Post-classical history

Further Reading

Suggested reading for additional information and sources of quotes, chapter by chapter.

Introduction: A Different History of Byzantium

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (ed. Alexander P. Kazhdan), 3 vols. (Oxford 1991)

Henry Maguire, ed., Byzantine Court Culture from 829 to 1204 (Dumbarton Oaks, Washington DC 1997).

Elizabeth Jefferys, ed., Rhetoric in Byzantium (Aldershot 2003).

Fernand Braudel, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, 2 vols. (London 1975).

Chris Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean, 400–800 (Oxford 2005).

Judith Herrin, The Formation of Christendom (Oxford and Princeton 1987).

Judith Herrin, ‘The Imperial Feminine in Byzantium’, Past and Present 169 (2000), 3–35.

Judith Herrin, Women in Purple: Rulers of Medieval Byzantium (London and Princeton 2001).

Meyer Schapiro, Late Antique, Early Christian and Medieval Art (London 1980).

Chapter 1: The City of Constantine

Chapter quote: Zosimos, New History, tr. Ronald T. Ridley (Canberra 1982), pp. 37–8.

Quote on p. 11 from The Acts of the Council of Chalcedon, tr. with introduction and notes by Richard Price and Michael Gaddis, 3 vols. (Liverpool 2005), vol. 2, p. 240.

Eusebius, Life of Constantine, tr. Averil Cameron and Stuart G. Hall (Oxford 1999).

Leslie Brubaker, ‘Memories of Helena: Patterns of Imperial Female Matron-age in the Fourth and Fifth Centuries’, in Liz James, ed., Women, Men and Eunuchs: Gender in Byzantium (London 1997), pp. 51–75.

Marina Warner, Monuments and Maidens: The Allegory of the Female Form (London 1985).

Chapter 2: Constantinople, the Largest City in Christendom

Chapter quote: Niketas Choniates, O City of Constantinople, Annales of Niketas Choniates, tr. H. Magoulias (Detroit 1984), p. 325.

Quote on p. 19 from al-Marwazi, V. Minorsky, ‘Marvasi on the Byzantines’, in his Medieval Iran and its Neighbours (London 1982), 455–69.

Quotes on p. 20 from Nadia Maria El Cheikh, Byzantium Viewed by the Arabs (Cambridge, Mass., 2004), p. 204.

John F. Matthews, Laying Down the Law: A Study of the Theodosian Code (New Haven/London 2000).

Cyril Mango and Gilbert Dagron, eds., Constantinople and its Hinterland (Aldershot 1995).

Sarah Guberti Bassett, The Urban Image of Late Antique Constantinople (Cambridge 2004).

Cyril Mango, ‘Constantinople as Theotokoupolis’, in Maria Vassilaki, ed., Mother of God: Representations of the Virgin in Byzantine Art (Milan 2000), pp. 209–18.

Philip Mansel, Constantinople: City of the World’s Desire, 1453–1924 (London 1997).

Chapter 3: The East Roman Empire

Chapter quote: The Fall of the Byzantine Empire: A Chronicle by George Sphrantzes 1401–1472, tr. Marios Philippides (Amhurst, Mass., 1980), p. 122.

Procopius, Secret History, tr. G. A. Williamson, Penguin Classics (London 1981).

Peter J. Heather, The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians (Oxford 2005).

Leslie Brubaker, ‘Sex, lies and textuality: the Secret History of Prokopios and the rhetoric of gender in sixth-century Byzantium’, in Leslie Brubaker and Julia M. H. Smith, eds., Gender in the Early Medieval World: East and West, 300–900 (Cambridge 2004), pp. 83–101.

Janet Nelson, ‘Symbols in context: inauguration rituals in Byzantium and the West in the early Middle Ages’, Studies in Church History 13 (1976), pp. 97–111; reprinted in her collection Politics and Ritual in Early Medieval Europe (London 1986).

Chapter 4: Greek Orthodoxy

Chapter quote: St Maximos Confessor, Mystagogia, quoted by Patriarch Germanos in his Commentary on the Divine Liturgy, tr. Paul Meyendorff (Crestwood, New York, 1984), p. 93.

Eusebius of Caesarea, A History of the Church from Christ to Constantine, tr. G. A. Williamson (rev. edn; London 1989); on Blandina, see Book 5.i.47–61, pp. 144–8.

Peter Brown, The Rise of Western Christendom: Triumph and Diversity AD 200–1000 (2nd edn; Oxford 2003).

William Dalrymple, From the Holy Mountain: A Journey in the Shadow of Byzantium (London 1997).

Helen C. Evans and Bruce White, St Catherine’s Monastery, Sinai, Egypt: A Photographic Essay (New York, 2004).

Evangelos Chrysos, ‘1054: Schism?’, in Cristianità d’Occidente e Cristianità d’Oriente (secoli VI–XI), 2 vols. (Spoleto 2004), vol. 1, pp. 547–67.

Chapter 5: The Church of Hagia Sophia

Chapter quote: Procopius, The Buildings, tr. H. B. Dewing and Glanville Downey (Cambridge, Mass., 1940), p. 21; also in Cyril Mango, The Art of the Byzantine Empire 312–1453 (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1972), pp. 72–8.

Quote on p. 56 from The Russian Primary Chronicle (Laurentian Version), trs. and eds. Samuel Hazzard Cross and Olgerd P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor (Cambridge, Mass., 1973), p. 111.

On the construction of Hagia Sophia, see Mango, The Art of the Byzantine Empire (as above), pp. 78–102.

Averil Cameron, Procopius and the Sixth Century (London 1985).

Anna Muthesius, ‘Silken diplomacy’, in Jonathan Shepard and Simon Franklin, eds., Byzantine Diplomacy (Aldershot 1992), pp. 237–48.

Glen Bowersock, Mosaics as History (Cambridge, Mass., 2006).

Eunice Dautermann Maguire and Henry Maguire, Other Icons: Art and Power in Byzantine Secular Culture (Princeton 2007).

Chapter 6: The Ravenna Mosaics

Chapter quote: Agnellus, Book of the Pontiffs of the Church of Ravenna, tr. D. M. Deliyannis (Washington DC 2004), p. 200.

Quote on p. 63 from Cassiodorus’ Variae I.1.3, in Theoderic in Italy, tr. John Moorhead (Oxford 1992), p. 44.

Quotes on p. 64 from Cassiodorus, Variae, tr. S. J. B. Barnish (Liverpool 1992), V.6 to the illustrious senator Symmachus, pp. 75–6; II.27 to the Jews of Genoa, pp. 34–5.

Charles Barber, ‘The imperial panels at San Vitale: a reconsideration’, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 14 (1990), pp. 19–42.

Chapter 7: Roman Law

Chapter quote and p. 78: Thomas Magistros, On the Duty of a King, tr. Ernest Barker, in Social and Political Thought in Byzantium from Justinian I to the Last Palaeologus (Oxford 1957), p. 166.

Quote on p. 75 from Ruth Macrides, ‘The Ritual of Petition’, in Dimitrios Yatromanolakis and Panagiotis Roilos, eds., Greek Ritual Poetics (Cambridge, Mass., 2004), pp. 356–70.

Quote on p. 77 from Gilbert Dagron, Emperor and Priest: The Imperial Office in Byzantium (Cambridge 2003), p. 257.

Matthews, Laying Down the Law (as above in chapter 2).

Nikos Oikonomides, ‘The Peira of Eustathios Romaios’, Fontes minores 7 (1986), pp. 169–92.

Angeliki Laiou, ‘On Just War in Byzantium’, in To Hellenikon: Studies in Honor of Spyros Vryonis Jr., vol. 1 (New Rochelle 1993), pp. 153–72.

Ruth Macrides, ‘The law outside the lawbooks: law and literature’, Fontes Minores 11 (2005), pp. 133–45.

Chapter 8: The Bulwark Against Islam

Chapter quote: Chronicle of Dionysios of Tel-Mahre, tr. Andrew Palmer, The Seventh Century in the West-Syrian Chronicles (Liverpool 1993), p. 212.

Quote on p. 85: The Chronicon Paschale, 284–628 AD, tr. Michael and Mary Whitby (Liverpool 1989), pp. 183–8.

Quote on p. 90: Chase F. Robinson, ’Abd al-Malik (Oxford 2005), p. 7.

Quote on p. 92: Raymond Davis, tr., The Book of Pontiffs (Liber pontificalis): The Ancient Biographies of the First Ninety Bishops of Rome to AD 715 (rev. edn; Liverpool 2000), pp. 73–4.

Judith Herrin, The Formation of Christendom (as above in Introduction).

Henri Pirenne, Mohammad and Charlemagne (London 1939).

Patricia Crone and Michael Cook, Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World (Cambridge 1977).

Richard Fletcher, The Cross and the Crescent: Christianity and Islam from Muhammad to the Reformation (London 2003).

Vasso Pennas, ‘The Island of Orovi in the Argolid: Bishopric and Administrative Center’, Studies in Byzantine Sigillography 4, Nicolas Oikonomides, ed. (1995), pp. 163–72.

Chapter 9: Icons, a New Christian Art Form

Chapter quote: Sermon of Eustathios of Thrace, in E. A. Wallis Budge, Saint Michael the Archangel: Three Encomiums (London 1894), pp. *79–*80.

Quote on p. 103: Greek Anthology XVI 80 tr. W. R. Paton, 5 vols. (New York and London 1916), vol. 5, p. 201.

Lucy-Ann Hunt, ‘For the Salvation of a Woman’s Soul: an icon of St Michael described within a medieval Coptic context’, in Anthony Eastmond and Liz James, eds., Icon and Word: The Power of Images in Byzantium (Aldershot 2003), pp. 205–32.

Hans Belting, Likeness and Presence: A History of the Image Before the Era of Art, tr. Edmund Jephcott (Chicago 1994).

Michele Bacci, “’With the Paintbrush of the Evangelist Luke”, Mother of God’, in Vassilaki, ed., Representations of the Virgin in Byzantine Art (as above in chapter 2), pp. 79–89.

Averil Cameron, ‘The Language of Images: The Rise of Icons and Christian Representation’, in D. Wood, ed., The Church and the Arts, Studies in Church History 28 (Oxford 1992), pp. 1–42.

Thomas F. Mathews, Byzantium: From Antiquity to the Renaissance (New York 1998).

Robin Cormack, Writing in Gold: Byzantine Society and its Icons (London 1985).

Maria Vassilaki, ed., Images of the Mother of God: Perceptions of the Theotokos in Byzantium (Ashgate 2005), esp. Thomas F. Mathews and Norman Muller, ‘Isis and Mary in early icons’, pp. 3–11.

Chapter 10: Iconoclasm and Icon Veneration

Chapter quotes: Daniel Sahas, ed. and tr., Icon and Logos: Sources in Eighth-Century Iconoclasm… (Toronto 1986), pp. 96, 101; and St John of Damascus, On the Divine Images: Three Apologies Against those who Attack the Divine Images, tr. D. Anderson (Crestwood, New York, 1980), pp. 64, 72.

Quote on p. 105: Old Testament, Exodus 20:4; Deuteronomy 5:8–9.

Quote on pp. 110–11: from Sahas, Icon and Logos (as above), p. 101.

Robin Cormack, Painting the Soul: Icons, Death Masks and Shrouds (London 1997).

Charles Barber, Figure and Likeness: On the Limits of Representation in Byzantine Iconoclasm (Princeton 2002).

Judith Herrin, Women in Purple (as above in Introduction).

Chapter 11: A Literate and Articulate Society

Chapter quote: Kekaumenos, Book of Advice and Anecdotes, unpublished translation by Charlotte Roueché (very kindly made available to the author).

Quotes on pp. 128– 9 from N. G. Wilson, Photius: The Bibliotheca (London 1994), no. 166, pp. 149–53; no. 170, pp. 154–5.

Robert Browning, ‘Teachers’, in Gugielmo Cavallo, ed., The Byzantines (Chicago 1997).

Averil Cameron and Judith Herrin, eds., Constantinople in the Early Eighth Century: The Parastaseis Syntomoi Chronikai (Leiden 1984).

Liliana Simeonova, Diplomacy of the Letter and the Cross: Photios, Bulgaria and the Papacy, 860s–880s (Amsterdam 1998).

For a helpful entry on the founder of Arab algebra, see

Catherine Holmes and Judith Waring, eds., Literacy, Education and Manuscript Transmission in Byzantium and Beyond (Leiden 2002).

Chapter 12: Saints Cyril and Methodios,
‘Apostles to the Slavs’

Chapter quote: The Vita of Constantine and the Vita of Methodius, tr. Marvin Kantor and Richard Stephen White (Ann Arbor, Mich., 1976), p. 49.

Quotes on pp. 133–4: The Vita of Constantine (as above), pp. 49 and 55.

V. Vavřínek, ‘The Introduction of the Slavonic Liturgy and the Byzantine Missionary Policy’, in Beiträge zur byzantinischen Geschichte im 9–1. Jh.(Prague 1978), pp. 255–84.

V. Vavřínek and B. Zástěrová, ‘Byzantium’s Role in the Formation of Great Moravian Culture’, Byzantinoslavica 43 (1982), pp. 161–88.

Chapter 13: Greek Fire

Chapter quote: Liutprand of Cremona, The Embassy to Constantinople and Other Writings, tr. F. A. Wright (London 1930; repr. London 1993), p. 136.

Quote on p. 145: from J. Mavrogordato, ed. and tr., Digenes Akrites (Oxford 1956), p. 219.

Quote on p. 146: from The Book of Strangers: Medieval Arabic Graffiti on the Theme of Nostalgia, tr. Patricia Crone and Shmuel Moreh (Princeton 2000), p. 40.

J. F. Haldon et al., ‘Greek Fire revisited’, in Elizabeth M. Jeffreys, ed., Byzantine Style, Religion and Civilization in Honour of Sir Steven Runciman (Cambridge 2006), pp. 290–325, with photographs at p. 312.

John Haldon, Warfare, State and Society in the Byzantine World 565–1204 (London 1999).

Chapter 14: The Byzantine Economy

Chapter quote: The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor, ed. and tr. Cyril Mango and Roger Scott (Oxford 1997), Anno Mundi 6287, p. 645.

Quote on p. 157: from Liutprand of Cremona (as above in chapter 13), p. 156.

Angeliki Laiou, ‘Exchange and trade, seventh–twelfth centuries’, in A. Laiou et al., eds., The Economic History of Byzantium (Washington DC 2002), and online at

Cécile Morrisson, ‘Byzantine money: its production and circulation’, in Laiou et al. (as above), and online at

Jacques Lefort, ‘The rural economy, seventh–twelfth centuries’, in Laiou et al. (as above), and online at

Warren Treadgold, The Byzantine State Finances in the Eighth and Ninth Centuries (New York 1982).

Nicolas Oikonomides, ‘Title and Income at the Byzantine Court’, in Henry Maguire, ed., Byzantine Court Culture from 829 to 1204 (Dumbarton Oaks, Washington DC 1997), pp. 199–215.

Leonora Neville, ‘Taxing Sophronia’s son-in-law…’, in Lynda Garland, ed., Byzantine Women, Varieties of Experience 800–1200 (Aldershot 2006), pp. 77–89.

Chapter 15: Eunuchs

Chapter quote: The Life of St Andrew the Fool, Lennart Rydén, ed., 2 vols. (Uppsala 1995), vol. 2, pp. 81–3.

Quote on p. 161: Odo of Deuil, de Profectione Ludovici VII in Orientem (The Journey of Louis VII to the East), ed. and tr. Virginia Gingerich Berry (New York 1948), p. 69.

Quote on p. 163: Liutprand of Cremona, Antapodosis (as above in chapter 14), p. 154.

Quote on p. 167: J. Mavrogordato, Digenis Akritis (as above in chapter 13), p. 131.

Quote on p. 168: John Thomas and Angela Constantinides Hero, eds., Byzantine Monastic Foundation Documents (Washington DC 2000), no. 12, Typikon of Emperor John Tzimiskes, p. 238; also available from

Kathryn M. Ringrose, The Perfect Servant: Eunuchs and the Social Construction of Gender in Byzantium (Chicago and London 2003).

Timothy S. Miller, The Orphans of Byzantium: Child Welfare in the Christian Empire (Washington DC 2003).

Shaun Tougher, ed., Eunuchs in Antiquity and Beyond (London 2002).

Chapter 16: The Imperial Court

Chapter quote: al-Marwazi, court physician of Malik Shah, Properties of Animals, tr. V. Minorsky, ‘Marvasi on the Byzantines’, in his Medieval Iran and its Neighbours (London 1982), pp. 455–69.

Quotes on p. 181: Constantine Porphyrogenitus, De Administrando Imperio, Gy. Moravcsik, ed., and R. Jenkins, tr. (Washington DC 1967), p. 55–7.

Quotes on p. 182: Porphyrogenitus, De Administrando Imperio (as above), pp. 59–61, 151.

Quote on pp. 182–3: Paul Lemerle, Byzantium Humanism: The First Phase, tr. Helen Lindsay and Ann Moffatt (Canberra 1986), pp. 325–6.

Quote on p. 184: The Fall of the Byzantine Empire: A Chronicle by George Sphrantzes 1401–1472, tr. Marios Philippides (Amhurst, Mass., 1980),

p. 67.

A. A. Vasiliev, ‘Harun ibn Yahya and his description of Constantinople’, Seminarium Kondakovianum 5 (1932), pp. 149–63.

Nadia Maria El Cheikh, Byzantium Viewed by the Arabs (Cambridge, Mass., 2004).

John Haldon, ‘Chapters II, 44 and 45 of De Cerimoniis. Theory and practice in tenth-century military administration’, Travaux et Mémoires 13 (1999).

James Trilling, ‘Daedalus and the Nightingale: Art and Technology in the Myth of the Byzantine Court’, in Henry Maguire, ed., Byzantine Court Culture from 829 to 1204 (as above in chapter 14), pp. 217–30: excellent on the virtuosity of Greek fire and court technology, two related aspects of the Byzantine ability to impress foreigners and courtiers alike.

Alexander P. Kazhdan and Michael McCormick, ‘The Social World of the Byzantine Court’, in Maguire, Byzantine Court Culture (as above), pp. 167–97.

Chapter 17: Imperial Children, ‘Born in the Purple’

Chapter quote: Jean Skylites, Empereurs de Constantinople, tr. Bernard Flusin and Jean-Claude Cheynet (Paris 2003), p. 361.

Quotes on pp. 188–9: Constantine Porphyrogenitus, De Administrando Imperio (as above in chapter 16), pp. 73–5, 113.

Quote on p. 190: Michael Psellos, Fourteen Byzantine Rulers, tr. E. R. A. Sewter (London 1966), p. 260.

Chapter 18: Mount Athos

Chapter quote: the Typikon of Athanasios (973–5), tr. George Dennis, para. 38, Byzantine Monastic Foundation Documents (as above in chapter 15), no. 13, p. 260; also at

Quote on p. 199: Typikon of Constantine IX Monomachos, tr. Timothy Miller, para. 14, Byzantine Monastic Foundation Documents (as above), no. 15, p. 289; also at

Quote on p. 200: Robert E. Sinkewicz, Saint Gregory Palamas: The One Hundred and Fifty Chapters (Toronto 1988), p. 201.

Anthony Bryer and Mary Cunningham, eds., Mount Athos and Byzantine Monasticism (Aldershot 1996).

Carolyn L. Connor and W. Robert Connor, trs., The Life and Miracles of St Luke (Brookline, Mass., 1994).

Norman Russell, The Doctrine of Deification in the Greek Patristic Tradition (Oxford 2006).

Alice-Mary Talbot, ed., Holy Women of Byzantium: Ten Saints Lives in English Translation (Washington DC 1996); includes ‘The Life of St Maria the Younger’, tr. Angeliki Laiou.

A. A. Karakatsanis, ed., Treasures of Mount Athos (2nd edn; Thessalonike 1997): an exhibition catalogue with a marvellous range of essays and photographs of the monasteries of the Holy Mountain and their art collections.

Chapter 19: Venice and the Fork

Chapter quote: Peter Damian, Institutio monialis, Opusculum 50, addressed to the nun Blanca, chapter 11, in J. P. Migne, ed., Patrologia Latina, vol. 145, col. 744.

Norbert Elias, The Civilizing Process, rev. edn tr. Edmund Jephcott (Oxford 2000).

Johanna Vroom, After Antiquity: Ceramics and Society in the Aegean from the Seventh to the Twentieth Century (Leiden 2003), p. 321.

Judith Herrin, ‘Theophano: On the Education of a Byzantine Princess’, in A. Davids, ed., The Empress Theophano (Cambridge 1995), pp. 64–85.

Donald M. Nicol, Byzantium and Venice: A Study in Diplomatic and Cultural Relations (Cambridge 1988).

William H. McNeill, Venice: The Hinge of Europe 1081–1797 (Chicago 1974).

Chapter 20: Basil II, ‘The Bulgar-Slayer’

Chapter quote: from Basil II’s law of 996 partly translated by Geanakoplos in Byzantium: Church, Society and Civilization (as above in chapter 18), pp. 245–7.

Quote on p. 219: from Marc D. Lauxtermann, Byzantine Poetry from Pisides to Geometres: Texts and Contexts (Vienna 2003), pp. 236–7; verse tr. in Paul Stephenson, The Legend of Basil the Bulgar-Slayer (Cambridge 2003), p. 49.

Catherine Holmes, Basil II and the Governance of Empire (Oxford 2006). Barbara Crostini, ‘The Emperor Basil II’s Cultural Life’, Byzantion 66 (1996), pp. 55–81.

Chapter 21: The Eleventh-Century Crisis

Chapter quote: Jean Skylitzes, Empereurs de Constantinople, tr. Flusin and Cheynet (as above in chapter 17), p. 393.

Quote on p. 230: Michael Psellos, Fourteen Byzantine Rulers, tr. E. R. A. Sewter (London 1966), p. 327–8.

Costas Kaplanis, ‘The Debasement of the “Dollar of the Middle Ages”’, Journal of Economic History 63.3 (2003), pp. 768–801.

Nikos Oikonomides, ‘The Peira of Eustathios Romaios’ (as above in chapter 7).

Katerina Ierodiakonou, ed., Byzantine Philosophy and its Ancient Sources (Oxford 2002), with helpful articles on Psellos by the editor, John Duffy and Polymnia Athanassiadi.

Chapter 22: Anna Komnene

Chapter quote: from Eulogy for Anna Comnène, in Jean Darrouzeòs, ed., Georges et Deòmeòtrios Tornikeòs, Lettres et Discours (Paris 1970), pp. 220– 323.

Quotes on p. 233–8: from The Alexiad of Anna Comnena, tr. E. R. A. Sewter, Penguin Classics (London 1969), pp. 104–5, 112, 115–20, 129–30, 366– 8, 504.

Thalia Gouma-Peterson, ed., Anna Komnene and Her Times (New York and London 2000).

Paul Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 1143–80 (Cambridge 1993).

Chapter 23: A Cosmopolitan Society

Chapter quote: John Tzetzes, tr. A. P. Kazhdan and Ann Wharton Epstein, in Change in Byzantine Culture in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries (Berkeley and Los Angeles 1985), pp. 259–60.

Quote on p. 245: Snorri Sturlson, King Harald’s Saga, tr. M. Magnusson and H. Pálsson, Penguin Classics (London 2005), p. 63.

Quotes on p. 250: Barry Baldwin, tr., Timarion (Detroit 1984), pp. 43–5; Nadia Maria El Cheikh, Byzantium Viewed by the Arabs (Cambridge, Mass., 2004), p. 206.

Krijnie Ciggaar, Western Travellers to Constantinople: The West and Byzantium, 962–1204 (Leiden 1996).

Sandra Benjamin, ed., The World of Benjamin of Tudela: A Medieval Mediterranean Travelogue (Madison, Calif., 1995).

S. Blöndal and B. S. Benedikz, The Varangians of Byzantium (Cambridge 1978).

Lynda Garland and Stephen Rapp, ‘Mary “of Alania”: Woman and Empress Between Two Worlds’, in Garland, ed., Byzantine Women (as above in chapter 14), pp. 91–123.

Chapter 24: The Fulcrum of the Crusades

Chapter quote: Pope Urban II, as reported by Guibert of Nogent, tr. A. C. Krey, from The First Crusade. The Chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres and other source materials, Edward Peters, ed. (2nd edn; Philadelphia 1998), pp. 35–6.

Quotes on p. 256: from Fulcher of Chartres (as above), pp. 52–3; and from Robert of Rheims (as above), pp. 27–8.

Quotes on p. 257: from Solomon ben Simpson of Speyer (as above), p. 126; and from Albert of Aachen (as above), p. 139.

Quote on p. 263: from Geoffrey Villehardouin, Joinville and Villehardouin, Chronicles of the Crusades, tr. M. B. B. Shaw, Penguin Classics (London 1963), pp. 82–3.

Quotes on p. 264: from Gunther of Pairis, in Alfred. J. Andrea, ed. and tr., The Capture of Constantinople. The ‘Historia Constantinopolitana’ of Gunther of Pairis (Philadelphia 1997), p. 107; and from Niketas Choniates, tr. H. Magoulias, O City of Constantinople(as above in chapter 2), pp. 315–16.

Paul Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 1143–1180 (as above in chapter 22).

David Abulafia, Frederick II: A Medieval Emperor (2nd edn; London 2002).

Jonathan Harris, Byzantium and the Crusades (London and New York 2003).

Site with images of the famous Psalter made for Queen Melisende in the British Library

Chapter 25: The Towers of Trebizond, Arta,
Nicaea and Thessalonike

Chapter quote: from John Geometres, tr. Henry Maguire, ‘The beauty of castles: a tenth-century description of a tower at Constantinople’, Deltion tes Christianikes Archaiologikes Etaireias 17 (1993–4), pp. 21–4.

Quote on p. 270: from Michael Choniates, tr. Judith Herrin, ‘The collapse of the Byzantine Empire in the twelfth century: a study of a medieval economy’, University of Birmingham Historical Journal 12 (1970), p. 198.

Quotes on p. 277: Nicaea: A Byzantine Capital and its Praises, tr. Clive Foss (Brookline, Mass., 1996), pp. 132, 143.

Quotes on p. 278: from Theodore Metochites, in Nicaea, tr. Foss (as above), pp. 177–9.

A. Laiou, ed., Urbs Capta: The Fourth Crusade and its Consequences (Paris 2005).

Rose Macaulay, The Towers of Trebizond (London 1956, and frequently reprinted).

N. Oikonomides, ‘The Chancery of the Grand Komnenoi: Imperial Tradition and Political Reality’, Archeion Pontou 35 (1979), pp. 321–32.

J. O. Rosenqvist, ed. and tr., The Hagiographic Dossier of St Eugenios of Trebizond in Codex Athous Dionysiou 154 (Uppsala 1996).

A. A. M. Bryer, The Empire of Trebizond and the Pontos (London 1988). On Byzantine influence in the Balkans, see S. Ćurčić, ‘Religious Settings of the Late Byzantine Sphere’, in Helen C. Evans, ed., Byzantium: Faith and Power 1261–1557 (New Haven 2004), pp. 65–77.

Michael Angold, A Byzantine Government in Exile: Government and Society under the Laskarids of Nicaea, 1204–61 (London 1974).

Michael Angold, Church and Society in Byzantium under the Comneni: 1081–1261 (Cambridge 1995).

Donald M. Nicol, The Despotate of Epiros (Oxford 1957).

Harold E. Lurier, tr., Crusaders as Conquerors: The Chronicle of Morea (London 1964).

Chapter 26: Rebels and Patrons

Chapter quote: ‘Alexios Makrembolites and his Dialogue between the Poor and the Rich’, tr. Ihor Ševčenko, in Zbornik Radova Vizantološgog Instituta 6 (1960), p. 222.

Quote on p. 287: from Alexios Makrembolites (as above), p. 219.

Quote on p. 289: from John Kantakouzenos, tr. Donald M. Nicol, The Last Centuries of Byzantium 1261–1453 (2nd edn; Cambridge 1993), pp. 193–4.

Quote on p. 294: from Plethon, tr. C. M. Woodhouse, George Gemistos Plethon: The Last of the Hellenes (Oxford 1986), pp. 104–5.

Quote on p. 295: Plethon’s prayer to Zeus (as above), pp. 328–9.

John W. Barker, ‘Late Byzantine Thessalonike: A Second City’s Challenges and Response’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 57 (2003), Symposium on Late Byzantine Thessalonike, pp. 5–26.

Franz Tinnefeld, ‘Intellectuals in late Byzantine Thessalonike’ (as above), pp. 153–72.

Steven Runciman, Mistra: Byzantine Capital of the Peloponnese (London 1980).

Steven Runciman, The Sicilian Vespers: A History of the Mediterranean World in the Later Thirteenth Century (Cambridge 1958).

Manolis Chatzidakis, Mystras: The Medieval City and the Castle (Athens 1981).

Chapter 27: ‘Better the Turkish Turban than the Papal Tiara’

Chapter quote: attributed to Notaras, see Doukas, Decline and Fall of Byzantium to the Ottoman Turks, tr. Harry J. Magoulias (Detroit 1975), p. 210.

Quotes on p. 303: from Michael VIII Palaiologos, tr. in Geanakoplos, Byzantium: Church, Society and Civilization (as above in chapter 18), p. 219; from George Metochites, On the Procession of the Holy Spirit, in Geanakoplos, Byzantium (as above), p. 158; and from an anonymous pamphlet, the Libellus of c. 1274, against the union of churches, tr. in Geanakoplos (as above), pp. 179–88.

Quotes on p. 304: from the Libellus (as above).

Quote on p. 308: from Doukas, Decline and Fall (as above), p. 204.

Colin Imber, The Ottoman Empire 1300–’1656: The Structure of Power (Houndmills and New York 2002).

Donald M. Nicol, The Last Centuries of Byzantium (as above in chapter 26).

Deno Geanakoplos, Interaction of Sibling Byzantine and Western Cultures in the Middle Ages and Renaissance (New Haven 1976).

Jacques le Goff, The Birth of Purgatory (Chicago 1984).

Chapter 28: The Siege of 1453

Chapter quote: Nicolò Barbaro, Diary of the Siege of Constantinople, 1453, tr. J. R. Jones (New York 1969), p. 61.

Quote on p. 311: from Laonikos Chalkokondyles, Demonstrations of Histories, tr. Nicolaos Nicoulides (Athens 1996), pp. 131–3.

Quotes on p. 313: from the letters of Manuel II, tr. George Dennis, The Letters of Manuel II Palaeologus: Text, Translation and Notes (Washington DC 1977), pp. 100–103; and from Adam of Usk, tr. E. M. Thompson, The Chronicle of Adam of Usk, AD 1377–’1421(2nd edn; Oxford 1904), p. 220.

Quotes on p. 315: from Demetrios Kydones, tr. Speros Vryonis Jr., The Decline of Medieval Hellenism in Asia Minor and the Process of Islamization from the Eleventh through the Fifteenth Century (Berkeley/Los Angeles/London 1986), p. 307; on the number of bishoprics, ibid., p. 286.

Quote on p. 317: from John Kananos, tr. in Geanakoplos, Byzantium: Church, Society and Civilization (as above in chapter 18), pp. 387–8.

Quotes on p. 315: from Nicolò Barbaro, Diary of the Siege of Constantinople (as above), p. 60.

Justin Marozzi, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam, Conqueror of the World (London 2004).

Roger Crowley, Constantinople: The Last Great Siege, 1453 (London 2005).

Steven Runciman, The Last Byzantine Renaissance (Cambridge 1970).

Conclusion: The Greatness and Legacy of Byzantium

Quote on p. 321: Edward Gibbon, History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, J. B. Bury, ed. (London 1909–14), stresses the passivity of Byzantium in the ninth volume, at the beginning of chapter 48, where he lists the defects of the empire and outlines the plan of the last four volumes.

Quotes on p. 322: from William Lecky, A History of European Morals from Augustus to Charlemagne, 2 vols. (London 1869), vol. 2, p. 13; and from Cosmas Indicopleustes, The Christian Topography, tr. J. W. McKrindle (London 1897), p. 73.

Quote on p. 326: from Manuel II’s Dialogue with a Persian, Entretiens avec un Musulman, 7e controverse, tr. Theodore Khoury (Paris 1966), quoted by Pope Benedict XVI, Lecture given in the Aula Magna of the University of Regensberg. The extract from Manuel II’s Dialogue had been edited with a French translation by Professor Theodore Khoury. The full Greek text was edited with a German commentary by Karl Förstel, Manuel II. Palaiologus, Dialoge mit einem Muslim, 3 vols. (Würzburg-Altenberge 1993–6).

Quote on p. 327: from Pope Benedict’s Lecture. For the full text, see

Quote on p. 332: C. M. Woodhouse, George Gemistos Plethon (as above in chapter 26), p. 150.

Steven W. Reinert, ‘Manuel II and his Müderris’, in S.Ćurčić and D. Mouriki, eds., Twilight of Byzantium (Princeton 1991), pp. 39–51.

Chris Wickham, ‘Ninth-century Byzantium through western eyes’, in Byzantium in the Ninth Century: Dead or Alive?, Leslie Brubaker, ed. (Aldershot 1998), pp. 245–56.

Chase F. Robinson, ’Abd al-Malik (as above in chapter 8), p. 7.

Sidney Griffith, ‘Images, Islam and Christian icons’, in P. Canivet and J. P. Rey-Coquais, eds., La Syrie de Byzance à l’Islam (Damascus 1992), pp. 121–38.

On bezants, see The ‘Historia Constantinopolitana’ of Gunther of Pairis, Alfred. J. Andrea, ed. (as above in chapter 24), p. 100; ‘“modern people”call these gold coins byzants, because they were minted in Byzantion’. In c. 1400, Wyclif used the term ‘bezant’ to translate the Greek drachma of the Bible, and it occurs in the Morte d’Arthur and Chanson de Roland.

Glen Bowersock, Mosaics as History (as above in chapter 5).

Judith Herrin, ‘Mathematical Mysteries in Byzantium: The Transmission of Fermat’s Last Theorem’, Dialogos: Hellenic Studies Review 6 (1999), 22–42.

Helen C. Evans and William D. Wixom, eds., The Glory of Byzantium: Art and Culture of the Middle Byzantine Era AD 843–’1261 (New York 1997).

Helen C. Evans, ed., Byzantium: Faith and Power (as above in chapter 25).

Robert S. Nelson and Kristen M. Collins, eds., Holy Image, Hallowed Ground: Icons from Sinai (Los Angeles 2006).

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