Post-classical history

T'oros II, Rupenid (d. 1168)

Armenian prince of the Rupenid family, ruler of much of Cilicia (Lesser Armenia).

In 1137 T‘oros was captured with his father, Leon, by the Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos and imprisoned in Constantinople (mod. Istanbul, Turkey). He was able to escape in 1145, and by 1148 he had regained the family’s old centers. Exploiting the concentration of the Franks and the Muslims on the former county of Edessa, T‘oros was able to expand his realm, occupying Mamistra (mod.Misis, Turkey). This provoked a Byzantine intervention: one Byzantine army was defeated in 1152, but T‘oros was forced to submit to Emperor Manuel I Komnenos in 1158. Relations remained good, despite conflict following the murder of T‘oros’s brother, Stephen, in 1162.

T‘oros sought friendship with the Franks: he married the daughter of Simon of Raban and allied with Reynald of Châtillon, prince of Antioch; he participated in the campaign to relieve Harenc (mod. Harim, Syria) in 1164, withdrawing before the disastrous battle but then obtaining the release of Bohemund III of Antioch.

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