Post-classical history

NOTES

INTRODUCTION: GREEDY BARBARIANS IN ARMOR?

1. Payne 1984, 28–29.

2. There are four versions of the pope’s speech, all of them written several years later. They differ considerably, although there is substantial overlap. In addition, there are several, somewhat different translations of each into English.

3. Version of Robert of Rheims; document in Peters 1998, 27.

4. Quoted in Michaud 1855, 51.

5. Armstrong [1991] 2001; Prawer 1972.

6. Ekelund et al.. 1996.

7. Quote from Madden 2002a.

8. Quoted in Curry 2002, 36.

9. June 20, 1999, sec. 4, p. 15.

10. Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, www.religioustolerance.org/chr_cru1.htm.

11. Armstrong [1999] 2001, 4.

12. Carroll 2004, 5.

13. Quoted in Richard 1999, 475.

14. Hume 1761, 1:209.

15. Quoted in Richard 1999, 475.

16. Riley-Smith 2003, 154.

17. Quoted in Saunders 1962, 11.

18. Quoted in Saunders 1962, 11–12.

19. Gibbon [1776–1788] 1994, bk. 6, chap. 58.

20. Duby 1977; France 1997; Mayer 1972.

21. In Riley-Smith 2003, 159.

22. Armstrong [1991] 2001, xii.

23. Mayer 1972, 22–25.

24. Ekelund et al. 1996. This is one of the most inept and uninformed efforts at trying to apply economic principles by analogy that I have ever encountered.

25. Spielvogel 2000, 259.

26. See Tyerman 1998.

27. To list them would take most of a page. Some will be mentioned in the text; the rest will fill the endnotes.

CHAPTER ONE: MUSLIM INVADERS

1. Quoted in Karsh 2007, 4.

2. Rodinson 1980, 273.

3. Becker [1909] 2006, 2.

4. Becker 1926a, 329.

5. Kennedy 2001, 6.

6. Donner 1981, 221.

7. Glubb [1963] 1995, 125.

8. Becker 1926a, 345.

9. Jandora 1990, 1986.

10. Jandora 1990.

11. Gil 1992, 61–64.

12. Gil 1992, 54.

13. Gil 1992, 70.

14. Glubb [1963] 1995, 230.

15. Glubb [1963] 1995, 238

16. Glubb [1963] 1995, 240.

17. Second only to Constantinople (Chandler 1987).

18. Glubb [1963] 1995, 241.

19. Glubb [1963] 1995, 284.

20. Abun-Nasr 1971.

21. Brent and Fentress 1996.

22. Brent and Fentress 1996.

23. Ye’or 1996, 48.

24. Becker 1926a, 370.

25. Fregosi 1998, 94

26. Fregosi 1998, 96.

27. Fregosi 1998, 132.

28. Jamison 2006, 16.

29. Quoted in Jandora 1990, 105.

30. Kennedy 2001, chap. 7.

31. Kaegi 1992.

32. Kennedy 2001; Nicolle 1993.

33. Glubb [1963] 1995, 25.

34. Donner 1981; Glubb [1963] 1995; Kennedy 2001.

35. Kaegi 1992, 39–40.

36. Donner 1981, 225.

37. Saunders 1962, 29.

38. Kennedy 2001, 7.

39. Hodgson 1974, vol. 1.

40. Hodgson 1974, 1:268.

41. Payne [1959] 1995, 105.

42. Hodgson 1974; Payne [1959] 1995.

43. Ter-Ghevondian 1983.

44. Stark 2007, chap. 8.

45. Stark 2001, 133.

46. Capponi 2006.

47. Hodgson 1974, 1:308.

48. Lofland and Stark 1965; Stark and Finke 2000.

49. Bulliet 1979a.

50. Armstrong [1999] 2001, 4.

51. Lomax 1978, 58–59.

CHAPTER TWO: CHRISTENDOM STRIKES BACK

1. Norwich 1990, 324.

2. Jenkins [1966] 1987, 42.

3. Ostrogorsky 1969, 125.

4. Norwich 1990, 325.

5. Kennedy 2001, 12.

6. Turnbull 2004.

7. Roland 1992.

8. Partington [1969] 1999, 12–13.

9. Roland 1992.

10. Partington [1960] 1999.

11. Partington [1960] 1999.

12. Fregosi 1998.

13. Davis 2001, 105.

14. Hanson 2001, 141.

15. Cowley and Parker 2001, xiii.

16. Davis 1913, 362.

17. Quoted in Mitchell and Creasy 1964, 111.

18. Hanson 2001; Montgomery 1968.

19. Both quotations from Mitchell and Creasy 1964, 110–11.

20. Davis 1913, 363.

21. Quoted in Mitchell and Creasy 1964, 112.

22. White 1962; White 1940.

23. Mitchell and Creasy 1964.

24. Gibbon [1776–1788] 1994, bk. 5, chap. 52, p. 336.

25. Delbrück [1920] 1990, 441.

26. Hitti 2002, 469.

27. Cardini 2001, 9

28. Lewis [1982] 2001, 19.

29. Lewis [1982] 2001, 59–60.

30. Hanson 2001.

31. Lomax 1978, 32.

32. Collins 1998; Lomax 1978.

33. Lomax 1978, 32.

34. Wheeler 1969, 34.

35. Quoted in O’Callaghan 2003, 26.

36. Quoted in O’Callaghan 2003, 25.

37. O’Callaghan 2003, 27.

38. Lomax 1978, 65.

39. Lomax 1978, 74.

40. Norwich 1991.

41. Norwich 1991, 93.

42. Norwich 1991, 284.

43. Brown 2003, 36.

44. Brown 2003, 36.

45. Brown 2003, 37.

46. Norwich 1991, 285.

47. Norwich 1991, 285.

48. Brown 2003, 42.

49. In Van Houts 2000, 243.

50. Comnena [c. 1148] 1969, 54.

51. Matthew 1992.

52. Pirenne 1939, 25.

53. Gabrieli 1964; Gibb 1958.

54. Dennet 1948 listed six objections to Pirenne’s thesis, none of them involving their naval ability to close off European access to the Mediterranean.

55. Quoted in Pryor 1992, 103.

56. Lewis 1951, 69.

57. Lewis 1951, 72.

58. Norwich 1991, 94.

59. Lewis 1951, 71.

60. Stark 2005.

61. Krueger 1969, 40.

CHAPTER THREE: WESTERN “IGNORANCE” VERSUS EASTERN “CULTURE”

1. Lewis 2002, 6.

2. Lewis 2002, 7.

3. Lewis 2002, 6.

4. Moffett 1992, 344.

5. Hodgson 1974:1:298.

6. Hodgson 1974:1:298.

7. Butler [1902] 2005, 114.

8. Jandora 1986, 112.

9. Jamieson 2006, 23; Lewis 1951, 64.

10. Aly Mohamed Fahmy’s fine book on Muslim sea-power (1966) depends almost entirely on Byzantine and other Western sources.

11. Lewis 1951, 66–67.

12. Davis 2001, 257; also Beeching 1982, 192.

13. Beeching 1982, 192.

14. Davis 2001, 260.

15. Kollek and Pearlman 1970, 59.

16. Gil 1992, 94.

17. Hill 1993, 10.

18. Bloom 2007, 7.

19. Nasr 1993, 135–36.

20. Nasr 1993, 136.

21. Ajram 1992.

22. Quoted in Brickman 1961, 85.

23. Dickens 1999, 8.

24. Brickman 1961, 84.

25. In Peters 1993, 90.

26. Gil 1992, 470.

27. Quoted in Gil 1992, 470.

28. Pickthall 1927.

29. Farah 1994, 199.

30. Jaki 1986, 208.

31. See Colish 1997; Stark 2003, chap. 2.

32. Butler 1884, 239.

33. Mackensen 1936, 106.

34. Mackensen 1936, 110.

35. For a summary, see Butler [1902] 2005 and Mackensen 1935a.

36. Quoted in Mackensen 1935a, 117.

37. Afsaruddin 1990, 292.

38. Mackensen 1935a

39. Moffett 1992, 355.

40. Mackensen 1935a, 122.

41. Works XII.

42. Quoted in Gay 1966.

43. Gibbon [1776—1788] 1994, bk. 6, chap. 71.

44. Boorstin 1983, 100.

45. Manchester 1993, 3, 5.

46. Stark 2005; 2003.

47. Gimpel 1976, viii, 1.

48. White 1940, 151.

49. Ajram 1992, app. B.

50. Ajram 1992, app. B.

51. Bulliet [1975] 1990.

52. Leighton 1972, 112.

53. Bulliet [1975] 1990, 20.

54. Leighton 1972, 107.

55. Usher 1966, 184.

56. Leighton 1972, 74–75.

57. France 1994, 91.

58. Lopez 1976, 44.

59. Bairoch 1988, 125; Gimpel 1976, 43.

60. Gies and Gies 1994; Gimpel 1976; White 1962.

61. Stark 2005, chap. 2.

62. White 1940.

63. Hyland 1994, 114.

64. France 1999, 17.

65. France 1994, 149.

66. Smail 1995, 81.

67. Quoted in France 1994, 149.

68. Payne-Gallwey 2007, 3.

69. Marshall 1994, 59–60.

70. Payne-Gallwey 2007, 20.

71. Payne-Gallwey 2007, 4.

72. Comnena [c. 1148] 1969, 327.

73. Verbruggen 2002.

74. Marshall 1994, 172–73.

75. Marshall 1994, 172.

76. Rose 1999, 569.

77. Pryor 1992, 30.

78. Bachrach 1985.

CHAPTER FOUR: PILGRIMAGE AND PERSECUTION

1. John puts him in Jerusalem more frequently than do the other Gospels.

2. Gil 1992, 483.

3. Quoted in Runciman 1969, 69.

4. Hunt 1982, 4.

5. Eusebius, Life of Constantine, quoted in Peters 1993, 26–27.

6. Kollek and Pearlman 1970, 38.

7. In Peters 1993, 33.

8. Runciman 1969, 69–70.

9. Quoted in Hunt 1982, 150.

10. Hunt 1982, 34.

11. Hunt 1982, 56.

12. Runciman 1969, 69.

13. Russell 1958, 101.

14. Kollek and Pearlman 1970, 51.

15. Kollek and Pearlman 1970, 52.

16. Procopius [c. 560] 1888.

17. Procopius [c. 560] 1888, 138.

18. Taylor 2008.

19. Gil 1992, 54.

20. Gil 1992, 58.

21. Gil 1992, 69.

22. Peters 1993, 31.

23. Rodinson 1980.

24. Gil 1992, 471.

25. Gil 1992, 472.

26. Salahi 1995, 170–71.

27. Grabar 2006.

28. Kollek and Pearlman 1970, 67.

29. Runciman, 1951, 1:29.

30. Cohen 2008.

31. Runciman 1969, 77.

32. All based on Runciman 1969.

33. Runciman 1969, 73.

34. Kollek and Pearlman 1970, 1.

35. Riley-Smith 1997, 28.

36. Erdoes 1988, 26.

37. Riley-Smith 1997, 28.

38. Painter 1969, 15.

39. In Webb 2001, 35.

40. Runciman 1969, 76.

41. Gil 1992, 487.

42. Davidson 1976, chap. 5.

43. Runciman 1951, 1:47.

44. Lopez 1969, 61.

45. Davidson 1976, 254.

46. Hodgson 1974, 2:26.

47. See Atiya 1968; Gil 1992; Hodgson 1974; Runciman 1951, vol. 1.

48. Runciman 1951, 1:35.

49. In Biddle 1999, 72.

50. Kollek and Pearlman 1970, 82.

51. Runciman 1951, 1:49.

52. Taylor 2008.

53. All four examples from Riley-Smith 1997, 37–38.

54. Stark 2001, chap. 2.

55. Cahen 1969, 138.

56. Norwich 1991, 340.

57. Norwich 1991, 341.

58. Quoted in Norwich 1991, 343.

59. Charanis 1969, 192.

60. Quoted in Norwich 1991, 356.

61. Gil 1992, 410.

62. Gil 1992, 412.

63. Runciman 1969, 78.

64. Gil 1992, 488.

65. Runciman 1951, 1:79.

CHAPTER FIVE: ENLISTING CRUSADERS

1. Duncalf 1969a, 234.

2. Baldric in Peters 1998, 28.

3. Fletcher 1997, 19.

4. Duffy 1997, 27.

5. Fletcher 1997, 38.

6. For a summary, see Stark 2003.

7. Cheetham 1983, 84.

8. Stark 2004, 56.

9. Cole 1991, 6.

10. Stark and Finke 2000, chap. 3.

11. Duby 1994; Lawrence 2000.

12. Bull 1993, 117.

13. Riley-Smith 2005, 4.

14. Chandler 1987, 159.

15. Bull 1993.

16. Porges 1946, 4.

17. Document in Peters 1998, 11–12.

18. Painter 1969a, 15.

19. Document in Peters 1998, 12–13.

20. Erdmann [1935] 1977.

21. Cole 1991, 3.

22. Document in Peters 1998, 37.

23. Document in Peters 1998, 44.

24. Riley-Smith 2005, 9.

25. Riley-Smith 1997, 63.

26. Riley-Smith 1997, 62.

27. Constable 1953.

28. Riley-Smith 1997, 2.

29. Riley-Smith 1997.

30. Stark 2007, 2005.

31. Riley-Smith 1997, chap. 4.

32. Munro 1911, 497.

33. Riley-Smith 1997, 110.

34. Riley-Smith 1986, 43.

35. Lloyd 1995, 55.

36. Riley-Smith 1986, 117.

37. Riley-Smith 1997, 129.

38. Lloyd 1995, 55.

39. Calculation based on Munro 1911.

40. Runciman 1969b, 276.

41. Duncalf 1969b, 267.

42. Stark 2005.

43. Riley-Smith 1997, 116.

44. France 1994, 86.

45. Riley-Smith 1997, 118.

46. Riley-Smith 1997, 119.

47. Riley-Smith 2005, 23.

48. Robert of Reims version; document in Peters 1998, 29.

49. Brundage 1985; Porges 1946.

50. Runciman 1951, 1:113.

51. Comnena [c. 1148] 1969, 309.

52. Document in Peters 1998, 108–9.

53. Document in Peters 1998, 103.

54. Runciman 1951, 1:114.

55. handler 1987, 15.

56. Document in Peters 1998, 104–7.

57. Albert of Aachen; document in Peters 1998, 104–7.

58. Riley-Smith 1997, 49.

59. Brundage 1985.

60. Quoted in Riley-Smith 1997, 72.

CHAPTER SIX: GOING EAST

1. Fulcher of Chartres [c. 1127] 1969, 81.

2. Russell 1958.

3. Comnena [c. 1148] 1969, 311.

4. Runciman 1951, 1:123; Tyerman 2006, 99.

5. Runciman 1951, 1:336.

6. Riley-Smith 1991, 28.

7. Brundage 1985.

8. Runciman 1951, 1:339–40.

9. France 1994.

10. Summary in Duncalf 1921, 452.

11. Mayer 1972.

12. Duncalf 1969b, 256; Duncalf 1921, 452; France 1994, 86; Gillingham 1999, 59.

13. Duncalf 1921.

14. Asbridge 2004, 82.

15. Mayer 1972, 40.

16. Quoted in Duncalf 1921, 441.

17. Document in Peters 1998, 104.

18. Document in Krey 1921, 49.

19. Duncalf 1921, 444–45.

20. Document in Krey 1921, 51.

21. Tyerman 2006, 98.

22. Tyerman 2006.

23. Duncalf 1969b, 260.

24. Baron 1957; Chazan 2006; Chazan 1996; Chazan 1986; Chazan 1980; Graetz 1894; Grosser and Halpern 1983; Poliakov 1965; Runciman 1951, vol. 1; Stark 2001.

25. Poliakov 1965, 45.

26. Madden 1999, 20.

27. Runciman 1951, 1:141.

28. Runciman 1951, 1:142.

29. Comnena [c. 1148] 1969, 313–14.

30. Runciman 1951, 1:144.

31. Runciman 1951, 1:149.

32. Runciman 1951, 1:152.

33. Comnena [c. 1148] 1969, 422.

34. France 1994, 116.

35. Anonymous [c. 1102] 1962, 6, 10.

36. France 1994, 118.

37. France 1994, 135.

38. Jamison [1939] 1969, 208.

CHAPTER SEVEN: BLOODY VICTORIES

1. Runciman 1969c, 289.

2. Runciman 1951, 1:179.

3. Anonymous [c. 1102] 1962, 15.

4. Anonymous [c. 1102] 1962, 17.

5. Anonymous [c. 1102] 1962, 17.

6. France 1994, 122.

7. France 1994, 170–75.

8. Fulcher of Chartres [c. 1127] 1969, 84.

9. Anonymous [c. 1102] 1962, 20.

10. Runciman 1951, 1:186.

11. Runciman 1951, 1:187.

12. Anonymous [c. 1102] 1962, 23.

13. Runciman 1951, 1:192.

14. Anonymous [c. 1102] 1962, 27.

15. Chandler 1987.

16. Runciman 1951, 1:216.

17. Runciman 1951, 1:214–15.

18. Anonymous [c. 1102] 1962, 35.

19. France 1994, 301.

20. Anonymous [c. 1102] 1962, 37.

21. France 1994, 286.

22. France 1994, 279.

23. Anonymous [c. 1102] 1962, 69.

24. Runciman 1951, 1:256.

25. Riley-Smith 1986, 67.

26. Riley-Smith 1986, 66.

27. France 1994, 287; Riley-Smith 1986, 66.

28. Runciman, 329.

29. Runciman 1951, 1:279.

30. Runciman 1951, 1:339–40.

31. France 1994, 327.

32. Runciman 1951, 1:284.

33. France 1994, 351.

34. Guibert of Nogent [c. 1106] 1997, 131.

35. Guibert of Nogent [c. 1106] 1997, 132.

36. Document in Peters 1998, 256–61.

37. France 1994, 355.

38. Stark 2001.

39. France 1994, 343.

40. Gil 1992, 828.

41. Document reprinted in Peters 1998, 264–68.

42. Tyerman 2006, 160.

43. Runciman 1951, 1:297.

CHAPTER EIGHT: THE CRUSADER KINGDOMS

1. William of Tyre [c. 1180] 1943, bk. 9, chap. 9.

2. Russell 1972, 201–5.

3. Riley-Smith 1983, 733.

4. Fink 1969, 370.

5. Fulcher of Chartres [c. 1127] 1969, 150.

6. Riley-Smith 1983, 732.

7. Riley-Smith 1983, 734.

8. Boas 1998, 152.

9. Prawer 1972, 73.

10. Chandler 1987, 471.

11. Fink 1969, 385.

12. Munro 1936.

13. Munro 1936, 86.

14. Runciman 1951, 2:291–92.

15. Boas 1998, 142.

16. Fulcher of Chartres [c. 1127] 1969, 271.

17. Boas 1998, 139.

18. Kedar [1990] 2002, 244–45.

19. Kedar 1984.

20. Kedar [1990] 2002, 254.

21. Quoted in Munro 1936, 106–7.

22. See Horvath 1972.

23. Prawer 1972.

24. Quoted in Burman 1986, 15–16.

25. Quoted in Burman 1986, 16.

26. Burman 1986, 14.

27. Burman 1986, 19.

28. Burman 1986, 23.

29. Bernard was canonized in 1174, only twenty-one years after his death. His reputation has been so enduring that in 1953, the eight hundredth anniversary of his death, Pope Pius XII devoted an encyclical to recommending his virtues to all.

30. Southern 1970.

31. Daniel-Rops 1957.

32. Barber 1994, 17.

33. Barber 1994, 16.

34. Marshall 1994, 57.

35. Prawer 1972, 261.

36. Marshall 1994, 45.

37. Marshall 1994, 57.

38. Prawer 1972, 261.

39. Burman 1986, 33.

40. Bernard of Clairvaux, De Laude Novae Militiae, vol. 1.

41. Catholic Encyclopedia, S.V. “The Knights Templars.”

42. Barber 1994, 22.

43. Catholic Encyclopedia, s.v. “The Knights Templars.”

44. Stark 2005.

45. Baldwin 1937, 96.

46. Burman 1986, 82.

47. Burman 1986, 83.

48. Burman 1986, 88.

49. Ferris 1902, 1.

50. Riley-Smith 2005, 81.

51. Nicholson 2003, 3.

52. Riley-Smith 1999, 25.

53. Riley-Smith 1999, 33.

54. Nicholson 2003, 13.

55. See Sire 1996.

CHAPTER NINE: THE STRUGGLE TO DEFEND THE KINGDOMS

1. Riley-Smith 1978, 99.

2. Runciman 1951, 2:238.

3. Runciman 1951, 2:253.

4. Tyerman 2006, 279.

5. Tyerman 2006, 275.

6. Phillips 2007, 99–101.

7. In Poliakov 1965, 48.

8. Stark 2001, chap. 3.

9. In Chazen 1980, 107–8.

10. Berry 1969, 463.

11. Moore 2008, 28.

12. In Phillips 2007, xxiii—xxiv.

13. Tyerman 2006, 318.

14. Procter [1856] 2007, 220.

15. Phillips 2007, 169.

16. Siberry 1985, 25.

17. Runciman 1951, 2:268.

18. Phillips 2007, 180.

19. Phillips 2007, 206.

20. Riley-Smith 2005, 128.

21. Nicolle 2004b, 50.

22. Pringle 1991.

23. Riley-Smith 1991, 56.

24. Smail 1951.

25. Runciman 1951, 2:329.

26. Runciman 1951, 2:366.

27. Lane-Poole [1898] 2002, 372.

28. Runciman 1951, 2:414.

29. Hamilton 2000.

30. William of Tyre [c. 1180] 1943, 2:407.

31. Runciman 1951, 2:462.

32. Runciman 1951, 2:464.

33. Lane-Poole [1898] 2002, 229.

34. Brand 1962, 170.

35. Irwin 2006, 213.

36. Munro 1935, 56.

37. Moffett 1992, 391.

38. Riley-Smith 2005, 305; Siberry 1995, 368.

39. Tyerman 2006, 351.

40. Gibbon [1776–1788] 1994, bk. 6, chap. 59.

41. Quoted in Madden 1999, 78.

42. Painter 1969b, 46.

43. Painter 1969b, 47.

44. Lane-Poole [1898] 2002, 221.

45. Ibn-el-Athir, quoted in Lane-Poole [1898] 2002, 222.

46. Lane-Poole [1898] 2002, 222; Runciman 1951, 2:472.

47. Ehrenkreutz 1955.

48. Ehrenkreutz 1955, 111.

49. Painter 1969b, 47.

50. Runciman 1959, 3:11.

51. Painter 1969b, 57.

52. Brand 1962, 173.

53. Quoted in Brand 1962, 175.

54. Brand 1962, 175.

55. Brand 1962, 177.

56. Painter 1969, 50.

57. Runciman 1951, 3:16.

58. Painter 1969b, 50.

59. Pryor 1992, 129.

60. Painter 1969b, 52.

61. Pryor 1992, 129.

62. Painter 1969b, 73.

63. Smail 1995, 164.

64. Painter 1969b, 74.

65. Painter 1969b, 75.

66. McLynn 2007, 214–15.

67. Runciman 1951, 3:130.

68. Durant 1950, 605; Tyerman 2006, 553.

69. Chandler 1987.

70. Runciman 1951, 3:123.

71. Vryonis 1967, 152.

72. Durant 1950, 605.

73. For a fine summary, see Queller and Stratton 1969.

74. Quoted in Phillips 2004, xiii.

75. Queller and Madden 1997, 135.

76. Queller and Madden 1997, 135.

77. Carroll 1993, 157, 131; Durant 1950, 605; Tyerman 2006, 553.

78. Richard 1999, 250.

79. McNeal and Wolff 1969, 159.

80. McNeal and Wolf 1969, 162.

81. McNeal and Wolff 1969, 167.

82. Madden 2003.

83. McNeal and Wolff 1969, 173.

84. Richard 1999, 247–48.

85. McNeal and Wolff 1969, 179.

86. Phillips 2004, 175.

87. McNeal and Wolff 1969, 181.

88. Richard 1999, 250.

89. Wolff 1969, 189.

90. McNeal and Wolff 1969, 185.

CHAPTER TEN: CRUSADES AGAINST EGYPT

1. Van Cleve 1969, 388.

2. Van Cleve 1969, 393.

3. Van Cleve 1969, 394.

4. Runciman 1951, 3:152; Van Cleve 1969, 398–99.

5. Van Cleve 1969, 399.

6. Van Cleve 1969, 400.

7. Runciman 1951, 3:154.

8. Runciman 1951, 3:155.

9. Runciman 1951, 3:158.

10. Van Cleve 1969, 414.

11. Runciman 1951, 3:162; Van Cleve 1969, 418.

12. Quoted in Hallam 2000, 254.

13. Tyerman 2006, 771.

14. Runciman 1951, 3:256.

15. Strayer 1969, 487.

16. Richard 1999, 345.

17. Richard 1999, 345.

18. Runciman 1951, 3:262.

19. Runciman 1951, 3:266

20. Richard 1999, 348.

21. Riley-Smith 2005, 208.

22. Ziada 1969, 735.

23. Ziada 1969.

24. Runciman 1951, 3:318.

25. Runciman 1951, 3:318.

26. Madden 1999, 181.

27. Madden 1999, 181.

28. Runciman 1951, 3:325.

29. Madden 1999, 181–82.

30. Runciman 1951, 3:325.

31. Mayer 1972, 281.

32. Tyerman 2006, 810.

33. Armstrong [1991] 2001,448.

34. Riley-Smith 1991, 115.

35. Madden 1999, 184; Riley-Smith 2005, 210.

36. Riley-Smith 2005, 210.

37. Madden 1999, 185.

38. Madden 1999, 211.

39. Runciman 1951, 3:348.

CONCLUSION: MISSION ABANDONED

1. Siberry 1985, 118.

2. Siberry 1985, 119.

3. Siberry 1985, 120.

4. Cazel 1955, 385.

5. Bédier and Aubry 1909, 45.

6. Painter 1969, 55.

7. Tyerman 2006, 779.

8. Tyerman 2006, 779.

9. Siberry 1985, 194.

10. Siberry 1985, 194.

11. Quoted in Throop 1940, 178.

12. Siberry 1985, 69.

13. Brundage 1985.

14. Quoted in Throop 1940, 169.

15. Runciman 1951, 3:407.

16. Runciman 1951, 3:419.

17. Quoted in Nicolle 2005, 83.

18. Armstrong [1991] 2001, xiv.

19. Riley-Smith 2003, 160–61.

20. Peters 2003, 6.

21. Hillenbrand 1999, 4–5.

22. In Hillenbrand 1999, 45.

23. There was no Arabic term for “crusaders.” They had merely been referred to as “Franks.”

24. Knobler 2006, 310.

25. Knobler 2006, 310.

26. Knobler 2006, 310.

27. Lewis 2002, 3.

28. Peters 2003; Riley-Smith 2003.

29. Andrea 2003, 2.

30. Sivan 1973, 12.

31. Knobler 2006, 320.

32. Various Muslims quoted by Riley-Smith 2003, 162.

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