CHRONOLOGY OF KEY EVENTS

1417

1 August

Henry V lands at Touques to begin conquest of Normandy

 

9–20 September

Siege and formal surrender of Caen

1418

29 May

Paris seized by Burgundians in a successful coup

 

29 July

Henry V lays siege to Rouen

1419

19 January

Surrender of Rouen and Henry V’s formal entry into the city

 

11 June

Treaty of Pouilly: John the Fearless, duke of Burgundy, and the dauphin reconciled and agree to cooperate against the English

 

10 September

Meeting of duke of Burgundy and the dauphin on the bridge at Montereau-sur-Yonne Burgundy is assassinated by the dauphin’s men

1420

21 May

Treaty of Troyes: Henry V recognised as heir and regent of France by Charles VI and the Burgundians

 

2 June

Henry V marries Katherine of France at Troyes

1421

February

Henry V and Katherine sail for England; coronation of Katherine at Westminster Abbey

 

22 March

Battle of Baugé: English defeated by combined French and Scottish forces; duke of Clarence killed; John, earl of Huntingdon, and John Beaufort, earl of Somerset, captured

 

June

Henry V returns to France

1422

31 August

Death of Henry V at Bois-de-Vincennes; accession of Henry VI as king of England; duke of Bedford becomes regent of France, duke of Gloucester protector of England

 

21 October

Death of Charles VI; Henry VI becomes king of France

1423

17 April

Treaty of Amiens: triple alliance between England, Burgundy and Brittany; duke of Bedford and Arthur de Richemont to marry duke of Burgundy’s sisters

 

14 June

Bedford marries Anne of Burgundy at Troyes

 

31 July

Battle of Cravant: Anglo-Burgundian forces defeat Scottish-Armagnac army

 

26 September

Earl of Suffolk defeated at La Brossinière; his brothers William and John taken prisoner

1424

17 August

Battle of Verneuil: duke of Bedford leads English to crushing defeat of Scottish-Armagnac forces; count of Aumâle and earl of Buchan killed; duke of Alençon captured

 

16 October

Duke of Gloucester begins military campaign to claim and occupy Hainault in the name of his wife, Jacqueline of Hainault; abandons campaign and returns to England in April 1425

1425

8 March

Arthur de Richemont abandons the English alliance and becomes constable of France for the dauphin

 

7 October

Treaty of Saumur: alliance between Brittany and the dauphin

 

December

Duke of Bedford goes to England to broker peace between duke of Gloucester and Cardinal Beaufort

1426

15 January

English declare war on Brittany

1427

19 March

Duke of Bedford returns to France with major reinforcements

 

5 September

Lord Fastolf’s forces surprised and defeated at Ambrières

 

8 September

Duke of Brittany makes new English alliance, accepting the Treaty of Troyes

1428

12 October

Earl of Salisbury lays siege to Orléans

 

3 November

Salisbury dies of injuries sustained at siege of Orléans

1429

c.28 February

Jehanne d’Arc arrives at Chinon to see the dauphin

 

29 April

Jehanne enters Orléans with relief forces

 

8 May

English abandon siege of Orléans

 

12 June

Jehanne takes Jargeau by assault; earl of Suffolk captured

 

18 June

Battle of Patay: Armagnac forces defeat Talbot and Fastolf; Talbot, Scales and Rempston captured

 

17 July

Coronation of the dauphin as Charles VII at Reims

 

26 August

Jehanne and duke of Alençon take Saint-Denis

 

8 September

Jehanne and Alençon fail in assault on Paris; Jehanne wounded

 

6 November

Coronation of Henry VI as king of England at Westminster Abbey

 

c.24 November

Jehanne lays siege to La-Charité-sur-Loire but is forced to withdraw a month later

 

8 December

La Hire captures Louviers for Charles VII

1430

7 January

Duke of Burgundy marries Isabella of Portugal, half-cousin of Henry VI

 

23 April

Henry VI and the ‘coronation expedition’ land at Calais

 

23 May

Jehanne d’Arc captured by Burgundians in sortie from Compiègne

1431

9 January

Jehanne d’Arc’s trial begins at Rouen

 

30 May

Jehanne condemned to death and burned at the stake in Rouen

 

25 October

Louviers recaptured by English after five-month siege

 

2 December

Henry VI makes formal entry into Paris

 

13 December

Treaty of Lille: establishes six-year general truce between Burgundy and Charles VII

 

16 December

Henry VI crowned king of France in Notre Dame, Paris

1432

29 January

Henry VI sails from Calais; he never returns to France

 

13 November

Death of Anne of Burgundy, the duchess of Bedford

 

27 November

English, Burgundian and French envoys meet at Auxerre for peace talks mediated by Cardinal Albergati

1433

February

Mutiny of the Calais garrison

 

20 April

Marriage of the duke of Bedford and Jacquetta of Luxembourg

 

24 June

Bedford and Jacquetta sail to England

1434

July

Duke of Bedford returns to France with an army of 1400

1435

January

Popular revolt in lower Normandy; Caen besieged by rebels but they are repelled

 

6 February

Dukes of Burgundy and Bourbon sign preliminaries of peace and agree to meet again at Arras

 

7 May

Earl of Arundel mortally wounded and captured by La Hire at Gerberoy

 

12 June

Death of Arundel

 

12 August

English, Burgundian and French envoys attend peace conference at Arras

 

6 September

English envoys break off negotiations and leave Arras

 

14 September

Death of duke of Bedford at Rouen

 

21 September

Treaty of Arras: duke of Burgundy and Charles VII reconciled

 

28 October

French seize Dieppe; popular uprising in upper Normandy

 

25 November

French seize Harfleur, followed by much of the surrounding area

1436

January – March

Popular uprising (Boschier revolt) in lower Normandy

 

13 April

French seize Paris

 

May

Richard, duke of York, appointed lieutenant-general of Normandy and leads expeditionary army there; the subsequent campaign, led by Talbot, safeguards Rouen and recovers Caux region

 

9–28 July

Unsuccessful Burgundian siege of Calais

 

August

Duke of Gloucester’s expedition for relief of Calais diverted into raid through Flanders

1437

12–13 February

Talbot recovers Pontoise by surprise, launching year-long campaign that recovers most of Normandy – except Harfleur and Dieppe – and reopens the Normandy – Paris corridor

 

16 July

Richard, earl of Warwick, appointed lieutenant-general of Normandy but storms at sea delay his arrival until November

 

6 December

Minority government ends with Henry VI’s sixteenth birthday; beginning of his personal rule

1438

March

Henry VI empowers ambassadors to treat for peace with France

 

May

John Beaufort, earl of Somerset, released in exchange for count of Eu

 

May – June

Peace conference at Vannes under presidency of duke of Brittany

1439

14 January

Talbot recaptures Saint-Germain-en-Laye

 

30 April

Death of earl of Warwick at Rouen

 

July – September

Peace talks at Calais; no agreement is reached except Anglo-Burgundian commercial treaty

 

12 September

Meaux – last remaining English stronghold east of Paris – falls to French

1440

February

John Beaufort, earl of Somerset, acting lieutenant-general, leads expeditionary army to France

 

April – September

Praguerie revolt against Charles VII

 

2 July

Duke of York appointed lieutenant-general of Normandy

 

October

Harfleur recovered by English after three-month siege

 

November

Release of Charles, duke of Orléans, prisoner since Agincourt, with objective of mediating peace between England and France

1441

June

Duke of York arrives in Rouen at head of expeditionary army; relieves Pontoise

 

15 September

Évreux captured by French and never recovered by English

 

19 September

Pontoise taken by assault and never recovered by English

 

6 November

Duke of Gloucester divorced from Eleanor Cobham, who is convicted of sorcery

1442

June

Talbot leads expedition recruited from England to recover Évreux, Conches, Louviers and Dieppe; unable to recruit sufficient men-at-arms so only recovers Conches (September)

 

1 November

Talbot builds bastille and lays siege to Dieppe

1443

July

Earl of Somerset leads major expedition to wage ‘mortal war’ against French beyond the Loire; has extraordinarily independent powers and makes no contact with Norman government throughout

 

14 August

English bastille at Dieppe taken in assault by French; Somerset subsequently seizes Breton town of La Guerche

 

December

Somerset’s expedition abandoned, never having crossed the Loire

1444

11 February

Earl of Suffolk authorised to conclude peace with Charles VII and leads embassy to Tours

 

24 May

Henry VI formally betrothed to Margaret of Anjou at Tours

 

1 June

Truce of Tours – a general two-year truce between England and France – begins, and will be prolonged as further concessions are made

1445

22 April

Henry VI marries Margaret of Anjou at Titchfield Abbey

 

July

French embassy arrives in London to negotiate a final peace

 

22 December

Henry VI secretly undertakes to surrender Maine to René and Charles d’Anjou ‘on behalf of’ Charles VII

1446

26 June

Arrest of Gilles of Brittany by his brother, the duke of Brittany, for conspiring with the English

 

24 December

Edmund Beaufort appointed lieutenant-general of Normandy to secure his assistance with surrender of Maine

1447

23 February

Death of duke of Gloucester, five days after his arrest for alleged treason

 

11 April

Death of Cardinal Beaufort

 

27 July

Henry VI formally seals public agreement to surrender Maine

 

31 October

Conference at Le Mans: English captains and residents refuse to surrender Maine to French commissioners without compensation

1448

16 March

English captains surrender Maine under protest, after Charles VII lays siege to Le Mans

 

May

Edmund Beaufort arrives in Rouen as lieutenant-general

1449

24 March

François de Surienne captures Fougères in marches of Brittany on behalf of the English

 

13 May

Pont-de l’Arche seized in retaliation by French

 

23 May

Breton salt fleet, sailing under friendly flags, captured by English privateer

 

20 July

Verneuil betrayed to French

 

31 July

Charles VII formally declares war on the English and launches campaign for the conquest of Normandy

 

29 October

Edmund Beaufort surrenders Rouen after brief siege and takes refuge at Caen; most of Normandy now in French hands

1450

1 January

English surrender Harfleur

 

February

Earl of Suffolk impeached for treason; banished for five years from 1 May

 

March

Sir Thomas Kyriell leads expeditionary army to recover Normandy; lands at Cherbourg and captures Valognes

 

15 April

Battle of Formigny: French inflict heavy defeat on English

 

2 May

Suffolk assassinated as sails into banishment

 

June – July

Jack Cade’s rebellion in England

 

1 July

Edmund Beaufort surrenders Caen to the French

 

12 August

Cherbourg, the last English stronghold in Normandy, surrenders to the French

1451

April

French invasion of English Gascony

 

24 June

Surrender of Bordeaux

 

20 August

Surrender of Bayonne

1452

17 October

Talbot launches campaign for recovery of Gascony and retakes Bordeaux

1453

17 July

Battle of Castillon: French inflict heavy defeat on English and Talbot is killed. The only English possession now left in France is Calais

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