First I would like to thank Rupert Harding of Pen and Sword Books, for his suggestion that I should write this book and for considerate guidance thereafter. Christopher Summerville edited the manuscript with skill and care.

I owe much, of course, to the scholarship of others. The biographies of Edward IV by Cora Scofield and Charles Ross have been particularly helpful. (Unfortunately the most recent biography, by Hannes Kleineke, was published after I had carried out most of my research.) I must also acknowledge the influence of John Gillingham, Anthony Goodman, A.J. Pollard and Livia Visser-Fuchs. In addition The Great Warbow, by Robert Hardy and Matthew Strickland, has justly been described as a ‘soldiers’ bible’ for the late medieval period. My debts to the work of three other scholars – Chris Given-Wilson, Michael Hicks and Michael K. Jones – will be obvious throughout the text, but I would also like to thank them here for their help and encouragement over a number of years. Professor Given-Wilson deserves particular thanks for acting as a patient and tolerant supervisor of my postgraduate studies, during which time I had the opportunity to explore many of the sources on which this work is based. Any errors are my own.

The patrons of the Richard III Foundation have taken a keen interest in my work since I was a student, but they have also provided support in other ways. Among many others I must single out John Davey (now sadly departed), Judi Dickson, and, above all, Joe Ann Ricca. Mark Taylor of the Towton Battlefield Society helped me on several occasions, and I have greatly enjoyed my conversations with other members of the ‘TBS’ (especially Scowen Sykes). Steve Goodchild of the Tewkesbury Battlefield Society provided photographs and was kind enough to share some useful local knowledge. The artistic talents of Christopher Summerville (again), Rae Tan and Geoffrey Wheeler have immeasurably enriched the book. [A generous grant from the Authors’ Foundation allowed me to visit some of the sites of Edward IV’s battles. Gary Sawyer allowed me to consult books from his personal library.]

But the last word must be reserved for family. I would therefore like to thank my parents, Harry and Marion Santiuste, and my partner, Caroline Proctor, whose support and understanding means more than I can say. This book is for them, with much love.

York & Lancaster: The English Royal Family in the Later Middle Ages


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