Lebanon

The Crusader castles and fortified cities of Lebanon are accessible now that the civil war and Israeli occupation have ended. The citadel of Tripoli (Trablus) includes 12th-13th-century Crusader work, fragments of an 11th-century Islamic palace-fortress, and substantial Ottoman Turkish rebuilding. It is, however, in a good state of repair and well worth a visit. The same is true of Gibelet (Jbayl) and southern coastal cities like Sidon (Saida) and Tyre (Sur). In the very north of Lebanon the mountain castle of Gibelcar ('Akkar) remains difficult to reach, though this is a result of its dramatic location rather than any security considerations.

(1) The castle of Amoude:

1 - Armenian outer defences;

2 - donjon added by the Teutonic Knights in the 13th century. (After Edwards)

(2) Upper fortifications of the castle of Bagra (Baghras):

1-3 - magazine chambers;

4-5 - palatial residences;

6 - donjon;

7 - gatehouse from forecourt into upper castle. (After Muller-Wiener and Molin)

(3) Lower fortifications of the castle of Bagra (Baghras):

1-2 - lower galleries;

3 - gatehouse from forecourt into upper castle;

4 - donjon;

5- 6 - bailey of the lower fortress. (After Muller-Wiener and Molin)

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!