Post-classical history

Wenden, Treaty (1501)

A treaty between Lithuania and Livonia, directed against Muscovy.

Fearing an attack by the Russian principality of Muscovy, Grand Duke Alexander of Lithuania concluded a ten-year treaty with the Teutonic Order and the bishops of Livonia. Both parties were obliged to support the other against Muscovy, to attack the Russians simultaneously, and to divide any conquered territories. Each party could only initiate war or make peace with the agreement of the other party. Provision was also made for the future regulation of the border between Lithuania and Livonia. Finally, if Poland were to attack Prussia, peace would be made with Muscovy.

The treaty was ratified on 15 May in Vilnius, the Lithuanian capital, and on 21 June in Wenden (mod. Cēsis, Latvia) in Livonia. Alexander’s brother John Albert, king of Poland, died on 17 June, whereupon Alexander claimed the Polish throne; this meant that in fact Livonia was left alone in the war against the Russians in 1501-1502.

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