria (Aldershot 2004).

18. T. Walsingham, Historia Anglicana, ed. H. T. Riley, Rolls Series (London 1863–4), i, 301–2.

19. Canterbury Tales, General Prologue, l. 51.

20. Tyerman, Invention of the Crusades, p. 139 note 41.

21. Maier, Preaching, pp. 52–6; cf. pp. 167–9 for the Drenther crusade.

22. E. Baluze, Miscellaneorum, i (Paris 1678), 165–95.

23. See below pp. 343–74, 894–905.

24. D. Wilkins, Concilia Magnae Britanniae et Hiberniae (London 1733–7), iii, 588 (Oct. 1464); cf. the future pope using the same phrase in 1454, L. d’Achéry, Spicilegium (Paris 1723), iii, 795–6.

25. Tyerman, Invention of the Crusades, p. 37 and note 20; Setton, Papacy and the Levant, i, 202.

26. Muldoon, Popes, Lawyers and Infidels, passim and esp. pp. 88–91, 119–31; Housley, Later Crusades, pp. 288, 308–10.

27. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 289, 293, 355.

28. Christiansen, Northern Crusades, pp. 147–51.

29. In general, Forey, The Military Orders, pp. 204–41.

30. For opinions and refs., A. Leopold, How to Recover the Holy Land (Aldershot 2000), esp. pp. 19, 34, 78, 178–9.

31. The best account is M. Barber, The Trial of the Templars (Cambridge 1978); cf. Barber, New Knighthood, pp. 280–313.

32. S. Schein, ‘Philip IV and the Crusade: A Reconsideration’, Crusade and Settlement, ed. Edbury, pp. 121–6.

33. Christiansen, Northern Crusades, pp. 151, 231–41.

34. Forey, The Military Orders, p. 240.

35. On the Ottomans, C. Imber, The Ottoman Empire 1300–1481 (Istanbul 1990); H. Inalcik, The Ottoman Empire: The Classical Age 1300–1600 (London 1973); on Byzantium, D. Nicol, The Last Centuries of Byzantium 1261–1453 (London 1972).

36. Setton, Papacy and the Levant, pp. 195–223; E. L. Cox, The Green Count of Savoy (Princeton 1967).

37. Wilkins, Concilia, iii, 587. For a recent discussion, N. Bisaha, ‘Pope Pius II and the Crusade’, Crusading in the Fifteenth Century, pp. 39–52.

38. Documents on the Later Crusades 1274–1580, ed. N. Housley (Basingstoke 1996), p. 149.

39. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, p. 320.

40. A. Linder, Raising Arms: Liturgy in the Struggle to Liberate Jerusalem in the Late Middle Ages (Turnhout 2003), pp. 179, 189–90.

41. Setton, Papacy and the Levant, p. 245; Housley, Later Crusades, p. 40.

42. Above, note 35.

43. Quoted Housley, Later Crusades, p. 64.

44. Housley, Later Crusades, pp. 90–91 provides a convenient potted account.

45. Schéfer, Voyage d’Outremer, esp. pp. 181–99, when he met Murad II; for Boucicaut, Le livre des Faicts de bon Messire Jean le Maingre dit Boucicaut, ed. M. Petitot, Collection des mémoires relatives à l’histoire de France, vi and vii (Paris 1819).

46. Meserve, ‘Italian Humanists’, pp. 26–7, 35.

47. N. Oikonomides, ‘Byzantium between East and West’, Byzantium and the West, ed. J. Howard-Johnston, Byzantinische Forschung, xiii (Amsterdam 1988), 326–7 and note 17. The situation in Greek cities was far more resistant.

48. In general, D. Geanakoplos, ‘Byzantium and the Crusades’, History of the Crusades, ed. Setton, iii, 27–103; J. Gill, Byzantium and the Papacy 1198–1400 (New Brunswick 1979); Nicol, Last Centuries of Byzantium.

49. R. Manselli, ‘Il cardinale Bessarione contro il periculo turco e l’Italia’, Miscellanea franciscana, 73 (1973), 314–26.

50. S. Runciman, The Fall of Constantinople (Cambridge 1965).

51. Adam of Usk, Chronicon, ed. and trans. E. M. Thompson (London 1904), pp. 57, 220.

52. J. Cabaret d’Oronville, La Chronique de bon duc Loys de Bourbon, ed. A. M. Chazaud (Paris 1876), pp. 218–57; Froissart, Chronicles, ii, 434–49, 465–77, 481–4; generally Setton, Papacy and the Levant, i, 329–41.

53. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 278–80.

54. Cabaret d’Oronville, Chronique, p. 257; some French nobles also died on the way home.

55. J. J. N. Palmer, England, France and Christendom (London 1972), esp. pp. 180–210; Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 294–301; cf. Philippe de Mézières, Letter to Richard II: A Plea Made in 1395 for Peace between England and France, trans. G. W. Coopland (Liverpool 1975).

56. E.g. in the main official French chronicle source, Chronique du religieux de Saint-Denys, contenant le règne de Charles VI, ed. L. Bellaguet (Paris 1839), ii, esp. 428–9; in general A. S. Atyia, The Crusade of Nicopolis (London 1934); Setton, Papacy and the Levant, i, 341–69; Housley, Later Crusades, pp. 73–81.

57. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 300–301 and refs.

58. M. Keen, Chivalry (New Haven 1984), esp. pp. 179–99, esp. p. 195 (Order of the Ship); for Order of the Knot and the crusade, Bibliothèque Nationale (Paris), MS Fr. 4274, fol. 6, reproduced E. Hallam (ed.), Chronicles of the Crusades (London 1989), p. 2.

59. A point made by J. Paviot, ‘Burgundy and the Crusade’, Crusading in the Fifteenth Century, ed. Housley, pp. 71 and 204 note 11.

60. Runciman, History of the Crusades, iii, 462.

61. Setton, Papacy and the Levant, i, 352.

62. Religieux de Saint-Denys, ii, 498.

63. Froissart, Chronicles, ii, chap. xci and p. 654.

64. Mézières, Epistre, pp. 444–523.

65. J. Paviot, Les Ducs de Bourgogne, la croisade et l’Orient (Paris 2003); cf. R. Vaughan, Philip the Good (London 1970), pp. 268–74, 334–72.

66. E.g. Olivier de la Marche, Mémoires, ed. H. Beaune and J. d’Arbaumont (Paris 1883–8), i, 83–4.

67. Paviot, Ducs de Bourgogne, pp. 201–38, esp. p. 238 for Duke Philip’s lack of books on the Turks.

68. For a summary, J. Paviot, ‘Burgundy and the Crusade’, pp. 71–3, 75–7, 79–80; Discours de voyage d’Oultremer, ed. C. Schefer, Revue de l’Orient Latin, 3 (1895), 303–42.

69. Torcello’s Avis and Brocquière’s assessment Schefer, Voyage d’Oultremer, pp. 263–74; cf. Oeuvres de Ghillebert de Lannoy, ed. C. Potvin (Louvain 1878).

70. R. J. Walsh, ‘Charles the Bold and the Crusade’, Journal of Medieval History, 3 (1977), 53–87.

71. Housley, Later Crusades, p. 108; Walsh, ‘Charles the Bold’, p. 56.

72. M.-T. Caron, Les Vœux du faison, noblesse en fête, esprit de croisade (Turnhout 2003), esp. pp. 120–25; pp. 133–67 for vows (p. 153 for Lannoy’s); Paviot, Ducs de Bourgogne, pp. 129–35; pp. 308–13 for Oliver de la Marche’s account; cf. la Marche, Mémoires, ed. J. A. C. Buchon (Paris 1836), p. 494–6.

73. Paviot, Ducs de Bourgogne, p. 238: ‘la croisade chez Philippe le Bon etait un rève chevaleresque’.

74. Paviot, Ducs de Bourgogne, p. 132.

75. O. Halecki, The Crusade of Varna (New York 1943); Housley, Later Crusades, pp. 85–9.

76. Runciman, Fall of Constantinople, for an elegant and elegiac account.

77. Quoted, Bisaha, ‘Pius II and Crusade’, p. 40.

78. Bisaha, ‘Pius II and Crusade’; J. Helmrath, ‘The German Reichstage and the Crusade’, Crusading in the Fifteenth Century, ed. Housley, pp. 53–69.

79. W. R. Lunt, Financial Relations of the Papacy with England, (Cambridge, Mass. 1939–62), ii, passim for indulgence and taxation returns; Housley, Later Crusades, pp. 99–103.

80. Voyage d’Oultremer, p. 339.

81. J. Hofer, Giovanni da Capestrano (L’Aquila 1955); N. Housley, ‘Giovanni da Capistrano and the Crusade of 1456’, Crusading in the Fifteenth Century, ed. idem, pp. 94–115; Housley, Later Crusades, pp. 103–4, 408–10. For the impact, note the Middle English romance Capystranus.

82. Setton, Papacy and the Levant, ii, 235.

83. J. M. Bak, ‘Hungary and Crusading in the Fifteenth Century’, Crusading in the Fifteenth Century, ed. Housley, p. 117.

84. Housley, ‘Capistrano’, p. 108, for a somewhat different slant.

85. Housley, Later Crusades, pp. 104–5 for a summary; cf. ‘Capistrano’, p. 111

86. Quoted Housley, Later Crusades, p. 108; in general, now, Bisaha, ‘Pius II and Crusade’.

87. Above, note 86.

88. Wilkins, Concilia, iii, 587–94; see French version at the Burgundian court, Caron, Vœux du faison, 167–85.

89. Bisaha, ‘Pius II and Crusade’, pp. 50–51.

90. M. Mallett, The Borgias (London 1969), p. 92.

91. Runciman, History of the Crusades, p. 467.

92. Piccolomini to Calixtus III in 1458, quoted Bak, ‘Hungary and Crusading’, p. 119; cf. N. Housley on the antemurale image, Religious Warfare in Europe 1400–1536 (Oxford 2002).

93. Tyerman, England and the Crusade, pp. 315–16.

94. Jean d’Auton, Chronique de Louis XII, ed. R. de Maulde la Clavière (Paris 1889–95), i, 396–7; Tyerman, Invention of the Crusades, pp. 95, 152 note 292.

95. D’Auton, Chronique, ii, 166–7.

96. N. Tanner, The Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils (London and Washington, DC 1990), pp. 595, 607, 609–14, 651, 653–4, 796–7.

97. Setton, Papacy and the Levant, iii, 486.

26: The Crusade and Christian Society in the Later Middle Ages

1. E. Riant, Pèlerinages des Scandinaves en Terre Sainte (Paris 1865), p. 398; apparently the Greenlanders paid the crusade tax in walrus tusks.

2. The Works of Francis Bacon, ed. J. Spedding et al., vii (London 1859), pp. 1–36.

3. Mézières, Epistre, pp. 467, 473.

4. Archives administratives de la ville de Rheims, ed. P. Varin ii (Paris 1843), 273–4, 665.

5. Thomas Walsingham, Historia Anglicana, ed. H. T. Riley, Rolls Series (London 1863–4), ii, 95; Paviot, Ducs de Bourgogne, pp. 171–2.

6. Giles de Muisis, Chronicon majus, ed. J. J. Smet, Recueil des Chroniques de Flandres, ii (Brussels 1841), 216.

7. Innocent IV, Registres, no. 2,644; N. Housley, ‘Politics and Heretics in Italy: Anti-Heretical Crusades, Orders and Confraternities 1200–1500’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 33 (1982), 193–208; Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 261, 285.

8. Chronique parisienne anonyme de 1316 à 1339, ed. A. Hellot, Mémoires de la société de l’histoire de Paris, xi (1885), 29–30; 102–3; X. du Boisrouvray, ‘L’Eglise collégiale et la confrérie du St Sepulchre à Paris 1325–1791’, Positions des thèses de l’école nationale des chartes (Paris 1953), pp. 33–5; for full refs., C. J. Tyerman, The French and the Crusades 1313–1336 (unpublished Oxford DPhil thesis 1981), pp. 138–41.

9. S. Schein, Fideles Crucis; The Papacy, the West and the Recovery of the Holy Land 1274–1314 (Oxford 1991), chap. 7, pp. 219–38; Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 240–42; Housley, Later Crusades, pp. 27–8.

10. Hellot, Chronique parisienne anonyme, p. 46 and generally pp. 46–8.

11. John XXII, Lettres secrètes et curiales relatives à la France, ed. A. Coulon et al. (Paris 1900–), no. 1,116.

12. In general, M. Barber, ‘The Pastoureaux of 1320’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 32 (1981), 143–66; Tyerman, ‘Philip V of France’, 15–34; Tyerman French and Crusades, pp. 99–101.

13. N. Housley, ‘Crusading as Social Revolt: The Hungarian Peasant Uprising of 1514’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 49 (1998), 1–28; J. M. Bak, ‘Hungary and Crusading in the Fifteenth Century’, Crusading in the Fifteenth Century, ed. Housley, esp. pp. 117, 126–7.

14. The suggestion is that of Dr L. S. Ettre, to whom I am grateful for sharing it.

15. A. S. Atiya, The Crusade in the Later Middle Ages (London 1938), pp. 420, 441, 443, 445, 450, 458, 465–6, 522, 527; History of the Crusades, ed. Setton, iii, 85–7, 306–9, 652–3.

16. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 268, 271, 274, 292; St John’s Gate MSS, L. H. Butler Papers, Notes, Calendars and Transcriptions from the Archives of Malta, A. O. M. 356, fols. 232 verso, 237 and 242.

17. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 314–15, 355 and refs.

18. Scrope and Grosvenor Controversy, ed. N. H. Nicolas (London 1832), collated by C. G. Young (Chester 1879), i, 124–5; in general, Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 274, 281, 289, 292, 429 note 91, 431 note 132; cf. M. H. Keen, ‘Chaucer’s Knight, the English Aristocracy and the Crusade’, English Court Culture in the Later Middle Ages, ed. V. J. Scattergood and J. W. Sherborne (London 1983), 45–61.

19. Housley, Later Crusades, p. 282.

20. Sir Thomas Malory, La Morte D’Arthur, ed. S. H. A. Shepherd (New York 2004), p. 697; cf. pp. 149 and 689 for Arthur’s own crusading ambitions.

21. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, esp. pp. 304–6.

22. Chronique de quartre premiers Valois, ed. S. Luce (Paris 1852), p. 128.

23. Tyerman, England and Crusades, p. 305; cf. for Burgundian book collection, Paviot, Ducs de Bourgogne, pp. 201–38.

24. See now R. Tzanaki, Mandeville’s Medieval Audiences (Aldershot 2003); for crusading Prologue, e.g., M. C. Seymour (ed.), Mandeville’s Travels (Oxford 1967), pp. 1–4.

25. A. Goodman, The Loyal Conspiracy (London 1971), pp. 81–2, cf. p. 78 for more crusade memorabilia. For the Heraclius heraldry, see MS n. 98 in the Royal Academy exhibition 2003–4, ‘Illuminating the Renaissance: The Triumph of Flemish Manuscript Painting in Europe’, by the ‘Master of Edward IV’ (RA Catalogue by S. McKendrick et al., London 2003); for Heraclius as a king of France in the fourteenth century, Bibliothèque nationale de France, ms Fr. 2813, Grandes Chroniques de France, fol. 70 verso.

26. A. Gransden, Historical Writing in England c. 550 to the Early Sixteenth Century (London 1974–82), ii, 231–2.

27. Housley, Later Crusades, p. 393; Keen, Chivalry, p. 216.

28. Paviot, ‘Burgundy and Crusade’, p. 73; the 1378 scene was illustrated in the contemporary Grandes chroniques de France, Bibliothèque nationale de France, ms Fr. 2813, fol. 473 verso.

29. Linder, Raising Arms.

30. Linder, Raising Arms, p. 102; cf. pp. 363–4.

31. Linder, Raising Arms, p. 359.

32. Discussed Tyerman, Invention of the Crusades, pp. 72–4.

33. E. g. Lunt, Financial Relations.

34. Tyerman, Invention of the Crusades, p. 62.

35. The Westminster Chronicle, ed. and trans. L. C. Hector and B. F. Harvey (Oxford 1982), 32–3 (cf. pp. 34–7 on the sale of indulgences); J. A. Brundage, ‘Crucesignati: The Rite for Taking the Cross in England’, Traditio, 22 (1966), 289 ff.

36. Tyerman, Invention of the Crusades, pp. 76–83; idem, England and the Crusades, pp. 307–9.

37. M. Andrieu, Le Pontifical Roman au moyen âge (Vatican 1940), iii, 30, 228, 243, 330; M. Purcell, Papal Crusading Policy (Leiden 1975), p. 200.

38. Literae Cantuariensis, ed. J. Brigstocke Sheppard, Rolls Series (London 1887–9), iii, 239, no. 1,051; Registrum Abbatiae Johannis Whethamstede, ed. H. T. Riley, Rolls Series (London 1872–3), ii, 191–2.

39. Above p. 873.

40. Trans. Setton, Papacy and the Levant, ii, 235.

41. Above, Chapter 1 and refs.; for Hostiensis, Suma Aurea (Venice 1574), pp. 1,141–2; Russell, Just War, p. 205.

42. See Mayer’s acute commentary, Crusades, pp. 320–21.

43. Housley, ‘Crusades against Christians’.

44. For what follows, S. Lloyd ‘“Political Crusades” in England’, Tyerman, England and the Crusades, chap. 6, pp. 133–51.

45. In general, J. R. Strayer, ‘The Political Crusades of the Thirteenth Century’, History of Crusades, ed. Setton, pp. 343–75; N. Housley, The Italian Crusades (Oxford 1982), who rather avoids some central issues by beginning the study in 1254; the biographies of Frederick II by Van Cleve and Abulafia.

46. See J. Dunbabin, Charles I of Anjou (London 1998).

47. S. Runciman, The Sicilian Vespers (Cambridge 1958).

48. In general, Housley, Later Crusades, chap. 8, pp. 235–66; N. Housley, The Avignon Papacy and the Crusades 1305–78 (Oxford 1986).

49. Housley, Italian Crusades, p. 137 and note 116 for contemporary contrast with Holy Land crosses.

50. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 333–40 and refs.

51. Hector and Harvey, Westminster Chronicle, pp. 33, 36–7, 39.

52. John Wyclif, Polemical Works in Latin, ed. R. Buddensieg (London 1883), ii, 582.

53. P. E. Russell, English Intervention in Spain and Portugal in the Time of Edward III and Richard II (Oxford 1955), esp. pp. 173–525; J. Edwards, ‘Reconquista and Crusade in Fifteenth-century Spain’, Crusading in Fifteenth Century, ed. Housley, p. 167.

54. Tyerman, Invention of the Crusades, p. 103; idem, England and the Crusades, p. 359 and note 74; Setton, Papacy and the Levant, iii, 1–141 for an exhausting discussion of Julius II.

55. For a summary, Housley, Later Crusades, pp. 249–60 and 482; idem, Religious Warfare, pp. 33–61.

56. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 359–67.

57. Tyerman, Invention of the Crusades, p. 103.

58. Housley, Religious Warfare, pp. 195–7.

59. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 343–5, 351–2, 362–7.

60. R. C. Schwoebel, The Shadow of the Crescent: The Renaissance Image of the Turk (Nieuwkoop 1967); J. W. Bohnstedt, The Infidel Scourge of God: The Turkish Menace as Seen by German Pamphleteers of the Reformation Era, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (Philadelphia 1968), 1–58; M. J. Heath, Crusading Commonplaces (Geneva 1986); Tyerman, Invention of the Crusades, pp. 100–109.

61. G. Burnet, History of the Reformation, ed. E. Nares (London 1830), iv, 32.

62. R. Holinshed, Chronicles of England and Ireland (1587, reprint London 1808–9), iii, 262–4.

63. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, p. 137 and refs. note 18.

64. Albert von Beham und Regesten Papst Innocenz IV, ed. C. Hofler (Stuttgart 1847), pp. 16–17.

65. Above, note 44.

66. Above, notes 41–2, for Hostiensis; for Lille, Lois et coutumes de la ville de Lille, ed. E. B. J. Brun-Lavainne and J. Roisin (Lille 1842), pp. 308–9; for Florence, F. Cardini, ‘Crusade and “Presence of Jerusalem” in Medieval Florence’, Outremer, ed. Kedar et al., p. 341.

67. Epistolae Saeculi XIII, ed. Pertz and Roderberg pp. 161–2. no. 214.

68. Tyerman, Invention of the Crusades, p. 33 and note 9; cf. Mézières’s Songe du Vieil Pèlerin.

69. Trans. Housley, Documents, pp. 31–5.

70. C. J. Tyerman, Fighting for Christendom (Oxford 2004), esp. pp. 183–9; idem, England and the Crusades, chap. 12; Housley, Religious Warfare, passim (see index under ‘antemurale Christianitatis’ and ‘national feeling’).

71. In 1089 regarding Tarragona south of Barcelona; see trans. and ref. O’Callaghan, Reconquest, p. 31.

72. Cardini, ‘“Presence of Jerusalem”’, passim; Housley, Later Crusades, pp. 107–8; idem, Religious Warfare, pp. 30–31, 80–83.

73. James is lauded in contemporary sources such as Ambroise and the Itinerarium and appears in thirteenth-century exempla; for Longspee above, pp. 793–4.

74. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, p. 327 and refs. notes 7 and 8.

75. Annales Regis Edwardi Primi, a St Alban’s fragment printed in William Rishanger, Chronica, ed. H. T. Riley, Rolls Series (London 1865), p. 439; Tyerman, England and the Crusades, pp. 332–3 and refs. note 30.

76. Bibliothèque nationale de France, ms Fr. 2628, fol. 328.

77. Trans. Housley, Religious Warfare, p. 27.

78. Trans. Housley, Documents, pp. 132–3.

79. C. J. Tyerman, ‘Holy War, Roman Popes, and Christian Soldiers: Some Early Modern Views on Medieval Christendom’, The Medieval Church: Universities, Heresy and the Religious Life, ed. P. Biller and R. B. Dobson (Woodbridge 1999), esp. pp. 301–5.

80. Rotuli Parliamentorum (London 1767–77), ii, 362; Tyerman, England and the Crusades, esp. 326–33 for what follows.

81. Cf. A. K. McHardy, ‘Liturgy and Propaganda during the Hundred Years War’, Studies in Church History, 18, ed. S. Mews (Oxford 1982), 215–27; W. R. Jones, ‘The English Church and Propaganda during the Hundred Years War’, Journal of British Studies, 19 (1979), 18–30.

82. Froissart, Chronicles, i, 756.

83. Gesta Henrici Quinti, ed. F. Taylor and J. S. Roskell (Oxford 1975), p. 79.

84. Taylor and Roskell, Gesta Henrici Quinti, pp. 101–13.

85. J. Le Goff, La Civilisation de l’Occident médiéval (Paris 1964), p. 98; but cf. M. Balard’s very brief summary, ‘Notes on the Economic Consequences of the Crusades’, Experience of Crusading, ii, ed. Edbury and Phillips, pp. 233–9.

86. In general, Leopold, How to Recover the Holy Land, Housley, Later Crusades, chap. 13; more interesting, the brilliantly original P. Biller, The Measure of Multitude (Oxford 2000), Part 2, ‘The Map of the World’; cf. Tzanaki, Mandeville’s Audiences.

87. Hayton, Flos historiarum terre orientis, RHC Arm., ii, 113–363; Pierre Dubois, De Recuperatione Terrae Sanctae, ed. C. V. Langlois (Paris 1891), trans. W. Brandt, The Recovery of the Holy Land (New York 1956).

88. In general, Muldoon, Popes, Lawyers and Infidels.

89. Trans. Housley, Documents, pp. 169–73; for Columbus’s increasingly messianic mentality and some of its cultural context, A. Milhou, Colon y su mentalidad mesianica (Valladolid 1983).

90. C. Colon, Los cuatro viages del admirante y su testamento (Madrid 1964), pp. 213–14.

91. M. H. Letts, Mandeville’s Travels: Text and Translations, Hakluyt Society, vols. 101–2 (London 1953), ii, 332.

92. Letts, Mandeville’s Travels, ii, 334; cf Tzanaki, Mandeville’s Audiences, p. 90, and for circumnavigation, pp. 88–91.

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!