Post-classical history

Lyons, First Council of (1245)

A church council summoned by Pope Innocent IV, taking place from 28 June to 17 July 1245. Held during hostilities between the papacy and Frederick II, the Holy Roman Emperor, the council sought to address this crisis as well as the recent loss of Jerusalem to the Ayyûbids, the Bulgarian- Nicaean alliance menacing the Latin Empire of Constantinople, and the threat posed by the Mongols to both Outremer and eastern Europe.

Hopes for a peaceful settlement of the papal-imperial conflict, bolstered by imperial representatives’ promise of aid against these threats, were dashed when the sparsely attended council excommunicated and deposed Frederick II at Innocent IV’s behest. The ensuing anti-Staufen crusade consumed much of the money from clerical income taxes imposed by the council to aid the Holy Land and the Latin Empire of Constantinople and hindered the attempts of Louis IX of France to muster men and resources for his crusade.

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