NOTES

1: NIMROD’S TOWER, NOAH’S ARK

1. Thomas Sprat, History of the Royal Society, London, 1667, p. 14.

2. William Wotton, Reflections upon Ancient and Modern Learning, London, 1894, pp. 1–3.

3. Edward Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, New York, n.d. (Modern Library edition) (first pub. in 6 vols., 1776–1788), vol. II, p. 1443.

4. Jerome Cardan, De subtilitate, bk. 3, Nuremberg, 1550, cited in Joseph Needham, Science and Civilization in China, Cambridge, 1954-, vol. IV, pt. 2, Mechanical Engineering, p. 7.

5. Bern Dibner, ed., The “New Discoveries”: The Sciences, Inventions, and Discoveries of the Middle Ages and Renaissance as Represented in 24 Engravings Issued in the Early 1580s by Stradanus, Norwalk, 1953.

6. Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot, On Progress, Sociology, and Economics, ed. and trans. Ronald L. Meek, Cambridge, 1973, p. 55.

7. Fred C. Robinson, “Medieval, the Middle Ages,” Speculum 59 (1984), pp. 745–56.

8. George Ovitt, Jr., The Restoration of Perfection: Labor and Technology in Medieval Culture, New Brunswick, N.J., 1987, p. 139.

9. Jean Gimpel, The Medieval Machine, New York, 1976.

10. Lewis Mumford, Technics and Civilization, London, 1934, p. 109.

11. Lynn White, Jr., “The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis,” Science 156 (1967), p. 1205.

12. Max Weber, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, trans. Talcott Parsons, New York, 1958, pp. 118–19.

13. Ernest Benz, “I fondamenti cristiani della tecnica occidentale,” in Tecnica e casistica, ed. Enrico Castelli, Rome, 1964, pp. 241–63.

14. Ovitt, Restoration of Perfection, p. 40.

15. Ibid., p. 165.

16. Tertullian, De anima, in J. P. Migne, ed., Patrologia latina, Paris, 1844, vol. II, col. 700.

17. Augustine, De civitate Dei, ed. Bernard Dombast and Alphonse Kalb, Corpus christianorum, series latina, vol. 48, Turnhout, 1955, bk. 13, ch. 21, cited in Ovitt, Restoration of Perfection, p. 79.

18. Bede, Opera exegetica: Libri quatuor in principium Genesis, ed. C. W. Jones, Corpus christianorum, series latina, vol. 118A, Turnhout, 1967, p. 51, cited in Ovitt, Restoration of Perfection, p. 80.

19. Thomas Aquinas, Summa theologiae, ed. and trans. the Fathers of the English Dominican Province, London, 1964, vol. 13, p. 125 (part 1, question 96).

20. Palladius, Historia Lausiaca, in Patrologiae cursus completus, series graeca, ed. J. P. Migne, Paris, 1857–1904, vol. 34, 2.87–96, cols. 991–1278, cited in Ovitt, Restoration of Perfection, p. 94.

21. Pachomiana latina, ed. A. Boon, Bibliothèque de la revue d’histoire écclésiastique 7 (Louvain, 1932), cited in Ovitt, Restoration of Perfection, p. 94.

22. St. Bernard, Sermons, sermon 26, cited in Ovitt, Restoration of Perfection, pp. 146–47.

23. Ovitt, Restoration of Perfection, pp. 144–45.

24. Walter Daniel, Vita Aelredi, ed. and trans. Maurice Powicke, Oxford, 1978, pp. 22–23.

25. Ovitt, Restoration of Perfection, p. 157.

26. Aristotle, Politics, trans. H. Rackham, London, 1932, pp. 638–39.

27. Aristotle, Politics, trans. Ernest Barker, Oxford, 1948, 1248b, 33ff.

28. Cicero, De officiis, London, 1913, p. 152, cited in Elspeth Whitney, Paradise Restored: The Mechanical Arts from Antiquity Through the Thirteenth Century, Philadelphia, 1990, p. 29.

29. Augustine, City of God, trans. Gerald G. Walsh, Demetrius B. Zema, Grace Monahan, and Daniel Honan, New York, 1958, bk. 22, ch. 24, p. 526.

30. Letters of Cassiodorus, trans. Thomas Hodgkin, London, 1886, p. 483, cited in Whitney, Paradise Restored, p. 67.

31. Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, ed. W. M. Lindsay, Oxford, 1911, cited in Whitney, Paradise Restored, p. 66.

32. Whitney, Paradise Restored, pp. 72–73.

33. Honorius Augustodunensis, De animae exsilio, cited in Whitney, Paradise Restored, p. 69.

34. Hugh of St. Victor, Hugonis de Sancto Victore Didascalicon de studio legendi: A Critical Text, ed. Charles Henry Buttimer, Washington, D.C., 1939, pp. 39–40.

35. The Didascalicon of Hugh of St. Victor: A Medieval Guide to the Arts, trans. Jerome Taylor, New York, 1961, pp. 76–77.

36. Ibid., pp. 55–56.

37. Robert Kilwardby, De ortu scientiarum, ed. Albert G. Judy, Oxford, 1976, pp. 139–40.

38. Roger Bacon, Opus maius, trans. Robert Belle Burke, New York, 1962, p. 36.

39. Richard Lefebvre des Noëttes, L’Attelage et le cheval de selle à travers les ages, Paris, 1931.

40. Lynn White, Jr., Medieval Technology and Social Change, London, 1962.

41. Peter F. Drucker, “The First Technological Revolution and Its Lessons,” Technology and Culture 7 (1966), pp. 143–51; John H. Meursinge, “Overlapping Histories of Technology,” Technology and Culture 8 (1967), pp. 517–18.

42. Needham, Science and Civilization, vol. I, Introductory Orientations, p. 244.

43. Joseph Glanvill, Scepsis scientifica, or Confest Ignorance, the Way to Science, London, 1665, p. 140.

2: THE TRIUMPHS AND FAILURES OF
ANCIENT TECHNOLOGY

1. Bertrand Gille, ed., The History of Techniques, vol. I, Techniques and Civilizations, New York, 1986 (originally pub. in 1978 as Histoire des techniques), p. 147.

2. Homer, Odyssey, trans. Robert Fitzgerald, New York, 1961, bk. 2, lines 94–95.

3. Jean Deshayes, “Greek Technology,” in Maurice Daumas, ed., A History of Technology and Invention: Progress Through the Ages, trans. Eileen B. Hennessy, New York, 1970 (henceforth referred to as Daumas), vol. I, pp. 187, 196; R. J. Forbes and E. J. Dijksterhuis, A History of Science and Technology, vol. I, Ancient Times to the Seventeenth Century, Harmondsworth, 1963 (henceforth referred to as Forbes and Dijksterhuis), pp. 67–68; L. Sprague de Camp, The Ancient Engineers, New York, 1963, pp. 70–71.

4. De Camp, Ancient Engineers, p. 141.

5. T. K. Derry and Trevor I. Williams, A Short History of Technology from the Earliest Times to A.D. 1900, Oxford, 1960 (henceforth referred to as Derry and Williams), pp. 120–21; Georges Contenau, “Mesopotamia and the Neighboring Countries,” in Daumas, I, p. 136.

6. Forbes and Dijksterhuis, p. 72.

7. De Camp, Ancient Engineers, pp. 39–40, 43, 92, 93; B. Gille, History of Techniques, I, pp. 257–58.

8. B. Gille, History of Techniques, I, p. 264.

9. T. C. Lethbridge, “Shipbuilding,” in Charles Singer, E. J. Holmyard, A. R. Hall, and Trevor I. Williams, eds., A History of Technology, Oxford, 1954–1959, 1978 (henceforth referred to as Singer), vol. II, The Mediterranean Civilizations and the Middle Ages, 700 B.C. to A.D. 1500, p. 564.

10. Homer, Odyssey, bk. 5, lines 244–51.

11. Homer, Odyssey, bk. 15, line 403, cited in Sabatino Moscati, The World of the Phoenicians, New York, 1965, p. 87.

12. M. I. Finley, “Technical Innovation and Economic Progress in the Ancient World,” Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 18 (1965), p. 32.

13. Deshayes, “Greek Technology,” in Daumas, I, p. 191; J. G. Landels, Engineering in the Ancient World, Berkeley, Calif., 1978, p. 59; Donald Hill, A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times, La Salle, III., 1984, pp. 132–33, citing A. G. Drachmann, The Mechanical Technology of Greek and Roman Antiquity, Madison, Wis., 1963, p. 154.

14. Landels, Engineering, p. 76; Abbott Payson Usher, A History of Mechanical Inventions, Boston, 1959 (first pub. in 1929), pp. 134–36.

15. A. J. Turner, Astrolabes; Astrolabe-Related Instruments, Rockford, Ill., 1985; J. D. North, “The Astrolabe,” Scientific American 230 (1974), pp. 96–106. A far more complex device dating from the first century B.C. was found off the island of Antikythera early in the twentieth century and identified by Derek de Solla Price as an elaborate astronomical calendar. Price pointed out that the device exploded the myth that the Greeks were weak in technology: “The technology was there…It has just not survived like the great marble buildings and the constantly recopied literary works.” (Derek de Solla Price, Science Since Babylon, New Haven, 1976, p. 48.)

16. Paul-Marie Duval, “The Roman Contribution to Technology,” in Daumas, I, pp. 245–46; E. M. Jope, “Agricultural Implements,” in Singer, II, p. 86; R. Z. Patterson, “Spinning and Weaving,” in Singer, II, p. 193.

17. De Camp, Ancient Engineers, p. 227; Landels, Engineering, p. 15; R. J. Forbes, “Food and Drink,” in Singer, II, p. 117; Deshayes, “Greek Technology,” in Daumas, I, p. 211; Duval, “Roman Contribution,” in Daumas, I, pp. 245–46.

18. Derry and Williams, pp. 123–24; Deshayes, “Greek Technology,” in Daumas, I, pp. 198–99; C. N. Bromehead, “Mining and Quarrying to the Seventeenth Century,” in Singer, II, pp. 3–7.

19. Duval, “Roman Contribution,” in Daumas, I, pp. 242–43.

20. J. P. Wild, Textile Manufacture in the Northern Roman Provinces, Cambridge, 1970, pp. 35–36, 61–72.

21. Duval, “Roman Contribution,” in Daumas, I, p. 232.

22. Ibid., pp. 219, 226; R. J. Forbes, “Hydraulic Engineering and Sanitation,” in Singer, II, pp. 670–71.

23. Joseph Gies, Bridges and Men, New York, 1963, pp. 8–11.

24. Duval, “Roman Contribution,” in Daumas, I, pp. 247, 223, 228–29.

25. Ibid., p. 224; R. G. Goodchild, “Roads and Land Travel, with a Section on Harbours, Docks, and Lighthouses,” in Singer, II, pp. 500–514.

26. Landels, Engineering, pp. 136–42; Lionel Casson, “Odysseus’ Boat (Od. V, 244–57),” American Journal of Philology 85 (1964), pp. 86–90; Duval, “Roman Contribution,” in Daumas, I, pp. 238–39; Derry and Williams, p. 197.

27. Landels, Engineering, pp. 157–58; Lynn White, Jr., Medieval Religion and Technology: Collected Essays, Berkeley, Calif., 1978, pp. 255–60. Lionel Casson lists five types of ancient fore-and-aft sail: the triangular lateen of the Mediterranean; the quadrilateral (“Arab”) lateen; the spritsail; the gaff-headed sail; the lugsail. All were apparently limited to small craft. (Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World, Princeton, N.J., 1971, p. 243.)

28. Landels, Engineering, pp. 107–9.

29. Derry and Williams, p. 58.

30. Duval, “Roman Contribution,” in Daumas, I, p. 245.

31. Finley, “Technical Innovation,” p. 30; Forbes and Dijksterhuis, p. 81.

32. Duval, “Roman Contribution,” in Daumas, I, pp. 251–52; B. Gille, History of Techniques, I, pp. 427–28.

33. Duval, “Roman Contribution,” in Daumas, I, p. 254.

34. Derry and Williams, p. 61; Kenneth Kilby, The Cooper and His Trade, London, 1971, p. 95.

35. Needham, Science and Civilization, vol. IV, pt. 2, pp. 318–19.

36. Lefebvre des Noëttes, L’Attelage et le cheval de selle, p. 5.

37. Terry S. Reynolds, Stronger Than a Hundred Men: A History of the Vertical Water Wheel, Baltimore, 1983, p. 14; Derry and Williams, pp. 250–52; R. J. Forbes, “Power,” in Singer, II, pp. 590–600; André Haudricourt and Maurice Daumas, “The First Stages in the Utilization of Natural Power,” in Daumas, I, pp. 108–9.

38. Derry and Williams, p. 32.

39. Vitruvius, De architectura, 10.1.6, cited in T. Reynolds, Stronger Than a Hundred Men, p. 30.

40. T. Reynolds, Stronger Than a Hundred Men, p. 11.

41. Forbes and Dijksterhuis, p. 76; T. Reynolds, Stronger Than a Hundred Men, p. 31.

42. White, Medieval Religion and Technology, p. 225.

43. Seneca, On Mercy, VII, 25, 2–4, cited in De Camp, Ancient Engineers, p. 254.

44. William D. Phillips, Jr., Slavery from Roman Times to the Early Transatlantic Trade, Minneapolis, 1985, pp. 22–23.

45. Finley, “Technical Innovation,” p. 37.

46. Ibid., p. 29.

3: THE NOT SO DARK AGES: A.D. 500–900

1. Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, vol. II, p. 9.

2. Henri Pirenne, Mohammed and Charlemagne, trans. Bernard Miall, New York, 1964 (first pub. in 1939), p. 140.

3. White, Medieval Religion and Technology, p. 12.

4. Derry and Williams, p. 91.

5. R. J. Forbes, “Metallurgy,” in Singer, II, p. 62.

6. White, “Technology and Invention in the Middle Ages,” Speculum 15 (1940), p. 151.

7. Carlo Cipolla, Before the Industrial Revolution, New York, 1980, p. 169.

8. Georges Duby, The Early Growth of the European Economy: Warriors and Peasants from the Seventh to the Twelfth Century, trans. Howard B. Clarke, Ithaca, N.Y., 1974, pp. 13, 29.

9. Cipolla, Before the Industrial Revolution, p. 113.

10. Duby, Early Growth, p. 3.

11. Richard Unger, The Ship in the Medieval Economy, 600–1600, London, 1980, p. 97.

12. Duby, Early Growth, pp. 8–9.

13. Robert S. Lopez, The Commercial Revolution of the Middle Ages, 950–1350, Cambridge, 1976, pp. 16–17.

14. Richard Hodges and David Whitehouse, Mohammed, Charlemagne, and the Origins of Europe: Archaeology and the Pirenne Thesis, Ithaca, N.Y., 1983, pp. 92–101.

15. Gustave Milne and Damian Goodburn, “The Early Medieval Port of London, A.D. 700–1200,” Antiquity 64 (1990), pp. 629–36.

16. David Hill, David Barrett, Keith Maude, Julia Warburton, and Margaret Worthington, “Quentovic Defined,” Antiquity 64 (1990), pp. 51–58.

17. Frances and Joseph Gies, Marriage and the Family in the Middle Ages, New York, 1987, pp. 45–46.

18. White, Medieval Technology and Social Change, p. 56.

19. Ibid., p. 61.

20. Albert C. Leighton, Transport and Communication in Early Medieval Europe, A.D. 500–1100, Newton Abbot, 1971, pp. 108–12.

21. White, Medieval Technology and Social Change, p. 63.

22. Frances and Joseph Gies, Life in a Medieval Village, New York, 1990, p. 59.

23. The Rule of St. Benedict, cited in Ovitt, Restoration of Perfection, p. 103.

24. Ibid., p. 104.

25. Gregory of Tours, The History of the Franks, trans. Lewis Thorpe, Harmondsworth, 1974, ch. III, sect. 19, p. 182.

26. Gregory of Tours, Lives of the Fathers (Liber vitae patrum), cited in Philip A. Rahtz and Donald Bullough, “The Parts of an Anglo-Saxon Mill,” Anglo-Saxon England 6 (1977), p. 20.

27. Katherine Fischer Drew, ed. and trans., The Laws of the Salian Franks, Philadelphia, 1991, p. 85.

28. Katherine Fischer Drew, ed. and trans., The Lombard Laws, Philadelphia, 1973, pp. 76–77.

29. T. Reynolds, Stronger Than a Hundred Men, p. 49; Forbes, “Power,” in Singer, II, pp. 607–13.

30. Georges Duby, Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, trans. Cynthia Postan, Columbia, S.C., 1968, pp. 16–17.

31. Ibid., p. 17.

32. Richard Holt, The Mills of Medieval England, London, 1988, p. 123.

33. Charlemagne’s Admonitio generalis, cited in Robert Latouche, The Birth of Western Economy: Economic Aspects of the Dark Ages, trans. E. M. Wilkinson, New York, 1961, p. 176.

34. Gregory of Tours, History, ch. IX, sect. 38, p. 525.

35. David Herlihy, Opera Muliebria: Women and Work in Medieval Europe, Philadelphia, 1990, pp. 42–43.

36. David Herlihy, ed., Medieval Culture and Society, New York, 1968, p. 48.

37. Herlihy, Opera Muliebria, pp. 75–81; Walter Endrei, L’Evolution des techniques du filage et du tissage du Moyen Age à la révolution industrielle, trans. from the Hungarian by Joseph Tackacs, Paris, 1968, pp. 30–31.

38. Needham, Science and Civilization, vol. I, pp. 185–86.

39. Einhard and Notker the Stammerer, Two Lives of Charlemagne, trans. Lewis Thorpe, Harmondsworth, 1979, p. 147.

40. Endrei, Evolution des techniques, p. 12.

41. Wild, Textile Manufacture, pp. 35–36.

42. Herlihy, Opera Muliebria, p. 80.

43. Wild, Textile Manufacture, pp. 61–68; Endrei, Evolution des techniques, pp. 24–25; Marta Hoffmann, The Warp-weighted Loom: Studies in the History and Technique of an Ancient Implement, Oslo, 1964.

44. Wild, Textile Manufacture, pp. 28–29; Patterson, “Spinning and Weaving,” in Singer, II, p. 196.

45. White, Medieval Technology and Social Change, pp. 1–38.

46. Bernard S. Bachrach, “Charles Martel, Mounted Shock Combat, the Stirrup, and Feudal Origins,” Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History 7 (1970), pp. 47–76; Bernard S. Bachrach, Merovingian Military Organization, 481–751, Minneapolis, 1972, pp. 113–28; P. H. Sawyer and R. H. Hilton, “Technical Determinism: The Stirrup and the Plough,” review of White, Medieval Technology and Social Change, in Past and Present 24 (1963), pp. 90–95; Frances Gies, The Knight in History, New York, 1984, pp. 9–12.

47. White, Medieval Technology and Social Change, pp. 14–24; A. D. H. Bivar, “Cavalry Equipment and Tactics on the Euphrates Frontier,” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 26 (1979), pp. 273–91; A. D. H. Bivar, “The Stirrup and Its Origins,” Oriental Art, n.s. 1 (1955), pp. 61–65.

48. Bachrach, “Charles Martel,” pp. 59–60.

49. David C. Douglas, William the Conqueror, Berkeley, Calif., 1967, p. 202.

50. Leighton, Transport and Communication, pp. 106–8.

51. Translation adapted from Einhard and Notker, Two Lives of Charlemagne, pp. 163–64, and Bachrach, “Charles Martel,” p. 61.

52. Philippe Contamine, War in the Middle Ages, trans. Michael Jones, London, 1984, p. 58.

53. Jean de Colmieu, Vie de Jean de Warneton, cited in Sidney Toy, The Castles of Great Britain, London, 1953, pp. 44–45.

54. Lambert of Ardres, Historia comitum Ghisnensium, in Monumenta Germaniae historica scriptores, ed. G. H. Pertz et al., Hanover, 1826–1913, vol. XXIV, ch. 127, p. 624.

55. Needham, Science and Civilization, vol. V, Chemistry and Chemical Technology, pt. 7, Military Technology: The Gunpowder Epic, pp. 73–89; Alex Roland, “Secrecy, Technology, and War: Greek Fire and the Defense of Byzantium, 679–1204,” Technology and Culture 33 (1992), pp. 655–79; The Chronicle of Theophanes, trans. Harry Turtledove, Philadelphia, 1982, pp. 88–89.

56. Roland Bechmann, Trees and Man: The Forest in the Middle Ages, trans. Katharyn Dunham, New York, 1990, p. 152; John Hooper Harvey, Mediaeval Craftsmen, London, 1975.

57. Michael Swanton, ed., Anglo-Saxon Prose, London, 1975, p. 113.

58. Bertrand Gille, “The Transformation of Raw Materials,” in Daumas, I, pp. 493–94; David W. Crossley, “Medieval Iron Smelting,” in Crossley, ed., Medieval Industry (Research Report 40, Council for British Archaeology), London, 1981, pp. 33–34; Jane Geddes, “Iron,” in John W. Blair and Nigel Ramsay, eds., English Medieval Industries, London, 1990, pp. 168–73.

59. W. K. V. Gale, Iron and Steel, London, 1969, p. 12; Arnold Pacey, The Maze of Ingenuity: Ideas and Idealism in the Development of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 1992, p. 12; B. Gille, “Transformation of Raw Materials,” in Daumas, I, pp. 493–95.

60. Geddes, “Iron,” p. 173.

61. Leslie Aitchison, A History of Metals, London, 1960, vol. I, pp. 248–49.

62. Ibid., p. 142.

63. Ibid., pp. 253–54.

64. Bertrand Gille, “The Problems of Power and Mechanization,” in Daumas, I, p. 448.

65. White, Medieval Technology and Social Change, p. 110.

66. Bertrand Gille, “La Naissance du système bielle-manivelle,” Techniques et civilisations 2 (1952), pp. 42–46; Needham, Science and Civilization, vol. IV, pt. 2, pp. 14–16.

67. Jean Theodoridès, “The Byzantine Empire (Sixth to Fifteenth Centuries),” in Daumas, I p. 373.

68. Robert L. Reynolds, Europe Emerges: Transition Toward an Industrial World-wide Society, 600–1750, Madison, Wis., 1967, p. 33.

69. Gregory of Tours, History, ch. II, sect. 14, p. 130; Pierre Lavedan, French Architecture, Harmondsworth, 1956, p. 83.

70. Bertrand Gille, “The Organization of Space,” in Daumas, I, pp. 529–30; Lavedan, French Architecture, p. 84.

71. Bede, A History of the English Church and People, trans. Leo Sherley-Price, Harmondsworth, 1986, p. 315.

72. B. Gille, “Organization of Space,” in Daumas, I, p. 546.

73. Leicester Bodine Holland, “Traffic Ways About France in the Dark Ages (500–1150),” Ph.D. thesis, University of Pennsylvania, Allentown, 1919, p. 6.

74. Bertrand Gille, “The Problem of Transportation,” in Daumas, I, p. 436.

75. Marjorie Nice Boyer, Medieval French Bridges: A History, Cambridge, Mass., 1976, p. 17.

76. Holland, “Traffic Ways,” pp. 63, 71.

77. Boyer, Medieval French Bridges, p. 160.

78. C. T. Flower, Public Works in Medieval Law, London, 1915–1923, cited in Boyer, Medieval French Bridges, p. 160.

79. Forbes, “Power,” in Singer, II, pp. 607–8.

80. Unger, The Ship in the Medieval Economy, p. 47; John H. Pryor, Geography, Technology, and War: Studies in the Maritime History of the Mediterranean, 649–1571, Cambridge, 1988, p. 27. That Muslim and Christian ships resembled each other is indicated by the popular ruse de guerre of concealing a ship’s identity until close to an enemy or pirate prey.

81. Unger, The Ship in the Medieval Economy, pp. 47, 49.

82. Pryor, Geography, Technology, and War, p. 27.

83. Leighton, Transport and Communication, p. 143.

84. Unger, The Ship in the Medieval Economy, p. 63; B. Gille, “Problem of Transportation,” in Daumas, I, pp. 437–38; T. C. Lethbridge, “Shipbuilding,” in Singer, II, p. 579.

85. Gwyn Jones, A History of the Vikings, New York, 1968, pp. 186–89; Lethbridge, “Shipbuilding,” in Singer, II, p. 580.

86. Unger, The Ship in the Medieval Economy, p. 88.

87. Jones, History of the Vikings, p. 187.

88. Ibn Fadlan, cited in Hodges and Whitehouse, Mohammed, Charlemagne, and the Origins of Europe, p. 123, and Jones, History of the Vikings, pp. 164–65.

89. Richard Unger, “Warships and Cargo Ships in Medieval Europe,” Technology and Culture 22 (1981), p. 242.

90. Ibid., p. 240.

91. Leighton, Transportation and Communication, pp. 15–16.

92. R. J. Forbes, Man the Maker: A History of Technology and Engineering, London, 1958, p. 105.

93. Boethius, Consolation of Philosophy, trans. Richard Green, bk. 1, poem 2, pp. 5–6, cited in John F. Benton, “Ideas of Order: Music, Mathematics, and Medieval Architecture,” Caltech Lecture Series, p. 6.

94. Ibid., p. 18.

95. Charles Homer Haskins, The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century, New York, 1963 (first pub. in 1927), p. 33.

96. Pierre Riché, Daily Life in the World of Charlemagne, trans. Jo Ann McNamara, Philadelphia, 1980, p. 208.

97. Lynn White, Jr., “Dynamo and Virgin Reconsidered,” American Scholar 27 (1958), p. 189.

98. Riché, Daily Life, p. 145.

99. James Bryce, The Holy Roman Empire, New York, 1905, p. 80.

100. P. Boissonade, Life and Work in Medieval Europe: The Evolution of Medieval Economy from the Fifth to the Fifteenth Century, trans. Eileen Power, New York, 1964 (first pub. in 1927), p. 95.

101. R. Reynolds, Europe Emerges, p. 156.

102. Lynn White, Jr., “Conclusion: The Temple of Jupiter Revisited,” in White, ed., The Transformation of the Roman World: Gibbon’s Problem After Two Centuries, Berkeley, Calif., 1966, p. 304.

4: THE ASIAN CONNECTION

1. Needham, Science and Civilization, vol. I, pp. 161–62.

2. Ibid., p. 238.

3. Ibid., p. 168.

4. Wild, Textile Manufacture, pp. 26–27.

5. Needham, Science and Civilization, vol. I, p. 187.

6. Ibid., p. 236.

7. Ibid., pp. 234–36.

8. Ibid., IV, pt. 2, p. 236; A. C. Crombie, Medieval and Early Modern Science, vol. I, Science in the Middle Ages: V–XIII Centuries, New York, 1959 (first pub. in 1952), p. 25.

9. Joseph Needham, “Poverties and Triumphs of the Chinese Scientific Tradition,” in A. C. Crombie, ed., Scientific Change, New York, 1963, pp. 125, 131–32; Needham, Science and Civilization, vol. IV, pt. 2, p. 17.

10. Needham, “Poverties and Triumphs,” pp. 126–31.

11. Needham, Science and Civilization, vol. IV, pt. 2, p. 19.

12. Ibid., vol. IV, pt. 1, Physics, pp. 239–40.

13. Ibid., vol. IV, pt. 2, p. 20.

14. Ibid., vol. I, pp. 244–48.

15. Ibid., p. 241.

16. Joseph Needham, “Chinese Priorities in Cast Iron Metallurgy,” Technology and Culture 5 (1964), pp. 402–3.

17. Needham, Science and Civilization, vol. IV, pt. 2, pp. 370–71.

18. Ibid., pp. 192–94.

19. Ibid., pp. 364–65.

20. Ibid., pp. 392–94.

21. Ibid., p. 416. The idea of the paddle-wheel boat was present in the Roman treatise De rebus bellicis, now believed to date to about A.D. 370, but the boat was evidently never actually built. E. A. Thompson, ed., A Roman Reformer and Inventor, Being a Text of the Treatise “De rebus bellicis,” Oxford, 1950; also Needham, Science and Civilization, vol. IV, pt. 2, pp. 413, 434.

22. Needham, Science and Civilization, vol. IV, pt. 2, pp. 447–64.

23. Ibid., p. 436.

24. Ibid., pp. 261–71.

25. Ibid., vol. I, pp. 230–31.

26. Ibid., p. 134.

27. Ibid., p. 129.

28. Ibid., vol. IV, pt. 2, pp. 282–84.

29. Ibid., pp. 290–95.

30. Ibid., pt. 1, p. 269.

31. Ibid., pp. 259–60, 281–82.

32. Ibid., pp. 249–51.

33. Ibid., p. 279.

34. Ibid., pt. 2, p. 233.

35. Ibid., vol. V, pt. 7, p. 1.

36. Ibid., pp. 14–15.

37. Ibid., pt. 1, Paper and Printing (Ysien Tsuen-Hsuin), p. 296.

38. Ibid., pp. 71–72, 73–76.

39. Ibid., pp. 109, 123.

40. Ibid., pp. 96–102. Marco Polo visited the mint in the Mongol capital of Kanbalu (modern Peking) and watched the paper currency being printed and issued. (Henry H. Hart, Marco Polo, Venetian Adventurer, Norman, Okla., 1967, pp. 118–19.) William of Rubruck described it as “the length and breadth of a palm [of the hand], stamped with lines similar to those of the seal of Mangu Khan.” (Manuel Komroff, ed., Contemporaries of Marco Polo, New York, 1989 [first pub. in 1928], p. 152.)

41. Needham, Science and Civilization, vol. V, pt. I, p. 365 (poem translated by Howard Winger).

42. Ibid., vol. I, p. 236; vol. V, pt. 1, pp. 297–98.

43. Derry and Williams, pp. 232–33.

44. Arnold Pacey, Technology in World Civilization, Cambridge, Mass., 1991, pp. 42–43.

45. Needham, Science and Civilization, vol. V, pt. 1, pp. 306–7.

46. Ibid., pp. 201–2.

47. Ibid., pp. 206–7.

48. Ibid., p. 304.

49. Joel Mokyr, The Lever of Riches: Technological Creativity and Economic Progress, New York, 1990, p. 39.

50. Andrew H. Watson, “The Arab Agricultural Revolution and Its Diffusion, 700–1100,” Journal of Economic History 34 (1974), pp. 21–22.

51. Philip Hitti, History of the Arabs from the Earliest Times to the Present, London, 1964, pp. 309–15.

52. Bernard Lewis, The Arabs in History, New York, 1960 (first pub. in 1950), p. 91.

53. Charles Homer Haskins, The Normans in European History, New York, 1966 (first pub. in 1915), p. 228.

54. Aziz S. Atiya, Crusade, Commerce, and Culture, New York 1966 (first pub. in 1962), pp. 236, 238.

55. Watson, “Arab Agricultural Revolution,” pp. 8–35.

56. Maureen Fennell Mazzaoui, The Italian Cotton Industry in the Later Middle Ages (1100–1600), Cambridge, 1981, pp. 21–24; Atiya, Crusade, Commerce and Culture, p. 239.

5: THE TECHNOLOGY OF THE COMMERCIAL REVOLUTION: 900–1200

1. Pacey, Technology in World Civilization, p. 20.

2. Ibid., p. 41.

3. Jones, History of the Vikings, pp. 295–300.

4. Lethbridge, “Shipbuilding,” in Singer, II, p. 581: “Were it not for the Norse custom of handing down stories of the lives of some of their prominent men, and their habit of burying their chieftains in ships, we should probably know no more about their widespread voyages than we do of those of their Irish predecessors. It seems probable that the Irish reached at least as far as Iceland, Greenland, Newfoundland, and the Azores…in large, skin-covered boats holding twenty to thirty men apiece. St. Brendan (484–577) was the most famous of these Irish explorers.”

5. R. Reynolds, Europe Emerges, pp. 185–86.

6. Herbert Heaton, Economic History of Europe, New York, 1936, p. 151.

7. Howard Saalman, Medieval Cities, New York, 1968, p. 114.

8. E. Barthélemy, Notice historique sur les communes du canton de Ville-sur-Tourbe, Paris, 1865, cited in Bechmann, Trees and Man, p. 104.

9. Robert S. Lopez and Irving W. Raymond, eds., Medieval Trade in the Mediterranean World, New York, 1955, pp. 162–84; Joseph and Frances Gies, Life in a Medieval City, New York, 1969, pp. 211–23; Joseph and Frances Gies, Merchants and Moneymen: The Commercial Revolution, 1000–1500, New York, 1971, pp. 75–82.

10. Gimpel, The Medieval Machine, p. 57.

11. Carl Stephenson, “In Praise of Medieval Tinkers,” Journal of Economic History 8 (1948), p. 29.

12. F. and J. Gies, Life in a Medieval Village, pp. 14–18.

13. Ibid., pp. 129–35.

14. Mary Gies Hatch, “De gulzige Waterwolf: Medieval Dikes in Friesland,” unpublished paper; Forbes and Dijksterhuis, pp. 141–42.

15. Duby, Early Growth, p. 187.

16. Forbes, “Power,” in Singer, II, p. 609.

17. Duby, Early Growth, p. 187.

18. T. Reynolds, Stronger Than a Hundred Men, p. 119; Derry and Williams, p. 253.

19. Bradford B. Blaine, “The Enigmatic Water-Mill,” in Bert S. Hall and Delno C. West, eds., On Pre-modern Technology and Science: A Volume of Studies in Honor of Lynn White, Jr., Malibu, Calif., 1976, pp. 167–69.

20. Forbes, “Power,” in Singer, II, p. 610; B. Gille, “Problems of Power and Mechanization,” in Daumas, I, p. 455.

21. White, Medieval Religion and Technology, p. 245.

22. Forbes, “Power,” in Singer, II, p. 610.

23. E. M. Carus-Wilson, “An Industrial Revolution of the Thirteenth Century,” Economic History Review 12 (1941), pp. 39–60; Forbes, “Power,” in Singer, II, p. 611.

24. T. Reynolds, Stronger Than a Hundred Men, p. 83.

25. B. Gille, “Problems of Power and Mechanization,” in Daumas, I, p. 455; T. Reynolds, Stronger Than a Hundred Men, pp. 79–81.

26. T. Reynolds, Stronger Than a Hundred Men, p. 106; Forbes, “Power,” in Singer, II, p. 590.

27. Holt, Mills of Medieval England, pp. 37–69. Lynn White pictured the water mill as part of the Middle Ages’ “humanitarian technology,” a “labor-saving power-machine” produced by “an instinctive repugnance toward subjecting any man to a monotonous drudgery which seems less than human.” (“Technology and Invention in the Middle Ages,” p. 156.) Pierre Dockès, in contrast, regarded it as purely an instrument of exploitation, “above all a way of redistributing income, increasing the surplus that accrued to the masters…It was practically never in the interest of the peasant to use it.” Technical progress in general, in his view, was and remains “a by-product of social struggles” and an incidental feature of man’s exploitation of man. (Medieval Slavery and Liberation, trans. Arthur Goldhammer, Chicago 1982, pp. 178–82.) The truth seems to lie somewhere between the two views.

28. Hill, History of Engineering, p. 58.

29. Ibid., p. 60; T. Reynolds, Stronger Than a Hundred Men, p. 65.

30. T. Reynolds, Stronger Than a Hundred Men, p. 63.

31. Holt, Mills of Medieval England, p. 133; T. Reynolds, Stronger Than a Hundred Men, p. 67.

32. Herlihy, Opera Muliebria, pp. 91–94.

33. Urban Tigner Holmes, Jr., Daily Living in the Twelfth Century, Based on the Observations of Alexander Neckam in London and Paris, Madison, Wis., 1966 (first pub. in 1952), pp. 146–48.

34. Thomas Wright, ed., A Volume of Vocabularies, London, 1857, p. 106.

35. Alexander Neckam, De naturis rerum, trans. Thomas Wright, London, 1863, p. 281.

36. Herlihy, Opera Muliebria, p. 95.

37. Lopez, Commercial Revolution, p. 160.

38. Endrei, Evolution des techniques, pp. 43–44.

39. Robert S. Lopez, “Still Another Renaissance?” American Historical Review 57 (1951), p. 12.

40. John H. Munro, “The Medieval Scarlet and the Economics of Sartorial Splendour,” in N. B. Harte and K. G. Ponting, Cloth and Clothing in Medieval Europe, Essays in Memory of Professor E. M. Carus-Wilson, London, 1983, p. 13.

41. Mazzaoui, Italian Cotton Industry, pp. 74–77.

42. Charles Singer, “Epilogue: East and West in Retrospect,” in Singer, II, p. 762.

43. Endrei, Evolution des techniques, p. 47; Steven Runciman, Byzantine Civilization, New York, 1956, p. 135.

44. R. Reynolds, Europe Emerges, p. 226.

45. Chrétien de Troyes, Le Conte del Graal, verses 5765ff., cited in Holmes, Daily Living, pp. 133–34.

46. John W. Waterer, “Leather,” in Singer, II, pp. 144–58.

47. Lopez, Commercial Revolution, p. 126.

48. Harvey, Mediaeval Craftsmen, p. 12.

49. F. Sherwood Taylor, “Pre-scientific Industrial Chemistry,” in Singer, II, p. 356.

50. Judith M. Bennett, “The Village Ale-Wife: Women and Brewing in Fourteenth Century England,” in Barbara A. Hanawalt, ed., Women and Work in Preindustrial Europe, Bloomington, Ind., 1986, pp. 20–36; Forbes, “Food and Drink,” in Singer, II, p. 141.

51. Eileen Power, Medieval Women, ed. by M. M. Postan, Cambridge, 1975, p. 59.

52. Duby, Early Growth, pp. 194–95.

53. R. H. G. Thomson, “The Medieval Artisan,” in Singer, II, p. 394.

54. Geddes, “Iron,” pp. 175–77.

55. John G. Hawthorne and Cyril Stanley Smith, On Divers Arts: The Treatise of Theophilus, Chicago, 1963; Bechmann, Trees and Man, p. 172.

56. Hawthorne and Smith, On Divers Arts, p. 97.

57. Nadine George, “Albertus Magnus and Chemical Technology in a Time of Transition,” in James A. Weisheipl, ed., Albertus Magnus and the Sciences: Commemorative Essays, Toronto, 1980, p. 240.

58. Lopez, Commercial Revolution, p. 143.

59. Vaclav Husa, Josef Petrau, and Alena Surbota, Traditional Crafts and Skills: Life and Work in Medieval and Renaissance Times, London, 1967, p. 152.

60. Pacey, Maze of Ingenuity, pp. 18, 25.

61. Nikolaus Pevsner, An Outline of European Architecture, Harmondsworth, 1954, p. 43.

62. B. Gille, “Organization of Space,” in Daumas, I, p. 530.

63. Pevsner, Outline of European Architecture, p. 48.

64. Henri Daniel-Rops, Cathedral and Crusade, London, 1956, p. 96.

65. Erwin Panofsky, ed. and trans., Abbot Suger on the Abbey Church of St. Denis and Its Art Treasures, Princeton, N.J., 1946.

66. William of Malmesbury, Chronicle of the Kings of England, ed. and trans. J. A. Giles, London, 1889, p. 138.

67. J. and F. Gies, Life in a Medieval City, pp. 149–51; J. R. Hunter, “The Medieval Glass Industry,” in Crossley, Medieval Industry, pp. 144–45.

68. Hawthorne and Smith, On Divers Arts, p. 57; Derry and Williams, pp. 94–95.

69. Hunter, “Medieval Glass Industry,” p. 147.

70. B. Gille, “Organization of Space,” in Daumas, I, p. 535.

71. Panofsky, Abbot Suger, excerpted in Bryce Lyon, ed., The High Middle Ages, 1000–1300, New York, 1964, p. 219.

72. Gervase of Canterbury, “Tract on the Burning and Repair of the Church of Canterbury,” in R. Willis, The Architectural History of Canterbury Cathedral, London, 1945, excerpted in Lyon, ed., High Middle Ages, pp. 220–32.

73. “Architecture and Printing; the Bible of stone and the Bible of paper”—Victor Hugo, Notre-Dame de Paris, trans. Jessie Haynes, New York, 1955 (first pub. in 1831), p. 118. The metaphor has been used by many writers, for example, Daniel-Rops,Cathedral and Crusade, p. 101: “The Bible of colour went hand in hand with, and sometimes preceded, the Bible of stone.”

74. Joseph and Frances Gies, Life in a Medieval Castle, New York, 1974, pp. 21–24; B. Gille, “Organization of Space,” in Daumas, I, pp. 539–40.

75. Contamine, War in the Middle Ages, p. 109.

76. Atiya, Crusade, Commerce, and Culture, pp. 125–26.

77. Ibid., pp. 66–67; F. Gies, Knight in History, pp. 116–18; Robin R. Fedden and John Thomson, Crusader Castles, London, 1957; T. S. R. Boase, “Military Architecture in the Crusader States in Palestine and Syria,” in Kenneth Setton, ed., A History of the Crusades, Madison, Wis., 1955–1977, vol. IV, pp. 140–64.

78. Hill, History of Engineering, p. 172.

79. Fedden and Thomson, Crusader Castles, p. 84. (The authors do not identify the “Muslim writer.”)

80. Francesco Gabrielli, Arab Historians of the Crusades, trans. E. J. Costello, Berkeley, Calif., 1969, pp. 318–19.

81. Paul Gille, “Construction and Building,” in Daumas, II, pp. 573–74.

82. Contamine, War in the Middle Ages, p. 113.

83. Joseph Needham, “China’s Trebuchets, Manned and Counterweighted,” in Hall and West, Pre-modern Technology, pp. 107–19.

84. Contamine, War in the Middle Ages, pp. 103–4; Donald Hill, “Trebuchets,” Viator 4 (1973), p. 110.

85. Contamine, War in the Middle Ages, p. 103.

86. Ibid., p. 105; White, Medieval Technology and Social Change, pp. 102–3.

87. Bertrand Gille, “The Assembling of Raw Materials,” in Daumas, I, pp. 515–16.

88. Contamine, War in the Middle Ages, p. 71.

89. Ibid., pp. 71–72.

90. Robert S. Lopez, “The Evolution of Land Transport in the Middle Ages,” Past and Present 9 (1956), p. 19.

91. Lopez, Commercial Revolution, p. 158.

92. Frank M. Stenton, “The Road System of Medieval England,” Economic History Review 7 (1936), p. 3.

93. Ibid., p. 6.

94. White, Medieval Religion and Technology, p. 287.

95. For a summary of evidence on the origin of the pivoted axle, see Leighton, Transport and Communication, pp. 118–21; for horseshoes; pp. 106–8.

96. Boyer, Medieval French Bridges, p. 161.

97. Ibid., p. 40.

98. Ibid., p. 54, quoting John Mundy, “Charity and Social Work in Toulouse, 1100–1250,” Traditio 22 (1966), p. 205.

99. J. Gies, Bridges and Men, pp. 28–31.

100. Boyer, Medieval French Bridges, pp. 127–28.

101. J. Gies, Bridges and Men, pp. 34–41.

102. Boyer, Medieval French Bridges, pp. 144–45.

103. Ibid., p. 125.

104. Bertrand Gille, “Toward a Technological Evolution,” in Daumas, I, p. 426.

105. Eugene H. Byrne, Genoese Shipping in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries, New York, 1970 (first pub. in 1930), pp. 6–7; Unger, The Ship in the Medieval Economy, pp. 140–41; Unger, “Warships,” p. 243; Frederic C. Lane, Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders of the Renaissance, New York, 1979 (first pub. in 1934), pp. 37, 106, 245.

106. Unger, “Warships,” p. 245.

107. Unger, The Ship in the Medieval Economy, p. 145.

108. Lane, Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders, pp. 207–19.

109. Needham, Science and Civilization, IV, pt. 1, pp. 330–31.

110. Neckam, De naturis rerum, p. 183.

111. Lethbridge, “Shipbuilding,” in Singer, II, pp. 583–85; Barbara M. Kreutz, “Mediterranean Contributions to the Medieval Mariner’s Compass,” Technology and Culture 14 (1973), pp. 367–83.

112. Mokyr, Lever of Riches, p. 46. “The side rudder has often, through ignorance, been condemned as inefficient. Quite the contrary; it is not a whit inferior in performance to the stern rudder (which replaced it only by offering advantages of another kind.)” (Casson, Ships and Seamanship, p. 224.)

113. Pryor, Geography, Technology, and War, pp. 30–31.

114. Ibid., p. 36.

115. Ibid., p. 35.

116. Ibid., p. 38.

117. Richard C. Dales, The Scientific Achievement of the Middle Ages, Philadelphia, 1973, p. 34.

118. Stephenson, “Medieval Tinkers,” p. 39.

119. Ibid., p. 40.

120. Tina Stiefel, “‘Impious Men’: Twelfth-century Attempts to Apply Dialectic to the World of Nature,” in Pamela O. Long, ed., Science and Technology in Medieval Society, New York, 1985, p. 188.

121. Dales, Scientific Achievement, p. 61.

122. Ibid., p. 125.

123. Lopez, “Still Another Renaissance?” p. 9.

124. John Kirtland Wright, The Geographical Lore of the Time of the Crusades: A Study in the History of Medieval Science and Tradition in Western Europe, New York, 1965, (first pub. in 1925), p. 81; Atiya, Crusade, Commerce, and Culture, pp. 230–31.

125. Cited in Sayed Jafar Mahmud, Metal Technology in Medieval India, Delhi, 1988, p. 13.

126. Forbes and Dijksterhuis, p. 9.

127. E. J. Holmyard, “Alchemical Equipment,” in Singer, II, pp. 739–41.

128. E. J. Holmyard, Alchemy, Harmondsworth, 1968 (first pub. in 1957), pp. 45–53.

129. Husa, Traditional Crafts and Skills, p. 108.

130. Dales, Scientific Achievement, p. 37.

131. Stiefel, “‘Impious Men,’” p. 196.

132. A seventh-century bishop of Noyon felt it necessary to forbid the practice of addressing the sun and moon as “Lords.” (Stephen C. McCluskey, “Gregory of Tours, Monastic Timekeeping, and Early Christian Attitudes to Astronomy,” in Isis 81 [1990], p. 13.)

133. Ovitt, Restoration of Perfection, pp. 44–45.

6: THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES: 1200–1400

1. Christopher Dyer, Standards of Living in the Later Middle Ages, Cambridge, 1989, pp. 250–60.

2. Bernard Lewis, The Muslim Discovery of Europe, New York, 1982, p. 25.

3. J. R. S. Phillips, The Medieval Expansion of Europe, Oxford, 1988, p. 105.

4. Ibid., p. 155.

5. Lynn White quotes Ibn Sa’id on Muslims in Spain in the thirteenth century: “Very often the Andalusian princes and warriors take the neighboring Christians as models for their equipment. Their arms are identical…their pennons, their saddles. Similar also is their mode of fighting with bucklers and long lances. They use neither the mace nor the bow of the Arabs, but employ Frankish crossbows for sieges and…encounters.” (“The Crusades and the Technological Thrust of the West,” in White, Medieval Religion and Technology, p. 281.)

6. Heaton, Economic History, p. 129; Husa, Traditional Crafts and Skills, pp. 162–63.

7. Heaton, Economic History, p. 154; Philippe Dollinger, La Hanse, XIIe–XVIIe siècles, Paris, 1964; M. M. Postan, “The Trade of Medieval Europe: the North,” in The Cambridge Economic History of Europe, vol. II, Trade and Industry in the Middle Ages, ed. M. M. Postan and E. E. Rich, Cambridge, 1952, pp. 223–32.

8. Faye Marie Getz, “Black Death and Silver Lining: Meaning, Continuity, and Revolutionary Change in Histories of Medieval Plague,” Journal of the History of Biology 24 (1991), pp. 265–89.

9. F. and J. Gies, Marriage and the Family, pp. 223–24.

10. Lopez, Commercial Revolution, p. 72.

11. Duby, Rural Economy, pp. 88–89.

12. Walter of Henley’s Husbandry, Together with an Anonymous Husbandry, Seneschaucie, etc., ed. E. Lamond, London, 1890.

13. M. M. Postan, The Medieval Economy and Society: An Economic History of Britain, 1100–1500, Berkeley, Calif., 1972, p. 101.

14. Duby, Rural Economy, p. 36.

15. Walter of Henley’s Husbandry, pp. 19, 29.

16. The Estate Book of Henry de Bray, Northamptonshire, c. 1289–1340, ed. D. Willis, Camden Society 3rd ser., 27 (1916), pp. xxiv–xxvii; R. A. L. Smith, “The Benedictine Contribution to Medieval Agriculture,” in Smith, Collected Papers, London, 1947, pp. 109–10.

17. Bechmann, Trees and Man, p. 143. In fourteenth-century France, forests had declined from 30 million hectares under Charlemagne to about 13 million; in England forest area fell from 15 percent of total land area at the time of Domesday to 10 percent in 1350.

18. Elton Manorial Records, 1279–1351, ed. S. C. Ratcliff, trans. D. M. Gregory, Cambridge, 1946, pp. 351, 359, 361.

19. Zvi Razi, Life, Marriage, and Death in a Medieval Parish: Economy, Society, and Demography in Halesowen, 1270–1400, Cambridge, 1980.

20. Bechmann, Trees and Man, pp. 110, 154.

21. Duby, Rural Economy, p. 334.

22. Ibid., p. 357.

23. Harry Miskimin, The Economy of Early Renaissance Europe, 1300–1460, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1969, pp. 32–72.

24. Frances and Joseph Gies, Women in the Middle Ages, New York, 1978, pp. 168–69.

25. Georges Espinas, Les Origines du capitalisme, I: Sire Jehan Boinebroke, patricien et drapier douaisien, Lille, 1933.

26. Henri Pirenne, Economic and Social History of Medieval Europe, trans. I. E. Clegg, New York, 1937, p. 187; Endrei, Evolution des techniques, pp. 91–92.

27. Pacey, Technology in World Civilization, pp. 23–24.

28. Bertrand Gille, “Machines,” in Singer, II, p. 644; Bertrand Gille, “Techniques of Assembly,” in Daumas, II, p. 92; Endrei, Evolution des techniques, pp. 52–55, 85–90.

29. Penelope Walton, “Textiles,” in Blair and Ramsay, Medieval Industries, p. 326.

30. Endrei, Evolution des techniques, pp. 163–64.

31. Ibid., pp. 50–51.

32. Ibid., pp. 59–61.

33. Ibid., p. 117.

34. Lopez, Commercial Revolution, pp. 134–35.

35. Needham, Science and Civilization, vol. IV, pt. 2, pp. 404–5; B. Gille, “Assembling of Raw Materials,” in Daumas, I, p. 512.

36. Patterson, “Spinning and Weaving,” in Singer, II, p. 207.

37. Ibid., p. 196.

38. White, Medieval Religion and Technology, pp. 274–75.

39. Mazzaoui, Italian Cotton Industry, p. 60.

40. Ibid., pp. 62, 66–68.

41. Ibid., pp. 79–80.

42. Ibid., pp. 88–90.

43. Ibid., pp. 93–94.

44. Ibid., p. 95.

45. Ibid., pp. 98–99.

46. Ibid., pp. 51–53.

47. B. Gille, “Problems of Power and Mechanization,” in Daumas, I, p. 457.

48. B. Gille, “Techniques of Assembly,” in Daumas, II, p. 98; Maurice Audin, “Printing—Origins and Early Development,” in Daumas, II, pp. 629–30; Derry and Williams, p. 234.

49. Pacey, Technology in World Civilization, pp. 42–43.

50. T. Reynolds, Stronger Than a Hundred Men, pp. 84–85.

51. Elizabeth Eisenstein, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change, Cambridge, 1979, vol. I, pp. 12–13.

52. J. and F. Gies, Merchants and Moneymen, pp. 85–86.

53. Ibid., pp. 140–43, 86. The change in business organization can be seen in the records of the Alberti company of Florence, which in 1307 employed fourteen factors and two years later twenty, all under contracts specifying salary, duties, and obligations. Ownership and management of the company remained firmly in the hands of three Alberti brothers, succeeded in time by their sons.

54. Ibid., pp. 86–87.

55. Bertrand Gille, “The Technology and Civilization of the Medieval West,” in Daumas, I, pp. 568–69; Lopez and Raymond, Medieval Trade, pp. 359–77; Edward Peragallo, Origin and Evolution of Double-Entry Bookkeeping: A Study of Italian Practice Since the Fourteenth Century, New York, 1938, pp. 3–16.

56. Peragallo, Double-Entry Bookkeeping, pp. 22–29; Iris Origo, The Merchant of Prato: Francesco di Marco Datini, 1335–1410, Boston, 1986 (first pub. in 1957); Enrico Bensa, Francesco di Marco da Prato: notizie e documenti sulla mercatura italiana del secolo XIV, Milan, 1928.

57. Lopez and Raymond, Medieval Trade, pp. 230–32; J. and F. Gies, Merchants and Moneymen, pp. 191–93.

58. George Huppert, After the Black Death: A Social History of Early Modern Europe, Bloomington, Ind., 1986, p. 18.

59. Dyer, Standards of Living, p. 189.

60. Goodchild, “Roads and Land Travel,” in Singer, II, p. 533.

61. Bechmann, Trees and Man, p. 153.

62. Cipolla, Before the Industrial Revolution, p. 289.

63. Forbes, “Roads and Land Travel,” in Singer, II, p. 533; Derry and Williams, pp. 177–78.

64. Dyer, Standards of Living, p. 209. Attempts were also made to limit indiscriminate disposal of wastewater and waste matter by dumping in the street. The “Customs of Avignon” of 1243 decreed that “no one shall have a water pipe or pipes emptying into the public street through which water flows out onto the street…with the exception of rain water or well water…Likewise, we decree that no one shall throw water onto the street, nor any steaming liquid, nor chaff, nor the refuse of grapes, nor human filth, nor bath water, nor indeed any dirt…And he who commits this offense, be he head of the family or not, shall pay a fine of two shillings.” (John H. Mundy and Peter Riesenberg, The Medieval Town, Princeton, N.J., 1958, pp. 157–58.)

65. Forbes, “Hydraulic Engineering and Sanitation,” in Singer, II, pp. 689–90.

66. Vita St. Bernardi, in Migne, Patrologia Latina, vol. 185, col. 570–72, cited in B. Gille, “Machines,” in Singer, II, p. 650.

67. Goodchild, “Roads and Land Travel,” in Singer, II, p. 533.

68. Dyer, Standards of Living, p. 191.

69. Goodchild, “Roads and Land Travel,” in Singer, II, p. 533.

70. Gimpel, Medieval Machine, p. 91. In Germany and England, the shutdown took place later, in association with the Reformation.

71. Huppert, After the Black Death, p. 53. According to Robert S. Lopez (The Birth of Europe, New York, 1967, p. 261), in Florence in 1336 there were “between 8,000 and 10,000 school boys learning to read, more than 1,000 studying mathematics and 550 to 600 grappling with literature and philosophy.”

72. P. Gille, “Construction and Building,” in Daumas, II, p. 526.

73. Dyer, Standards of Living, p. 203.

74. Paul Gille, “Hydraulic Works and Water-Supply Systems,” in Daumas, II, p. 527.

75. Lopez, Commercial Revolution, p. 126. Mundy and Riesenberg, in The Medieval Town (p. 37), break down the 130 crafts of the Paris tax list of 1292 into several groupings: 18 crafts in “alimentation and consumption goods such as firewood,” 36 in clothing and personal furnishings, 22 in metallurgy, 22 in textiles and leather, 10 in house furniture, 5 in building and monumental arts, 3 in medicine and sanitation, and 15 in “divers specialities, including banking, brokerage, and bookmaking.”

76. Dyer, Standards of Living, pp. 192, 210.

77. W. H. Auden, “In Time of War,” in The Selected Poetry of W. H. Auden, New York, 1945, p. 340.

78. John Hooper Harvey, The Gothic World, 1100–1600: A Survey of Architecture and Art, New York, 1969 (first pub. in 1950), p. 7.

79. J. and F. Gies, Life in a Medieval City, p. 139.

80. Harvey, Gothic World, p. 27.

81. Hamlet, III, iv.

82. Harvey, Gothic World, pp. 14–17, 39–52, 157–60. According to Lon R. Shelby (“The Geometrical Knowledge of Mediaeval Master Masons,” Speculum 47 [1972], pp. 397–98), master masons learned their geometry not in the cathedral schools or the universities but on the job, as part of the esoteric knowledge passed from master to apprentice and from father to son.

83. Lon R. Shelby, “The Role of the Master Mason in Mediaeval English Building,” Speculum 39 (1964), pp. 387–403.

84. Pacey, Maze of Ingenuity, pp. 51–52.

85. Harvey, Mediaeval Craftsmen, p. 64.

86. Pacey, Maze of Ingenuity, p. 47.

87. Ibid., p. 9.

88. Shelby, “Role of the Master Mason,” p. 399.

89. Ibid., p. 400.

90. Harvey, Gothic World, pp. 50–52.

91. Ibid., p. 47.

92. Pacey, Maze of Ingenuity, p. 48.

93. Gimpel, Medieval Machine, p. 141.

94. White, Medieval Technology and Social Change, p. 118.

95. B. Gille, “Problems of Power and Mechanization,” in Daumas, I, p. 448.

96. Robert Mark and Huang Yun-Sheng, “High Gothic Structural Development: The Pinnacles of Reims Cathedral,” in Long, Science and Technology, p. 127.

97. Forbes, Man the Maker, p. 117.

98. T. Reynolds, Stronger Than a Hundred Men, p. 64.

99. Bertrand Gille, “The Growth of Mechanization,” in Daumas, II, p. 53.

100. Geddes, “Iron,” p. 74.

101. B. Gille, “Transformation of Raw Materials,” in Daumas, I, pp. 494–95.

102. Gale, Iron and Steel, p. 14; Forbes, Man the Maker, pp. 117–18; Bromehead, “Mining and Quarrying,” in Singer, II, p. 74.

103. John Spencer, “Filarete’s Description of a Fifteenth Century Iron Smelter at Ferrière,” Technology and Culture 4 (1963), p. 202.

104. Gale, Iron and Steel, p. 9.

105. Aitchison, History of Metals, vol. I, pp. 246, 258.

106. “A Complaint Against the Blacksmiths,” in English Historical Documents, 1327–1485, ed. A. R. Myers, London, 1969, p. 1055.

107. Geddes, “Iron,” pp. 174–75.

108. A. R. Hall, “Military Technology,” in Singer, II, p. 723. One explanation advanced for the failure of the longbow to diffuse is that the weapon required considerable strength and skill; the crossbow, technically far more complex, was easier to employ effectively.

109. Rosemary Ascherl, “The Technology of Chivalry in Reality and Romance,” in Howell Chickering and Thomas Seiler, eds., The Study of Chivalry: Resources and Approaches, Kalamazoo, Mich., 1988.

110. A. R. Hall, “Guido’s Texaurus,” in Hall and West, Pre-modern Technology, pp. 11–52; Bertrand Gille, The Renaissance Engineers, London, 1966, pp. 28–29.

111. Needham, Science and Civilization, vol. V, pt. 7, pp. 48–49, combining passages from Roger Bacon’s Opus maius and Opus tertium.

112. Ibid., p. 49.

113. Ibid., pp. 570–79; Pacey, Technology in World Civilization, pp. 47–48.

114. Pacey, Technology in World Civilization, p. 49; White, Medieval Religion and Technology, p. 225.

115. Carlo Cipolla, European Culture and Overseas Expansion, London, 1970, p. 115 (footnote).

116. Contamine, War in the Middle Ages, pp. 139–40; Cipolla, European Culture, p. 36 (footnote).

117. Pacey, Technology in World Civilization, p. 54.

118. Petrarch, De remediis, bk. 1, dialogue 99, cited in Cipolla, European Culture, p. 35.

119. Contamine, War in the Middle Ages, p. 145.

120. Ibid., p. 196.

121. Ibid., p. 144.

122. Cipolla, European Culture, p. 36.

123. Hill, History of Engineering, p. 245.

124. D. S. L. Cardwell, Turning Points in Western Technology, New York, 1972, p. 14.

125. Derek J. de Solla Price, “Automata and the Origins of Mechanism and Mechanistic Philosophy,” Technology and Culture 5 (1964), p. 18; Pacey, Maze of Ingenuity, pp. 38–39; Needham, Science and Civilization, vol. IV, pt. 2, p. 441.

126. Hill, History of Engineering, p. 223.

127. B. Gille, “Technology and Civilization of the Medieval West,” in Daumas, I, p. 568. The earliest European text reference to the escapement is in Richard of Wallingford’s Tractatus horologii; the device it describes is somewhat different from the verge and foliot: two spur gears mounted on a common axle with their teeth set out of phase; between them an anchor-shaped pallet rotates, its ends alternately catching and releasing the projecting teeth on either gear. Bert S. Hall believes that it may have derived directly from Villard de Honnecourt’s sketched device. See Richard of Wallingford, Tractatus horologii astronomici, 3 vols., Oxford, 1976.

128. Usher, History of Mechanical Inventions, pp. 195–96. The word “clock” (French cloche, German Glocke) was probably used for the bells that rang monastic hours before the mechanical clock appeared on the scene. The English expression “o’clock” may have distinguished equal-hour clock time from elastic-hour seasonal time.

129. Cipolla, European Culture, p. 115.

130. Ibid., p. 116.

131. Hill, History of Engineering, pp. 243–44; Pierre Mesnage, “The Building of Clocks,” in Daumas, II, pp. 283–84.

132. Usher, History of Mechanical Inventions, p. 196; Cipolla, European Culture, pp. 116–17.

133. Ibid., pp. 121–22; Price, “Automata,” p. 18.

134. Usher, History of Mechanical Inventions, p. 197.

135. Jacques Le Goff, Time, Work, and Culture in the Middle Ages, trans. Arthur Goldhammer, Chicago, 1980, p. 49.

136. Cipolla, European Culture, pp. 119–20.

137. Le Goff, Time, Work, and Culture, p. 35.

138. Cipolla, European Culture, p. 119.

139. Harvey, Mediaeval Craftsmen, pp. 15–16.

140. Derry and Williams, p. 177.

141. Goodchild, “Roads and Land Travel,” in Singer, II, p. 526.

142. Boyer, Medieval French Bridges, pp. 6–7; Lopez, Commercial Revolution, p. 142; Lopez, “Evolution of Land Transport,” pp. 27–28.

143. Boyer, Medieval French Bridges, p. 105.

144. Ibid., p. 63.

145. Ibid., p. 168.

146. Ibid., p. 143 (The Sketchbook of Villard de Honnecourt, ed. Theodore Bowie, Bloomington, Ind., 1959, p. 130, plate 60).

147. Boyer, Medieval French Bridges, p. 156.

148. J. Gies, Bridges and Men, pp. 53–54.

149. Ibid., pp. 102–4; Hill, History of Engineering, pp. 70–72.

150. Marjorie Nice Boyer, “Medieval Suspended Carriages,” Speculum 34 (1959), pp. 361–65.

151. White, Medieval Religion and Technology, p. 110.

152. Bertrand Gille, “The Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries in the Western World,” in Daumas, II, pp. 18, 35.

153. Paul Gille, “Land and Water Transportation,” in Daumas, II, p. 348.

154. Goodchild, “Roads and Land Travel,” in Singer, II, p. 527.

155. B. Gille, “Machines,” in Singer, II, p. 639.

156. Stenton, “Road System of Medieval England,” p. 17.

157. Marjorie Nice Boyer, “A Day’s Journey in Medieval France,” Speculum 26 (1951), pp. 597–98.

158. Lopez, Commercial Revolution, p. 108.

159. Stenton, “Road System of Medieval England,” p. 18.

160. Derry and Williams, p. 179; Forbes and Dijksterhuis, p. 142.

161. Lane, Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders, p. 16.

162. Ibid., pp. 176–78.

163. Unger, The Ship in the Medieval Economy, p. 183.

164. Ibid., p. 186.

165. Ibid., p. 185.

166. Lane, Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders, pp. 29–30.

167. Unger, The Ship in the Medieval Economy, pp. 215–16; Phillips, Medieval Expansion of Europe, pp. 218–19; Frederic C. Lane, “The Economic Meaning of the Invention of the Compass,” American Historical Review 68 (1963), pp. 605–6.

168. Pryor, Geography, Technology, and War, p. 54.

169. Lane, “Economic Meaning of the Compass,” pp. 608–9.

170. Ibid., pp. 608–10.

171. Forbes and Dijksterhuis, p. 143.

172. Bertrand Gille, “Transportation,” in Daumas, II, p. 40.

173. Joseph and Frances Gies, Leonard of Pisa and the New Mathematics of the Middle Ages, New York, 1969, p. 58. An edition of Liber abaci (in the original Latin) was published in Rome, in Scritti di Leonardo Pisano, edited by Baldassarre Boncompagni (1857–1864). Leonardo’s Liber quadratorum (Book of square numbers) was translated into French in 1952 by Paul Ver Eecke, as Le Livre des nombres carrés.

174. J. and F. Gies, Leonard of Pisa, pp. 77–84.

175. Ibid., pp. 62–63.

176. James Gairdner, ed., The Paston Letters, 1422–1509, London, 1904, vol. VI, p. 22.

177. Singer, “Epilogue,” in Singer, II, p. 767.

178. Crombie, Medieval and Early Modern Science, vol. I, p. 97.

179. Stiefel, “‘Impious Men,’” p. 212.

180. Dales, Scientific Achievement, pp. 63–70.

181. B. Gille, “Techniques of Assembly,” in Daumas, II, p. 97.

182. Dales, Scientific Achievement, p. 61.

183. Haskins, Renaissance of the Twelfth Century, p. 310.

184. Nicholas H. Steneck, “The Relevance of the Middle Ages to the History of Science and Technology,” in Long, Science and Technology, p. 22.

185. Forbes and Dijksterhuis, p. 97.

186. Ibid., p. 98.

187. Benton, “Ideas of Order,” p. 22; Richard C. Dales, “Robert Grosseteste’s View on Astrology,” Medieval Studies 29 (1967), pp. 357–63.

188. Chaucer, Canterbury Tales, trans. Neville Coghill, Baltimore, 1952, p. 28 (Prologue, II, lines 411 ff.).

189. Crombie, Medieval and Early Modern Science, I, p. 227.

190. Ibid., p. 96.

191. B. Gille, “Technology and Civilization of the Medieval West,” in Daumas, I, p. 571.

192. White, Medieval Religion and Technology, p. 39.

193. Haskins, Renaissance of the Twelfth Century, p. 333.

194. Crombie, Medieval and Early Modern Science, I, p. 182.

195. Samuel Eliot Morison, The European Discovery of America: The Southern Voyages, A.D. 1492–1616, New York, 1974, pp. 27, 39.

196. Charles Homer Haskins, Studies in Mediaeval Culture, Oxford, 1929, p. 25.

7: LEONARDO AND COLUMBUS: THE END OF THE MIDDLE AGES

1. Lopez, “Still Another Renaissance?” p. 2.

2. Haskins, Renaissance of the Twelfth Century.

3. Bert S. Hall, “The New Leonardo,” Isis 67 (1976), p. 475. In his review of Leonardo da Vinci, the Madrid Codices, Hall quotes an “offhand remark” of Ladislao Reti, the editor of the Codices, on Leonardo’s two métiers: “At last people will start believing me when I tell them that Leonardo da Vinci was an engineer who occasionally painted a picture when he was broke” (p. 475).

4. William of Malmesbury, Chronicle of the Kings of England, pp. 251–52; Lynn White, “Eilmer of Malmesbury, an Eleventh-Century Aviator: A Case Study of Technological Innovation, Its Context and Tradition,” Technology and Culture 2 (1961), pp. 97–111.

5. Robert Brun, “Notes sur le commerce des objets d’art en France et principalement à Avignon à la fin du XIVe siècle,” Bibliothèque de l’Ecole des Chartes 95 (1934), pp. 327–46.

6. Phillips, Medieval Expansion of Europe, p. 154.

7. Audin, “Printing,” in Daumas, II, pp. 639–40.

8. Ibid., pp. 622–23; B. Gille, “Techniques of Assembly,” in Daumas, II, pp. 99–101; Derry and Williams, p. 235.

9. Audin, “Printing,” in Daumas, II, pp. 632–34.

10. A. Rupert Hall, “Early Modern Technology to 1600,” in Melvin Kranzberg and Carroll W. Pursell, Jr., eds., Technology in Western Civilization, vol. I, The Emergence of Modern Industrial Society, Earliest Times to 1900, New York, 1967, p. 101.

11. Audin, “Printing,” in Daumas, II, p. 638.

12. B. Gille, “Techniques of Assembly,” in Daumas, II, p. 100.

13. Ibid., pp. 99–100.

14. Ibid., p. 101; Derry and Williams, p. 239.

15. Derry and Williams, p. 239.

16. Ibid., p. 237.

17. Ibid., p. 236; Hall, “Early Modern Technology,” p. 101; Forbes and Dijksterhuis, p. 145.

18. Cymbeline, I, i.

19. Derry and Williams, p. 236; B. Gille, “Techniques of Assembly,” in Daumas, II, p. 101; Audin, “Printing,” in Daumas, II, pp. 646–47.

20. Elizabeth E. Eisenstein, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change, Cambridge, 1979, vol. I, p. 54.

21. Ivor B. Hart, The World of Leonardo da Vinci, Man of Science, Engineer, and Dreamer of Flight, New York, 1962, p. 61.

22. Eisenstein, Printing Press, I, p. 46.

23. Audin, “Printing,” in Daumas, II, pp. 643–44.

24. Eisenstein, Printing Press, I, p. 55.

25. Derry and Williams, p. 240.

26. Hart, World of Leonardo da Vinci, p. 62.

27. Samuel Eliot Morison, The European Discovery of America: The Northern Voyages, A.D. 500–1600, New York, 1971, p. 105.

28. A. C. Crombie, Medieval and Early Modern Science, vol. II, Science in the Later Middle Ages and Early Modern Times, XIII–XVII Centuries, New York, 1959 (first pub. in 1952), pp. 111–12.

29. Derry and Williams, p. 235.

30. Contamine, War in the Middle Ages, p. 145.

31. Jules Quicherat, ed., Procès de condamnation et de réhabilitation de Jeanne d’Arc, dite la pucelle, Paris, 1841–1849, vol. III, p. 211, cited in Frances Gies, Joan of Arc: The Legend, the Reality, New York, 1981, p. 77.

32. Ritchie Calder, Leonardo and the Age of the Eye, New York, 1970, p. 94.

33. Contamine, War in the Middle Ages, pp. 142–43; Forbes and Dijksterhuis, p. 140.

34. Cipolla, European Culture, p. 75.

35. Paul Gille, “Military Techniques,” in Daumas, II, pp. 474–75.

36. Bertrand Gille, “Military Techniques,” in Daumas, II, p. 107.

37. P. Gille, “Military Techniques,” in Daumas, II, p. 477.

38. B. Gille, “Military Techniques,” in Daumas, II, p. 103.

39. Cipolla, European Culture, p. 38.

40. B. Gille, “Military Techniques,” in Daumas, II, p. 114.

41. Needham, Science and Civilization, vol. V, pt. 7, pp. 16–18.

42. B. Gille, Renaissance Engineers, p. 58.

43. Honoré Bonet, The Tree of Battles, trans. G. W. Coopland, Cambridge, Mass., 1949.

44. A. E. Housman, “Epitaph on an Army of Mercenaries,” verse 37, Last Poems (1922).

45. B. Gille, Renaissance Engineers, p. 63.

46. Ibid., p. 12.

47. Maurice Daumas and André Garanger, “Industrial Mechanization,” in Daumas, II, p. 271.

48. Calder, Leonardo, p. 255, quoting MS. Trattato della pittura, in the Vatican Library.

49. Bert S. Hall, “Der Meister sol auch kennen schreiben und lesen: Writings About Technology, ca. 1400–1600 A.D., and Their Cultural Implications,” in Denise Schmant-Besserat, ed., Early Technologies, Malibu, Calif., 1979, p. 48.

50. B. Gille, Renaissance Engineers, p. 92; Calder, Leonardo, p. 51.

51. Hall, “Der Meister,” p. 53.

52. Bertrand Gille, “Engineers and Technicians of the Renaissance,” in Daumas, II, p. 24.

53. Frank D. Prager and Gustina Scaglia, Mariano Toccola and His Book, “De ingeniis,” Cambridge, 1972; B. Gille, Renaissance Engineers, pp. 83–86; B. Gille, “Engineers and Technicians of the Renaissance,” in Daumas, II, p. 25.

54. Hill, History of Engineering, p. 73.

55. B. Gille, Renaissance Engineers, p. 71.

56. Ibid., p. 56; B. Gille, “Engineers and Technicians of the Renaissance,” in Daumas, II, p. 23.

57. Morison, European Discovery: The Southern Voyages, p. 27; Phillips, Medieval Expansion of Europe, p. 233; Hart, World of Leonardo da Vinci, pp. 29–30.

58. Cited in Hart, World of Leonardo da Vinci, p. 142.

59. B. Gille, Renaissance Engineers, pp. 92–93; B. Gille, “Engineers and Technicians of the Renaissance,” in Daumas, II, p. 26.

60. B. Gille, Renaissance Engineers, pp. 87–89; Calder, Leonardo, pp. 97–99; Hart, World of Leonardo da Vinci, p. 167; White, Medieval Technology and Social Change, p. 114.

61. Hart, World of Leonardo da Vinci, p. 139.

62. B. Gille, Renaissance Engineers, p. 139.

63. Ibid., pp. 106–14; B. Gille, “Engineers and Technicians of the Renaissance,” in Daumas, II, p. 29.

64. B. Gille, “Engineers and Technicians of the Renaissance,” in Daumas, II, pp. 43–44.

65. Ibid., pp. 49–50.

66. Hart, World of Leonardo da Vinci, p. 30.

67. Pacey, Maze of Ingenuity, p. 57.

68. Hart, World of Leonardo da Vinci, pp. 30–31; Charles Singer, quoted in Hart, p. 24.

69. Ibid., p. 18.

70. B. Gille, Renaissance Engineers, p. 138.

71. B. Gille, “Machines,” in Singer, II, p. 654.

72. Calder, Leonardo, pp. 137–38.

73. Ibid., p. 132; B. Gille, “Machines,” in Singer, II, pp. 652–56.

74. B. Gille, “Machines,” in Singer, II, p. 656; Hart, World of Leonardo da Vinci, pp. 224–25.

75. Calder, Leonardo, p. 122.

76. Endrei, Evolution des techniques, p. 145.

77. Calder, Leonardo, pp. 79, 99, 92; Hart, World of Leonardo da Vinci, p. 273.

78. Calder, Leonardo, p. 197.

79. B. Gille, “Machines,” in Singer, II, p. 652.

80. Ladislao Reti, “Francesco di Giorgio Martini’s Treatise on Engineering and Its Plagiarists,” Technology and Culture 4 (1963), pp. 287–98. Leonardo’s own concern over plagiarism may have contributed to the obscurity into which his work sank so strangely and for so long. (Some writers have suggested that the famous “mirror writing” in which the notebooks are composed was a precaution against plagiarism, but the conjecture seems dubious.) Italian writers were more sensitive to the problem than their German peers, who regarded texts, drawings, and ideas as public property from the moment they appeared; for lack of patent protection, Gutenberg died in poverty. (Hall, “Der Meister,” p. 55.)

81. Cipolla, Before the Industrial Revolution, pp. 182–83.

82. B. Gille, “Engineers and Technicians of the Renaissance,” in Daumas, II, p. 45.

83. Ibid., p. 42.

84. White, Medieval Religion and Technology, p. 49.

85. Derry and Williams, pp. 255–56.

86. T. Reynolds, Stronger Than a Hundred Men, p. 69.

87. Needham, Science and Civilization, vol. IV, pt. 2, p. 414.

88. Bertrand Gille, “Techniques of Acquisition,” in Daumas, II, pp. 66–68.

89. Derry and Williams, p. 129.

90. E. M. Jope, “Vehicles and Harness,” in Singer, II, p. 548; B. Gille, “Machines,” in Singer, II, p. 655.

91. B. Gille, “Techniques of Acquisition,” in Daumas, II, p. 76.

92. Gale, Iron and Steel, pp. 19–20.

93. Ibid., pp. 21–22.

94. A. R. Hall, “Early Modern Technology,” p. 93; Bertrand Gille, “Transformation of Matter,” in Daumas, II, pp. 76–77.

95. Calder, Leonardo, pp. 125–26.

96. A. R. Hall, “Early Modern Technology,” p. 93.

97. Duby, Rural Economy, p. 302.

98. B. Gille, “Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries in the Western World,” in Daumas, II, p. 14.

99. Endrei, Evolution des techniques, pp. 99–103.

100. Ibid., pp. 103–4.

101. Ibid., pp. 128–29.

102. Ibid., pp. 129–30.

103. Mazzaoui, Italian Cotton Industry, pp. 131–32, 138–40.

104. Ibid., pp. 142–44, 154–58, 161–62.

105. Lane, Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders, p. 172.

106. Prager and Scaglia, Mariano Taccola, pp. 92–93.

107. B. Gille, “Machines,” in Singer, II, p. 657; Forbes and Dijksterhuis, p. 142; Paul Gille, “Sea and River Transportation,” in Daumas, II, p. 423.

108. Calder, Leonardo, pp. 128–29.

109. Mesnages, “Building of Clocks,” in Daumas, II, pp. 295–300.

110. Cipolla, European Culture, pp. 123–24.

111. Derry and Williams, p. 227; Mesnages, “Building of Clocks,” in Daumas, II, pp. 298–99.

112. Usher, History of Mechanical Inventions, p. 209.

113. P. Gille, “Military Techniques,” in Daumas, II, pp. 474–75.

114. Curt S. Gutkind, Cosimo de’ Medici, Pater Patriae, 1389–1464, Oxford, 1938, pp. 235–36.

115. Forbes and Dijksterhuis, p. 142; Calder, Leonardo, p. 129.

116. Unger, The Ship in the Medieval Economy, p. 216.

117. Cipolla, Before the Industrial Revolution, p. 176.

118. Unger, The Ship in the Medieval Economy, p. 218.

119. Morison, European Discovery: The Northern Voyages, p. 115.

120. Ibid., p. 124.

121. Unger, The Ship in the Medieval Economy, pp. 217–21.

122. Lane, Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders, pp. 41–42.

123. Derry and Williams, pp. 203–4.

124. Lane, Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders, p. 47.

125. Phillips, Medieval Expansion of Europe, p. 230.

126. Morison, European Discovery: The Southern Voyages, p. 56.

127. Not all scholars agree about the value of medieval navigational instruments. Derek de Solla Price went so far as to assert that “no good navigator really believed instruments until about the late eighteenth century.” (“Proto-Astrolabes, Proto-Clocks, and Proto-Calculators: The Point of Origin of High Mechanical Technology,” in Schmant-Besserat, Early Technologies, pp. 47–58.)

128. Calder, Leonardo, p. 51.

129. Phillips, Medieval Expansion of Europe, p. 231.

130. Unger, The Ship in the Medieval Economy, p. 215.

131. Luisa Cogliati Arano, The Medieval Health Handbook, Tacuinum sanitatis, trans. Oscar Ratti and Adele Westbrook, New York, 1976.

132. Lopez and Raymond, Medieval Trade, p. 108.

133. Ibid., pp. 108–14; Francesco Balducci Pegolotti, La pratica della mercatura, ed. Allan Evans. Cambridge, Mass., 1936.

134. Anthony Bryer, “Europe and the Wider World to the Fifteenth Century,” in Douglas Johnson, ed., The Making of the Modern World, vol. I, Europe Discovers the World, London, 1971, p. 58.

135. Cipolla, European Culture, pp. 99–101.

136. Morison, European Discovery: The Northern Voyages, p. 160.

137. B. Gille, “Techniques of Acquisition,” in Daumas, II, p. 61.

138. Phillips, Medieval Expansion of Europe, p. 244.

139. Ibid., p. 245.

140. Jones, History of the Vikings, p. 308.

141. Fernand Braudel, Civilization and Capitalism, 15th–18th Century, vol. I, The Structures of Everyday Life: The Limits of the Possible, trans. Siân Reynolds, New York, 1981, p. 407.

142. Reay Tannahill, Food in History, New York, 1973, pp. 241–42.

143. Phillips, Slavery from Roman Times, p. 176.

144. Morison, European Discovery: The Southern Voyages, pp. 95–96.

145. Cardwell, Turning Points, p. 6.

146. Needham, “Chinese Priorities in Cast Iron Metallurgy,” p. 402.

147. Timo Myllyntaus, “The Transfer of Electrical Technology to Finland, 1870–1930,” Technology and Culture 32 (1991), pp. 293–94.

148. Cardwell, Turning Points, p. 1.

149. Cipolla, European Culture, p. 16.

150. Ibid., p. 18.

151. T. Reynolds, Stronger Than a Hundred Men, pp. 96–97.

152. B. Gille, “Machines,” in Singer, II, p. 649.

153. T. Reynolds, Stronger Than a Hundred Men, p. 96.

154. Price, “Automata,” p. 21.

155. Dales, Scientific Achievement, p. 176.

156. Bertrand Gille, “Evolution of the Technical Civilization,” in Daumas, II, p. 135.

157. Cipolla, Before the Industrial Revolution, p. 112.

158. Bechmann, Trees and Man, p. x.

159. Cipolla, Before the Industrial Revolution, p. 111.

160. Lane, Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders, pp. 218–32.

161. Melvin Kranzberg, “Technology and History: Kranzberg’s Laws,” Technology and Culture 27 (1986), p. 545. Kranzberg explains his paradoxical First Law by elaborating: “Technology’s interaction with the social ecology is such that technical developments frequently have environmental, social, and human consequences that go far beyond the immediate purposes of the technical devices and practices themselves, and the same technology can have quite different results when introduced into different contexts or under different circumstances.”

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