Turkey

The northern regions of the Principality of Antioch included part of what is now the Turkish province of Antakya (also called the Hatay). Within this rugged territory the easiest Crusader fortifications to reach are the Citadel of Antioch (Antakya) itself and the castle of Bagras, which, though built by the Byzantines in AD 968, is largely Armenian and Crusader. Within the eastern part of the neighbouring Turkish province of Adana, Haruniya is more difficult to reach and is largely Islamic rather than Crusader, while Amoude, between Kozan and the great Cilician Armenian fortress of Toprakkale, only appears on the most detailed maps.

Above The citadel or upper fortifications of Antioch are almost entirely ruined, though some vaulted chambers from the Crusader castle remain. These were added to the Romano-Byzantine urban defences in the 12th and 13th centuries. They were destroyed when this, the capital of the Crusader Principality of Antioch, fell to the Mamluk Sultan Baybars in 1268. (Frederick Nicolle)

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!