Post-classical history

Chronology

306

Constantine I acclaimed emperor at York, northern Britain

312

Constantine’s victory at the battle of the Milvian Bridge outside Rome

313

Edict of Milan declares religious toleration

324

Constantine’s victory over Licinius at Chrysopolis and foundation of Constantinople

325

First Oecumenical Council at Nicaea

326

Helena’s pilgrimage to Jerusalem

330

11 May, inauguration of the city of Constantine, Constantinople

337

Death and Christian funeral of Constantine I

356/7

Constantius II installs relics of saints at the church of Holy Apostles

378

Valens killed by Goths at the battle of Adrianople

380

Theodosius I enters Constantinople

381

Second Oecumenical Council at Constantinople

402

Honorius moves court from Milan to Ravenna

406

Withdrawal of Roman forces from Britain

410

Rome sacked by Alaric and Goths

412/13

Constantinople expanded by new walls

437

Marriage of Valentinian III and Eudoxia, daughter of Theodosius II

437/8

Codex Theodosianus issued

451

Fourth Oecumenical Council at Chalcedon

455

Rome sacked by Vandals from North Africa

489

Theoderic’s victory at Ravenna

524

Boethius’ Consolation of Philosophy

529

Platonic Academy of Athens closed

532

Eternal Peace with Persia; Nika riot in Constantinople

533

Defeat of Vandals in Africa

534

Codex Juris Civilis issued

540

Capture of Gothic king Vitiges in Ravenna

541/2

Bubonic plague spreads throughout Mediterranean

547

4 Dedication of the church of San Vitale, Ravenna

608

Senate of Constantinople appeals to Herakleios, exarch of Carthage

610

Phokas overthrown by Herakleios, son of exarch

622

Flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina

626

Siege of Constantinople by combined Avar and Persian forces

628

Herakleios defeats Persia, Chosroes II dies

630

Herakleios returns the True Cross to Jerusalem

632

Death of Muhammad

636

Arab victory at battle of Yarmuk

638

Arabs capture Antioch and Jerusalem

642

Arabs overrun Egypt

655

Arabs defeat Constans II at naval battle of Phoinix

662

Constans II moves court to Syracuse in Sicily

674–8

Long blockade and siege of Constantinople by Arabs

680/81

Sixth Oecumenical Council at Constantinople

691/2

Caliph ‘Abd al-Malik constructs Dome of the Rock

692

Council in Trullo (Quinisext) at Constantinople

698

Arabs overrun exarchate of Carthage

711

Arabs defeat Visigoths in Spain, cross River Oxus in Uzbekistan

717–18

Siege of Constantinople by Arabs

726

Underwater volcanic eruption at Thera (Santorini)

730

Leo III dismisses Patriarch Germanos and imposes iconoclasm

740

Ekloga issued by Leo III and Constantine V; Byzantine victory over the Arabs at Akroinon

750

Abbasid revolt and removal of Caliphate to Baghdad

751

Fall of Ravenna to Lombards

754

Iconoclast Council at Hiereia; Alliance between Pope Stephen II and Pippin, king of the Franks

787

Seventh Oecumenical Council at Nicaea

800

Pope Leo III crowns Charles, king of the Franks, emperor in Rome

815

Iconoclast Council in Hagia Sophia

829

Relics of St Mark taken from Alexandria to Venice

843

Theodora ends Iconoclasm with Synodikon of Orthodoxy

858–67

Patriarch Photios, first reign, conversion of the Bulgars and baptism of Khan Boris

860

Russian attack on Constantinople

863

Mission of Constantine-Cyril and Methodios to Moravia

867

Murder of Michael III by Basil I the Macedonian

869/70

Eighth Oecumenical Council in Constantinople

877–86

Patriarch Photios, second reign

905

Birth of Constantine Porphyrogennetos

907

Fourth marriage of Leo VI

911

First treaty between Byzantium and the Rus

941

Russian attack on Constantinople

944

Second trade treaty with Rus, followed by Olga’s visit to

Constantinople

961

Byzantine reconquest of Crete by Nikephoros Phokas

965

Byzantine reconquest of Cyprus

972

Marriage of Theophano to Otto II in Rome

969

Byzantine reconquest of Antioch by John Tzimiskes

989

Baptism of Vladimir of Kiev and marriage to Anna Porphyro gennetos

992

Basil II issues first Byzantine chrysobull for Venice

1004

Marriage of Maria Argyropoulaina and Giovanni Orseolo

1004/5

Introduction of the fork to Venice

1034

Harald Hadrada arrives in Constantinople with Varangians

1046–53

Pechenegs cross Danube frontiers and devastate Balkans

1048

onwards Constantine IX Monomarchos devalues gold coinage

1054

Schism between Constantinople and Rome

1071

Normans capture Bari in southern Italy; Seljuk Turks defeat and capture Romanos IV Diogenes at the battle of Mantzikert

1082/4

Alexios I Komnenos issues second chrysobull for Venice

1082–5

Norman invasion of Epiros

1087

Seljuk Turks capture Jerusalem

1092

Alexios I Komnenos reforms the gold coinage

1095

Alexios I Komnenos appeals for western military help against the Turks

1096–9

First Crusade

1111

Basil the Bogomil burned at the stake

1146–8

Second Crusade

1171

Byzantine attack on Venetian colonies throughout the empire

1182

Further Byzantine attacks on Venetian, Pisan and Genoese property

1187

Saladin recaptures Jerusalem, expels crusaders

1189–92

Third Crusade, Richard I, ‘the Lionheart’ of England, invades

 

Cyprus

1202–4

Fourth Crusade

1203

First siege of Constantinople, flight of Alexios III Angelos,

 

Crusaders install Alexios IV with his father Isaac II Angelos

1204

Crusaders’ second siege and sack of Constantinople, establishment of the Latin Empire of Constantinople

1204/5

Foundation of rival Byzantine states in Trebizond, Nicaea and

 

Epiros

1208

Theodore I Laskaris crowned as emperor in Nicaea

1216

Theodore Komnenos Doukas captures Ohrid

1224

Theodore Komnenos Doukas captures Thessalonike

1225/7

Theodore Komnenos Doukas captures Adrianople, crowned

 

emperor in Thessalonike

1248

Mistras founded by William II Villehardouin

1249

Michael II Komnenos Doukas adopts the title Despot of Epiros

1249/50

Theological debates between Byzantines and friars at Nymphaion

1259

Michael Palaiologos defeats forces of Epiros and Achaia, William II Villehardouin taken prisoner

1261

Latins driven out of Constantinople, Michael VIII Palaiologos

 

returns in triumph

1274

Council of Lyons declares union of churches

1278

William II Villehardouin dies, Charles of Anjou inherits principality of Achaia

1282

‘Sicilian Vespers’ attack on Charles of Anjou halts his projected

 

invasion of Byzantium

1327

Ottomans capture Prousa/Bursa

1331

Ottomans capture Nicaea/Iznik

1337

Ottomans capture Nikomedeia/Izmit

1341–7

Civil war between John V Palaiologos and John VI Kantakouzenos

1342–9

Zealots seize control of Thessalonike

1351

Council in Constantinople approves doctrine of Hesychasm

1354

Ottoman forces cross Dardanelles and capture Gallipoli

1369

Ottomans capture Adrianople/Edirne

1396

Crusade of King Sigismund defeated at Nicopolis

1397–1402

Siege of Constantinople

1399–1403

Manuel II’s travels in Western Europe

1402

Timur (Tamerlane) defeats Ottomans at Ankyra, Sultan Bayezid and son Musa captured

1422

Sultan Murad II besieges Constantinople

1438/9

Council of Ferrara-Florence, another attempt at church union

1444

Murad II defeats Crusade of Christian forces at Varna

1453

29 May, Sultan Mehmed II captures Constantinople, death of

 

Constantine XI on the walls of the city

1460

Ottomans capture Mistras

1461

Ottomans capture Trebizond/Trabzon

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