Allmand, C.T., ‘The De re militari of Vegetius in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance’, in Saunders et al (eds.), Writing War: Medieval Literary Responses to Warfare.

—— (ed.), Society at War: the Experience of England and France During the Hundred Years War (Woodbridge, 1998, c. 1973).

An English Chronicle, 1377–1461: edited from Aberystwyth, National Library of Wales MS 21068 and Oxford, Bodleian Library MS Lyell 34, ed. W. Marx (Woodbridge, 2003).

Anglo, S., ‘How to Win at Tournaments: The Technique of Chivalric Combat’, Antiquaries’ Journal 68 (1988).

——, ‘Anglo-Burgundian feats of arms: Smithfield, June 1467’, Guildhall Miscellany 2:7 (1965).

‘Annales Rerum Anglicarum’, Letters and Papers Illustrative of the Wars of the English in France, ed. J. Stevenson, vol. II part 2 (Rolls Series, 1864).

Armstrong, C.A.J., ‘Politics and the Battle of St Albans’, Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 33 (1960).

Baldwin, D., Stoke Field: The Last Battle of the Wars of the Roses (Barnsley, 2006).

Barber, R., ‘Malory’s Le Morte d’Arthur and Court Culture under Edward IV’, Arthurian Literature 12 (1993).

Boardman, A.W., The Battle of Towton (Stroud, 2000, c. 1994).

——, The Medieval Soldier in the Wars of the Roses (Stroud, 1998).

Burley, P., M. Elliot and H. Watson, The Battles of St Albans (Barnsley, 2007).

Burne, A.H., The Battlefields of England (Barnsley, 2005, c. 1950).

Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts […] of Milan, ed. A.B. Hinds, vol. I (London, 1912).

Calendar of the Close Rolls.

Calendar of the Patent Rolls.

Carpenter, C., The Wars of the Roses: Politics and the Constitution in England, c. 1437–1509 (Cambridge, 1997).

Carson, A., Richard III: The Maligned King (Stroud, 2008).

Cassidy, B., ‘Machiavelli and the Ideology of the Offensive: Gunpowder Weapons in the Art of War’, Journal of Military History 67 (2003).

Caudrey, P. ‘William Worcester, The Boke of Noblesse, and Military Society in East Anglia’, Nottingham Medieval Studies 52 (2008).

Chastelain, G. Oeuvres, ed. K. de Lettenhove, 8 vols (Brussels, 1863–6).

‘Chronicle of the Rebellion in Lincolnshire 1470’, ed. J.G. Nichols, Camden Miscellany 1 (1847).

Chronicles of London, ed. C.L. Kingsford (Oxford, 1905).

Chronicles of the White Rose of York, ed. J.A. Giles (London, 1845).

Commynes, P. de, Memoirs: The Reign of Louis XI 1461–83, tr. M.C.E. Jones (Harmondsworth, 1972).

Crane, S., The Performance of Self: Ritual, Clothing and Identity During the Hundred Years War (Philadelphia, 2002).

The Crowland Chronicle Continuations 1459–86, eds. N. Pronay and J.C. Cox (Gloucester, 1986).

Curry, A., Agincourt: A New History (Stroud, 2005).

Davey, J., ‘The Battle of Towton, 1461: A Reassessment’, idem, Penbardd (Las Vegas, 2007).

Dockray K (ed.), Henry VI, Margaret of Anjou and the Wars of the Roses: A Sourcebook (Stroud, 2000).

——, ‘Edward IV: Playboy or Politician?’ The Ricardian 10 (1995).

——, ‘The Yorkshire Rebellions of 1469’, The Ricardian 6 (1983).

Duclercq, J., Mémoires de Jacques du Clercq, ed. F. de Reiffenberg (Brussels, 1835).

Dyboski, R., and Z.M. Arend (eds.), Knyghthode and Bataile (Early English Text Society, 1935).

‘English Heritage Battlefield Report: Towton 1461’ (1995) available at (details correct on 7 February, 2009).

Evans, H.T., Wales and the Wars of the Roses (Stroud, 1995, c. 1915).

Fiorato, V., A. Boylston and C. Knüssel (eds.), Blood Red Roses: The Archaeology of a Mass Grave from the Battle of Towton AD 1461 (Oxford, 2000).

Froissart, J., Chronicles, ed. G. Brereton (London, 1978).

Gillingham, J., The Wars of the Roses (London, 1981).

Given-Wilson, C., Chronicles: The Writing of History in Medieval England (London, 2004).

Given-Wilson, C., and F. Bériac, ‘Edward III’s Prisoners of War: The Battle of Poitiers and its Context’, English Historical Review, 116 (2001).

Goodchild, S., Tewkesbury: Eclipse of the House of Lancaster (Barnsley, 2005).

Goodman, A.E., The Wars of the Roses: The Soldiers’ Experience (Stroud, 2005).

——, The Wars of the Roses: Military Activity and English Society, 1452–97 (London, 1981).

Gransden, A., Historical Writing in England II, c. 1307 to the Early Sixteenth Century (London, 1982).

Gravett, C., Tewkesbury 1471: The Last Yorkist Victory (Oxford, 2003).

——, Towton 1461: England’s Bloodiest Battle (Oxford, 2003).

The Great Chronicle of London, eds. A.H. Thomas and I.D. Thornley (London, 1938).

‘Gregory’s Chronicle’, Historical Collections of a Citizen of London, ed. J. Gairdner (Camden Society, 1876).

Griffiths, R.A., and R.S. Thomas, The Making of the Tudor Dynasty (Gloucester, 1985).

——, The Reign of King Henry VI (Stroud, 1998, c. 1981).

Grummitt, D., ‘The Defence of Calais and the Development of Gunpowder Weaponry in England in the Late Fifteenth Century’, War in History 7 (2000).

Grummitt, D., ‘The French Expedition of 1475 and What the Campaign Meant to Those Involved’, available at (details correct on 7 February 2009).

Hall, B.S., Weapons and Warfare in Renaissance Europe: Gunpowder, Technology and Tactics (Baltimore, 1997).

Hall, E., Hall’s Chronicle, ed. H. Ellis (London, 1809).

Hammond, P.W., The Battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury (Gloucester, 1990).

Harari, Y.N., ‘Inter-frontal Cooperation in the Fourteenth Century and Edward III’s 1346 Campaign’, War in History 6 (1999).

Hardyng, J., The Chronicle of John Hardyng, ed. H. Ellis (London, 1811).

Harvey, I.M.W., ‘Was there Popular Politics in Fifteenth-Century England?’ R.H. Britnell and A.J. Pollard (eds.), The McFarlane Legacy: Studies in Late Medieval Politics and Society (Stroud, 1995).

Hicks, M.A., Edward IV (London, 2004).

——, Edward V (Stroud, 2003).

——, Richard III (Stroud, 2003).

——, English Political Culture in the Fifteenth Century (London, 2002).

——, ‘Bastard Feudalism, Overmighty Subjects and Idols of the Multitude during the Wars of the Roses’, History 85 (2000).

——, Warwick the Kingmaker (Oxford, 1998).

——, ‘Idealism and politics’, in idem, Richard III and his Rivals: Magnates and their Motives in the Wars of the Roses (London, 1991).

——, ‘Edward IV, the Duke of Somerset and Lancastrian Loyalism in the North’, Northern History 20 (1984).

——, False, Fleeting, Perjur’d Clarence 1449–78 (Gloucester, 1980).

Historie of the Arrivall of Edward IV in England and the Finall Recouerye of his Kingdomes from Henry VI. A.D. M.CCCC.LXXI., ed. J. Bruce (Camden Society, 1838).

Hodges, G., Ludford Bridge and Mortimer’s Cross (Almeley, 1989).

Holmes, R., Acts of War: The Behaviour of Men in Battle (London, 2003, c. 1985).

Horrox, R.E (ed.), Fifteenth-Century Attitudes: Perceptions of Society in Late Medieval England (Cambridge, 1994).

Hughes, J., Arthurian Myths and Alchemy: The Kingship of Edward IV (Stroud, 2002).

Ingulph’s Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland, ed. H.T. Riley (London, 1854).

Jack, R.I., ‘A Quincentenary: The Battle of Northampton, July 10th, 1460’, Northamptonshire Past and Present 3 (1960).

Jaeger, C.S., Ennobling Love: In Search of a Lost Sensibility (Philadelphia, 1999).

‘John Benet’s Chronicle for the Years 1400–62’, G.L. and M.A. Harriss (eds.), Camden Miscellany 24 (1972).

Jones, M.K., Agincourt 1415 (Barnsley, 2005).

——, Bosworth 1485: Psychology of a Battle (Stroud, 2002).

——, ‘The Battle of Verneuil (17 August 1424): Towards a History of Courage’, War in History 9 (2002).

——, ‘1477 – the Expedition That Never Was: Chivalric Expectation in Late Yorkist England’, The Ricardian, 12 (2001).

——, ‘Edward IV, the Earl of Warwick and the Yorkist Claim to the Throne’, Historical Research 70 (1997).

——, ‘Somerset, York and the Wars of the Roses’, English Historical Review 104 (1989).

——, ‘Edward IV and the Beaufort Family: Conciliation in Early Yorkist Politics’, The Ricardian 6 (1983).

Kaeuper, R.W., Chivalry and Violence in Medieval Europe (Oxford, 1999).

Keegan, J., The Mask of Command: A Study of Generalship (London, 1999, c. 1987).

Keen, M.H., Chivalry (Yale, 1984).

——, The Laws of War in the Late Middle Ages (Oxford, 1993, c. 1965).

——, ‘Treason Trials under the Law of Arms’, in Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 12 (1962).

Kendall, P.M, Richard III (New York, 2002, c. 1955).

Kingsford, C.L., English Historical Literature in the Fifteenth Century (Oxford, 1913).

Kleineke, H., ‘Gerald Von Wesel’s Newsletter from England, 17 April 1471’, The Ricardian 16 (2006).

Knighton’s Chronicle 1337–1396, ed. G.H. Martin (Oxford, 1995).

Lander, J.R., ‘The Hundred Years War and Edward IV’s 1475 Campaign in France’, in A.J. Slavin (ed.), Tudor Men and Institutions (Baton Rouge, 1972).

Laynesmith, J.L., ‘Constructing Queenship at Coventry: Pageantry and Politics at Margaret of Anjou’s “Secret Harbour”‘, L.S. Clark (ed.), The Fifteenth Century, III, Authority and Subversion (Woodbridge, 2003).

‘Le livre des faicts du Mareschal de Boucicaut’, in Nouvelle collections des Mémoires pour server a l’histoire de France, eds. Michaud and Poujoulat, vol. II (Paris, 1836–9).

Lynch, A., ‘“Peace is good after war”: The Narrative Seasons of English Arthurian Tradition’, in C. Saunders et al (eds.), Writing War: Medieval Literary Responses to Warfare (Cambridge, 2004).

Mancini, D., The Usurpation of Richard III, ed. and tr. C.A.J. Armstrong (London, 1969).

Marshall, P., ‘The rood of Boxley, the blood of Hailes and the defence of the Henrician church’, The Journal of Ecclesiastical History 46 (1995).

Mercer, M., ‘The Strength of Lancastrian Loyalism during the Readeption: Gentry Participation at the Battle of Tewkesbury’, Journal of Medieval Military History 5 (2007).

More, T., The History of King Richard III, ed. R.S. Sylvester (Yale, 1963).

Morgan, P., ‘The Naming of Battlefields’, in D. Dunn (ed.), War and Society in Medieval and Early Modern Britain (Liverpool, 2000).

Mortimer, I., ‘York or Lancaster: who was the rightful heir to the throne in 1460?’ Ricardian Bulletin (Autumn, 2008).

Myers, A.R (ed.), The Household of Edward IV: the Black Book and the Ordinance of 1478 (Manchester, 1959).

Nicholson, H., Medieval Warfare: The Theory and Practice of War in Europe 300–1500 (Basingstoke, 2004).

Offenstadt, N. ‘The Rituals of Peace during the Civil War in France, 1409–19: Politics and the Public Sphere’, in T. Thornton (ed.), Social Attitudes and Political Structures (Stroud, 2000).

Okerlund, A., Elizabeth Wydeville: The Slandered Queen (Stroud, 2005).

Orme, N., From childhood to chivalry: the education of the English kings and aristocracy 1066–1530 (London, 1984).

The Parliament Rolls of Medieval England, ed. C. Given-Wilson et al, CD-ROM (Leicester, 2005).

The Paston Letters, ed. J. Gairdner, 6 vols in 1 (Gloucester, 1993, c. 1904).

The Politics of Fifteenth Century England: John Vale’s Book, eds. M.L. Kekewich et al (Stroud, 1995).

Pollard, A.J., Warwick the Kingmaker: Politics, Power and Fame (London, 2007).

Rawcliffe, C., ‘Richard, Duke of York, the King’s “obessant liegeman”: a new source for the protectorate of 1454 and 1455’, Historical Research 60 (1987).

Registrum Abbatiae Johannis Whethamstede Abbatis Monasterii Sancti Albani, ed. H.T. Riley, vol. I (Rolls Series, 1872–3).

Richmond, C.F., ‘The Earl of Warwick’s Domination of the Channel and the Naval Dimension to the Wars of the Roses, 1456–1460’, in Southern History 20/21 (1987–9).

——, ‘The Nobility and the Wars of the Roses, 1459–61’, in Nottingham Medieval Studies 21 (1977).

Rogers, C.J., ‘The Bergerac Campaign (1345) and the Generalship of Henry of Lancaster’, Journal of Medieval Military History 2 (2004).

——, ‘The Vegetian “Science of Warfare” in the Middle Ages’, Journal of Medieval Military History 1 (2002).

——, ‘The Efficacy of the English Longbow: A Reply to Kelly DeVries’, War in History 5 (1998).

Ross, C.D., Edward IV (London, 1974).

Santiuste, D., ‘“Puttyng downe and rebuking of vices”: Richard III and the Proclamation for the Reform of Morals‘, in A.S. Harper and C. Proctor (eds.), Medieval Sexuality: A Casebook (New York, 2008).

————, ‘Edward V: King or Pawn?’ The Medelai Gazette 10 (2003), pp. 6–12.

——, ‘“Fighting fulle manly”: The Wars of the Roses in Gregory’s Chronicle’ (Unpublished).

Saunders, C., Le Saux, F. and Thomas, N. (eds.), Writing War: Medieval Literary Responses to Warfare (Cambridge, 2004).

Scofield, C.L., The Life and Reign of Edward IV, 2 vols (London, 1923).

Seward, D., The Hundred Years War: The English in France 1337–1453 (London, 1988).

Six Town Chronicles, ed. R. Flenley (Oxford, 1911).

Stanford, H., Royal Beasts (London, 1956).

Strickland, M.J., and R. Hardy, The Great Warbow: From Hastings to the Mary Rose (Stroud, 2005).

Sutton, A.F. and Visser-Fuchs, L. ‘Chevalrie […] in som partie is worthi forto be commendid, and in some part to be amendid: Chivalry and the Yorkist Kings’, C.F. Richmond and E. Scarff, eds., St George’s Chapel, Windsor, in the Late Middle Ages(Windsor, 2001).

Three Fifteenth-Century Chronicles, ed. J. Gairdner (Camden Society, 1880).

Vale, M.G.A, War and Chivalry: Warfare and Aristocratic Culture in England, France and Burgundy at the End of the Middle Ages (London, 1981).

Vaughan, R., Charles the Bold (Woodbridge, 2002, c. 1973).

Vergil, P., Three Books of Polydore Vergil’s English History, ed. H. Ellis (Camden Society, 1844).

Visser-Fuchs, L., ‘“Warwick, by himself”: Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, the “Kingmaker”‘, in the ‘Receuil des Croniques D’ Engleterre of Jean de Wavrin’, Publication du Centre Européen d’études Bourguignonnes (XIVe–XVIes) 41 (2001).

——, ‘Il n’a plus lion ne lieppart, qui vouelle tenir de sa part: Edward IV in exile, October 1470 to March 1471’, Publication du Centre Européeen d’éetudes Bourguignonnes (XIVe–XVIes) 35 (1995).

————, ‘Sanguinis Haustor – Drinker of Blood: A Burgundian View of England, 1471’, The Ricardian 7 (1985–87).

——, ‘Nicholas Harpisfield, clerk of the signet, author and murderer’, The Ricardian, 7 (1985–87).

Warkworth’s Chronicle: A Chronicle of the First Thirteen Years of the Reign of Edward IV, by John Warkworth, ed. J.O. Halliwell (Camden Society, 1839).

Watson, P.J., ‘“May God have Pity at the Wretched Spectacle”: A Review of the Sources for the Battle of Barnet, 14 April 1471’, in The Ricardian 12 (2000–2002).

Watts, J.L., Henry VI and the Politics of Kingship (Cambridge, 1996).

Wavrin, J. de, Receuil des Croniques et Anchiennes Istoires de la Grant Bretaigne, ed. W. Hardy, vol. V (Rolls Series, 1864–91).

Wheeler, G., ‘The Battle of Barnet: Heraldic Complications and Complexities’, Ricardian Bulletin (December, 2000).

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!