Post-classical history

NOTES

PREFACE

1 Dan Jones, Summer of Blood: The Peasants’ Revolt of 1381 (HarperPress, London, 2009); Melvyn Bragg, In our Time, BBC Radio 4, 16 November 2006.

2 See 324–5.

3 Palmer (2), 164, 189.

4 CPR 1377–81, 599.

5 OCL, 365; see 316–17.

6 Hilton, xviii.

7 Réville, cxiii n. 1, 189, 205, 273.

8 See 365–6.

9 Oman, 146; Dobson, 284. See 366–7.

10 See bibliography for the other links.

11 Dobson, 243.

CHAPTER ONE: THE END OF AN ERA

1 ODNB, ‘Edward III’; Ormrod (4), 578; Walsingham, 32; Sumption, 271.

2 ODNB, ‘Edward III’ and ‘Perrers, Alice’; Sumption, 270–1; Ormrod (4), 575–6; Barker, 109.

3 ODNB, ‘Perrers, Alice’; Walsingham, 32; Ormrod (4), 583–4.

4 Walsingham, 32; Froissart, 195–6.

5 Sumption, 268–9.

6 Ibid., 279; Saul, 22, 31–3.

7 Searle, 380–1; Walsingham, 32, 36–7, 46; Froissart, 196–7; Dobson, 92–3.

8 Walsingham, 36–7, 46 and n. 5; Sumption, 286; Searle, 381. Lewes Priory later appealed to the pope for licence to appropriate churches in an attempt to recoup some of their losses.

9 Keen, 201–5.

10 Ibid., 204.

11 Barber, 228; Keen, 201.

12 Barber, 16, 18, 20, 41, 177; ODNB, ‘Edward, prince of Wales and Aquitaine’.

13 Ibid. An older son, Edward, born at Angoulême, had died the previous year.

14 Walsingham, 27.

15 Barber, 239.

16 PROME, v, 315; Saul, 17; ODNB, ‘John of Gaunt’.

17 Ibid.

18 ODNB, ‘Edmund of Langley’.

19 ODNB, ‘Thomas of Woodstock’.

20 Bennett, esp. 582–5, 593–4.

21 Crouch, 124–7.

22 Saul, 17, 22.

23 Ibid., 28; ODNB, ‘John of Gaunt’.

24 Saul, 32–4.

CHAPTER TWO: THE STATE OF THE NATION

1 Saul, 24–6, 310.

2 Sargent, 257–61.

3 Rich, 137–8.

4 Shakespeare, Richard II, Act 2, Scene 1, ll. 43–9.

5 Hewitt, 70; Ohler, 40–1; Harriss, 225.

6 Dyer, 77–99, esp. 96–8.

7 Keen, 137–9; Butcher, 94; Ravensdale, 198; Campbell, 96; Bailey, 179.

8 Saul, 6; Harriss, 218.

9 Jewell, 61; Butcher, 98; Gottfried, 248; Schofield, 7; Young, 24–6, 28.

10 Dyer, 133–65, esp. 140–3, 148–9; Schofield, 83.

11 Ibid., 224–5, 256–7; Britnell (2), 74–7.

12 Chaucer (2), 20; Russell, 178 n. 3, 179, 212; OCL, 124.

13 Dyer (6), 32, 36; Harriss, 311–12.

14 Owst, 159–61, 178–9, 223, 282.

15 Ibid., 68, 72–5, 196; Réville, lxvii; PROME, v, 230–1.

16 At the end of 1380, a panel of Oxford doctors chaired by the chancellor had condemned his most recent treatise, On the Eucharist, which argued that Christ’s body and blood were only ‘figuratively’ present in the bread and wine at mass, not physically and corporeally as the Church taught. Anyone holding such beliefs, the panel decreed, was to be excommunicated and banned from teaching. Yet the fact that the panel reached its decision by the slimmest possible majority of just seven to five was a clear indication that there was still room for debate on the subject. Had Wyclif confined his highly academic arguments to university circles he might have flourished undisturbed. But by his unholy alliance with John of Gaunt in the autumn of 1376 he had entered the public arena of secular anti-clericalism and his preaching – in English – that the crown could legitimately seize the Church’s property to fund the defence of the realm meant that the ecclesiastical authorities could not ignore him, because his sermons played into ideas that were already circulating not just among the educated and literate but also among the ‘commons’. Harriss, 377–83; ODNB, ‘Wyclif, John’.

17 See 280.

18 Orme, 136.

19 Ibid., 168, 249; Orme (2), 243–4, 264.

20 Ibid., 30.

21 For a discussion of the content of the letters see Appendix 4.

22 Chaucer (2), 5; Barker (2), 262–3; Heath, 29.

23 Chaucer (2), 3–21; Fenwick, ii, 558, 562.

24 Chaucer (2), 14; Staley; Dobson, 133, 324.

25 Brown, 28.

CHAPTER THREE: LANDLORDS AND TENANTS

1 Fenwick, i, 173; Domesday Book, 988; Rippon and Wainwright, 2, 12, 14, 16, 21.

2 ODNB, ‘Canville, Sir Thomas’ and ‘Felton, Sir Thomas’; Thornbury, ‘Westminster Abbey: Chapels and Royal Tombs’, states that Eleanor de Bohun wears the conventual dress of a nun of Barking Abbey in her monument at Westminster Abbey but she may simply be wearing a widow’s veil:ODNB, ‘Thomas of Woodstock’.

3 VCH Essex, ‘The Abbey of Barking’; Hanawalt, 135.

4 VCH Essex, ‘The Abbey of Barking’ and ‘The Hundred of Becontree’; Dyer (3), 39. See 159–60.

5 Dyer (5), 22; VCH Essex, ‘The Abbey of Waltham Holy Cross’.

6 VCH Essex, ‘The Abbey of Coggeshall’; Sparvel-Bayly, 218.

7 Dyer (5), 22; see 15.

8 Dyer (3), 16 n. 23; 18; Fenwick, i, 185; Réville, 226.

9 ODNB, ‘Joan, countess of Kent’ and ‘Brotherton [Marshal], Margaret’; Réville, 220, 288.

10 VCH Essex, ‘The liberty of Havering-atte-Bower’; P&T, 17–18; Dobson, 148–9.

11 ODNB, ‘Vere, Aubrey de’; Sparvel-Bayly, 216–17; CCR 1369–74, 8.

12 Dyer (5), 22.

13 Wood, 68.

14 Harriss, 94.

15 OCL, 578; Saul (2), 96–7, 169; Harriss, 94–6.

16 Ibid., 130, 172, 264; Fryde (3), 24.

17 Dunn, 19; Poos, 243; Fryde (3), 17; Dyer (5), 31.

18 SC8/45/2242, SC8/109/5419, TNA; CPR 1377–81, 130; Arnold, 56, 167–70. See 424.

19 Harriss, 223; PRH, 60–1.

20 Dyer (3), 25–6.

21 Fryde (3), 15, 18, 26.

22 Ibid., 18; Dyer (3), 24; Dyer (4), 36; PRH, 63, 65. A messuage was a dwelling-house with its own buildings and surrounding land: OCL, 837.

23 Chaucer, pt. 3 (Avarice); PRH, 65; Dyer (5), 32.

24 Dyer (3), 27–8; Poos, 245–6.

25 Bailey, 196–7; Fryde (3), 16; PRH, 56–8.

26 Dyer (3), 32–3; Dyer (5), 31, 32.

27 Ibid., 32; Dyer (3), 16, 36; PRH, 55, 56, 74.

28 Chaucer, pt. 3 (Avarice).

29 PROME, vi, 47; Faith, 48–9.

30 Ibid., 47–9; PROME, vi, 47.

31 Dyer (2), 277; Faith, 52, 56.

32 Ibid., 44–5, 47–8; Fryde (3), 40.

33 Müller, 3–5, 7–10.

34 Faith, 45; PROME, vi, 47; Dodd, 173.

35 Faith, 45, 54–8.

36 PROME, vi, 47–8.

37 Faith, 43, 45, 71–3. See 167–8, 172, 182, 183, 254, 367, 369.

38 Fenwick, i, xiv.

39 Dodd, 172–4.

40 VCH Middlesex, ‘Middlesex: Social and Economic History’; Dodd, 99.

41 Müller (2), 5–7.

42 Dyer (2), 280; Bailey, 186–8.

43 Poos, 246; Dyer (3), 24–5, 8.

44 PRH, 68–9.

45 Dyer (3), 24 and see 64.

46 Dobson, 126–7.

47 Saul, 15–16; CPR 1377–81, 192–3. The Anonimalle does not identify the villein by name.

48 Réville, 186–8.

49 www.ghs.org.uk.

CHAPTER FOUR: URBAN SOCIETY

1 Dyer, 265; Schofield, 149; Bailey, 169–70; CPR 1374–7, 157; Aston, 12. For Sibil see 226–7; for Philipot see 117, 273, 277, 369.

2 Fenwick, ii, 61.

3 Harriss, 49; Saul (2), 110.

4 Harriss, 302; Dyer, 260–1.

5 Barron, 45–6; Brown, xiii; Chaucer (2), 229.

6 Barron, 49.

7 Ibid., 47–8; Bellot, 23–5.

8 Barron, 49, 52.

9 Ibid., 44, 53; Knoop, 32–3.

10 See 226–7.

11 Barron, 53, 55; Barker, 99–100, 109; see 267 ff.

12 Barron, 46–7; Thrupp, 133, 138, 140.

13 Barron, 51; Thrupp, 130–3.

14 Sabine, 28–33, 40; Thrupp, 137 n. 113; Wood (2), 384.

15 Sabine, 22–5, 29, 40; Thrupp, 137 n. 112.

16 Barron, 45; Thrupp, 136; Barker (2), 349–51.

17 Saul, 332–3; Wright, 43.

18 Thrupp, 127, 141–2.

19 Ibid, 39; Bird, 13, 27–9, 46–50; ODNB, ‘Walworth, Sir William’.

20 Ibid.; HOPOL, ‘Askham, William’,

21 Thrupp, 208, 209–16, 218.

22 Ibid., 1–4, 6; Barron, 56.

23 Fenwick, i, 174; Grieve, 38–9; Harriss, 239; Bailey, 244–5; Grenville, 320; Dyer, 124–5.

24 Fenwick, i, 223–4; Grieve, 38–9; Quiney, 80.

25 Schofield, 57–8, 147; Bailey, 118, 122.

26 Ibid., 245–6.

27 Dyer, 173–4; Dyer (3), 24–5; Dyer (4), 39.

28 Goldberg (2), 109; Smith, 36, 37, 53 n. 78.

29 Goldberg (3), 5–6; Poos, 159, 200–3.

30 Britnell (2), 54–7, 60, 63–4, 74–5, 81–2, 87–8.

31 Fenwick, i, 173; VCH Essex, ‘Medieval Colchester: Growth of the Town’.

32 OCL, 144; Harriss, 281–2, 284.

33 Britnell (2), 115–20, 159–60; VCH Essex, ‘Medieval Colchester’.

34 Poos, 236 n. 14; Britnell (2), 124–5; VCH Essex, ‘Medieval Colchester’ and ‘The abbey of Colchester’; Réville, 217–18; Fenwick, i, 201.

35 See Appendix 1.

36 CPR 1361–4, 470.

37 Hinck, 122 nn. 67–9, 123.

38 Bellamy, 94; Réville, 280 n. 3.

39 CPR 1377–81, 579, 631–2; CPR 1381–5, 1–2; CCR 1377–81, 486; Holt, 241.

40 PROME, vi, 205–6; Liddy, 1–2, 27.

41 Ibid., 6–7, 11–12, 16–17, 20, 20 n. 102, 22.

42 Ibid., 23–5; SC8/103/5139, TNA.

43 Liddy, 29–30; Fenwick, iii, 132.

44 See 433.

CHAPTER FIVE: WARS AND TAXES

1 Figures for 2013: www.ukpublicspending.co.uk/year_spending_2013UKbn_13bc1n_30#ukgs302.

2 Keen, 208–11; PROME, v, 292, 294, 315.

3 PROME, v, 390; Fenwick, i, xiii; Ormrod (2), 130.

4 Ormrod (3), 61–3, 69–70, 77, 73, 35; CCR 1369–1374, 489; Dyer (2), 280. The warden of the Cinque Ports was also issued with an ultimatum ordering him to collect and pay the assessment there two years after parliament had granted the tax: Ormrod (3), 77.

5 PROME, v, 390, 400; Dyer, 168; Dyer (5), 24.

6 Four pence was half the fifteenth which the poorest country households had to pay when a subsidy was collected.

7 PROME, v, 390.

8 McHardy, 81, xviii; Fenwick, i, 197, 199.

9 ODNB, ‘Courtenay, William’, ‘Wyclif, John’ and ‘Percy, Henry, first earl of Northumberland’; Walsingham, 31.

10 McHardy, xvii. The final amount raised by the clerical poll-tax of 1377 is not known.

11 See 7.

12 Saul, 34; ODNB, ‘Thomas of Woodstock’.

13 PROME, vi, 15; ODNB, ‘Philipot, Sir John’ and ‘Walworth, Sir William’.

14 Liddy, 11–13; CCR 1377–1381, 32–3. The Calais Staple was also ordered to provide a balinger: ibid., 33. See 106.

15 Saul, 34–6; Walsingham, 68–9; PROME, vi, 89.

16 Ibid., 78–9.

17 Ibid., 89–90, 101, 98, 99–100, 90.

18 Ibid., 75–7. The king’s household steward informed the Commons that the king spent £24,000 and £8000 annually in defence of Calais and Brest respectively: ibid., 73.

19 Saul, 36–8; PROME, vi, 79–80; ODNB, ‘Wyclif, John’.

20 Saul, 43; PROME, vi, 108, 111.

21 Ibid., 114–16; McHardy, xviii–xix.

22 Ibid., xx; PROME, vi, 116.

23 Ibid., 142, 147–9; McHardy, xx. Fryde, 77, says the second poll-tax raised just £18,600.

24 PROME, vi, 165; Walsingham, 325–39; Saul, 44. Walsingham’s allegation that the soldiers raped local nuns is not supported by the parliamentary petition, which complains of theft and destruction but makes no mention of rape or nunneries being attacked.

25 Saul, 48; PROME, vi, 165–6, 168–9, 179–80.

26 Ibid., 142–3, 149–53; ODNB and HOPOL, ‘Gildesburgh, Sir John’.

27 Saul, 52–3; ODNB, ‘Knolles, Sir Robert’.

28 ODNB, ‘John of Gaunt’; PROME, vi, 184–5, 187–8.

29 Ibid., 189–92, though the first collection date is wrongly given as 28 January; Fenwick, i, xxv.

30 PROME, vi, 191–2; Fenwick, i, 173; Fryde, 78–9.

31 PROME, vi, 192.

32 Ibid, 192, 199; Saul, 54–5; Fryde, 78.

33 Fenwick, i, xvi, xix–xx; Tout, iii, 359–60, 359 n. 2.

34 Ibid., 360–1; Fryde, 81–2.

35 Fenwick, i, 173, 388; ii, 75, 499.

36 Ibid. and iii, 234; i, 115, 90, 80; Grieve, 41.

37 Goodman, 76; Sumption, 409–11; ODNB, ‘Thomas of Woodstock’ and ‘Felton, Sir Thomas’.

38 CFR, 248–50; Tout, iii, 362–3; Oman, 183–5; Dobson, 120–2.

39 CFR, 250; Dobson, 135; Dunn, 101, 115, 126. The story is usually taken to refer to Legge, but Knighton actually says only that ‘one of the commissioners’ did these things.

40 Fryde, 82; Fenwick, ii, 75, 499; i, 250, 308–13, 311, 290.

41 Ibid., ii, 532–3 for Chevington and Brockley returns.

42 PROME, v, 231; Allmand, 391–2.

CHAPTER SIX: RESISTANCE

1 CFR, 247; Tout, 364–5; CLBCL, cxxib, cxxxii; Réville, xlii.

2 McHardy, xxiii–xxiv.

3 Dobson, 123–5 (Anonimalle), 135–6 (Knighton); Taylor, 136, 141–3; ODNB, ‘Knighton, Henry’.

4 See 159.

5 Harriss, 164–6; OCL, 1139–41; Harding, 174; Ormrod, 12.

6 CFR, 249; CCR 1377–81, 135; see 8.

7 Harriss, 166; Saul, 92; PROME, vi, 201.

8 CPR 1377–81, 38, 40, 358, 474.

9 Ibid., 472; ODNB, ‘Waldegrave, Sir Richard’; see 386.

10 CPR 1377–81, 38, 40, 474; VCH Essex, ‘Ongar Hundred’; Prescott, 300; Dyer (3), 39; Eiden, 14 n. 38.

11 ODNB, ‘Gildesburgh, Sir John’; CPR 1377–81, 40, 514, 571, 575.

12 Stubbs, 469–74; Harding, 165–6; OCL, 1276–7.

13 Harding, 175; PROME, v, 44.

14 Harding, 170; PROME, v, 133; Chrimes, 82–3.

15 Keen, 146; Harriss, 223.

16 Statutes of the Realm, i, 307.

17 Palmer, 17–18; Dyer (4), 33.

18 PROME, v, 28–30; Palmer, 19–21; Fryde (3), 35, 38.

19 See 23–5.

20 PROME, vi, 97, 97–8, 100.

21 Ibid., 98; Harriss, 226.

22 Britnell, 29–30; Musson, 248–9; Harriss, 227.

23 Musson, 249; Fryde (3), 34, 36; Hatcher, 21–4, 31; PROME, v, 29.

24 Hatcher, 20.

25 Fryde (3), 42; Jewell, 71; PROME, v, 28; Fenwick, i, 209; Britnell (2), 136–7.

26 Dobson, 161.

27 Musson, 148–9, 243.

28 Fryde, 85 n. 29; Dobson, 124–5, 136; Sparvel-Bayly, 218–19. The Anonimalle chronicler claims that three of Bampton’s clerks were captured, beheaded and their heads carried around on poles for several days afterwards ‘as an example to others’ but this is a confusion and conflation of events after 10 June when the revolt began in earnest: two clerks of the escheator and an ‘auditor’ of Aubrey de Vere were then murdered at Brentwood by a band of rebels from Manningtree: see 198. The absence of any reference in the indictments even to wounding suggests that this was a show of force, rather than a violent assault. The idea that Bampton, who died the following August, was mortally wounded in the attack (Ormrod, 12) would therefore appear to be wide of the mark.

29 See 72–3; Hinck, 123 n. 74. For Winchester see 103.

30 The Anonimalle’s claim that Sir Robert Bealknapp, chief justice of the Common Bench, was sent on a commission of trailbaston to deal with the Brentwood rioters and was forced by them to abandon his sessions, to swear on the Bible not to repeat them and to return home is untrue: Bealknapp was then holding routine assize sessions. On 29 May he was in Maidstone, Kent; he spent the next few days on a circuit round the outskirts of London, taking in Stratford Longthorne, Essex, where he was on the day Gildesburgh and Bampton were attacked, Barnet, Hertfordshire, and Southwark. By 3 June he was back in Kent holding assizes at Dartford as normal; these were followed by rioting (see 174) which may have caused the chronicler’s confusion: Dobson, 125; Prescott, 128–9; Eiden, 11 n. 30; Musson, 261 n. 150 where, sadly, since it might have offered confirmation of the Anonimalle, Southwark is misread as Brentwood.

CHAPTER SEVEN: ESSEX AND KENT ARISE

1 KB 9/166/2 fo.4, TNA. Not every man is given a place of origin but the groupings suggest particular locations.

2 Prescott, 134–5; Brooks, 274; Poos, 236.

3 Sparvel-Bayly, 214.

4 KB 9/166/2 fo.4, TNA; Réville, 189.

5 KB 9/166/2 fo.5, TNA; Fenwick, i, 208.

6 Brooks, 271.

7 CPR 1361–4, 470.

8 Aston, 21–2; ODNB, ‘Ball, John’.

9 Aston, 22; CPR 1374–7, 415. Sudbury’s writ of 21 September 1377 ordering the arrest of Balle ‘a priest of Norwich diocese’ appears to be a confusion with another chaplain of the same name in Norfolk: CPR 1354–8, 304; CPR 1396–9, 67.

10 Aston, 22–3; McHardy (2), xviii n. 37, 86; Logan, 63 n. 119; see 211–13.

11 Brooks, 272 n. 18. My translation.

12 Ibid., 272, who omits ‘of divers lords’.

13 See 440 n. 37.

14 The Whitsuntide link has been noted by Musson, 243 and Dyer (2), 281 but not in terms of its religious significance.

15 Hutton, 19–26, 34–6.

16 Justice, 15.

17 ODNB, ‘Hereford, Nicholas’; Barr, 204.

18 See 166.

19 Schofield, 188.

20 Réville, 183–4; Fenwick, i, 409; Westminster, 3.

21 VCH Kent, ‘The Abbey of Lesnes or Westwood’ and ‘Wennington’.

22 Prescott, 116, 143; CPR 1377–81, 199, 358, 514, 571; Brooks, 272; CCR 1381–5, 394–5.

23 See 74–6.

24 The Anonimalle says that a commission of trailbaston had been issued to quell the disturbances in Gravesend and the surrounding area which was ‘turned back by the commons’. The chronicler was mistaken, as he had been when recounting events in Essex: there is no evidence of any such commission operating in Kent around this time, only Bealknapp’s routine assize session in Dartford: Dobson, 126; Prescott, 129.

25 Dobson, 126; CFR, 250.

26 See 139.

27 Dobson, 130, 134; CCR 1369–74, 172; CCR 1377–81, 80, 221, 309.

28 P&T, 4, 7–9; Réville, 185, 187; Prescott, 143–4.

29 Réville, 185–6; Prescott, 16; see 221–2.

30 Réville, 184, 186–8, 211; CCR 1396–99, 171–2; Prescott, 359.

31 TSLME; Allen Brown, 18–20; Brooks (2), 221–2, 256.

32 Dobson, 141–4; CPR 1377–81, 395; Barker (3), 89–90, 142–3.

33 Froissart, 38, 402; Dobson, 142; see 227–8, 273–4.

34 Mate, 3; Campbell (2), 28; HOPOL, ‘Maidstone’.

35 Prescott, 143; P&T, 6–7, 9; Réville, 187–8.

36 CPR 1381–5, 132; SC 8/300/14959, TNA; Coulson, 86.

37 Réville, 187; Flaherty, 77; Fenwick, i, 402; P&T, 7, 11.

38 CCR 1377–81, 510; CCR 1396–9, 26.

39 CPR 1377–81, 424; see 176.

40 P&T, 6; Réville, 187; CPR, 1377–81, 409. Shardelowe was a witness to the document signed at Dartford on 6 April 1381: see 180.

41 P&T, 7, 12.

42 Réville, 185, 187; HOPOL, ‘Cobham, Sir Thomas’, ‘Freningham, John’, ‘Peckham, James’; P&T, 5.

43 Réville, 211; see 176–7, 180.

44 P&T, 9; Flaherty, 76, 78, 89, 92; ODNB, ‘Trevet, Sir Thomas’.

45 See Appendix 1.

46 Dobson, 127; P&T, 9; Brooks, 276–7.

47 CFR, 250; see 197.

48 The precise timing of the attack on Canterbury is not known, so the rebels may have taken longer to get there than the four hours minimum suggested by riding good horses.

49 Flaherty, 77–8, 88–9, 90–1; P&T, 9, 11.

50 Butcher, 100–4; Fenwick, i, 388.

51 Butcher, 88–9, 98–9, 104.

52 Ibid., 105–6; CCR 1374–7, 412; CPR, 1377–81, 304, 471.

53 CHAS, ‘Canterbury Castle’; Flaherty, 89, 92–3.

54 Hasted, ‘Parishes: Milton’; Battely, ii, 32.

55 See Appendix 2.

56 Brooks, 285; Butcher, 107, 109; Flaherty, 72–3, 76.

57 De Saxe, esp. 151–6; Flaherty, 81–3; De Saxe, 153 says Kempe was awarded one hundred shillings in damages, Prescott, 263, says one hundred marks.

58 Flaherty, 76, 83–4; CFR, 236.

59 Brooks, 285 who mistakenly confers a knighthood on Holt; P&T, 9; Flaherty, 74, 76, 86; HOPOL, ‘Holt, William’.

60 Butcher, 105, 107, 109; CFR, 250; Flaherty, 74.

61 Ibid., 74–5; Butcher, 108; Fenwick, i, 411, 420; PROME, vi, 246–7; CPR 1381–5, 573.

62 CPR 1377–81, 304; CCR 1377–8, 357; Fenwick, i, 431; Flaherty, 74, 76; P&T, 11; Réville, 189.

63 CPR 1377–81, 93, 166, 467; Flaherty, 86, 88, 92–4.

64 HOPOL, ‘Fogg, Sir Thomas’; P&T, 4, 11; Flaherty, 75–6; Federico, 170 n. 40.

65 Butcher, 109; CPR 1377–81, 166, 467; Flaherty, 75.

CHAPTER EIGHT: TO LONDON

1 KB 9/166/2 fo.5, TNA; Sparvel-Bayly, 218–19; Poos, 236 n. 12; Dyer (3), 17, 35; Eiden, 14.

2 VCH Essex, ‘The Preceptory of Cressing’; CPR 1381–5, 76; Napier, 14.

3 ODNB, ‘Hales, Sir Robert’; KB 9/166/2 fo.5, TNA; Sparvel-Bayly, 217–18; Prescott, 109; Dobson, 125; Dunn, 105; Poos, 237; Eiden, 13.

4 See 145–7.

5 Brooks, 274; Prescott, 294.

6 Sparvel-Bayly, 217–8; Brooks, 280, 284 n. 51.

7 Ormrod, 12; CFR, 261; Eiden, 13 n. 34.

8 Prescott, 135; KB 9/166/2 fo.5, TNA; CPR 1381–5, 79.

9 HOPOL, ‘Bataill, Thomas’ and ‘Fitzsymond, Sir John’; CPR 1377–81, 571; Brooks, 287.

10 Prescott, 109; CCR 1381–5, 365; CPR 1391–6, 721.

11 Poos, 237; Brooks, 281–2.

12 Eiden, 14; Prescott, 136; see 51.

13 Sparvel-Bayly, 217–18; Justice, 46. De la Mare must have been a deputy, rather than an admiral, since there is no record of his appointment; there may have been a connection to Robert Hales, prior of the Hospitallers, who had been admiral in 1376 and 1377, given that Ralph atte Wode had been involved in sacking Cressing Temple before going to Peldon.

14 HOPOL, ‘English, Henry’; Fenwick, i, 222; Eiden, 14, who wrongly says English paid three shillings poll-tax; Powell, 41, 44.

15 Bird, 18–21, 24; ODNB, ‘Lyons, Richard’; Eiden, 14.

16 Réville, 177.

17 PROME, vi, 241; Réville, 175–82; Dobson, 248–54.

18 Réville, 75 nn. 1, 2; Powell, 24 which wrongly dates Wrawe’s attack on Mettingham to 19 June, thereby creating two separate events; ODNB, ‘Ufford, William, second earl of Suffolk (c.1339–1382)’; Suckling, ‘Ringsfield’; CPR 1361–4, 294.

19 See 331.

20 Suckling, ‘Ringsfield’ and ‘Beccles’.

21 Eiden, 15; Réville, 221–2.

22 Eiden, 14–15; Wood, 74–6; L&W, 87–8.

23 Eiden, 10 n. 26; 13. Some of the same names appear on both lists.

24 KB 9/166/2 fo. 4, TNA; Réville, 189.

25 Ibid., 216–17.

26 Prescott, 299–301; CPR 1374–7, 28.

27 See 211–13.

28 Prescott, 281–3, 301–10.

29 Ibid., 293–8; PROME, vii, 202.

30 Prescott, 312–18.

31 Dobson, 129, 134, 160, 188; Eiden, 10 n. 26.

32 Réville, 183–8. See 221–2.

33 Dobson, 136–7; Logan, 63 n. 119; Flaherty, 74, 81.

34 Prescott, 303–4; ODNB, ‘Ball, John’. Prescott discovered the indictment and wrote the ODNB article: the text is given in Brooks, 285 n. 58.

35 VCH Hertford, ‘Bishop’s Stortford’; CPR 1391–6, 45, 345; CPR 1399–1401, 501.

36 Federico, 167.

37 See 291–2.

38 Dobson, 374–5.

39 Froissart, 212–13.

40 Genesis, ix: Ham had seen his father naked: Noah therefore cursed his descendants to slavery.

41 Froissart, 312–3.

42 Dobson, 364–6; Rot. Parl., iii, 175. See Appendix 2.

43 For the following description of Southwark see Carlin; Walford.

44 Dobson, 98.

45 Kelly, 345, 347; Karras, 408–11; Fenwick, ii, 564.

46 Sparvel-Bayly, 214; Dobson, 155; OCL, 812–13; Dunn, 103.

47 Réville, 185–6; CLBCL fo. cxc; Fenwick, ii, 563.

48 Réville, 212–13; Dobson, 202.

49 Bird (2), 125; Dobson, 129 (Anonimalle) has Windsor: Westminster is more logical.

50 Dobson, 155, 199–200; Westminster, 4–5.

51 Palmer, 381; Fenwick, ii, 562; Réville, 213–14.

CHAPTER NINE: MILE END

1 Dobson, 213–17; Oman, 206–10.

2 Bird, 50–3, 56–61, 143–7; CLBCL, fo. cxxxii.

3 Dobson, 141–3.

4 Ibid., 130–1, 144.

5 Prescott, 316–17; Fenwick, ii, 559.

6 Dobson, 156, 169, 182, 188.

7 Prescott, 318; PROME, vi, 241–7.

8 Prescott, 292 ff.; Dobson, 209.

9 Ibid., 156, 209.

10 Ibid., 157, 169–70.

11 Ibid., 184; Dunn, 110.

12 Dobson, 184; Réville, 199–200; CCR 1385–9, 248–9. See 264–5.

13 CPR 1381–5, 124; Fryde (3), 78.

14 Dobson, 156; Dunn, 110.

15 SOLO, ‘South and East Clerkenwell’.

16 ODNB, ‘Hales, Sir Robert’.

17 Dobson, 170, 185.

18 Prescott, 268; Réville, 203.

19 Prescott, 207–8, 245; PROME, vi, 284.

20 CCR 1377–81, 106, 116, 177, 238; CPR 1377–81, 88, 127; CLAN, 612; CPMROCL, A20 m. 6b, A23 mm. 8 and A24 m. 5b; CLBCL Henry VI, K fo. 122.

21 Réville, 195, 203–4; Dobson, 219.

22 Réville, 195, 203; PROME, vi, 284.

23 Dobson, 156–7, 170.

24 GA, 298. A mistranslation of ‘visi’ in Dobson, 171 wrongly makes Walsingham himself an eye-witness.

25 The continuator of the Eulogium Historiarum has Straw at Blackheath sending for the bishop of Rochester to address the rebels but Straw was from Essex, not Kent, so is unlikely to have been at Blackheath and Thomas Brinton was not a sympathiser: Dobson, 206.

26 Ibid., 130.

27 Dobson, 158, 206; Sumption, 290–1.

28 Réville, 210.

29 Prescott, 238–9; Dobson, 321–2; Réville, 201.

30 Dobson, 158; CCR 1360–4, 136; CCR 1374–7, 210–11; CCR 1385–9, 315; McHardy (2), xvii–xx; Réville, 202–3.

31 See 222–3.

32 Prescott, 208, 292–3, 323; Réville, 210–12.

33 Ibid., 210; CLBCL, cii–cii b.

34 Dobson, 185, 210.

35 Ibid., 130, 157.

36 Dobson, 139, 142; ODNB, ‘Henry IV’.

37 VCH London, ‘Hospitals: St Katherine by the Tower’.

38 Dobson, 159–60, 189–90; Froissart, 218–19.

39 Réville, 207.

40 Froissart, 219; Wilkinson, 22–4, 24 n. 1.

41 Dobson, 191–2; Sumption, 292; E30/256, TNA.

42 Dobson, 161, 209; ODNB, ‘Joan, suo jure countess of Kent’; see 115.

43 Dobson, 176, 183, 192, 201, 210.

44 Réville, 216; Flaherty, 95.

45 Dobson, 161.

46 Froissart, 221.

47 Harvey, 89–91.

48 Dobson, 180–1.

49 PROME, vi, 215–16.

50 Walsingham, ii, 20–22.

51 See 55 ff.

52 Walsingham, ii, 21.

53 Dobson, 133.

54 PROME, vi, 215.

55 Ibid.

56 Harvey, 89; Bird (2), 125.

57 Prescott, 294–6, 298, 378.

58 PRH, 105–6, 107 n.7; Hinck, 114–15.

CHAPTER TEN: SMITHFIELD

1 See 250, 279.

2 Dobson, 161, 171, 183, 191, 201.

3 Hibbert, 164–7.

4 ODNB, ‘Buxhull, Sir Alan’.

5 Dobson, 172; OCL, 536.

6 Dobson, 172.

7 Ibid., 172, 191; P&T, 10 says ‘Thom’ Heryng, but Nicholas is clearly meant: see 175–6.

8 Dobson, 172–5.

9 Taylor, 133; Dobson, 161–2; P&T, 10.

10 Dobson, 162, 210; CPR 1381–5, 16.

11 Dobson, 163.

12 Ibid., 162, 174, 191, 201, 210; McHardy (2), no. 650; ODNB, ‘Sudbury, Simon’.

13 Dobson, 182; ODNB, ‘Henry IV’.

14 Réville, 199–200; CPR 1377–81, 456: see 232.

15 Prescott, 294, 310; Réville, 112 n. 2, 216.

16 Hanawalt, 73–4; Dobson, 156, 203.

17 Ibid., 162, 175, 201, 210; Powell, 4, 11.

18 Dobson, 162; Bird (2), 125; Réville, 236 n. 2.

19 Dobson, 163, 207.

20 VCH London, ‘The Priory of St Bartholomew, Smithfield’; Webb, ‘The Hospital’.

21 Dobson, 163, 176, 193, 202; see 222.

22 Dobson, 164, 177, 195, 203.

23 Ibid., 164–5, 177; Fryde (3), 48–50.

24 Dobson, 186.

25 Ibid., 164–5, 177.

26 Harding, 166–7.

27 Prescott (2), 13–14.

28 Statutes of the Realm, i, 96; Fryde (3), 49–50.

29 Dobson, 164–5; see 32–4, 115. The rebels were probably not against paying tithes to support their parish priest per se: what they objected to was the compulsory element which forced them to pay tithes in full to absentees or to distant monasteries leaving the day-to-day care of the parish in the hands of poorly paid and often inadequate clergy.

30 Dobson, 165–7, 186, 195–6, 203, 207. The Anonimalle claims that Tyler was only badly wounded and that the Kentishmen carried him into the hospital, where he was later found alive by Walworth, dragged outside, beheaded in front of the rebels and his head paraded on a pole ‘to subdue the commons’. Why the king’s company should have failed to finish him off when they had him in their power is not explained: ibid., 167.

31 Ibid., 166, 179, 186, 196, 203–4, 207–8, 211.

32 See 245–6.

33 Dobson, 186, 211. Knighton wrongly adds Nicholas Twyford to the list of new-made knights.

34 VCH Lancashire, ‘Standish-with-Langtree’, n. 23; CPR 1377–81, 124; CPR 1381–5, 32, 47. Standissh had died by October 1382: ibid., 180.

35 CPR 1381–5, 18; E153/2314 and E153/999, TNA.

36 Dobson, 177–8.

37 Riley, ‘Memorials: 1381’; Réville, 207–9; CPR 1381–5, 30–1; CPR 1385–9, 280–1.

38 Réville, 206; CPR 1385–9, 280; CLBCL (H), fo. cciv b and n. 12; Barron (3).

39 Dobson, 201–2; Westminster, 9; Musson, 244–5.

40 Pedersen, 93.

41 Réville, 234–6; Dobson, 317–18; ODNB, ‘Cheyne, Sir William’.

CHAPTER ELEVEN: ST ALBANS AND BURY ST EDMUNDS

1 Dobson, 271.

2 PRH, 86–7; Dunn, 40–2, 139–40.

3 GA, 300, 369.

4 Ibid., 300–2, 304; PRH, 89–90, 94–5, 101 n. 45.

5 GA, 303–4; PRH, 90–1, 101 n. 26.

6 GA, 305–6.

7 Ibid., 291–2, 308, 311.

8 Faith, 63–4.

9 GA, 365–6; VCH Herts., ‘The City of St Albans: “Introduction” and “Borough”’.

10 GA, 309, 311, 315–16.

11 Ibid., 324–7.

12 Ibid., 318–22; VCH Herts., ‘The City of St Albans: “Borough”’.

13 GA, 325, 330–1.

14 PRH, 94–5, 101 n. 44.

15 GA, 334–41; HOPOL, ‘Lee, Sir Walter’ and ‘Benstede, Sir Edward’.

16 GA, 335–6, 338, 341, 345; HOPOL, ‘Croyser, Sir William’.

17 GA, 342–7; SC8/20/955, TNA.

18 GA, 347–9.

19 Ibid., 340–1; Dobson, 277.

20 I have been unable to find any evidence that the trials were broken off and recommenced in October as most historians claim: the bodies had been removed by 3 August 1381 (see n. 22) so it is impossible for the executions to have been carried out in October.

21 CPR 1381–5, 125; CCR 1381–5, 168–9.

22 GA, 303, 350, 354–5; CCR 1381–5, 5; CPR 1381–5, 43, 168.

23 PRH, 100 nn. 20, 22, 118–19, 120.

24 Dobson, 314; Bird (2), 125.

25 Dobson, 381. For the text of the letter see Appendix 4.

26 PRH, 107 nn. 4, 9; ODNB, ‘Stonor Family’; CFR, 226.

27 Putnam, esp. 13–14, 32.

28 Dobson, 249–50.

29 Gottfried, 75, 78–9; Bailey, 41, 50.

30 Gottfried, 15, 18, 23–5, 30, 79–83.

31 VCH Suffolk, ‘Abbey of Bury St Edmunds’ and ‘Franciscan Friars: Bury St Edmunds’.

32 Powell, 14–16, 142; Gottfried, 233, 270.

33 Dobson, 251–2; ODNB, ‘Cavendish, Sir John’. The often-repeated statement (most recently Dunn, 153, 157–8) that Cavendish was chancellor of the university of Cambridge is an error: the John Cavendish who appears in the list for 1380 in VCH Cambs. and the Isle of Ely, ‘The University of Cambridge: Chancellors’ cannot be the chief justice as the post was held by resident academics at this period. I am grateful to Dr Benjamin Thompson for pointing this out.

34 Dobson, 251–2; Prescott, 152–3; see 201–3.

35 Dyer (2), 280; Powell, 13.

36 Prescott, 49, 154–5; Powell, 126–7; Dobson, 250.

37 Powell, 139–41.

38 Ibid., 141; Dobson, 245–6.

39 Powell, 141–3; Dobson, 245–7. I have preferred Gosford’s account to Walsingham’s which exaggerates for dramatic effect, eight blows being required to behead Lakenheath, for instance, and the abbey chalice and cross rising in value to over one thousand pounds.

40 Prescott, 153–4; Dobson, 251.

41 Prescott, 154; CFR, 237; Powell, 133.

42 Hinck, 125 n. 84.

43 Powell, 49, 57, 127; Réville, 251; Hinck, 119, 127, 129; Prescott, 105–7.

44 Réville, 74–7; Dobson, 248–9.

45 Ibid., 252–3; HOPOL, ‘Swinburne, Sir Robert’; Prescott, 238.

46 Powell, 36–7, 133; Blomefield, ‘Wickmere’.

47 Réville, 110 n. 1.

CHAPTER TWELVE: ELY, HUNTINGDON AND CAMBRIDGE

1 Dyer (2), 284–5; Powell, 21; Prescott, 106.

2 Powell, 21–2, 130–1; Bailey, 188–9; Réville, 83, 155; PROME, vi, 241; CPR 1389–92, 6.

3 The word ‘hoggastres’ translates either as hoggets (two-year-old sheep) or boars (pigs); Sampson kept both sheep and pigs so which these are is unclear.

4 Prescott, 343–4; Dyer (2), 285; CFR, 237; Réville, 79.

5 Dyer (2), 285; Réville, 156, 158.

6 Powell, 22–3, 127–8; Réville, 80 and n. 4; Prescott, 101, 160.

7 Powell, 22–5, 128; Réville, 80–3.

8 Dobson, 250–1; VCH Cambs. and the Isle of Ely, ‘Preceptory of Chippenham’; Powell, 44; Palmer, 98, 212.

9 Dobson, 235; Palmer, 246–7; HOPOL, ‘Wightman, William’.

10 Ibid.; Palmer, 247; Rot. Parl., iii, 175; CPR 1381–5, 120; CChR, 276; CCR 1385–9, 113; Réville, 250.

11 VCH Hunts., ‘The Abbey of Ramsey’; Dobson, 236, 238.

12 Powell, 46–7; Palmer, 245–6; Prescott, 179.

13 Palmer, 99; Prescott, 345.

14 Palmer, 169, 234.

15 Ibid., 168, 211–12, 234–5.

16 Prescott, 51–2; Palmer, 234, 246; CPR 1377–81, 513; CCR 1377–81, 483.

17 Internal evidence demonstrates that the actions attributed to 9 June in the assize rolls (Palmer, 209) were a clerical error for 16 June.

18 VCH Cambs. and the Isle of Ely, ‘Croydon cum Clopton’; CCR 1381–5, 14; CCR 1399–1402, 409.

19 Palmer, 101–2, 167–8; CCR 1381–5, 76.

20 CCR 1381–5, 14, 92.

21 Palmer, 245–6; Prescott, 345–6.

22 Palmer, 98–9; SC/8/116/5754, TNA.

23 Powell, 43 n. 2; Palmer, 100; Prescott, 172–3.

24 Palmer, 81, 212.

25 Ibid., 246; Powell, 49; Réville, 242.

26 Palmer, 99, 102, 137, 170; VCH Cambs., ‘Preceptory of Shingay’ and ‘Preceptory of Duxford’; HOPOL, ‘Maisterman, Richard’.

27 Fenwick, ii, 75; Palmer, 83; CFR, 231.

28 Palmer, 98, 137; CFR, 231, 249; Réville, 222; CPR 1381–5, 76.

29 Powell, 52; Palmer (2), 273 n. 24.

30 Palmer, 137–8, 168–71, 209–10, 235.

31 Ibid., 81, 82–3, 97–8, 168, 171, 212.

32 Ibid., 83–4, 99, 102, 210.

33 Ibid., 99, 168–9.

34 Ibid., 98, 99, 101–2, 138, 170; HOPOL, ‘Blankpayn, John’.

35 Musson, 38; VCH Cambs., ‘The City of Cambridge’.

36 Ibid.; CPR 1377–81, 289, 349, 582; CCR 1377–81, 513.

37 PROME, vi, 234; CPR 1377–81, 472; CPR 1381–5, 72.

38 Palmer, 135, 138, 170.

39 www.stbenetschurch.org/history2.html; Dunn, 158.

40 PROME, vi, 234; Palmer, 135–6, 138, 170.

41 Ibid., 135–6, 167, 171.

42 PROME, vi, 232–5; Crane, 221 n. 51. It is possible that the revolt began much earlier in Cambridge than elsewhere, particularly given the problems in February 1381, but the burning of the university records and the attack on Corpus Christi occurred on 16 June, after the dating of the charters.

43 Palmer, 138, 235–6; CPR 1381–5, 75.

44 Palmer, 168; CPR 1381–5, 76; Prescott, 255–6.

CHAPTER THIRTEEN: NORFOLK

1 Eiden, 10 n. 26.

2 See 305.

3 Dyer (2), 284; Müller (2), 12; Prescott, 163. Gelder is not in the 1379 poll-tax return for Feltwell so I assume he was living in Bury by then.

4 Müller (2), 12; Fenwick, ii, 106 where the name appears as ‘Johannes Stratour’. Prescott, 163 dates this attack to 16 June.

5 Eiden, 18; Fenwick, ii, 150, 196; iii, 543; Müller (2), 13–14.

6 Ibid., 14; CCR 1369–74, 100; CPR 1374–77, 157, 160, 322.

7 Müller (2), 13–14; Prescott, 164; Fenwick, ii, 178–9; Réville, 87; CPR 1381–5, 93.

8 Eiden, 18; CPR 1377–81, 87–8, 96.

9 Powell, 35, 135–6. Ellerton’s grave lies in the chancel of his church with the French inscription, ‘From earth I was made and formed and to earth I have returned … Ellertune was my name parson of Thursford, Jesu have pity on me’: Blomefield, ‘Thursford’.

10 Prescott, 163–4; Müller (2), 14; CFR, 248; Eiden, 18; Réville, 93 n. 5.

11 Eiden, 18; Prescott, 165, 167; SC/8/262/13099, TNA; PROME, vi, 241.

12 Eiden, 18; Powell, 26.

13 Eiden, 19; Powell, 134; Müller (2), 14; Fenwick, ii, 151. Clerk also paid only four pence, despite allegedly being the second wealthiest man in Whissonsett after Adam de Billingford (who paid forty pence), whom he was accused of threatening with death.

14 Müller (2), 14; Réville, 89; Eiden, 19; CFR, 262.

15 Réville, 85–6, 89, 117; Powell, 27.

16 Fenwick, ii, 161; Powell, 28 n. 1.

17 Ibid.; Blomefield, ‘Trunch’; Eiden, 21 n. 77.

18 Powell, 28 n. 1; Fenwick, ii, 166, 198. Ormrod, 16 asserts that Skeet was coroner of Norfolk because on 7 July 1381 the sheriff was ordered to elect another in place of ‘Thomas Skete who is dead’ (CCR 1381–5, 4) but it is unlikely that a man paying the lowest rate of poll-tax had sufficient property to qualify for the office.

19 TSLME; E101/68/9/209 and E101/54/20, TNA.

20 Fenwick, ii, 75; Blomefield, ‘The City of Norwich’; Dobson, 257–8.

21 Froissart, 222–4; Powell, 132. Walsingham has a more prosaic take, that Salle was captured but could not refrain from criticising the rebels’ actions and so was ‘knocked on the head by a rustic who was one of his own serfs and soon died’: Dobson, 258.

22 CPR 1358–61, 371; CPR 1361–4, 211; CPR 1377–81, 590. Bartholomew Salle bought an exemption for life in 1347 from holding office as mayor, sheriff, escheator etc, so must have had sufficient rank and money to qualify for such posts: CPR 1345–8, 250.

23 CPR 1361–4, 436; CPR 1370–4, 350; CPR 1377–81, 201.

24 Blomefield, ‘The City of Norwich’; CPR 1361–4, 211; Bailey, 186–7; Powell, 30, 131–2; Réville, 105 n. 4; ODNB, ‘Ufford, William, second earl of Suffolk (c.1339–1382)’; SC/8/21/1028, TNA.

25 Prescott, 167.

26 Powell, 30; Réville, 103 n. 4.

27 Powell, 30; Blomefield, ‘The City of Norwich’; HOPOL, ‘Limner, Henry’; CPR 1377–81, 630; Eiden, 23.

28 HOPOL, ‘Bixton, Walter’; Réville, 106; CFR, 233.

29 Possibly Sir Roger de Scales, a commissioner to suppress the revolt: see 376.

30 Dobson, 258; Walsingham calls him Sir William de Morlee, but he was dead by 1379 and his heir was Thomas: Eiden (2), 375 n. 1; Wood, 73–4; Powell, 31; CPR 1377–81, 630.

31 HOPOL, ‘Hales, Sir Stephen’; CFR, 229, 248.

32 Dyer (2), 281; Hutton, 9–10, 30–1, 56, 71.

33 Froissart, 143–4; Barker (2), 337–8.

34 Prescott, 50; Réville, 103 n. 4.

35 Powell, 131; Blomefield, ‘Great Yarmouth: Kirkley Road’; PROME, v, 307–10, 314–15; vi, 105, 254.

36 CCR 1377–81, 633; Réville, 110 nn. 1, 2; Powell, 32–3.

37 Réville, 110 n. 2, 111 n. 1.

38 HOPOL, ‘Fastolf, Hugh’; CFR, 248; Powell, 33, 132; see 309.

39 Powell, 33; HOPOL, ‘Clere, Robert’; Blomefield, ‘Witchingham Manor’.

40 Powell, 31, 33–7; Eiden, 22.

41 Powell, 35; Eiden, 20.

42 Powell, 35–6, 135; PROME, vi, 241; Prescott, 25, 358–9.

43 Dobson, 259–60; Powell, 38; Eiden, 21 n. 75.

44 ODNB, ‘Despenser, Henry’; Powell, 34: Prescott, 169, 260–1, 278.

45 Blomefield, ‘The City of Norwich’; Powell, 135, where Fletcher’s actions are wrongly dated 8 July; Réville, 138 n. 1.

46 Dobson, 260–1.

47 Powell, 39; Réville, 139 n. 1; see 217, 424–5.

48 Eiden, 21.

49 CCR 1381–5, 26; Prescott, 264.

50 PROME, vi, 241; Réville, 105 n. 4, 162; SC/8/262/13099, TNA.

51 Saul, 102–7; ODNB, ‘Despenser, Henry’.

CHAPTER FOURTEEN: NORTH AND SOUTH

1 Dobson, 309–10. It does not appear in CPR 1381–5 but the same text, under the same date, appears in the Chester Indictment Rolls with the notice that it was proclaimed in Chester on 23, 27 and 28 July [sic]: P&T, 13–14.

2 Sumption, 431.

3 Sayles, 821–2, 826–7.

4 I suggest ‘quinquaginta’ instead of ‘quingentis’.

5 Powell, 25, 141; Hewitt, 35.

6 GA, 336; Dobson, 259, 310; Prescott, 44, 45.

7 CPR 1381–5, 20; CPR 1391–5, 643.

8 Dobson, 311–12; Poos, 236; Eiden, 14 n. 37; CCR 1381–5, 80–1; Wood, 76–7.

9 CPR 1381–5, 23, 69–71.

10 VCH Somerset, ‘Hospitals: St John the Baptist, Bridgwater’; CPR 1377–81, 597.

11 PROME, vi, 229–30; CPR 1381–5, 270; CFR, 229, 249.

12 CPR 1381–5, 95, 270; HOPOL, ‘Sydenham, John’ and ‘Cole, John’; Reading, 178, 346 n.

13 Harvey, 89–91.

14 A revolt in Cornwall was an invention in false indictments quashed in 1390: Prescott (2), 23 n. 74.

15 Hinck, 113–21; PROME, vi, 245–6; Réville, 280.

16 Dobson, 278–9; Réville, 276–7; A81, Andrew of Harlestone Collection, Northampton Record Office.

17 CPR 1381–5, 72; Réville, cvii.

18 Crook, 9–23.

19 See 104–8.

20 VCH York, ‘The Hospital of St Leonard, York’.

21 Liddy, 29–31; CPR 1381–5, 58, 137; Réville, 272–4.

22 Fenwick, iii, 160; Dobson (2), 124–30.

23 Fenwick, iii, 241; Liddy, 30–1; VCH Yorks., ‘The Borough of Scarborough’.

24 CPR 1381–5, 77; HOPOL, ‘Acclom, John’; Dobson (2), 130–8; Fenwick, iii, 251; CFR, 232–3.

25 Réville, 286–7.

26 CPR 1381–5, 74.

CHAPTER FIFTEEN: SUPPRESSION

1 Westminster, 15; CPR 1381–5, 72, 73; CCR 1381–5, 1, 17, 82.

2 HA, 20–2.

3 Dobson, 310–11; see 213 ff, 217, 424–5.

4 Prescott (2), 13–14; see 269.

5 CCR 1381–5, 8; Prescott, 44; see 183, 187–8, 338–9.

6 Prescott, 49–50.

7 Ibid., 46–7; see 313–14.

8 OCL, 464, 1232; Musson, 238; Bellamy, 87, 90–1, 100, 207–8.

9 Ibid., 103; Dobson, 314.

10 Prescott, 56–7; PROME, vi, 241; Oman, 136–7; Réville, 164–71; CPR 1381–5, 547; Dobson, 250.

11 Prescott, 54; Prescott (2), 24 n. 93.

12 Réville, 261–2; Prescott, 242; CPR 1381–5, 87, 276; CPR 1389–92, 384.

13 See 209–10, 257.

14 CPR 1381–5, 24, 26, 71–2, 75–6; Ormrod, 12.

15 Prescott, 70–1; Réville, 155; CCR 1381–5, 85.

16 Prescott, 260–1, 292–3.

17 PROME, vi, 315; Prescott, 260–2, 287 n. 40.

18 CCR 1381–5, 2, 74–5; CPR 1381–5, 73; Prescott, 266.

19 CPR 1381–5, 32, 71–2, 75, 77–8.

20 Fryde (3), 50.

21 Walker, 68–74; ODNB, ‘John of Gaunt’; CPR 1381–5, 25–6, 30.

22 PROME, vi, 215.

23 See 254–6.

24 PROME, vi, 215–16.

25 Ibid., 217–20.

26 Ibid., 222–4, 240–7, 257, 260–1; Lacey, 60–1.

27 CCR 1381–5, 13; PROME, vi, 230–6.

28 Ibid., 249, 253; Blomefield, ‘Of Kirkeley Road’.

29 PROME, vi, 227–8; Bellamy, 105.

30 PROME, vi, 225–6, 247–9.

CHAPTER SIXTEEN: THE AFTERMATH

1 GA, iii, 324; see 293.

2 See 325, 336–7.

3 VCH Herts., ‘The City of St Albans: The Borough’; MSS of Lincoln, ‘The Corporation of Bury St Edmunds: Royal Charters’, 122–3.

4 Réville, cxxxii; Oman, 153–4.

5 Fryde (3), 248–9; Dunn, 188. The purchaser, Sir Henry Lee, bought the queen’s villeins so that he could profit from selling them their manumissions.

6 Réville, cxxvii; Bailey, 197–202.

7 Aston, 37; Dobson, 367, 374, 376, 378.

8 ODNB, ‘Wyclif, John’; Wyclif, xxxiii, 190, 194–7.

9 P&T, 15–16.

10 Prescott, (2), 16; Prescott, 61–2, 203–4; Réville, 239–40.

11 Eiden (2), 371–5; CCR 1381–5, 15–16, 85–6.

12 Powell, 24–5, 25 n. 1; Eiden (2), 370–1.

13 Bellamy (2), 259.

14 P&T, 19–20; CPR 1391–6, 249.

15 Dobson, 374.

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN: THE LEGACY

1 Justice, 194.

2 See 188, 198.

3 Saul, 447, 450, 452–3.

4 Ibid., 457–8.

5 Harriss, 468, 490.

6 Ibid., 483–4.

7 Harriss, 450–3.

8 Richard’s beloved first wife, Anne of Bohemia, had died on 7 June 1394; the marriage was childless: Saul, 258.

9 Walker (2), 37–8, 41, 43.

10 PROME, vi, 324–5; Justice, 194–5.

11 Djordjevic, 85, 87. The enduring myth, based ultimately on Knighton’s story about John Legge, that it was the latter’s assault on the daughter of ‘John Tyler of Dertford, Kent’ which provoked the infuriated Tyler to kill the poll-tax commissioner and begin the great revolt was first published by John Stow in his A Summarie of our Englysh Chronicles (1566) but then repeated, elaborated and popularised by Holinshed: Matheson, 121–4, 127–8; for Legge see 139, 174–5, 262.

12 Adkins, 64, 66. Adkins argues that the rebels are nevertheless portrayed in a more favourable light than previous accounts and that they share a mutual respect with the king, though they have no rapport at all with the nobility; Richard’s highly sympathetic portrayal is informed by the idea that he, like Elizabeth I, is a wise, just and merciful sovereign who feels his obligations to rich and poor alike.

13 Dunn, 191.

14 Fuller, i, 451–2. The Protestant Fuller also argued that it was nonsense to blame Wyclif for causing the revolt, arguing instead that the Franciscan friars were responsible ‘because some of these, belike, were the rebels’ white-boys … to be spared in a general destruction’: ibid., 456.

15 Woodhouse, 353; Dobson, 354–5; Dunn, 190–1.

16 Matheson, 135 n. 27; Linebaugh, 347.

17 Dobson, 393–4.

18 Ibid., 395–6.

19 Storey, 67; Taylor, 28. A brief extract is printed in Dobson, 397–8.

20 Taylor, 21, 29, 44–5.

21 Ibid., 20, 34, 37–8.

22 Ibid., 31; see n. 11.

23 Taylor, 23, 25–6; see plate 28. Morris was a disciple of H. M. Hyndman, who in The Historical Basis of Socialism in England (London, 1883), had argued that the great revolt provided a powerful revolutionary precedent for the nascent socialist movement in England and urged the propaganda value of identifying an indigenous socialist tradition, epitomised by leaders of popular rebellions such as Balle and Tyler, ‘to show that the idea of socialism is no foreign importation into England’. The historian J. R. Green’sHistory of the English People (London, 1878) similarly anticipated Bede Jarrett by stating that Balle ‘openly preached the doctrines of communism’: Salmon, 30, 34.

24 Taylor, 22.

25 Ibid., 23.

APPENDIX 1: WAT TYLER

1 Réville, cxviii n. 2; Rot. Parl., iii, 175; Dobson, 127.

2 Flaherty, 92–3; Sparvel-Bayly, 211–12; Powell, 9.

3 Fenwick, i, 198, 387.

4 Froissart, Walsingham and the Continuator of the Eulogium Historiarum, the last describing him as ‘a tiler from Essex’: Dobson, 138, 176, 206.

5 Dobson, 176; Froissart, 213; Stopford, 93–108; www.hereshistorykent.org.uk (Wye).

6 Froissart, 218; TSLME.

7 Fenwick, i, 197, 202; for Ker see 171 ff.

APPENDIX 2: JACK STRAW

1 Dobson, 186; Brie, 106–11 esp. 107–8.

2 Pettitt, 3–20 esp. 8–9, 18 n. 50. Pettitt, 9 is certainly wrong in identifying ‘Tronche’, named in a political poem as a leader of the revolt, with the club-bearing figure of folk-plays: John Trunch was a genuine rebel captain from Norfolk: see 333, 340, 346, 351.

3 Dunn, 190.

4 Sparvel-Bayly, 211–12; Flaherty, 71–3.

5 Dobson, 171; see 239.

6 Dyer (3), 18–19.

7 Arnold, 56, 167–8; VCH Middlesex, ‘Social and Economic History’; see 57–8.

8 Rot. Parl., iii, 175; Dobson, 364–6; Réville, 175–8.

APPENDIX 3: JOHN BALLE

1 Justice, 14; VCH Essex, ‘The Abbey of Colchester’; VCH York, ‘St Mary’s Abbey, York’.

2 Bird, 288.

3 Palmer, 156 n. 11; VCH Essex, ‘The Priory of St Botolph, Colchester’.

4 CPR 1361–4, 470.

APPENDIX 4: JOHN BALLE’S LETTERS

1 Dobson, 380–3; Green, 181–2; Justice, 13–15.

2 Ibid., 15–17.

3 Ibid., 14–15; Dobson, 381. My translation.

4 ODNB, ‘Langland, William’.

5 Aston, 29–33.

6 Justice, 15; Aston argues for the significance of the Corpus Christi links.

7 Barron (2), 95; Aers, 438–9; Owst, 295.

8 Justice, 13; Dobson 382. My translation.

9 Green, 183–5.

10 Justice, 14; Dobson, 382. My translation.

11 For example, Duffy, 80.

12 Justice, 15; Dobson, 383. My translation.

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