NOTES

For abbreviations used in the Notes see p. 438.

CHAPTER ONE: INVASION

1 Foedera, ix, 436; PR, ix, 196–7, where the prohibited wood is strangely mistranscribed as ‘aspe’ and translated as aspen.

2 Ibid., 182.

3 For a full account of the Agincourt campaign see Juliet Barker, Agincourt: The King, the Campaign, the Battle (Little, Brown, 2005).

4 Ibid., 4, 7–14.

5 W&W, ii, 279; Bernard Guenée, La Folie de Charles VI Roi Bien Aimé (Paris, 2004).

6 Gérard Bacquet, Azincourt (Bellegarde, 1977), 103.

7 Anne Curry (ed.), The Battle of Agincourt: Sources and Interpretations (Woodbridge, 2000), 63. See also ibid., 74–5.

8 Barker, 217; Anne Curry, ‘Harfleur et les Anglais, 1415–1422’ in Pierre Bouet and Véronique Gazeau (eds.), La Normandie et l’Angleterre au Moyen Âge: Colloque de Cerisy-la-Salle (Caen, 2001), 256–7.

9 Christopher Allmand, Henry V (New Haven and London, 1997), 102–3.

10 Anne Curry, ‘After Agincourt, What Next? Henry V and the Campaign of 1416’ in Linda Clark (ed.), Conflicts, Consequences and the Crown in the Late Middle Ages (Woodbridge, 2007), 31–2; Gesta Henrici Quinti ed. and trans. Frank Taylor and John S. Roskell (Oxford, 1975), 134–49, 144 n. 3.

11 W&W, 18–19. For the text of the treaty see PR, ix, 182–8.

12 PR, ix, 178.

13 Ibid., ix, 175; Gesta Henrici Quinti, 176–84. See also W&W, 41–8.

14 Ibid., 46, 50–3; Curry, ‘After Agincourt’, 41.

15 Newhall, 54–5.

16 Curry, ‘Harfleur et les Anglais’, 256.

17 Newhall, 46.

18 Ibid., 58. This was clearly a lesson learned from the Agincourt campaign: it had taken three days to disembark the army at Sainte-Adresse: Barker, 165.

19 Foedera, ix, 482.

20 Brut, 383.

21 Walsingham, 424; M.-L. Bellaguet (ed.), Chronique du Religieux de St-Denys (Paris, 1844), vi, 104.

22 Walsingham, 424–5; Brut, 383–4.

23 Deuteronomy, ch. 22, vv. 13–14. See Barker, 181.

24 Brut, 384; Newhall, 60.

25 Monstrelet, iii, 208ff; Bourgeois, 104–7; Newhall, 62–8.

CHAPTER TWO: CONQUEST

1 R. A. Newhall, ‘Henry V’s Policy of Conciliation in Normandy, 1417–1422’ in C. H. Taylor and J. L. La Monte (eds.), Anniversary Essays in Medieval History by Students of Charles Homer Haskins (Boston and New York, 1929), 207–8.

2 Ibid., 208.

3 Allmand, 84; W&W, 62–3; Anne Curry, ‘Isolated or Integrated? The English Soldier in Lancastrian Normandy’ in S. Rees Jones, R. Marks and A. J. Minnis (eds.), Courts and Regions in Medieval Europe (Woodbridge, 2000), 191.

4 Anne Curry, ‘The Impact of War and Occupation on Urban Life in Normandy, 1417–1450’, French History, vol. i, no. 2 (Oct. 1987), 165; Walsingham, 426–7; W&W, 64–5.

5 W&W, 26–9, 67–8.

6 Ibid., 65–6; Newhall, 71–4.

7 W&W, 66–7. Henry IV had married, as his second wife, Joan, widow of Jean V, duke of Brittany. Her children by her first marriage included the present duke, Jean VI, his younger brother, Arthur de Richemont (Henry’s prisoner since Agincourt), and Marie, mother of Jean II, duke of Alençon.

8 Ibid., 68–9. Anjou and Maine, though distinct from the duchy of Normandy, were adjacent to it. Part of the ancient patrimony of the Plantagenets, they were also claimed by Henry as part of his ‘just rights and inheritances’.

9 Walsingham, 427; Newhall, 78–80; W&W, 69–72.

10 See above, 15; Newhall, ‘Henry V’s Policy of Conciliation’, 210 n. 27, though he assumes it was aimed at French men-at-arms rather than Norman refugees.

11 J. A. C. Buchon (ed.), Les Chroniques de Sire Jean Froissart (Paris, 1913), ii, 41; Newhall, 92–5.

12 André Plaisse and Sylvie Plaisse, La Vie Municipale à Évreux Pendant la Guerre de Cent Ans (Évreux, 1978), 115–16; Curry, ‘Impact of War’, 160.

13 Robert Massey, ‘Lancastrian Rouen: Military Service and Property Holding, 1419–49’ in David Bates and Anne Curry (eds.), England and Normandy in the Middle Ages (London and Rio Grande, 1994), 270; W&W, 124.

14 Monstrelet, iii, 259–74; Bourgeois, 111–19. Jean de Touraine had died in 1417.

15 Newhall, 103.

16 Monstrelet, iii, 281–3; Newhall, 105; Le Cacheux, xiv–xvi.

17 Monstrelet, iii, 283–5; Brut, 387–9; W&W, 59 n. 1, 128–9. The bridge had already been used in the sieges of Caen, Louviers and Pont-de-l’Arche.

18 Walsingham, 432; Monstrelet, iii, 299; Brut, 390–1, 400–3, 410, 414; John Page, ‘The Siege of Rouen’ in J. Gairdner (ed.), The Historical Collections of a Citizen of London in the Fifteenth Century, Camden Society, New Series, xvii (1876), 18, 30.

19 Monstrelet, iii, 294–303, 305–10; Newhall, 115–22; Brut, 420–2.

20 W&W, 148–9: Monstrelet, iii, 284–5; W&W, 131–2.

21 Brut, 418; Le Cacheux, xix–xxiv. The fine was never paid in full, Bedford writing part of it off eleven years later in return for an immediate cash payment.

22 Monstrelet, iii, 308, 242–3; Keen, 46; Juliet Barker, ‘The Foe Within: Treason in Lancastrian Normandy’ in Peter Coss and Christopher Tyerman (eds.), Soldiers, Nobles and Gentlemen (Oxford, 2009), 306.

23 Monstrelet, iii, 308–9; W&W, 176–7; Newhall, 124–32.

24 Anne Curry, The Hundred Years War (Palgrave, 1993), 100; POPC, ii, 246; Henry Ellis (ed.), Original Letters Illustrative of English History, series ii (London, 1827), ii, 76–7.

25 Ibid., 77.

26 Maurice Keen, ‘Diplomacy’ in G. L. Harriss (ed.), Henry V: The Practice of Kingship (Oxford, 1985), 189–92.

27 Monstrelet, iii, 321–2.

28 Ibid., 322–34; Walsingham, 432–3; Bourgeois, 139–40.

29 Ibid., 139–41; Monstrelet, iii, 338–45.

30 W&W, 187; Richard Vaughan, John the Fearless (Woodbridge, 2002), 274–86.

31 W&W, 187; Ramsay, i, 276.

32 Keen, ‘Diplomacy’, 192; Allmand, Henry V, 137–41.

33 Monstrelet, iii, 390–402; Walsingham, 435–6; Keen, ‘Diplomacy’, 193–6; Allmand, Henry V, 136–46; Allmand, 19–20.

34 Monstrelet, iii, 388–90; W&W, 204; PR, ix, 246–8.

35 Bourgeois, 150; Allmand, Henry V, 147.

36 Monstrelet, iii, 400, 393–4; W&W, 197.

37 Bourgeois, 151.

CHAPTER THREE: HEIR OF FRANCE

1 W&W, 208; Monstrelet, iii, 208.

2 Ibid., 409–11.

3 The best European example of a mine and counter-mine is in the castle at St Andrews in Fife, Scotland. They were dug through sheer rock, hence their excellent state of preservation, and date from the siege of 1546–7. I am grateful to my son, Edward Barker, for drawing my attention to them.

4 Keen, 48–50. For brotherhood-in-arms see Barker, 160–1 and K.B. McFarlane, ‘A Business Partnership in War and Administration, 1421–1445’, English Historical Review, 78 (1963), 290–310.

5 Monstrelet, iii, 412–13; Gerald Harriss, Shaping the Nation: England 1360–1461 (Oxford, 2005), 328; Frederick Devon (ed.), Issues of the Exchequer (London, 1837), 363.

6 Alain Chartier, quoted in Michael Brown, ‘French Alliance or English Peace? Scotland and the Last Phase of the Hundred Years War, 1415–53’ in Clark (ed.), Conflicts, Consequences and the Crown in the Late Middle Ages, 81.

7 Vale, 73; Bernard Chevalier, ‘Les Écossais dans les Armées de Charles VII jusqu’à la Bataille de Verneuil’, in Jeanne d’Arc, 87; Brown, ‘French Alliance or English Peace?’, 85–8.

8 Walsingham, 434–5; W&W, 216.

9 Monstrelet, iv, 12–13.

10 Monstrelet, iv, 15–17; Bourgeois, 153–4. The Benedictus qui venit (‘Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord’) was particularly appropriate, recognising Henry’s divinely sanctioned status.

11 Monstrelet, iv, 17–20, 36–7; W&W, 226–7, 230–1, 234.

12 Beaurepaire, 10–14.

13 PR, ix, 246–8. All these issues were dealt with in the parliament of May 1421, which Henry attended in person: ibid., 262–4, 278–9, 305–6.

14 Brut, 425–7; Walsingham, 439; W&W, 267–70.

15 Monstrelet, iv, 25.

16 Harriss, 103, 204–5.

17 Chevalier, ‘Les Écossais dans les Armées de Charles VII’, 88; Monstrelet, iv, 37–9; Walsingham, 441–2; W&W, 312; Michael Stansfield, ‘John Holland, Duke of Exeter and Earl of Huntingdon (d. 1447) and the Costs of the Hundred Years War’ in Michael Hicks (ed.), Profit, Piety and the Professions in Later Medieval England (Gloucester and Wolfeboro Falls, 1990), 102–18.

18 Vale, 33; W&W, 311, 310 n. 11.

19 Bellaguet (ed.), Chronique du Religieux de St-Denys, vi, 380.

20 POPC, ii, 312–15.

21 PR, ix, 262–3, 312–13.

22 Foedera, x, 131.

23 Thompson, 90–1, 93.

24 Chevalier, ‘Les Écossais dans les Armées de Charles VII’, 88; Newhall, 279, 281–2, 277.

25 Ibid., 282; W&W, 326–30; Walsingham, 442; Bourgeois, 162; Léon Puiseux, L’Émigration Normande et la Colonisation Anglaise en Normandie au XVe Siècle (Caen and Paris, 1866), 95.

26 Monstrelet, iv, 70–1; W&W, 337–41; Bourgeois, 173–5.

27 Monstrelet, iv, 81–3, 91–6; Bourgeois, 168–72; Louis Carolus-Barré, ‘Compiègne et la Guerre 1414–1430’, FAMA, 385, 390–1; Philippe Wolff, Commerces et Marchands de Toulouse (vers 1350–vers 1450) (Paris, 1954), 56.

28 W&W, 348, 339 n. 9; Barker, 159.

29 Walsingham, 444.

30 Henrietta Leyser, Medieval Women: A Social History of Women in England 450–1500 (London, 1995), 134–6; Nicholas Orme, Medieval Children (New Haven and London, 2001), 113.

31 Bourgeois, 176–7; Monstrelet, iv, 98–100, 107; W&W, 414–15.

32 Patrick and Felicity Strong, ‘The Last Will and Codicils of Henry V’, English Historical Review, 96 (1980), 97, 99–100.

33 Walsingham, 446–7; Griffiths, 16–17.

34 Walsingham, 445; Bourgeois, 177; Brut, 429–30.

35 Walsingham, 447; Brut, 430; Chastellain, i, 334, quoted in W&W, 424.

CHAPTER FOUR: THE ENGLISH KINGDOM OF FRANCE

1 PR, x, 13; Ecclesiastes: ch. 10 v. 16, quoted, for instance, in Walsingham, 446.

2 PR, x, 6–9, 26–7.

3 André Leguai, ‘La “France Bourguignonne” dans le Conflit Entre la “France Française” et la “France Anglaise” (1420–1435)’, FAMA, 44–5, 47; Vale, 25–6.

4 Monstrelet, iv, 119–20; Leguai, ‘La “France Bourguignonne”’, 47.

5 Ibid. and C. A. J. Armstrong, ‘La Double Monarchie et la Maison du Bourgogne (1420–1435): Le Déclin d’une Alliance’, Annales de Bourgogne, 37 (1965), 81–3, both argue that Bedford effectively staged a coup against Burgundy, an argument which is demolished by Griffiths, 17–19.

6 Bourgeois, 183; Griffiths, 18; André Bossuat, ‘Le Parlement de Paris Pendant l’Occupation Anglaise’, Revue Historique, 229 (1963), 21–3.

7 Griffiths, 26 n. 27; Armstrong, ‘La Double Monarchie’, 83. Anne had three sisters: the marriage contract stated that she would inherit the county of Artois if Burgundy died without issue.

8 B. J. H. Rowe, ‘The Grand Conseil Under the Duke of Bedford, 1422–35’, Oxford Essays in Medieval History Presented to Herbert Edward Salter (Oxford, 1934), 209; Guy Thompson, ‘“Monseigneur Saint Denis”, his Abbey, and his Town, under the English Occupation, 1420–1436’ in Christopher Allmand (ed.), Power, Culture and Religion in France c.1350–c.1550 (Woodbridge, 1989), 26; Thompson, 138–42; Le Cacheux, xcvi–xcvii; Reynolds, ‘English Patrons and French Artists’, 312.

9 Philippe Contamine, ‘The Norman “Nation” and the French “Nation” in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries’ in David Bates and Anne Curry (eds.), England and Normandy in the Middle Ages (London and Rio Grande, 1994), 215–34.

10 Newhall, ‘Henry V’s Policy of Conciliation in Normandy’, 222–3.

11 Newhall, 154. The seven bailliages were the Cotentin, Caen, Alençon, Évreux, Rouen, Gisors and Caux.

12 Ibid.

13 Beaurepaire, 137–9; Anne Curry, ‘L’Administration Financière de la Normandie Anglaise: Continuité ou Changement?’, in Philippe Contamine and Olivier Mattéoni (eds.), La France des Principautés: Les Chambres des Comptes aux XIVe et XVe Siècles (Paris, 1996), 90–2. The exchequer established at Harfleur in January 1416 had accounted in pounds sterling and in Latin, like the English exchequer; it was absorbed into the Caen chambre-des-comptes: ibid., 93.

14 See above, 15. Legal documents referred to this date as ‘the descent of the king on Normandy’ or ‘the day of Touques’.

15 Newhall, ‘Henry V’s Policy of Conciliation’, 208–9; Puiseux, L’Émigration Normande, 17–18, 38–40.

16 Ibid., 91–3. The families of the chroniclers Percival de Cagny and Blondel also fled Normandy at the English invasion: Puiseux, L’Émigration Normande, 35.

17 Newhall, ‘Henry V’s Policy of Conciliation’, 212–21.

18 Dupont, André, ‘Pour ou Contre le Roi d’Angleterre’, Bulletin de la Société des Antiquaires de Normandie, liv (1957–8), 164–6; POPC, ii, 351.

19 Allmand, Henry V, 203 n. 61.

20 Robert Massey, ‘The Land Settlement in Lancastrian Normandy’ in Tony Pollard (ed.), Property and Politics: Essays in Later Medieval English History (Gloucester and New York, 1984), 81; Allmand, 90–1.

21 Ibid., 53, 91.

22 Actes, i, 89 n. 2; Allmand, Henry V, 204.

23 Allmand, 55 n. 14.

24 Newhall, 162–5, 165 n. 96.

25 Newhall, ‘Henry V’s Policy of Conciliation’, 207 n. 11.

26 To avoid confusion with the town of Séez in south-eastern France, I have used the modern name of Sées, though the medieval bishopric was properly termed Séez.

27 Actes, ii, 5 n. 1; Newhall, 163 n. 91; S. H. Cuttler, The Law of Treason and Treason Trials in Later Medieval France (Cambridge, 1981), 83.

28 C. T. Allmand, ‘The English and the Church in Lancastrian Normandy’ in Bates and Curry (eds.), England and Normandy in the Middle Ages, 294; P. S. Lewis, Later Medieval France: The Polity (London, 1968), 170–2.

29 Allmand, ‘The English and the Church’, 295.

30 W&W, 101, 263; Newhall, 163 n. 91.

31 Newhall, ‘Henry V and the Policy of Conciliation’, 220; Allmand, Henry V, 196–7; Le Cacheux, cxv–cxvi, 27–32.

32 Ibid., cxvii–cxviii.

33 Actes, ii, 5–13, 22–4.

34 Barker, 211; Dupont, ‘Pour ou Contre le Roi d’Angleterre’, 165.

35 CMSM, i, 87–91, 93–5.

36 Ibid., i, 88 n. 1, 96–7, 96 n. 3, 108–9, 109 n. 1; Ellis (ed.), Original Letters, 72–3, wrongly dated to 1419.

CHAPTER FIVE: RESISTANCE

1 CMSM, i, 118 n. 1; W&W, 413; Newhall, 290–1. A Bernay weaver captured in this raid, who was unable to pay a ransom, was eventually released only on condition that he fought for the French: Actes, i, 31–2.

2 Ramsay, i, 328 n. 3, 329, 294–5.

3 Bourgeois, 176, 184; Monstrelet, iv, 104–5, 134; Newhall, 296.

4 Ibid., 291; CMSM, i, 119–20; Bourgeois, 185; Monstrelet, iv, 137–42.

5 Beaurepaire, 17; Newhall, 293–5.

6 Newhall, 294, 296, 297–9; Monstrelet, iv, 154–6; Christopher Allmand, ‘L’Artillerie de l’Armée Anglaise et son Organisation à l’Époque de Jeanne d’Arc’ in Jeanne d’Arc, 78 n. 36; Monstrelet, iv, 166–9. The challenge replaced the usual clause that the place would surrender if not relieved within a certain time-limit: it also allowed for the principals to be represented by others.

7 CMSM, i, 24–5, 116–17; Actes, ii, 285 n. 1; Beaurepaire, 25.

8 CMSM, i, 126–7; Monstrelet, iv, 157–62; Chartier, i, 32; Brian G. H. Ditcham, ‘“Mutton Guzzlers and Wine Bags”: Foreign Soldiers and Native Reactions in Fifteenth-Century France’ in Allmand (ed.), Power, Culture and Religion in France, 1; Vale, 33.

9 Chartier, i, 33–8; Monstrelet, iv, 172.

10 Beaurepaire, 19–20.

11 See, for example, Jouet; G. Lefèvre-Pontalis, ‘La Guerre de Partisans dans la Haute-Normandie (1424–1429)’, Bibliothèque de l’École des Chartes, 54 (1893), 475–521; 55 (1894), 259–305; 56 (1895), 433–509; 57 (1896), 5–54; 97 (1936), 102–30; Édouard Perroy, The Hundred Years War, with an introduction to the English edition by David C. Douglas (London, 1951), 252. Modern French historians take a more balanced view: see, for example, Dominique Goulay, ‘La Résistance à l’Occupant Anglais en Haute-Normandie (1435–1444)’, Annales de Normandie, 36 (Mar. 1986), 37–55; Claude Gauvard, ‘Résistants et Collaborateurs Pendant la Guerre de Cent Ans: Le Témoignage des Lettres de Rémission’, FAMA, 123–38.

12 Beaurepaire, 21.

13 B. J. Rowe, ‘John Duke of Bedford and the Norman “Brigands”’, English Historical Review, 47 (1932), 591–2; Jouet, 23–7.

14 CMSM, i, 133; ii, 66–7, 67 n. 1; Jouet, 114, 172, 105, 168.

15 Jouet, 43–7, 176.

16 Rowe, ‘John Duke of Bedford and the Norman “Brigands”’, 584–6; Actes, i, 55–8.

17 Actes, i, 120–2; Rowe, ‘John Duke of Bedford and the Norman “Brigands”’, 595.

18 Actes, i, 302–6, 336–40; ii, 345. Quesnoy was himself pardoned for supplying the gang with shoes and victuals.

19 Ibid., i, 325–8.

20 Ibid., i, 315–20, 342–4.

21 Ibid., i, 336–7.

22 Ibid., ii, 338.

23 Ibid., i, 327; 318–19, 339, 344.

24 Ibid., i, 337. See also i, 317.

25 Rowe, ‘John Duke of Bedford and the Norman “Brigands”’, 595.

26 Actes, i, 49–52, 168–71, 250–9, 262–4, 379–81; ii, 332, 333. Murders by brigands are mentioned in ibid., i, 133–6, 195–6; ii, 341. Ibid., i, 21–2 is a rare example of an unprovoked killing of a lone English traveller by the villager in whose house he was lodging.

27 Ibid., ii, 341.

28 Ibid., i, 196–200, 6–8, 13–15, 44–7.

29 See above, 64 and below, 183–4; Jouet, 116.

30 Bourgeois, 208.

31 Keen, 137–8; Kenneth Fowler, ‘Truces’ in Kenneth Fowler (ed.), The Hundred Years War (London, 1971), 204.

32 Actes, i, 62–5.

33 Ibid., i, 82–7; Bourgeois, 245. Curiously Lointren was sentenced to death by hanging, though he should have been beheaded for being in breach of his oath of allegiance. The Armagnacs at Nogent-le-Rotrou had also wanted to execute him for changing sides but were dissuaded by the captain of Senonches, who intervened on his behalf.

34 B. J. Rowe, ‘Discipline in the Norman Garrisons under Bedford, 1422–1435’, English Historical Review, 46 (1931), 202–6.

35 Newhall, 307–8.

CHAPTER SIX: A SECOND AGINCOURT

1 Newhall, 311–12; Stevenson, ii, 15–24; Le Cacheux, ci; Chevalier, ‘Les Écossais dans les Armées de Charles VII’, 88–9. The Scots ‘with axes’ were Highlanders.

2 Newhall, 314. See above, 62–3.

3 B. J. H. Rowe, ‘A Contemporary Account of the Hundred Years’ War from 1415 to 1429’, English Historical Review, 41 (1926), 512; Carolus-Barré, ‘Compiègne et la Guerre 1414–1430’, 385–6; C. A. J. Armstrong, ‘Sir John Fastolf and the Law of Arms’ in Allmand (ed.), War, Literature and Politics in the Late Middle Ages, 47–9.

4 Carolus-Barré, ‘Compiègne et la Guerre 1414–1430’, 386; Newhall, 312–13; Monstrelet, iv, 186.

5 Bourgeois, 192, 194; Actes, i, 76–9.

6 Matthew Strickland and Robert Hardy, The Great Warbow (Stroud, 2005), 347; Newhall, 317, 319.

7 Griffiths, 185; Stevenson, ii, 24–8; CMSM, i, 137–8.

8 Bourgeois, 196–7.

9 The wages of archers in the English army who could not shoot ten aimed arrows a minute were withheld: Barker, 87.

10 Bourgeois, 197–200; Monstrelet, iv, 192–6; Chartier, 41–3; Newhall, 319–20.

11 Ramsay, i, 344–5; Chevalier, ‘Les Écossais dans les Armées de Charles VII’, 92. Some sixteen thousand Scots had entered the dauphin’s service since 1418: ibid., 88.

12 Bourgeois, 200–1.

13 Newhall, 320–1; Monstrelet, iv, 199–206.

14 Ibid., i, 138–9, 115 n. 1, 149–50; ii, 44 n. 1.

15 CMSM, i, 26–7, 146–9, 160–1, 163–5, 170–1.

16 Ibid., i, 27 n. 3, 199–200, 201, 204–5, 259–60.

17 Actes, i, 145–7.

18 Ibid., 74–6, 397–9; ii, 331, 333, 335, 338, 346.

19 Ibid., i, 103–4.

20 Ibid., i, 104–6, 113–15, 124–7.

21 Ibid., ii, 47–53; Le Cacheux, civ–cvii. See also Actes, ii, 44–5, 358.

22 Vaughan, 31–8; Monstrelet, iv, 206ff.

23 Vaughan, 38–9. For trials by battle, including Henry V’s challenge to the dauphin in 1415, see Barker, 207–11.

24 Bossuat, 52; Vaughan, 20.

25 Ibid., 9; Armstrong, ‘La Double Monarchie’, 84–5.

26 Barker, 369–70; Beaurepaire, 15.

27 Ramsay, i, 354; Bossuat, 52–3; Little, 189.

28 Ramsay, i, 364.

29 PR, x, 205; Griffiths, 73–7.

30 CMSM, i, 225–8.

31 Bourgeois, 221–2, 226; English Suits, 176 n. 24; Thompson, 71, 99, 103.

32 Ramsay, i, 365.

33 PR, x, 276–8, 280; Ramsay, ii, 365–7. See Allmand, Henry V, 260–1 and Harriss, 94 ff. for Henry denying his uncle the cardinalship.

34 PR, x, 319; POPC, iii, 231, 237.

35 PR, x, 280; Griffiths, 187; Ramsay, i, 371–2; Pollard, 12.

36 Little, 187–8; CMSM, i, 242 n. 3, 262.

37 Bourgeois, 216, 219; Ramsay, i, 374–5; Chartier, i, 54–5; Bossuat, 86–7.

38 Chartier, i, 55–6; Rowe, ‘A Contemporary Account’, 512.

39 Actes, ii, 359; English Suits, 220–30, where the fall of La-Ferté-Bernard is wrongly ascribed to February 1427. The court decided in Stafford’s favour on 13 February 1434.

40 Bourgeois, 223–4; Pollard, 13; Keen, 33; English Suits, 205–8.

41 Actes, ii, 359, 361; Pollard, 13–14.

CHAPTER SEVEN: THE PUCELLE

1 Vaughan, 48–9. The Treaty of Delft was signed on 3 July 1428.

2 PR, x, 322–3, 347–9.

3 Stevenson, i, 403–21; Anne Curry, ‘English Armies in the Fifteenth Century’ in Anne Curry and Michael Hughes (eds.), Arms, Armies and Fortifications in the Hundred Years War (Woodbridge, 1994), 43.

4 PR, x, 322.

5 Stevenson, ii, 76–8; Beaurepaire, 30; POPC, iv, 223. As late as 8 September 1428 it was still expected that Angers would be Salisbury’s objective; on that date the estates-general meeting at Rouen granted money for the recovery of Angers: Beaurepaire, 33–4.

6 Keen, 160–1; Thomas Montagu, ODNB, 3.

7 Ramsay, i, 381–2.

8 Bernard Chevalier, Les Bonnes Villes de France du XIVe au XVIe Siècle (Paris, 1982), 50–1.

9 Barker, 178ff., 370–2.

10 Jacques Debal, ‘La Topographie de l’Enceinte d’Orléans au Temps de Jeanne d’Arc’ in Jeanne d’Arc, 30–9; Kelly Devries, Joan of Arc: A Military Leader (Stroud, 2003), 55; Ramsay, i, 383–4.

11 Devries, Joan of Arc, 56–7; Monstrelet, iv, 299–300; Brut, 434–5; Chartier, i, 63–4.

12 Monstrelet, iv, 300.

13 Devries, Joan of Arc, 58; Debal, ‘La Topographie de l’Enceinte d’Orléans’, 26–7, 38; Monstrelet, iv, 298–301; Taylor, 278.

14 Debal, ‘La Topographie de l’Enceinte d’Orléans’, 30–9.

15 Monstrelet, iv, 301.

16 Bourgeois, 227–30; Monstrelet, iv, 310–14; Strickland and Hardy, The Great Warbow, 349–50, where it is wrongly ascribed to 1428.

17 Chevalier, ‘Les Écossais dans les Armées de Charles VII’, 93–4; Brown, ‘French Alliance or English Peace?’, 91–3.

18 Taylor, 179–81.

19 Pernoud, 20–1.

20 Taylor, 142. According to her uncle, her first visit was in May 1428, but his account is full of contradictions and the siege of Orléans did not begin until 12 October 1428.

21 Taylor, 271, 273, 275.

22 Ibid., 303.

23 André Vauchez, ‘Jeanne d’Arc et le Prophétisme Féminin des XIVe et XVe Siècles’, in Jeanne d’Arc, 159–64.

24 Ibid., 162–3.

25 Taylor, 142–3; Vale, 49–50; Léo Germain, ‘Recherches sur les Actes de Robert de Baudricourt depuis 1432 jusqu’à 1454’, Bulletin Mensuel de la Société d’Archéologie Lorraine et du Musée Historique Lorrain, 2 (1902), 221–30.

26 Taylor, 272, 276. Colet de Vienne was later paid a messenger’s wages for bringing news of the relief of Orléans to Tours: Jan van Herwaarden, ‘The Appearance of Joan of Arc’ in Jan van Herwaarden (ed.), Joan of Arc: Reality and Myth (Hilversum, 1994), 38.

27 Taylor, 271–2, 274, 275–6; Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, quoted in Robert Wirth (ed.), Primary Sources and Context Concerning Joan of Arc’s Male Clothing (Historical Academy for Joan of Arc Studies, 2006), 11; Vaughan, 39–40.

28 Taylor, 142–3, 277–8.

29 Ibid., 144, 317–18; Pierre Duparc (ed.), Procès en Nullité de la Condamnation de Jeanne d’Arc (Paris, 1977), i, 326.

30 Vale, 54, 43; Herwaarden, ‘The Appearance of Joan of Arc’, 41; Taylor, 11–12.

31 Ibid., 46–9, 311, 340, 347.

32 Ibid., 157 n. 45; Vale, 55. Martin V had ruled that the devotion was acceptable if accompanied by the sign of the cross.

33 Taylor, 73–4; Little, 99–105, 108–12; Vale, 55–6.

34 Chartier, i, 65; Monstrelet, iv, 317–19; Claude Desama, ‘Jeanne d’Arc et la diplomatie de Charles VII: L’Ambassade Française auprès de Philippe le Bon en 1429’, Annales de Bourgogne, 40 (1968), 290–9; Little, 93–4.

35 Ibid., 106.

CHAPTER EIGHT: THE SIEGE OF ORLÉANS

1 Taylor, 312–13.

2 Jean-Pierre Reverseau, ‘L’Armement Défensif à l’Époque de Jeanne d’Arc. L’Armure de l’Héroïne’ in Jeanne d’Arc, 68; Pernoud, 59; Taylor, 157, 312.

3 Taylor, 144, 155; Chartier, i, 69–71. Ibid., i, 122–3 claims magical qualities for Martel’s sword: when it broke it could not be repaired and Jehanne’s success in arms ended.

4 Taylor, 18–19, 77–8, 285; Déborah Fraiolo, ‘L’Image de Jeanne d’Arc: Que Doit-elle au Milieu Littéraire et Religieux de son Temps?’ in Jeanne d’Arc, 194. Jehanne knew of the Merlin prophecy at the time of her trial but did not believe it: Taylor, 151.

5 See above, 105.

6 Taylor, 74–5. When a copy of this letter was read to Jehanne at her trial, she said that it should have read ‘Surrender to the King’, not to the Pucelle, and denied using the phrases ‘commander of war’ or ‘body for body’: ibid., 143–4, 160–1.

7 Ibid., 160–1, 74.

8 Ibid., 298, 314, 309, 338.

9 www.jeannedarc.com.fr/centre/vignolles.html; J.-E.-J. Quicherat, Procès de Condamnation et de Réhabilitation de Jeanne d’Arc dite la Pucelle (Paris, 1843), iii, 32; Taylor, 303.

10 Ibid., 278–9; Devries, Joan of Arc, 69–70.

11 Taylor, 279–80; Chartier, i, 69. Blois was the nearest river crossing in Armagnac hands.

12 Taylor, 340, 356–7.

13 Ibid., 295; Quicherat, Procès de Condamnation, iv, 154–5.

14 POPC, iii, 322. The letter must have been sent before Burgundy withdrew his men and probably before the dauphin approved Jehanne’s involvement.

15 Beaurepaire, 30–6; CMSM, i, 264–70, 272–83; Stevenson, ii, 79–84, 89–92. The clergy had granted a generous two-tenths solely for recovering Mont-Saint-Michel.

16 Taylor, 239 n. 22.

17 Ibid., 280, 313, 341.

18 Taylor, 295–6, 313–14, 342–3; Quicherat, Procès de Condamnation, iv, 157.

19 Taylor, 84, 314. In a postscript Jehanne demanded the return of her herald in exchange for some of her English prisoners from Saint-Loup.

20 Ibid., 318–19, 343–4. Gaucourt did not include this story in his evidence at the nullification trial but another witness, the president of the chambre-des-comptes, said Gaucourt had told him it.

21 Taylor, 158, 280, 296, 315–16.

22 Ibid., 315–17; Matthew Strickland, ‘Chivalry at Agincourt’ in Anne Curry (ed.), Agincourt 1415: Henry V, Sir Thomas Erpingham and the Triumph of the English Archers (Stroud, 2000), 120, pl. 56; Eamon Duffy, Marking the Hours: English People and their Prayers 1240–1570 (New Haven and London, 2006), 77.

23 Taylor, 280–1, 315–16. For Glasdale see English Suits, 294–5; Newhall, Muster and Review, 109.

24 Monstrelet, iv, 321–2; Taylor, 87.

25 Taylor, 86, 281; Devries, Joan of Arc, 88.

26 Ibid., 96–101; Taylor, 158, 306–8; Stevenson, ii, 95–100.

27 Chartier, i, 82–3; Third Report of the Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts (London, 1872), Appendix, 279–80.

28 Devries, Joan of Arc, 102–3; A. D. Carr, ‘Welshmen and the Hundred Years War’, The Welsh History Review, 4 (1968–9), 39, 36; Rowe, ‘A Contemporary Account’, 512.

29 Taylor, 308; Chartier, i, 83–4.

30 Monstrelet, iv, 329–33; Chartier, i, 85–7; Jehan de Waurin, Anchiennes Cronicques d’Engleterre, ed. Mlle Dupont (Paris, 1858), i, 293–5; Hugh Collins, ‘Sir John Fastolf, John Lord Talbot and the Dispute over Patay: Ambition and Chivalry in the Fifteenth Century’ in Diana Dunn (ed.), War and Society in Medieval and Early Modern Britain(Liverpool, 2000), 114–40.

31 Ibid., 124–5, 128–36; English Suits, 264.

32 ODNB, Thomas Scales, 1; ibid., Thomas Rempston, 2; Collins, ‘Sir John Fastolf, John Lord Talbot and the Dispute over Patay’, 126–7; Michael K. Jones, ‘Ransom Brokerage in the Fifteenth Century’ in Philippe Contamine, Charles Giry-Deloison and Maurice Keen (eds.), Guerre et Société en France, en Angleterre et en Bourgogne XIVe–XVe Siècle (Villeneuve d’Ascq, 1991), 223–4; J. L. Bolton, ‘How Sir Thomas Rempston Paid his Ransom: Or, the Mistakes of an Italian Bank’ in Clark (ed.), Conflicts, Consequences and the Crown in the Late Middle Ages, 101–18.

33 Actes, ii, 150 n. 1; English Suits, 289; Little, 106–7, 174.

34 Collins, ‘Sir John Fastolf, John Lord Talbot and the Dispute over Patay’, 123. See below, 297.

35 Taylor, 45–6. For the making of the legend see Timothy Wilson-Smith, Joan of Arc: Maid, Myth and History (Stroud, 2006).

CHAPTER NINE: A NEW KING OF FRANCE

1 POPC, iii, 330–8.

2 Ibid., 339; Harriss, 184–8; PR, x, 370; Ramsay, i, 401–2, 409.

3 Little, 114–15; Taylor, 283, 94–5.

4 Ibid., 31–2, 169–70; Bourgeois, 230–3, 238–9; Monstrelet, iv, 335.

5 Taylor, 165 n. 56; Chartier, i, 97–8; Georges Peyronnet, ‘Un Problème de Légitimité: Charles VII et le Toucher des Écrouelles’, in Jeanne d’Arc, 197–8.

6 Chartier, i, 96–8; Taylor, 203; Pernoud, 124–6.

7 Taylor, 95.

8 Bourgeois, 237–8. Griffiths, 220 describes the reading as a pageant, which would have been even more striking in its effect.

9 Stevenson, ii, 101–11.

10 CMSM, i, 283–4, 288 n. 1; Beaurepaire, 37–9; Richard A. Newhall, Muster and Review: A Problem of English Military Administration (Cambridge, Mass., 1940), 111–12.

11 Bourgeois, 236; Thompson, 108, 91.

12 POPC, iii, 322.

13 PR, x, 369–70; Stevenson, ii, 120–1.

14 Thompson, 105; Bourgeois, 238; Ramsay, i, 401–4.

15 Taylor, 119–22; Monstrelet, iv, 340–4. The friar was Brother Richard: see above, 126.

16 Chartier, i, 103–5; Monstrelet, iv, 344–7; Pernoud, 132–3. Senlis surrendered to the Armagnacs on 22 August: Bourgeois, 239; Thompson, 106.

17 Monstrelet, iv, 348–9; Pernoud, 133, 139; Ramsay, i, 402–3; Vaughan, 21–2.

18 Ramsay, i, 404; Germain Lefèvre-Pontalis, ‘La Panique Anglaise en Mai 1429’, Moyen Âge (1891), 9–11.

19 Jouet, 95–6, 100; CMSM, i, 291.

20 Ibid., i, 289.

21 Ibid., ii, 22–4; Actes, ii, 146–9.

22 Jouet, 130; Siméon Luce, ‘Un Complot contre les Anglais à Cherbourg à l’Époque de Jeanne d’Arc’, Mémoires de l’Académie de Caen (1887–8), 96–116; Actes, ii, 176–8; Monstrelet, iv, 350–1; Puiseux, L’Émigration Normande, 55.

23 Le Cacheux, cvi–cviii; Actes, ii, 368–9; Chartier, i, 114–15; Newhall, Muster and Review, 125, 126 n. 282; Allmand, 189; Monstrelet, iv, 372.

24 Bourgeois, 242; Thompson, ‘“Monseigneur Saint Denis”’, 28–9; Pernoud, 136–7.

25 Stevenson, ii, 118–19.

26 Pernoud, 134–8; Bourgeois, 240–2; Taylor, 124–5.

27 Pernoud, 141; Ramsay, i, 406.

28 Bossuat, esp. 24–5, 49–50, 66–7.

29 Ibid., 112–23, 118, 212–13; Taylor, 130–1; Pernoud, 143–5.

30 Ibid., 145–6; Taylor, 132–3.

CHAPTER TEN: CAPTURE

1 Ramsay, i, 413–14; Griffiths, 189; Vaughan, 22; Bourgeois, 242–3.

2 Rowe, ‘The Grand Conseil’, 218; Stevenson, ii, 85–7; CMSM, i, 291; Le Cacheux, 162–3; Jouet, 86.

3 Anne Curry, ‘The Nationality of Men-at-Arms Serving in English Armies in Normandy and the Pays de Conquête, 1415–1450: A Preliminary Study’, Reading Medieval Studies, 18 (1992), 139–40.

4 Plaisse, La Vie Municipale à Évreux, 121; Newhall, Muster and Review, 88, 90.

5 Rowe, ‘Discipline in the Norman Garrisons’, 207–8; Actes, i, 294–6.

6 Ibid., i, 295 n. 1; ii, 158, 206–8.

7 Ibid., ii, 158.

8 Ibid., ii, 157–60.

9 Keen, 167; Bossuat, 134 n. 3, 138.

10 Pollard, 17.

11 Griffiths, 37, 39.

12 PR, x, 368–9; Griffiths, 190.

13 PR, x, 437; Anne Curry, ‘The “Coronation Expedition” and Henry VI’s Court in France, 1430 to 1432’ in Jenny Stratford (ed.), The Lancastrian Court (Donnington, 2003), 30–5; Dorothy Styles and C. T. Allmand, ‘The Coronation of Henry VI’, History Today, 32 (May 1982), 30.

14 PR, x, 437; Vaughan, 8, 54–7; Monstrelet, iv, 373–5.

15 PR, x, 373; Vaughan, 22–4.

16 Carolus-Barré, ‘Compiègne et la Guerre 1414–1430’, 386; Devries, Joan of Arc, 164; Pernoud, 147.

17 Taylor, 175–6; Pernoud, 149–53; Monstrelet, iv, 388.

18 Pernoud, 150–1; Devries, Joan of Arc, 169–74.

19 Taylor, 192–3, 191–2, 320, 329; Pernoud, 153–6.

20 Ibid., 157–8.

21 Bernard Guillemain, ‘Une Carrière: Pierre Cauchon’ in Jeanne d’Arc, 217–25.

22 Pernoud, 156–7, 159, 161.

23 Beaurepaire, 39, 40; Stevenson, ii, 128–39.

24 Ibid., 140–1; Curry, ‘The “Coronation Expedition”’, 36–8, 40–1.

25 PR, x, 436; Rowe, ‘The Grand Conseil under the Duke of Bedford, 1422–35’, 224–5; Harriss, 202.

26 Ramsay, i, 419; Beaurepaire, 40–1; Bourgeois, 251.

27 Ibid., 248–52.

28 Vaughan, 60–6; Monstrelet, iv, 406–8; Chartier, i, 131–2.

29 Monstrelet, iv, 409–20.

30 Ibid., 421–5; Ramsay, i, 420 n. 1; Vaughan, 63.

31 Ibid., 24–5; Stevenson, ii, 156–81.

32 Curry, ‘The “Coronation Expedition”’, 32, 42; PR, x, 447.

33 Ibid., 437.

34 Harriss, 103, 187, 204–5; PR, x, 443; Griffiths, 191. Edmund Beaufort’s youthful affair with Katherine may have resulted in the birth of Edmund ‘Tudor’, father of Henry VII: ODNB, Edmund Beaufort, 1–2.

CHAPTER ELEVEN: TRIAL AND EXECUTION

1 Bourgeois, 254–67; Stevenson, ii, 424–6; Ramsay, i, 431 n. 5.

2 Bourgeois, 257–8; Curry, ‘The “Coronation Expedition”’, 45.

3 Pernoud, 160–1; Beaurepaire, 40. The difficulty of categorising the Pucelle is reflected in the ambivalent phrase describing her as ‘personne de guerre’.

4 Taylor, 31, 132–3 and see above, 138–9.

5 M. G. A. Vale, ‘Jeanne d’Arc et ses Adversaires: Jeanne, Victime d’Une Guerre Civile?’ in Jeanne d’Arc, 207–9; Norman P. Tanner (ed.), Heresy Trials in the Diocese of Norwich, 1428–31, Camden Fourth Series, 20 (1977), 8. William Alnwick, the bishop of Norwich, who carried out these prosecutions, was one of the few English people to attend Jehanne’s trial.

6 Vale, ‘Jeanne d’Arc et ses Adversaires’, 208–9, quoting Matthew ch. 24 v. 24.

7 Taylor, 136.

8 Vale, 47–8.

9 Taylor, xix, 22–3; Vale, 48; Vale, ‘Jeanne d’Arc et ses Adversaires’, 210–14.

10 Ibid., 23–5, 25 n. 79; Pernoud, 206–7.

11 Taylor, 321–31, esp. 322–3, 330–1.

12 Adorating: from the Latin, as in praying to rather than simply adoring or worshipping.

13 Taylor, 218.

14 Ibid., 220–2. It was claimed at the nullification trial (Pernoud, 218–20) that Jehanne was forced or tricked into wearing male clothing again so that she could be executed but, as the marginal note makes clear, this was not the capital offence and it was not in the interest of the English to procure her relapse into heresy: Vale, ‘Jeanne d’Arc et ses Adversaires’, 214–15.

15 Pernoud, 233 asserts that Thérage was an Englishman: he was in fact Norman and had been executing traitors since at least 1421: Le Cacheux, 34–5.

16 Pernoud, 229–33; Taylor, 228.

17 Bourgeois, 260–4; Pernoud, 233–4.

18 Bourgeois, 337–8; Vauchez, ‘Jeanne d’Arc et le Prophétisme Féminin’, 166–7; Pernoud, 241–9.

19 Taylor, 225–8; Pernoud, 236–7, 239.

20 Taylor, 227; Bourgeois, 264–5.

21 Ibid., 230–3, 234–5, 238. See above, 126.

22 Taylor, 235 n. 17; Bourgeois, 253–4.

23 Taylor, 25 n. 77, 35, 172–3, 177.

24 Vauchez, ‘Jeanne d’Arc et le Prophétisme Féminin’, 165; Little, 121–3.

25 Taylor, 173; Pernoud, 159.

26 Ibid., 237; Vale, 58–9.

27 Quicherat, Procès de Condamnation, v, 168; Bourgeois, 266; Chartier, i, 133. The ‘holy fool’ was a popular concept in the medieval period.

28 Monstrelet, iv, 433–4; Bourgeois, 266; Chartier, i, 132–3.

29 Bourgeois, 264; Chartier, i, 133–4; Ramsay, i, 433–4.

30 Actes, ii, 154–7; Le Cacheux, 210–11.

31 Beaurepaire, 42–3; Newhall, Muster and Review, 118.

32 Ibid., 142–3.

33 Bourgeois, 265–6; Harriss, 205. A Dutchman from the Évreux garrison was pardoned on 4 April 1433 for crimes including holding hostage two priests and a woman in Louviers after the siege and stealing hens and fish from them: Actes, ii, 248–50.

34 Bourgeois, 268–9; Monstrelet, v, 1–3.

35 The Nine Worthies included three Old Testament heroes, Joshua, Judas Maccabeus and David; three classical heroes, Hector, Julius Caesar and Alexander; and three romance heroes, Arthur, Charlemagne and Godfrey de Bouillon.

36 Ramsay, i, 432 n. 4; Bourgeois, 268–71; Monstrelet, v, 1–4; Thompson, 199–205.

37 Bourgeois, 271.

CHAPTER TWELVE: A YEAR OF DISASTERS

1 Griffiths, 192; Monstrelet, v, 5; Bourgeois, 271–3.

2 Ibid., 268.

3 Stevenson, ii, 196–202; Griffiths, 193.

4 Curry, ‘The “Coronation Expedition”’, 50; Thompson, 200.

5 Maurice Keen, England in the Later Middle Ages (London, 2003), 311.

6 Rowe, ‘The Grand Conseil’, 225.

7 Ibid., 226–7; Harriss, 208–9.

8 Ibid., 212–22; PR, xi, 1–4.

9 Monstrelet, v, 12–15; Le Cacheux, c, cxi–cxii, cxxvi, 224–5, 230–3, 253–5; Actes, ii, 186 n. 1; Stevenson, ii, 202–4. Ricarville had previously led raids from Beauvais c.1430–1: Actes, ii, 171. See also below, 313.

10 Monstrelet, v, 21–5; Chartier, i, 141–3; Bourgeois, 276–7.

11 Actes, ii, 233–7.

12 Vale, 122; Thompson, 226–7; Bourgeois, 281.

13 Ibid., 278; Jouet, 186–7.

14 Bourgeois, 274–81.

15 Beaurepaire,43; Stevenson, ii, 208–9.

16 Actes, ii, 234; Chartier, i, 150–3 wrongly dates this raid to 1432.

17 Cagny, 185–7; Chartier, i, 134–41, where Saint-Cénéry is mistakenly transcribed as Saint-Célerin and Vivoin as Vinaing: Beaumont-le-Vicomte is now Beaumont-sur-Sarthe. Monstrelet, v, 100–2 wrongly dates this episode to 1434.

18 CMSM, i, 34 n. 2; ii, 13–14; Monstrelet, v, 31–5; Chartier, i, 143–7; Bourgeois, 278–81.

19 Ibid., 282; Harriss, Shaping the Nation, 328–9.

20 Griffiths, 192; Harriss, 225–6; Bourgeois, 282–3.

21 CMSM, i, 289–90, 293, 314–16, esp. 315.

22 Ibid., ii, 14–15, 30–2; Actes, ii, 382, 383.

23 Bourgeois, 283.

24 Griffiths, 193–4; Harris, 221.

25 See above, 49.

26 Monstrelet, v, 56; ODNB, John, duke of Bedford, 11; Vaughan, 132–3 suggests this figure may be an exaggeration and posits ‘perhaps fifteen’.

27 Monstrelet, 55–6; ODNB, John, duke of Bedford, 9; Armstrong, ‘La Double Monarchie’, 107–9.

28 Monstrelet, v, 57–8; Harris, 229; Vaughan, 27.

CHAPTER THIRTEEN: RECOVERY

1 Harriss, 227; Griffiths, 195–6.

2 PR, xi, 67; Harriss, 227–8.

3 PR, xi, 67.

4 Ibid., 77–8.

5 Harriss, 231; Griffiths, 196.

6 Harriss, 232–3; PR, xi, 102. I cannot reconcile Cromwell’s statement in parliament with the annual deficit of £21,447 or £22,000 calculated by Harriss, 232 and PR, xi, 70 respectively.

7 PR, xi, 67; Stevenson, ii, 250–6.

8 Bourgeois, 285, 289, 328.

9 Little, 195–6; Stevenson, ii, 229; Vale, 71; Chartier, i, 170–2; Monstrelet, v, 73–4.

10 Stevenson, ii, 220, 241, 248.

11 Keen, ‘The End of the Hundred Years War’, 308–9.

12 Ibid., 221, 239–40, 231–8; CMSM, i, 223 n. 1; Harriss, 183.

13 Stevenson, ii, 250, 257–8.

14 Ramsay, i, 448 n. 4; Stevenson, ii, 540–6, 551–2.

15 Bossuat, 184, 197–8, 200; Stevenson, ii, 427–9.

16 Vaughan, 66–7; Pollard, 18–19; Harriss, 228 n. 40; Monstrelet, v, 62–70.

17 Actes, ii, 383; Chartier, i, 160, 164–5; Beaurepaire, 44–5, 48, 45 n. 93. Arundel’s campaign is wrongly dated to 1432 by Chartier and to 1434 by Ramsay, i, 462–3.

18 Chartier, i, 165–8.

19 Monstrelet, v, 79–81.

20 Bourgeois, 286–8.

21 CMSM, ii, 27.

22 Le Cacheux, 270–3.

23 CMSM, ii, 34.

24 Bourgeois, 288–9.

25 PR, xi, 83–4.

26 Ibid., 84–8.

27 See above, 28.

28 PR, xi, 71–2.

29 Beaurepaire, 44–5, 48.

30 Pollard, 19; CPR 1429–36, 353; Monstrelet, v, 91.

31 Ibid., 91; Bourgeois, 290.

32 Harriss, 236–7; POPC, iv, 410–16.

33 Harriss, 222–6.

CHAPTER FOURTEEN: DISORDER AND DEFEAT

1 Monstrelet, v, 91–2; Pollard, 19–20.

2 Monstrelet, v, 93–4; CMSM, ii, 64; Beaurepaire, 47.

3 CMSM, ii, 28–9. Curry, ‘The Nationality of Men-at-Arms’, 156 suggests Pleuron was the product of an Anglo-French marriage; this is not impossible but it would have made him less than sixteen years old.

4 CMSM, ii, 39–40, 43.

5 Rowe, ‘Discipline in the Norman Garrisons’, 195 n. 3; CMSM, i, 144–6; Lefèvre-Pontalis, ‘La Panique Anglaise en Mai 1429’, 9, 12, 20; CCR 1429–35, 47–8; Stevenson, ii, 147.

6 Rowe, ‘Discipline in the Norman Garrisons’, 196; Jouet, 35; CMSM, ii, 17.

7 Ramsay, i, 460 n. 2; Chartier, i, 175–7.

8 CMSM, ii, 41, 42; Rowe, ‘John Duke of Bedford and the Norman “Brigands”’, 598–9; Chartier, i, 177.

9 Monstrelet, v, 104–5; Bourgeois, 290, 292. Jouet, 35 and those following him are wrong in merging the Venables and Waterhouse affairs into a single incident and in suggesting it was a massacre of peasants. Monstrelet wrongly locates Saint-Pierre-sur-Dives to ‘near Tancarville’ in upper Normandy.

10 CMSM, ii, 48–9, 47.

11 Ibid., 49, 67–8.

12 Curry, ‘Isolated or Integrated?’, 201; Newhall, Muster and Review, 118.

13 Curry, ‘L’Effet de la Libération de la Ville d’Orléans’, 104–5; Newhall, Muster and Review, 119–20; CMSM, ii, 46.

14 Monstrelet, v, 183; Beaurepaire, 46–8.

15 Bourgeois, 292–3; Vaughan, 67.

16 Beaurepaire, 133; CMSM, ii, 19. See above, 187–8.

17 Jouet, 62; CMSM, ii, 50–1, 53–4; Monstrelet, v, 113.

18 Chartier, i, 172–3; Cagny, 188–92; Monstrelet, v, 113–14; CMSM, ii, 51–2, 54–66.

19 Monstrelet, v, 118–23.

20 Very Rev. Canon Tierney, ‘Discovery of the Remains of John, 7th Earl of Arundel, (obit. 1435)’, Sussex Archaeological Collections, 12 (1860), 236.

21 CPR 1429–1436, 491; CCR 1435–1441, 138–9; ODNB, John Fitzalan, seventh earl of Arundel, 3; Tierney, ‘Discovery of the Remains’, 237–9.

22 Chartier, i, 179–80; Monstrelet, v, 125.

23 Bourgeois, 295.

24 Bossuat, 214; Vaughan, 63, 67.

25 Monstrelet, v, 106–10; Ramsay, i, 464–5; Harriss, 241–2.

26 Ibid., 108.

27 Bourgeois, 294–5.

CHAPTER FIFTEEN: THE TREATY OF ARRAS

1 Griffiths, 207–8.

2 Beaurepaire, 48; Harriss, 246; Pollard, 20.

3 PR, xi, 158; Ramsay, i, 467 n. 4.

4 Harriss, 247; Griffiths, 199; Ramsay, i, 467–9; Monstrelet, v, 132; PR, xi, 115. For a list of all the delegates see Chartier, i, 185–92.

5 Any renunciation of the Treaty of Troyes would not affect the status of Calais and Gascony, which would remain English by right of conquest and inheritance respectively.

6 Stevenson, i, 51–64.

7 Harriss, 250–1. See above, 221.

8 Harriss, 250; Ramsay, i, 473; Joycelyne Gledhill Dickinson, The Congress of Arras 1435 (Oxford, 1955), 174–6.

9 Monstrelet, v, 151–82; Chartier, i, 194–204; Cagny, 195–209.

10 Vaughan, 99–101.

11 Bourgeois, 297; ODNB, John, duke of Bedford, 11. Richard I’s heart was buried in Rouen, his body at Fontévrault.

12 Catherine Reynolds, ‘“Les Angloys, de leur droicte nature, veullent touzjours guerreer”: Evidence for Painting in Paris and Normandy, c.1420–1450’ in Allmand (ed.), Power, Culture and Religion in France c.1350–c.1550, 51–5; Jean-Philippe Genet, ‘L’Influence Française sur la Littérature Politique Anglaise au Temps de la France Anglaise’ inFAMA, 87–9; Thompson, ‘“Monseigneur Saint Denis”’, 26; Thompson, 139–42; Le Cacheux, lvi, xcvi–xcvii.

13 Actes, ii, 127–9; Bourgeois, 307; Le Cacheux, lvi; ODNB, John, duke of Bedford, 12.

14 Bourgeois, 296–9; Monstrelet, v, 184–7; Chartier, i, 181; Thompson, ‘“Monseigneur Saint Denis”’, 31–3.

15 Chartier, ii, 181–2; Cagny, 212; Monstrelet, v, 199–201.

16 Chartier, i, 215–16; Monstrelet, v, 201; Keen, 191; Cagny, 212–13.

17 Monstrelet, v, 201–2; Cagny, 213; Curry, ‘Impact of War’, 158–9, 163; Pollard, 21–2.

18 Newhall, Muster and Review, 131–2.

19 CMSM, ii, 69–70.

20 Beaurepaire, 50–2.

21 Harriss, 256–9; PR, xi, 163.

22 Beaurepaire, 55–7; Stevenson, i, 508–9, where the mandate is wrongly dated to 1450.

23 Beaurepaire, 57; Griffiths, 201; Harriss, 251, 258 n.16, where Norbury’s departure is wrongly dated to December 1435.

24 Pollard, 22–3.

25 Monstrelet, v, 204–5, 281–2, 297–8; Pollard, 23.

26 CMSM, ii, 72–7, 94–5; Jouet, 131–41; Allmand, 41.

CHAPTER SIXTEEN: THE FALL OF PARIS

1 Thompson, 231. The abbess had form as a traitor: she and nuns from the same convent had been arrested in September 1432 in connection with a similar but unsuccessful plot: ibid., 226, 227–8.

2 Le Cacheux, 308; Chartier, i, 217–18.

3 Thompson, 234. See above, 135–6.

4 Thompson, 229, 232.

5 Bourgeois, 299–301; Thompson, 231.

6 Bourgeois, 300–1; Barker, 249.

7 Bourgeois, 301–2; Chartier, i, 221–2, 226–7; Monstrelet, v, 217–18; Thompson, ‘“Monseigneur Saint-Denis”’, 33.

8 Bourgeois, 303–5; Monstrelet, v, 218–20; Chartier, i, 223–6; Cagny, 215–17.

9 Bourgeois, 305–6.

10 Thompson, 237; Bourgeois, 306–8; Monstrelet, v, 221; Chartier, i, 226.

11 Bourgeois, 309–12.

12 Little, 190–1; Thompson, 238.

13 André Bossuat, ‘L’Idée de Nation et la Jurisprudence du Parlement de Paris au XVe Siècle’, Revue Historique, 204 (1950), 54–7. The ultimate fate of both parties is not known.

14 Ibid., 57–9.

15 Monstrelet, v, 231; Curry, ‘Isolated or Integrated?’, 110; Pollard, 37–8.

16 CMSM, ii, 78–9, 82–3, 87–92.

17 PR, xi, 162; Harriss, 262; Griffiths, 455; ODNB, Richard of York, 3 distinguishes York’s one-year military indentures from his commission as lieutenant, which does not specificy a time-limit; in practice, as York’s later difficulties reveal, the two were clearly intended to be concurrent.

18 Harriss, 261; Stevenson, ii, lxxii–lxxiii; Griffiths, 208.

19 ODNB, Richard Neville, 2. See above, 235, 239.

20 Monstrelet, v, 271–2; Cagny, 276–7.

21 Beaurepaire, 69; Barker, ‘The Foe Within’, 312–13.

22 Ramsay, i, 476; Vaughan, 75–6.

23 Harriss, 258, 260–1; Vaughan, 76.

24 Monique Sommé, ‘L’Armée Bourguignonne au Siège de Calais de 1436’ in Contamine, Giry-Deloison and Keen (eds.), Guerre et Société en France, en Angleterre et en Bourgogne XIVe–XVe Siècle, 202–6.

25 Vaughan, 79; Sommé, ‘L’Armée Bourguignonne au Siège de Calais de 1436’, 207–9.

26 Monstrelet, v, 238–60; Vaughan, 79–82; Keen, 120 n. 4.

27 Monstrelet, v, 263–4; Vaughan, 82–3; PR, xi, 194; Griffiths, 204–5.

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN: DEFENDING NORMANDY

1 Bourgeois, 313–14; Pollard, 44–5; Beaurepaire, 60.

2 Bourgeois, 313–14; Chartier, i, 233–5; Cagny, 229–30; Pollard, 48.

3 Bourgeois, 316–17.

4 Andrew Baume, ‘Les Opérations Militaires Anglaises pour Expulser les Compagnies Françaises du Pays de Caux et du Vexin Normand 1436–1437’, FAMA, 398.

5 PR, xi, 237; CMSM, ii, 93–4; Beaurepaire, 60; Griffiths, 455; Newhall, Muster and Review, 137–42.

6 Ibid., 143–6, 146 n. 326.

7 Baume, ‘Les Opérations Militaires Anglaises’, 398; Newhall, Muster and Review, 143; Pollard, 49, 72–3; Allmand, ‘L’Artillerie de l’Armée Anglaise’, 78.

8 Harriss, 278–9; PR, xi, 237–8; Griffiths, 455–6; Stevenson, lxvi–lxxi.

9 Vaughan, 84; Pollard, 49; Monstrelet, v, 308–16.

10 Bossuat, 264–6, 231–3, 258; Cagny, 237–43; Newhall, Muster and Review, 147.

11 Cagny, 230–3; Bourgeois, 315–16. An oubliette was a windowless, doorless cell accessed only by a trapdoor in the ceiling.

12 Bossuat, 262–4, 267–9; Cagny, 247–8; Beaurepaire, 66.

13 Pollard, 49–50.

14 Bourgeois, 322, 326–7; Monstrelet, v, 338–40; Cagny, 245–8.

15 Christopher Allmand, ‘The War and the Non-Combatant’ in Fowler (ed.), The Hundred Years War, 172; Christopher Allmand, The Hundred Years War: England and France at War c.1300–c.1450 (Cambridge, 1988); Puiseux, L’Émigration Normande, 85.

16 Vale, 74; Cagny, 233–4, 237.

17 Monstrelet, v, 355–6; CMSM, ii, 108–10, 112; Harriss, 281.

18 Monstrelet, v, 346–7; Griffiths, 456.

19 Harriss, 281–3; Stevenson, ii, 449–50.

20 Harriss, 282.

21 For this and what follows see Griffiths, 248–51.

22 Newhall, Muster and Review, 150 n. 234; Stevenson, ii, 443; Griffiths, 446–7.

23 Monstrelet, v, 352–3; Harriss, 296; Griffiths, 446–7.

24 Allmand, The Hundred Years War, 35; Harriss, 296–304; Griffiths, 447–50; C.T. Allmand (ed.), ‘Documents Relating to the Anglo-French Negotiations of 1439’, Camden Miscellany, vol. xxiv, Fourth Series, 9 (Royal Historical Society, 1972), 79–149.

25 Ibid., 135–46; Stevenson, ii, 446.

26 PR, xi, 238; Harriss, 304–5; Griffiths, 450, 472.

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN: GAINS AND LOSSES

1 Cagny, 254–5; Bourgeois, 327–8; Bossuat, 270–1. Talbot was reimbursed 1462l. 10s.t. (£85,313) for his expenses in taking Saint-Germain: Beaurepaire, 91.

2 Cagny, 254–5; Monstrelet, v, 387–90; Chartier, i, 249–50; Pollard, 52; Keen, 125; Collins, ‘Sir John Fastolf, John Lord Talbot and the Dispute over Patay’, 127–8.

3 Bourgeois, 332–3.

4 Ibid., 329; Chartier, i, 250–1; CMSM, ii, 121–2, 125–6.

5 Chartier, i, 252–3.

6 C. T. Allmand, ‘Changing Views of the Soldier in Late Medieval France’ in Contamine, Giry-Deloison and Keen (eds.), Guerre et Société en France, en Angleterre et en Bourgogne XIVe–XVe Siècle, 179–80; Chartier, ii, 12–13; Lewis, Later Medieval France, 102.

7 Vale, 75–82; Chartier, i, 253–9; Monstrelet, v, 410–17, 458.

8 PR, xi, 245–6; Harriss, 308–11; Stevenson, ii, 440–51.

9 Griffiths, 452; Stevenson, ii, 451–60.

10 PR, xi, 246; Griffiths, 452–3; Monstrelet. v, 433–44, 452–4.

11 Harriss, 279–80; Michael Jones, ‘John Beaufort, duke of Somerset, and the French expedition of 1443’ in Ralph A. Griffiths, Patronage, the Crown and the Provinces in Later Medieval England (Gloucester, 1981), 80–1.

12 Griffiths, 457–8; ODNB, John Beaufort, 1; PR, xi, 238; Jones, ‘John Beaufort’, 83.

13 Ibid., 84–5; Harriss, 312–13.

14 Ibid., 312–13; Griffiths, 459; Stevenson, ii, 585–91. See also above, 248, 282.

15 Jones, ‘John Beaufort’, 83; Pollard, 51; Stevenson, ii, 317–19.

16 Monstrelet, v, 405–9; Michael K. Jones, ‘Ransom Brokerage in the Fifteenth Century’ in Contamine, Giry-Deloison and Keen (eds.), Guerre et Société en France, en Angleterre et en Bourgogne XIVe–XVe Siècle, 222.

17 Beaurepaire, 68, 72–3; Stevenson, ii, 308–16; i, 442; Bossuat, 272.

18 Monstrelet, v, 419–20; A. D. Carr, ‘Welshmen and the Hundred Years War’, 37. See Barker, 178ff. This was Gaucourt’s second experience of being taken prisoner in 1440; he had also been captured by the Praguerie rebels earlier in the year: Vale, 80.

19 Monstrelet, v, 418–24.

20 Jones, ‘John Beaufort, 85; Beaurepaire, 73–4; Curry, ‘The Impact of War’, 160–1; Chartier, ii, 7–8.

21 Pollard, 54.

22 Chartier, ii, 15–17.

23 Ibid., 20–2; Stevenson, ii, 463–4; Monstrelet, vi, 10; Bourgeois, 341.

CHAPTER NINETEEN: MISSED OPPORTUNITIES

1 Stevenson, ii, 603–7.

2 Griffiths, 459–60; Jones, ‘John Beaufort’, 100 n. 57; PR, xi, 199.

3 Griffiths, 459–61.

4 Monstrelet, vi, 12–21; Chartier, ii, 22–5.

5 Ibid., 25–7; Monstrelet, vi, 21–4; Ditcham, ‘“Mutton Guzzlers and Wine Bags”’, 4.

6 Allmand, ‘L’Artillerie de l’Armée Anglaise’, 81.

7 Chartier, ii, 17–18, 32; Plaisse, La Vie Municipale à Évreux, 130–1, 135, 141, 144.

8 Griffiths, 470.

9 Bossuat, 276–7; Chartier, ii, 33–4.

10 Bossuat, 277, 278 n. 1.

11 Griffiths, 461; Harriss, 318.

12 PR, xi, 316.

13 Lewis, Later Medieval France, 24–6.

14 Hilary Carey, Courting Disaster: Astrology at the English Court and University in the Later Middle Ages (London, 1992), 50, 121; Allmand, Henry V, 397 n. 52.

15 Monstrelet, v, 425–6; Lewis, Later Medieval France, 17–18. See above, 124.

16 ODNB, Eleanor Cobham, 1–3; Harriss, 321–3.

17 PR, xi, 316; Barker, 115–16.

18 Pollard, 59; Ramsay, ii, 42; Barker, 87–90; Stevenson, i, 431–2.

19 Vale, 85–6; Perroy, The Hundred Years War, 310; Ramsay, ii, 46–7.

20 Jones, ‘Ransom Brokerage’, 223–4, 233 n. 4; J. L. Bolton, ‘How Sir Thomas Rempston Paid his Ransom’, 101–18; Williams, Renewal and Reformation, 169. For Rempston’s previous captivity see also above, 123. I am grateful to M. Jack Thorpe of Erquinghem-Lys for the information on the ‘lahire’ playing-card.

21 Bossuat, 278–80; Pollard, 59; Stevenson, ii, 331–3, 360–1.

22 Chartier, ii, 36–7; Stevenson, i, 483–4; ii, 463–4; Pollard, 59–60; Allmand, ‘L’Artillerie de l’Armée Anglaise’, 77.

23 CMSM, i, 43; ii, 142, 145–7, 155–6, 164–5, 192–5, 148–9; Stevenson, ii, 335–40.

24 CMSM, ii, 200–1.

25 Ibid., 192–5.

CHAPTER TWENTY: A LAST MILITARY EFFORT

1 Harriss, 325–6.

2 Ibid., 333–4; Griffiths, 465, 479 n. 141.

3 Harriss, 334–5; Ramsay, ii, 50–1; Jones, ‘John Beaufort’, 86–9.

4 ODNB, John Fastolf, 1–3; Stevenson, ii, 575–85, esp. 580.

5 Jones, ‘John Beaufort’, 87–91; Harriss, 334–6.

6 Harriss, 329, 338, 340.

7 Michael K. Jones, ‘L’Imposition Illégale de Taxes en “Normandie Anglaise”: une Enquête Gouvernementale en 1446’, FAMA, 462; Griffiths, 467–8; POPC, v, 258–63; Pollard, 60.

8 Jones, ‘John Beaufort’, 87–9, 92; Griffiths, 468–9.

9 Jones, ‘John Beaufort’, 88, 93; Jones, ‘L’Imposition Illégale de Taxes’, 462–4, 466; Harriss, 341; CMSM, ii, 157–60.

10 Jones, ‘L’Imposition Illégale de Taxes’, 464; CMSM, ii, 159–60.

11 Jones, ‘John Beaufort’, 95.

12 Ibid.; Ramsay, ii, 7, 26, 55.

13 Harriss, 343; Jones, ‘John Beaufort’, 95–6; Stevenson, i, 439–41.

14 Harriss, 342; Jones, ‘John Beaufort’, 96; Stevenson, ii, 347; Jones, ‘L’Imposition Illégale de Taxes’, 465 n. 12.

15 Ibid., 465–8; CMSM, ii, 172–3.

16 Chartier, ii, 37–40; Monstrelet, vi, 77–8. For Ricarville’s coup see above, 180.

17 Chartier, ii, 40–2; Monstrelet, vi, 78–80; Cuttler, The Law of Treason, 35.

18 Jones, ‘L’Imposition Illégale de Taxes’, 464–5.

19 CMSM, ii, 160–5; Harriss, 341.

20 POPC, vi, 32; Griffiths, 483–4; Harriss, 343–4; Ramsay, ii, 58–9; ODNB, William de la Pole, 8.

21 Griffiths, 484; ODNB, Adam Moleyns, 1–4.

22 Griffiths, 485; Ramsay, ii, 59–60.

23 Vale, 91; ODNB, Margaret of Anjou, 1–2.

24 Vale, 73, 84; Barker, 14.

25 Monstrelet, vi, 96–107; Griffiths, 485–6.

26 Ibid., 485–6; Bourgeois, 352–3.

27 Barker, 374.

CHAPTER TWENTY-ONE: A TRUCE AND A MARRIAGE

1 Bourgeois, 353–4; Ramsay, ii, 60–1; ODNB, William de la Pole, 7.

2 Harriss, Shaping the Nation, 576.

3 PR, xii, 95–6, 98.

4 Harriss, 345–7.

5 Griffiths, 486; Stevenson, ii, 356–60; Ramsay, ii, 61.

6 Ibid., i, 450; Griffiths, 535 n. 28.

7 Ibid., 486–7; Chartier, ii, 43–7; CMSM, ii, 176–8.

8 ODNB, Richard of York, 5; Stevenson, ii, 79–86, 160–3, 168–70, esp. 85–6.

9 Ramsay, ii, 63–4; Griffiths, 487–8; Stevenson, ii, 452.

10 Griffiths, 487–8; ODNB, Margaret of Anjou, 5.

11 Griffiths, 488–9; Ramsay, ii, 64.

12 PR, xi, 412.

13 Ibid., 410–12.

14 Fowler, ‘Truces’, 207–8; Keen, 82.

15 Fowler, ‘Truces’, 208–9; Beaurepaire, 85–6.

16 Bourgeois, 354–5.

17 Vale, 95–6; Beaurepaire, 87; Carr, ‘Welshmen and the Hundred Years War’, 40.

18 CMSM, ii, 178–80; Curry, ‘The Impact of War’, 170.

19 CMSM, ii, 182–8; Carr, ‘Welshmen and the Hundred Years War’, 40.

20 CMSM, ii, 182–4.

21 Beaurepaire, 86–8, 189–92; ODNB, Richard of York, 4; PR, xi, 391; Stevenson, i, 160–3.

22 Barker, 123–7, 373; Griffiths, 490.

23 Stevenson, i, 115–16, 123.

24 Ibid., 110–11.

25 Ibid., 129–30, 144, 147, 149–52; Griffiths, 493.

26 Ibid., 492–3.

27 Vale, 97.

28 Stevenson, i, 164–7; Griffiths, 495.

29 Stevenson, ii, 638–42.

CHAPTER TWENTY-TWO: CONCESSIONS FOR PEACE

1 PR, xi, 395, 471–2.

2 Ibid., 471.

3 Ibid., 471–2.

4 Beaurepaire, 89–91; PR, xi, 392.

5 CMSM, ii, 196–7.

6 Keen, 207, 214–15; Pollard, 61; Bossuat, 281 n. 1; Beaurepaire, 92–3.

7 ODNB, John Talbot, 1, 4.

8 Harriss, 357; Ramsay, ii, 72 n. 3.

9 Griffiths, 391, 493.

10 Harriss, 357.

11 Michael K. Jones, ‘Somerset, York and the Wars of the Roses’, English Historical Review, 411 (1989), 292; ODNB, Adam Moleyns, 3; ibid., Richard of York, 6; Harriss, 357–8.

12 ODNB, Thomas Kyriell, 1; Griffiths, 506–7.

13 PR, xii, 2; Griffiths, 507; Harriss, 358.

14 Griffiths, 496–7; PR, xii, 2–3, 32.

15 Ibid., 5, 8.

16 Ibid., 5–6; Griffiths, 496–7; ODNB, Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, 8–9; Ramsay, ii, 75; PR, xii, 32.

17 Ibid.; Griffiths, 498.

18 PR, xii, 6–7; Griffiths, 356; Ramsay, ii, 77.

19 ODNB, Henry Beaufort, 12; Harriss, 411.

20 Ramsay, ii, 79.

21 Ibid., ii, 72; Foedera, xi, 152; Allmand, 280.

22 PR, xii, 34, 7; Ramsay, ii, 80–1; Stevenson, ii, 696–702, 655.

23 PR, xii, 34; Ramsay, ii, 80–1; Stevenson, ii, 665.

24 Ibid., 704–10.

25 Ibid., 708–10; Actes, ii, 269–71.

26 Stevenson, ii, 692–6; Jones, ‘Somerset, York and the Wars of the Roses’, 293.

27 Ibid.; Stevenson, ii, 685; Allmand, 281 n. 28; ODNB, Edmund Beaufort, 3.

28 For this and the following account of the conference see Stevenson, ii, 634–92.

29 English Suits, 120 n. 18; McFarlane, ‘A Business-Partnership in War and Administration’, 309–10; Massey, ‘The Land Settlement in Lancastrian Normandy’, 275.

30 Dickinson, The Congress of Arras, 116–17. For two examples of this in 1413 see Barker, 64.

31 Stevenson, ii, 676–7, 682–90.

CHAPTER TWENTY-THREE: THE SURRENDER OF MAINE

1 Stevenson, ii, 702–3.

2 Ibid., 710–18.

3 Ramsay, ii, 83; Stevenson, i, 198–201.

4 Ibid., ii, 361–8, wrongly dated to 1445; i, 202–6.

5 Stevenson, ii, 717–18; Griffiths, 503, 541 n. 120; Jones, ‘Somerset, York and the Wars of the Roses’, 298.

6 MS E30/508, National Archives; Foedera, v, i, 189; Griffiths, 503.

7 Ibid., i, 207–8.

8 Auguste Vallet de Viriville, Histoire de Charles VII, Roi de France, et de Son Époque (Paris, 1865), iii, 144.

9 Vale, 104; Lewis, Later Medieval France, 102; Chevalier, Les Bonnes Villes de France, 119. See also above, 278.

10 Claude Gauvard, Alain de Libera and Michel Zink (eds.), Dictionnaire du Moyen Âge (Paris, 2002), 560; Allmand, The Hundred Years War, 148.

11 Beaurepaire, 93–5; see also above, 329.

12 Stevenson, ii, 479–83; Ramsay, ii, 85; Pollard, 63.

13 Curry, ‘English Armies in the Fifteenth Century’, 51; Harriss, Shaping the Nation, 581.

14 CMSM, ii, 214–15.

15 Ibid., 215 n. 1.

16 Jones, ‘Ransom Brokerage’, 226; Bossuat, 320 n. 2; Jouet, 152–4; CMSM, ii, 209; Stevenson, ii, 480 n. 1; Beaurepaire, 95; Margaret Wade Labarge, Gascony: England’s First Colony 1204–1453 (London, 1980), 224, 227–8. See above, 210–12, 216–17.

17 Jones, ‘Somerset, York and the Wars of the Roses’, 299.

18 Stevenson, i, 209–20, esp. 211.

19 Ibid., 209–20, 245–6, 83–6.

20 Ibid., 218–20.

21 CMSM, ii, 206, 208–10, 212–13.

22 Ibid., 212–13, 219–20.

23 POPC, vi, 64; Ramsay, ii, 86.

24 PR, xii, 54–5.

25 ODNB, John Fastolf, 1–3.

CHAPTER TWENTY-FOUR: THE TRUCE BREAKS DOWN

1 Stevenson, i, 223–8.

2 Ibid., 228–32.

3 Ibid., 233–8.

4 Chartier, ii, 60–1; Bossuat, 323–4.

5 Stevenson, i, 280–2; Bossuat, 309–12; C. D. Taylor, ‘Brittany and the French Crown: the Legacy of the English Attack on Fougères (1449)’ in J. R. Maddicott and D. M. Palliser (eds.), The Medieval State: Essays Presented to James Campbell (London and Rio Grande, 2000), 245 n. 5, 252–3.

6 Vale, 79, 156–7; Stevenson, ii, 189–94, where Garter’s letter is wrongly dated to 1447.

7 Bossuat, 313–19; Stevenson, i, 283–5.

8 Bossuat, 320–3; Stevenson, i, 287–9; Pollard, 64.

9 Bossuat, 326.

10 Anne Curry, ‘Towns at War: Relations between the Towns of Normandy and their English Rulers 1417–1450’ in John A. F. Thomson (ed.), Towns and Townspeople in the Fifteenth Century (Gloucester and Wolfboro, 1988), 151.

11 Blondel, 23–6; Berry, 245–50; Chartier, ii, 69–71, 74 with a carter rather than a merchant as the protagonist; Stevenson, ii, 619; Jean Glénisson and Victor Deodato da Silva, ‘La Pratique et le Rituel de la Reddition aux XIVe et XVe Siècles’, in Jeanne d’Arc, 114.

12 Thomas Bassin, Histoire des Régnes de Charles VII and Louis XI (Paris, 1855), i, 204.

13 Bossuat, 334.

14 Beaurepaire, 100–2; Bossuat, 334.

15 Stevenson, ii, 496–9; Bossuat, 333; PR, xii, 107.

16 Ibid., 36–7.

17 Taylor, ‘Brittany and the French Crown’, 254–5.

18 Stevenson, i, 489; Ramsay, ii, 102.

19 Bossuat, 332, 339; Ramsay, ii, 94 n. 4, 95; Taylor, ‘Brittany and the French Crown’, 255.

20 Escouchy, iii, 145–251; Stevenson, ii, 243–64, wrongly dated to April 1449; Taylor, ‘Brittany and the French Crown’, 243–5, 256–7.

21 Stevenson, i, 263; Taylor, ‘Brittany and the French Crown’, 250–1.

22 Ibid., 249; Stevenson, i, 263. See above, 324.

23 Monstrelet, v, 454; Chartier, ii, 27.

24 Vaughan, 110; Stevenson, i, 264–73.

25 Bossuat, 339–41; Plaisse, La Vie Municipale à Évreux, 142; Chartier, ii, 80–3; Blondel, 50–63; Berry, 257–61.

26 Stevenson, i, 243–64; Bossuat, 332; Blondel, 37–45.

27 Chartier, ii, 84–7; Escouchy, ii, 191–2; Blondel, 65–70; Berry, 262–4.

28 Stevenson, ii, 620; Puiseux, L’Émigration Normande, 91–5, esp. 94; Mark Spencer, Thomas Basin: The History of Charles VII and Louis XI (Nieuwkoop, 1997), 13–21.

29 Stevenson, ii, 620; Chartier, ii, 93–4; Blondel, 70–3.

30 Spencer, Thomas Basin, 25; Bossuat, 340–1; Plaisse, La Vie Municipale à Évreux, 142; Chartier, ii, 92–3; Blondel, 77; Berry, 265.

CHAPTER TWENTY-FIVE: RECONQUEST

1 Stevenson, i, 223–8.

2 Chartier, ii, 94–101; Blondel, 78–81; Curry, ‘Towns at War’, 149–53, esp. 150.

3 Chartier, ii, 102–3; Escouchy, iii, 374; Bossuat, 286–7, 320, 342, 346–7, 372–3; Vale, 123.

4 Chartier, ii, 116–19, 159; Blondel, 88–9; Berry, 277; Vale, 123–4; Stevenson, ii, 621. See above, 332.

5 Chartier, ii, 103–14; Blondel, 83–4; Berry, 269–71.

6 Chartier, ii, 115–16; Berry, 273–5; Bourgeois, 323–4.

7 Chartier, ii, 121–2, 126–7, 130–2.

8 Ibid., ii, 122–6; Blondel, 89–96; Stevenson, ii, 625–6.

9 Pollard, 65; PR, xii, 38.

10 Chartier, ii, 137–52.

11 Stevenson, ii, 609–17; Chartier, ii, 152–4; Jones, ‘Somerset, York and the Wars of the Roses’, 302. Honfleur is sometimes mistaken for Harfleur in some accounts of the terms of surrender, but Honfleur is in Calvados and Harfleur is clearly the place meant.

12 Ramsay, ii, 100. See above, 90, 275.

13 Stevenson, i, 291–5; Chartier, ii, 172–4; Bossuat, 344–5, 348–53, 371.

14 Stevenson, i, 501–8, 510–12; Griffiths, 519; Harriss, 382; ODNB, William de la Pole, 10.

15 PR, xii, 71, 73–5; ODNB, Adam Moleyns, 3.

16 PR, xii, 92–106; ODNB, William de la Pole, 13.

17 Rowe, ‘A Contemporary Account’, 504, 507–8; Blondel, 119–20; Berry, 288, 322; Chartier, ii, 174–80; Jones, ‘Somerset, York and the Wars of the Roses’, 304.

18 Chartier, ii, 188–9.

19 CMSM, ii, 225–7.

20 Chartier, ii, 192–9; Blondel, 170–6; Berry, 330–7; Strickland and Hardy, The Great Warbow, 358–60.

21 Chartier, ii, 201–2; Berry, 336; CMSM, ii, 229.

22 Chartier, ii, 204–11; Berry, 340–3; Keen, 110 n. 2.

23 Blondel, 206–8; Chartier, ii, 202–3.

24 Griffiths, 521; CMSM, ii, 236; Chartier, ii, 214–21.

25 Vale, 138; Cuttler, The Law of Treason, 30.

26 Chartier, ii, 223–8; Blondel, 227–30.

27 Chartier, ii, 231–2.

28 Stevenson, ii, 634; i, 502, 517–18, 520–1.

29 CMSM, ii, 237–9; André Plaisse, La Délivrance de Cherbourg et du Clos du Cotentin à la Fin de la Guerre de Cent Ans (Cherbourg, 1989), 180–5; Barker, ‘The Foe Within’, 305–8.

30 Ibid., 305; Griffiths, 522.

EPILOGUE

1 Chartier, ii, 234.

2 Reynolds, ‘English Patrons and French Artists’, 309; Curry, ‘The Nationality of Men-at-Arms’, 157; Vale, 157 n. 6.

3 Thompson, 237; Reynolds, ‘English Patrons and French Artists’, 307; Tierney, ‘Discovery of the Remains’, 236.

4 Harriss, Shaping the Nation, 584; PR, xi, 117.

5 Jones, ‘Ransom Brokerage’, 228, 222.

6 Keen, England in the Later Middle Ages, 407; Ramsay, ii, 129–30.

7 Edmund Beaufort was killed at Saint Albans in 1455; Richard, duke of York, at Wakefield in 1460.

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