Post-classical history

The Crusades - An Encyclopedia

The Crusades - An Encyclopedia

"The Crusades: An Encyclopedia" surveys all aspects of the crusading movement from its origins in the 11th century to its decline in the 16th century. Unlike other works, which focus on the eastern Mediterranean region, this expansive four-volume encyclopedia also includes the struggle of Christendom against its enemies in Iberia, Eastern Europe, and the Baltic region, and also covers the military orders, crusades against fellow Christians, heretics, and more.

This work includes comprehensive entries on personalities such as Godfrey of Bouillon, who refused the title "King of Jerusalem," and St. Bernard of Clairvaux, who tore up his own clothing to make symbols of the cross for crusaders, as well as key events, countries, places, and themes that shed light on everything from the propaganda that inspired crusading warriors to the ways in which they fought. Special coverage of topics such as taxation, pilgrimage, warfare, chivalry, and religious orders give readers an appreciation of the multifaceted nature of these "holy wars."

Preface - List of Abbreviations

The Crusades: Names and Numbers - Chronology

The Crusades: An Introduction

A

'Abbāsids

Abodrites

Absalon of Lund (d. 1201)

Acciaiuoli Family

Achaia

Acre

Acre, Siege of (1189-1191)

Acre, Siege of (1291)

Adela of Blois (d. 1137)

Adelaide del Vasto (d. 1118)

Adhemar of Le Puy (d. 1098)

Adrianople, Battle of (1205)

Al-Afdal (d. 1122)

Afonso I Henriques of Portugal (c. 1109-1185)

Afonso V of Portugal (1432-1481)

Africa

Ager Sanguinis, Battle of (1119)

Agnes of Courtenay (d. c. 1185)

Aila and Ile de Graye

Aimery of Limoges (d. 1196)

Aimery of Lusignan (d. 1205)

Aintab

Alberic of Troisfontaines (d. 1251/1252)

Albert of Aachen

Albert of Buxhovden (d. 1229)

Albert Suerbeer (d. 1272/1273)

Albert of Vercelli (1149/1152-1214)

Albigensian Crusade (1209-1229)

Albrecht von Brandenburg-Ansbach (1490-1568)

Albrecht von Johansdorf

Alcantara, Order of

Aleppo

Alexander III (d. 1181)

Alexander IV (d. 1261)

Alexander VI (1431-1503)

Alexander Nevskii (1221-1263)

Alexandretta

Alexandria, Capture of (1365)

Alexios I Komnenos (d. 1118)

Alexios III Angelos (d. 1211)

Alexios IV Angelos (1182/1183-1204)

Alexios V Doukas Mourtzouphlos (d. 1204)

Alfonso I of Aragon (d. 1134)

Alfonso IV of Aragon (1299-1336)

Alfonso VI of Castile and Leôn (1040-1109)

Alfonso VII of Castile and Leôn (1105-1157)

Alfonso VIII of Castile (1155-1214)

Alfonso X of Castile and Leôn (1221-1284)

Alfonso XI of Castile (1311-1350)

Algeciras, Siege of (1342-1344)

Algirdas (d. 1377)

Almohads

Almoravids

Alp Arslān (d. 1072)

Alp Arslān ibn Ridwân (d. 1114)

Åltere Hochmeisterchronik

Amadeus VI of Savoy (1334-1383)

Amalfi

Amalric of Jerusalem (1136-1174)

Amalric of Montfort (d. 1241)

Amalric of Nesle (d. 1180)

Ambroise

Anders Sunesen (d. 1228)

Andrew II of Hungary (d. 1235)

Andrew of Montbard (d. 1156)

Ankara, Battle of (1402)

Anna Komnene (1083-1153/1154)

Anno von Sangerhausen (d. 1273)

Anonymous Syriac Chronicle

Antioch (on the Orontes), City of

Antioch, Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of

Antioch, Latin Patriarchate of

Antioch, Principality of

Antioch, Sieges of (1097-1098)

Arabic Sources

Aragon

Archipelago, Duchy of the

Armenian Sources

Arms and Armor

Arnold Amalric (d. 1225)

Arnold of Lübeck (d. 1211/1214)

Arnold of Torroja (d. 1184)

Arnulf of Chocques (d. 1118)

Arsuf

Arsuf, Battle of (1191)

Art of Outremer and Cyprus

Artah, Battle of (1164)

Artāsh

Artuqids

Ascalon

Ascalon, Battle of (1099)

Assassins

Assizes of Jerusalem

Assizes of Romania

Atabeg

Athanasios I of Antioch (d. 1170)

Athens, Lordship and Duchy of

Avis, Order of

Ayas

Ayn Jālūt, Battle of (1260)

Ayyubids

Azaz

B

Bacon, Roger (d. c. 1294)

Balak (d. 1124)

Baldric of Dol (1046-1130)

Baldwin I of Constantinople (1171-1206)

Baldwin I of Jerusalem (d. 1118)

Baldwin II of Constantinople (1217-1271)

Baldwin II of Jerusalem (d. 1131)

Baldwin III of Jerusalem (1130-1163)

Baldwin IV of Jerusalem (1161-1185)

Baldwin V of Jerusalem (d. 1186)

Baldwin of Aulne (d. 1243)

Baldwin of Marash (d. 1146)

Balearic Islands

Balian of Sidon (d. 1240)

Baltic Crusades

Banyas

Bar Ebroyo (1226-1286)

Barbarossa Hoard

Barbary Corsairs

Barbastro

Barkyârûq (d. 1105)

Basian, Battle of (1203)

Baybars I (d. 1277)

Bayezid I (d. 1403)

Bayezid II (d. 1512)

Beaufort

Bedouin

Belchite, Confraternity of

Belvoir

Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153)

Bernard of Valence (d. 1135)

Bertold of Loccum (d. 1198)

Bertrand of Tripoli (d. 1112)

Bertrandon de la Broquière (d. 1459)

Bessarion (d. 1472)

Bethlehem

Bira

Birgitta Birgersdotter (1302/1303-1373)

Black Mountain

Blanchegarde

Bodrum

Bohemia and Moravia

Bohemund I of Antioch (d. 1111)

Bohemund II of Antioch (1108-1130)

Bohemund III of Antioch (d. 1201)

Bohemund IV of Antioch-Tripoli (d. 1233)

Bohemund V of Antioch-Tripoli (d. 1252)

Bohemund VI of Antioch-Tripoli (d. 1275)

Bohemund VII of Antioch-Tripoli (d. 1287)

Boniface I of Montferrat (d. 1207)

Boniface VIII (d. 1303)

Boucicaut, Marshal (1366-1421)

Boudonitza

Brienne Family

Burchard of Mount Zion

Burgundy

Būrī (1085-1132)

Burzenland

Byzantine Empire

C

Caesarea (Maritima)

Caffaro (1080/1081-1166)

Calatrava, Order of

Caliphate

Calixtus II (d. 1124)

Canary Islands

Caoursin, Guillaume (1430-1501)

Captivity

Carmelite Order

Castile and Leôn

Castles: The Baltic Region

Castles: Greece and Cyprus

Castles: Iberia

Castles: Outremer

Catalan Company

Cathars

Catherine Cornaro (d. 1510)

Cave de Suète

Caxton, William (d. 1491)

Ceuta

Chaka (d. 1105/1106)

Chanson d'Antioche

Chanson de Jérusalem

Chanson de la Croisade albigeoise

Chanson de Roland

Charles I of Anjou (1226-1285)

Charles II of Anjou (1253-1309)

Charles V of Germany (I of Spain) (1500-1558)

Charles the Good (d. 1127)

Chastel Neuf

Château Pèlerin

Children's Crusade (1212)

Chivalry

Choniates, Niketas (d. c. 1217)

Chrétien de Troyes

Christ, Order of

Christburg, Treaty of (1249)

Chronicle of the Morea

Cilicia

Cistercian Order

Clement IV (d. 1268)

Clement V (d. 1314)

Clermont, Council of (1095)

Communications

Cono of Montaigu (d. 1106)

Conrad III of Germany (1093-1152)

Conrad IV of Germany (1228-1254)

Conrad of Krosigk (d. 1225)

Conrad of Mainz (d. 1200)

Conrad of Montferrat (d. 1192)

Conrad of Querfurt (d. 1202)

Conrad of Urach (d. 1227)

Conradin (1252-1268)

Constantine XI Palaiologos (1405-1453)

Constantinople, City of

Constantinople, Latin Empire of

Constantinople, Latin Patriarchate of

Constantinople, Siege of (1204)

Constantinople, Siege of (1453)

Conversion: The Baltic Lands

Conversion: Iberia

Conversion: Outremer

Copts

Coron

Courtenay, Family

Cresson, Battle of (1187)

Crete

Criticism of Crusading

Cross, Symbol

Crucesignatus

Crusade Cycle

Crusade of 1101

Crusade of 1122-1124

Crusade of 1129

Crusade of 1239-1241

Crusade of 1267

Crusade of 1309

Crusade of Emperor Frederick II (1227-1229)

Crusade of Emperor Henry VI (1197-1198)

Crusade of the Lord Edward (1270-1272)

Crusade of Louis IX of France to Tunis (1270)

Crusade of Louis IX to the East (1248-1254)

Crusades against Christians

Curonia

Cyprus

Appendix - Plans of Castles in Frankish Greece and Cyprus

D

Daibert of Pisa (d. 1105)

Damascus

Damietta

Dandolo, Enrico (d. 1205)

Daniel Romanovich (1201-1264)

Dānishmendids

Danzig

David IV of Georgia (1073-1125)

De expugnatione Lyxbonensi

Demetrius of Thessalonica (1206-1230)

Denmark

Despenser's Crusade (1383)

Devastatio Constantinopolitana

La Devise des Chemins de Babiloine

Devol, Treaty of (1108)

Dhimma

Didgori, Battle of (1121)

Dietrich von Altenburg (d. 1341)

Dinis of Portugal (1261-1325)

Disease

Diyā' al-Dīn al-Maqdisī (1173-1245)

Dobrin, Order of

Dominican Order

Domus Godefridi

Dorpat

Dorylaion, Battle of (1097)

Douglas, James (d. 1330)

Drenthe Crusade (1228-1232)

Druzes

Dubois, Pierre (d. after 1321)

Duluk

Duqaq (d. 1104)

Durben, Battle of (1260)

Dutch Literature

Dyrrachion

E

Eastern Churches

Economy of the Levant

Edessa, City of

Edessa, County of

Edward I of England (1239-1307)

Egypt

Ehrentisch

Ekkehard of Aura

Eleanor of Aquitaine (c. 1122-1204)

Elisabeth of Thuringia (1207-1231)

Embriaci Family

Emicho of Flonheim

England

English and Scots Literature

Epiros

Eracles

Eraclius (d. 1190/1191)

Erik I of Denmark (d. 1103)

Erik Jedvardson

Ermes, Battle of (1560)

Ernoul

Eschatology

Eskil of Lund (d. 1181)

Estonia, Duchy of

Eugenius III, Pope (d. 1153)

Eugenius IV (1431-1447)

Eustace I Granarius (d. 1123)

Eustace III of Boulogne (d. 1125)

Evremar of Chocques (d. 1128/1129)

Excidium Acconis

F

Famagusta

Fātimids

Fellin

Fellin, Battle of (1217)

Ferdinand II of Aragon (1452-1516) and Isabella I of Castile (1451-1504)

Ferdinand III of Castile and Leôn (1201-1252)

Fernandez de Heredia, Juan (d. 1396)

Fidenzio of Padua

Fifth Crusade (1217-1221)

Filangieri, Richard (d. before 1263)

Finance of Crusades

Finland

First Crusade (1096-1099)

Forbie, Battle of (1244)

Fourth Crusade (1202-1204)

France

Francis of Assisi (1182-1226)

Franciscan Order

Frankish Greece

Franks

Frederick I of Austria (d. 1198)

Frederick I Barbarossa of Germany (1122-1190)

Frederick II of Germany (1194-1250)

Frederick V of Swabia (1167-1191)

Frederick of Laroche (d. 1174)

Freidank (d. 1233)

French Language in the Levant

French Literature

Friedrich von Hausen (d. 1190)

Frisia

Frutolf of Michelsberg (d. 1103)

Fulcher of Chartres (d. c. 1127)

Fulcher, Patriarch of Jerusalem (d. 1157)

Fulco

Fulk of Anjou (d. 1143)

Fulk of Neuilly (d. 1202)

Fulk of Villaret (d. 1327)

G

Galilee

Gallus Anonymus

Garin of Montaigu (d. 1227/1228)

Gaza, Battle of (1239)

Gaza, Town of

Gediminas (d. 1341/1342)

Genoa

Geoffrey III of the Perche (d. 1202)

Geoffrey Le Tor (d. c. 1265)

Geoffrey of Villehardouin (the Marshal)

Geoffroy de Charny (d. 1356)

St. George

St. George of Alfama, Order of

St. George's Night Revolt (1343)

Georgia

Gerard of Nazareth

Gerard of Ridefort (d. 1189)

German Literature

Germany

Gerold of Lausanne (d. 1238/1239)

Gervase of Bazoches (d. 1108)

Gesta Francorum

Gestes des Chiprois

Ghāzīs

Gibelin of Arles (d. 1112)

Gibraltar, Siege of (1349-1350)

Gilbert de Lannoy (d. 1462)

Gilo of Paris (d. after 1139)

Girbert Eral (d. 1200)

Godfrey of Bouillon (d. 1100)

Golden Fleece, Order of

Gran Conquista de Ultramar

Granada

Greek Sources

Greenland

Gregory VII (d. 1085)

Gregory IX, Pope (d. 1241)

Gregory X (1210-1276)

Gregory the Priest

Guibert of Nogent (1055-c. 1125)

Guillaume de Machaut (d. 1377)

Gunther of Pairis

Guy of Lusignan (d. 1194)

Guy of Vaux-de-Cernay (d. 1225)

H

Hafsids

Haifa

Al-Hakim (985-1021)

Hakon Palsson (d. c. 1123)

Halmyros, Battle of (1311)

Hamburg-Bremen, Archbishopric of

Hanbalīs

Harran

Harria

Hartmann von Aue

Hattin, Battle of (1187)

Hebrew Sources

Hebron

Heinrich von Plauen (d. 1429)

Helmold of Bosau (d. after 1177)

Henry I of Cyprus (1217-1253)

Henry II of Cyprus and Jerusalem (d. 1324)

Henry II of England (1133-1189)

Henry III of England (1209-1272)

Henry III of England (1209-1272)

Henry VI of Germany (1165-1197)

Henry of Champagne (1166-1197)

Henry of Constantinople (d. 1216)

Henry of Grosmont (d. 1361)

Henry of Huntingdon (c. 1088-1156/1160)

Henry of Kalden

Henry the Lion (1129/1131-1195)

Henry of Livonia

Henry the Navigator (1394-1460)

Henry of Valenciennes

Henryk of Sandomierz (d. 1166)

Heraclius (d. 641)

Hermann I of Thuringia (d. 1217)

Hermann Balk (d. 1239)

Hermann von Salza (d. 1239)

Het'um I of Armenia (d. 1270)

Historia Belli Sacri

Historia de expeditione Friderici imperatoris

Historia de profectione Danorum in Hierosolymam

Historia Nicaena vel Antiochena

Historiography, Modern

Hoeneke (Honeke), Bartolomaus

Holy Lance

Holy Sepulchre

Holy Sepulchre, Canons of the

Holy Sepulchre, Order of the

Holy War

Homs

Homs, Battle of (1281)

Honorius III (d. 1227)

Hospital, Order of the

Hospital of St. John (Jerusalem)

Hostiensis (d. 1271)

Hromgla

Hugh I of Cyprus (1195-1218)

Hugh II of Cyprus (1253-1267)

Hugh III of Cyprus and I of Jerusalem (d. 1284)

Hugh IV of Cyprus (1295-1359)

Hugh of Fauquembergues (d. 1106)

Hugh of Jaffa

Hugh of Payns (d. c. 1136)

Hugh Revel (d. 1277/1278)

Hugh of Vermandois (1057-1101)

Hülegü (d. 1265)

Humbert II of Viennois (1312-1355)

Humbert of Romans (d. 1277)

Hungary

Hussites, Crusades against the

I

Ibelin, Battle of (1123)

Ibelins

Ibn al-Athīr (1160-1233)

Ibn Jubayr (1145-1217)

Ibn al-Qalānisī (d. 1160)

Ibn Shaddād (1145-1234)

Ibn Wasil (1208-1298)

Ideology

Ignatius III of Antioch (d. 1252)

Īlghāzī (d. 1122)

Ilkhans

Inab, Battle of (1149)

Indulgences and Penance

Ingria

Innocent III (1160/1161-1216)

Innocent IV (d. 1254)

Innocent VIII (1432-1492)

Iqtâ'

Isaac II Angelos (1153/1156-1204)

Isaac Komnenos (d. 1195/1196)

Isabella I of Jerusalem (1172-1205)

Isabella II of Jerusalem (1211/1212-1228)

Al-Isfahānī (1125-1201)

Islam

Izborsk

J

Jacob's Ford

Jaffa, Battle of (1102)

Jaffa, Battle of (1192)

James I of Aragon (1208-1276)

James I of Cyprus (d. 1398)

James II of Cyprus (1440/1441-1473)

James III of Cyprus (1473-1474)

James of Molay (d. 1314)

James of Vitry (d. 1240)

Janus of Cyprus (d. 1432)

Jehosaphat, Abbey of

Jerusalem, City of

Jerusalem, Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of

Jerusalem, (Latin) Kingdom of

Jerusalem, Latin Patriarchate of

Jerusalem, Siege of (1099)

Jerwia

Jews and the Crusades

Jews in Outremer

Jihād

Jogaila

John I of Cyprus (II of Jerusalem) (d. 1285)

John II of Cyprus (1414-1458)

John II Komnenos (1087-1143)

John III Vatatzes (d. 1254)

John V of Oxeia

John V Palaiologos (1332-1391)

John VIII Palaiologos (1392-1448)

John of Beirut (d. 1236)

John of Brienne (d. 1237)

John of Gaunt (1340-1399)

John of Jaffa (1215-1266)

John of Luxembourg (1296-1346)

John of Nevers (1371-1419)

John of Piano Carpini (d. 1252)

John of Würzburg

Joinville, John of (1224/1225-1317)

Joscelin I of Courtenay (d. 1131)

Joscelin II of Courtenay (d. 1159)

Joscelin III of Courtenay

Just War

K

Kamal al-Dīn (1192-1262)

Al-Kamil (d. 1238)

Kammin

Karbughā (d. 1102)

Karelia

Karl von Trier (d. 1324)

Kerak

Kestutis (d. 1382)

Kettler, Gotthard (d. 1587)

Kexholm

Khirokitia, Battle of (1426)

Kinnamos, John

Konrad von Feuchtwangen (d. 1296)

Krak des Chevaliers

Krakôw, Treaty of (1525)

Kreuzfahrt des Landgrafen Ludwigs des Frommen von Thüringen

Küchmeister, Michael (d. 1423)

Kyrenia

L

Landskrona

Laodikeia in Syria

Lateran III, Church Council (1179)

Lateran IV, Church Council (1215)

Latin Church

Latin Literature

St. Lazarus, Order of

Leon I of Armenia (d. 1219)

Leopold V of Austria (1157-1194)

Leopold VI of Austria (d. 1230)

Lepanto, Battle of (1571)

Letres dou Sepulcre

Libellus de expugnatione Terrae Sanctae per Saladinum expeditione

Liegnitz, Battle of (1241)

Lignages d'Outremer

Limassol

Lingua Franca

Lisbon, Siege of (1147)

Literature of Outremer and Cyprus

Lithuania

Liturgy of the Crusades

Liturgy of Outremer

Livonia

Livonian Masters

Livonian Rhymed Chronicle

Llull, Ramon (1232-1315/1316)

Louis II of Bourbon (1337-1410)

Louis VII of France (1120-1180)

Louis VIII of France (1187-1226)

Louis IX of France (1214-1270)

Low Countries

Lübeck

Lucera

Luder von Braunschweig (d. 1335)

Ludwig III of Thuringia (d. 1190)

Ludwig IV of Thuringia (1200-1227)

Ludwig von Erlichshausen (d. 1467)

Lusignan, Family

Lyndanise, Battle of (1219)

Lyons, First Council of (1245)

Lyons, Second Council of (1274)

M

Maccabees

Magdeburg, Archbishopric of

Magna Mahomeria

Magnus II Eriksson of Sweden (1316-1374)

Mahdia Crusade (1390)

Mahdia Expedition (1087)

Mahmūd I (1087-1094)

Mainz Anonymous

Malik Shāh I (1055-1092)

Malik Shāh II (d. 1105)

Mallorca Crusade (1114-1115)

Malta

Malta, Siege of (1565)

Mamistra

Mamluk

Mamluk Sultanate

Manfred of Staufen (1232-1266)

Mansurah

Mantzikert, Battle of (1071)

Manuel I Komnenos (1118-1180)

Manuel II Palaiologos (1350-1425)

Marash

Margat

Maria of Antioch (d. 1183)

Maria of Jerusalem ("la Marquise") (1192-1212)

Marienburg

Marj Ayun, Battle of (1179)

Maronites

Martin of Pairis

Martyrdom, Christian

Martyrdom, Muslim

Mateusz of Krakôw (d. 1166)

Matthew of Edessa

Matthew Paris

St. Maurice, Order of

Mawdüd (d. 1113)

Mecca

Medicine

Medina

Mehmed II (d. 1481)

Meinhard (d. 1196)

Melisende of Jerusalem (d. 1161)

Melisende Psalter

Melkites

Memel

Mercedarian Order

Mergentheim

Metellus of Tegernsee

Michael VIII Palaiologos (1224/1225-1282)

Michael the Great (1126-1199)

Michiel, Domenico (d. 1130)

Mieszko III Stary (d. 1202)

Military Orders

Mindaugas (d. 1263)

Mirabel

Mission

Mistra

Modern Literature

Modon

Mohâcs, Battle of (1526)

Mongke (1209-1259)

Mongols

Monophysitism

Monotheletism

Mont Gisard, Battle of (1177)

Montesa, Order of

Montferrat

Montfort

Montjoie, Abbey of

Montpellier, Council of (1195)

Montpellier, Council of (1215)

Montréal

Morosini, Thomas (d. 1211)

Motivation

Mountjoy, Order of

Mozarabs

Mudéjars and Moriscos

Muhammad (d. 632)

Murad II (d. 1451)

Myriokephalon, Battle (1176)

N

Nablus

Narva

Naval History, 1096-1099

Naval History, 1100-1249

Las Navas de Tolosa, Battle of (1212)

Negroponte

Nestorians

Neva, Battle of the (1240)

Nicaea, Empire of

Nicholas III (d. 1280)

Nicholas IV (1227-1292)

Nicholas Lorgne (d. 1285)

Nicolaus von Jeroschin (d. 1336/1341)

Nicosia

Nikopolis, Crusade of (1396)

Nikulas of Munkethverâ (d. 1159)

Nivelon of Chérisy (d. 1207)

Noteborg, Treaty of (1323)

Novgorod

Nūr al-Dīn (1118-1174)

O

Occitan Literature

Odo of Burgundy (d. 1266)

Odo of Châteauroux (d. 1273)

Odo of Deuil (d. 1162)

Odo of Pins (d. 1296)

Oliver of Paderborn (d. 1227)

Orderic Vitalis (1075-c. 1141)

Osel

Otranto, Capture of (1480)

Otto of Freising (d. 1158)

Ottokar II of Bohemia (d. 1278)

Ottoman Empire

Outremer

Outremer: Coinage

Outremer: Intercultural Relations

Outremer: Italian Communities

Outremer: Monasticism

Outremer: Muslim Population

P

Pactum Warmundi (1123)

Paganism: The Baltic Lands

Papal Letters

Paphos

Paschal II (d. 1118)

Passagium Generale

Passagium Particulare

Paul II (1417-1471)

Paul von Rusdorf (d. 1441)

Peace and Truce of God

Peipus, Battle of Lake (1242)

Pelagius of Albano (d. 1230)

Pelagonia, Battle of (1259)

People's Crusades (1096)

Perche, Counts of

Peter I of Cyprus (1329-1369)

Peter II of Cyprus (d. 1382)

Peter of Blois (d. 1211)

Peter of Castelnau (d. 1208)

Peter of Constantinople (d. 1217)

Peter of Dampierre

Peter von Dusburg (d. c. 1330)

Peter the Hermit

Peter Tudebode

Peter of Vaux-de-Cernay (d. 1218)

Peter the Venerable (1092/1094-1156)

Peter of Vieillebride (d. 1242)

Pheasant, Feast and Vow of the (1454)

Philip II Augustus of France (1165-1223)

Philip II of Spain (1527-1598)

Philip IV of France (1267/1268-1314)

Philip of Alsace (1142-1191)

Philip the Good (1396-1467)

Philip of Nablus (d. 1171)

Philip of Novara

Philippe de Mézières (d. 1405)

Piacenza, Council of (1095)

Pilgrimage

Pilgrimage of Henry the Lion (1172)

Pisa

Pius II (1405-1464)

Polabians

Poland

Polemics against Islam

Pomerelia

Pons of Tripoli (d. 1137)

Popular Crusades

Portugal

Poulains

Propaganda

Prussia

Pskov

Q

Qalawun (1222-1290)

Qilij Arslān I of Rūm (d. 1107)

Qilij Arslān II of Rūm (d. 1192)

R

Radulph of Caen (d. after 1130)

Rainald III of Toul

Ralph of Coggeshall

Ralph de Diceto (d. 1199/1200)

Ralph of Domfront (d. c. 1146)

Ralph of Merencourt (d. 1224)

Ramla

Ramla, First Battle of (1101)

Ramla, Second Battle of (1102)

Ramla, Third Battle of (1105)

Ravendel

Raymond II of Tripoli (d. 1152)

Raymond III of Tripoli (d. 1187)

Raymond VI of Toulouse (1156-1222)

Raymond VII of Toulouse (1197-1249)

Raymond of Aguilers

Raymond Berengar IV of Barcelona (d. 1162)

Raymond of Poitiers (d. 1149)

Raymond-Rupen of Antioch (d. 1222)

Raymond of Saint-Gilles (d. 1105)

Reconquista

Recovery of the Holy Land

Red Sea

Relics: Constantinople

Relics: The Holy Land

Reval

Reynald of Châtillon (d. 1187)

Reyse

Rhodes

Richard I the Lionheart (1157-1199)

Richard of Cornwall (1209-1272)

Richard of Devizes

Richard of the Principate (d. 1112/1114)

Ridwân (1081-1113)

Riga

Rigord

Rimini, Golden Bull of

Robert II of Flanders (d. 1111)

Robert Burgundio (d. 1149)

Robert of Clari (d. after 1216)

Robert of Constantinople (d. 1228)

Robert Curthose (d. 1134)

Robert of Rheims

La Roche Family

Roger I of Sicily (d. 1101)

Roger II of Sicily (d. 1154)

Roger of Antioch (d. 1119)

Roger of Howden

Roger of Les Moulins (d. 1187)

Rognvald Kali Kolsson (d. 1158)

Rolandslied des Pfaffen Konrad

Romanos IV Diogenes (d. 1072)

Rotrou II of the Perche (d. 1144)

Ruad

Rügen

Rum, Sultanate of

Russia (Rus')

Russian Sources

S

St. Sabas, War of (1256-1258)

Sakkala

Saladin (1138-1193)

Saladin in Literature

Saladin Tithe

Saljûqs

Samogitia

San Germano, Treaty of (1230)

Santiago de Compostela

Santiago, Order of

Sanudo Family

Sanudo, Marino (d. 1343)

Saphet

Saracens

Saule, Battle of (1232)

Saxo Grammaticus

Schism of East and West

Scotland

Second Crusade (1147-1149)

Sermons and Preaching

Sgouros, Leo

Shepherds' Crusade, First (1251)

Shepherds' Crusade, Second (1320)

Shī'ites

Ships

Shîrkûh (d. 1169)

Sibt ibn al-Jawzī (1185/1186-1256)

Sibyl of Jerusalem (d. 1190)

Sicily, Kingdom of

Siege Warfare

Siegfried von Feuchtwangen (d. 1311)

Sigismund of Luxembourg (1368-1437)

Sigurd Jorsalfar (1090-1130)

Simon of Montfort (d. 1218)

Sinai, Mount

Al-Sinnabrah, Battle of (1113)

Sis

Smpad the Constable (1208-1276)

Smyrna Crusade (1344)

Solomon bar Simson

Spanish and Portuguese Literature

Stedinger Crusades (1233-1234)

Stensby, Treaty of (1238)

Stephen of Blois (d. 1102)

Stephen, Patriarch of Jerusalem (d. 1130)

Stephen of the Perche (d. 1205)

Al-Sulamī (1039-1106)

Süleyman I the Magnificent (d. 1566)

Sultān Shāh

Sunni Islam

Sweden

Sword Brethren

Sword, Order of the

Symeon II of Jerusalem

Syriac Sources

Syrian Orthodox Church

T

Tamar (d. 1213)

Tancred (d. 1112)

Tannenberg, Battle of (1410)

Tannhauser

Tarsos

Tasso, Torquato (1544-1595)

Tatikios

Temple, Order of the

Terre de Suète

Teutonic Order

Teutonic Order: Literature

Teutonic Source

Thaddeus of Naples

Thebes

Theodore I Laskaris (d. 1222)

Theodore II Laskaris (d. 1258)

Theodore Angelos Komnenos Doukas (d. 1253/1254)

Theodore Balsamon

Thessalonica

Thibaud IV of Champagne (1201-1253)

Thibaud Gaudin (d. 1292)

Thierry of Alsace (d. 1168)

Third Crusade (1189-1192)

St. Thomas of Acre, Order of

Tiberias

Tiberias, Lordship of

Toron des Chevaliers

T'oros I, Rupenid (d. 1129)

T'oros II, Rupenid (d. 1168)

T'oros of Edessa (d. 1098)

Tortosa (Spain)

Tortosa (Syria)

Toulouse

Tractatus de locis et statu sancte terre Ierosolimitane

Transjordan

Trebizond, Empire of

Treiden, Battle (1211)

Trencavel, Family

Trinitarian Order

Tripoli, City of

Tripoli, County of

Troyes, Council (1129)

True Cross

Tughtigin (d. 1128)

Tūrān Shāh (d. 1250)

Turbessel

Turcomans

Turcopoles

Turks

Tutush I (1066-1095)

Tyre

U

Ugaunia

Ulrich von Jungingen (d. 1410)

Unur (d. 1149)

Urban II (d. 1099)

Urban IV (d. 1264)

Usāma ibn Munqidh (1095-1188)

Üxküll

V

Valdemar I of Denmark (1131-1182)

Valdemar II of Denmark (d. 1241)

La Valette, Jean de (1495-1568)

Varna Crusade (1444)

Venice

Venice, Treaty of (1201)

Viborg

Vienne, Council of (1311-1312)

Villehardouin Family

Villiers de L'Isle Adam, Philippe (1464-1534)

Vironia

Votia

Vow

Vytautas (d. 1430)

W

Walter the Chancellor

Walter Mahomet

Walter Sans-Avoir (d. 1096)

Walther von der Vogelweide

Warfare: The Baltic Crusades

Warfare: Byzantium and Frankish Greece

Warfare: Iberia

Warfare: Injuries

Warfare: Muslim Armies

Warfare: Outremer

Warmund of Picquigny (d. 1128)

Wenden

Wenden, Treaty (1501)

Wendish Crusade (1147)

Werner von Orseln (d. 1330)

Wesenberg, Battle of (1268)

Western Sources

Wetheman (d. c. 1170)

Wigand von Marburg (d. c. 1410)

William VI of Montferrat (d. 1225)

William IX of Aquitaine (1071-1126)

William of Beaujeu (d. 1291)

William of Châteauneuf (d. 1258)

William-Jordan of Cerdagne (d. 1109)

William Longsword (d. 1177)

William of Malmesbury (d. c. 1143)

William of Modena (d. 1251)

William of Puylaurens

William of Tyre (d. 1186)

William of Villaret (d. 1305)

Wincenty Kadiubek (d. 1223)

Winrich von Kniprode (d. 1382)

Wolfram von Eschenbach

Wolter von Plettenberg (d. 1535)

Women

Woplauken, Battle of (1311)

Z

Zangī (d. 1146)

Zara

Zimmern, Chronicle of