Post-classical history

NOTES

INTRODUCTION TO THE 700TH ANNIVERSARY EDITION

1

Letter from Robert the Bruce to Edward II (London, British Library, MS Cotton Titus A XIX, f. 87r).

2

As a result the crest subsequently adopted by the Grey family took the form of a scaling ladder.

INTRODUCTION

1

As a result the crest subsequently adopted by the Grey family took the form of a scaling ladder.

2

Chronicle of Lanercost, 208.

PROLOGUE

1

Murison, A F, Sir William Wallace, 105.

CHAPTER ONE

1

Fergusson, J, William Wallace, 9.

2

Barrow, G W S, Robert Bruce and the Community of Scotland, 12.

3

Traquair, Peter, Freedom’s Sword, 31.

4

Chronicle of Lanercost, 145.

5

Andrew of Wyntoun’s Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland, Book vii, ch. xi.

6

Paterson, Raymond Campbell, For the Lion, 9.

7

Morris, J E, The Welsh Wars of Edward I, 283.

8

Fergusson, J, op. cit., 39.

9

Neither Agnes Mure MacKenzie in her Robert Bruce, King of Scots, nor the authoritative Professor Barrow pointed to the presence of the nobles with Wallace’s cavalry at Falkirk as a potent factor in his choosing to fight where he did.

10

Murison, A F, Sir William Wallace, 35–6.

11

Morris, J E, op. cit., 286–92.

CHAPTER TWO

1

Barrow, G W S, Robert Bruce and the Community of the Realm of Scotland, 84.

2

ibid., 123; Stones, E L G, Anglo-Scottish Relations, 1174–1328, No. 32, 120.

3

Barrow, G W S, op. cit., 124.

4

Calendar of Documents Relating to Scotland, Vol. ii, 1420, 1437, 1653.

5

ibid., 1071.

6

ibid., 1978.

7

ibid., 1092, 1111.

8

Barbour, John, The Bruce, 13.

9

Chronicle Guisborough, 366–7.

10

Bower, Walter, Scoticronicon, Vol. 7, Book vi, 309–13; Scott, Ronald McNair, Robert the Bruce, 72.

11

Liber Pluscardensis, Book ix, 229.

12

Barrow, G W S, op. cit., 148.

CHAPTER THREE

1

Wright, Thomas (ed.), Chronicle of Pierre de Langtoft, 367.

2

Stones, Anglo-Scottish Relations, No 34, 237–9.

3

Chronicle Rishanger, 211.

4

Barbour, John, The Bruce, 24.

5

Scott, Ronald McNair, Robert the Bruce, 87 (Sampson, Official Guide, Kildrummy Castle).

6

Barbour, John, op. cit., 54; Bingham, Caroline, Robert the Bruce, 141.

7

Palgrave, F, (ed.), Documents and Records Illustrating the History of Scotland, 358.

8

Barbour, John, op. cit., 50.

9

ibid., 76, 77.

10

Chronicle Lanercost, 182.

11

Scott, Ronald McNair, op. cit., 242 (King Robert’s Testament).

12

Gough, Henry (ed.), Itinerary of King Edward I, Vol. ii, 266–275.

13

Calendar of Documents Relating to Scotland, Vol. iii, 80.

14

According to Barbour the date of the battle was 31 December 1307. This is plainly wrong and Professor Barrow inclines to a later date, likely to have been 23 May 1308.

15

Barbour, John, op. cit., 148; Young, Alan, Robert the Bruce’s Rivals, 14.

16

Acts of Parliaments of Scotland, Vol. I, 1124–1423, 289.

17

Chronicle Lanercost, 190.

18

Vita Edwardi Secundi, 12.

19

ibid., 48.

20

Barbour, John, op. cit., 182.

21

ibid., 184.

CHAPTER FOUR

1

Rotuli Scotiae, I, 86.

2

Morris, J E, The Welsh Wars of Edward I, 286–93; Calendar of Documents Relating to Scotland, Vol. ii, 956.

3

Morris, J E, Bannockburn, 40.

4

Powicke, Michael, Military Obligation in Medieval England, Oxford, 1962, 135.

5

Morris, J E, op. cit., 82–3.

6

MacNamee, Colm, The Wars of the Bruces, 23.

7

Hyland, Ann, The Warhorse, 1250–1600, 7.

8

New Foedera, ii, 203.

9

Hyland, Ann, op. cit., 31.

10

Davidson, Martin and Levy, Adam, Decisive Weapons, 33–6.

11

Caldwell, David H, Scottish Weapons and Fortifications 1100–1800 (Edinburgh 1981), 254.

12

Morris, J E, Bannockburn; MacKenzie, William Mackay, Bannockburn.

13

Traquair, Peter, Freedom’s Sword.

14

Round, J H, Feudal England, 292; Morris, J E, Welsh Wars of Edward I, 41.

15

Barrow, G W S, Robert Bruce, 207.

16

Vita Edwardi Secundi, 201.

17

Barbour, John, The Bruce, 186.

18

Morris, J E, Bannockburn, 292.

19

Calendar of Documents Relating to Scotland, Vol. ii, 1882; Vol. iii, 190.

20

Traquair, Peter, op. cit., 183.

21

General Christison is the author of Bannockburn: The Story of a Battle, National Trust for Scotland, 1962.

22

Becke, Major A F, ‘The Battle of Bannockburn’ in The Complete Peerage 1949, Vol. xi, Appendix 13, 15.

23

Scoticronicon (1759 edition) ii, xxi, 248.

24

MacKenzie, W M, op cit., 23.

25

Barbour, op. cit., I, 426.

26

Calendar of Chancery Warrants, I, 436.

27

Barbour, op. cit., 191–2.

28

Barrow, op. cit., 210.

29

Scott, Ronald McNair, Robert the Bruce, 146, 7.

30

Rotuli Scotiae, I, 120a.

31

MacNamee, op. cit., 125.

32

Scott, Ronald McNair, op. cit., 144.

CHAPTER FIVE

1

Documents and Records Illustrating the History of Scotland, 19–20, 29–31.

2

Chronicle Lanercost, 111–112.

3

Scott, Ronald McNair, Robert the Bruce, 23.

4

The Scots Peerage, edited by Sir James Balfour Paul, ii, 432.

5

Barrow, G W S, Robert Bruce, 124.

6

Ranald Nicholson, for instance, has written caustically that by 1306 Bruce ‘seemed to have purged himself of any excessive Scottishness’. [Nicholson, R, Scotland: the later Middle Ages (Edinburgh 1974), 70.]

7

Calendar of Documents Relating to Scotland, Vol. ii, 1807.

8

Barbour, John, The Bruce, 160.

9

Calendar of Documents Relating to Scotland, Vol. iii, 76 and 362.

10

Barbour, John, op. cit., 169.

11

Barrow, G W S, op. cit., 293.

12

Barbour, op. cit., 237.

13

Barrow, G W S, op. cit., 436.

14

Scott, Ronald McNair, op. cit., 188.

15

ibid., 173.

16

Barbour, John, op. cit., 9.

17

Taking full advantage of Lamberton’s secret agreement Douglas struck down the Bishop’s groom who tried to prevent him from taking the horse.

18

Barbour, op. cit., 21.

19

This was the case at Weardale in 1327 when the English fought against Scottish forces led by Douglas and Moray.

20

Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland, I, 119.

21

Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts, 5th Rep. Appendix, 626.

CHAPTER SIX

1

Prestwich, Michael, The Three Edwards, 79.

2

After he had become king one household account still included quantities of iron and plaster for his private works. Cottonian MS, 57.

3

Chronicle Lanercost, 206.

4

Cottonian MS, 84.

5

Wright, Thomas, The Roll of Arms of the princes, barons and knights who attended King Edward I to the siege of Caerlaverock, 1864.

6

Calendar of Documents Relating to Scotland Vol. ii, 1191.

7

Foedera Conventiones, Litterae, I, ii, 983.

8

Calendar of Documents Relating to Scotland, Vol. ii, 1909.

9

Hamilton, J S, Piers Gaveston, Earl of Cornwall 1307–1312 (Wayne State University Press, 1988), 35.

10

Skene, W (ed.), Johannis de Fordun, Chronica Gentis Scotorum (Edinburgh 1871), 346.

11

Edward’s remarkable devotion to Gaveston went beyond the grave; the king’s outlay on his burial and for devotion to be paid to his memory amounted to £850, apart from his subsequent grants to Gaveston’s family and servants. [Hamilton, op. cit., 100.]

12

Phillips, J R S, Aymer de Valence, 21.

13

Barbour, John, The Bruce, 24–5.

14

Vita Edwardi Secundi, 11.

15

Chronicles of the Reigns of Edward I and Edward II, ii, 183, 195.

16

Phillips, J R S, op. cit., 61, 62.

17

ibid., 280–1.

18

Thompson, Edward Maunde, Dictionary of National Biography (OUP, 1995).

19

Chronicle of Walter of Guisborough, 274.

20

Parliamentary Writs, Vol. ii, 676.

21

Chronicles of the Reigns of Edward I and Edward II, ii, 191.

22

Turner, T H, ‘The Will of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex’, Archaeological Journal, Vol. 2, 1845, 346.

23

Chron. Knyghton, 2480.

24

Chronicles of the Reigns of Edward I and Edward II, i, 171.

25

Barbour, John, op. cit., 224.

26

Foedera Conventiones, Litterae, I, 974–5.

CHAPTER SEVEN

1

Calendar of Documents Relating to Scotland, Vol. iii, 365.

2

Vita Edwardi Secundi, 50.

3

Rotuli Scotiae, I, 127.

4

Calendar of Documents Relating to Scotland, Vol. ii, 1168.

5

Hyland, Ann, The War Horse, 34.

6

Calendar of Documents Relating to Scotland, Vol. iii, 361.

7

MacKenzie, W M, The Battle of Bannockburn, 41 (note).

8

Some of the old cuttings are still clearly evident today.

9

Barrow, G W S, Robert Bruce, 302.

10

Earlier commentators, including W M MacKenzie interpreted the pows as pools, MacKenzie calling them ‘great blobs or lagoons of water’ but Professor Barrow has effectively demolished this explanation by establishing them as streams, whether slow-running or not.

11

Barbour, John, The Bruce, 190–191.

12

ibid., 192.

13

Christison, General Sir Philip, Bannockburn National Trust Guidebook 1997, 15; Traquair, Peter, Freedom’s Sword, 185.

14

Barbour, John, op. cit., 193.

15

ibid., 195.

16

Barrow, G W S, op. cit., 217.

17

Chronicle Lanercost, 225.

18

Barbour, John, op. cit., 200.

19

ibid., 200.

CHAPTER EIGHT

1

Vita Edwardi Secundi, 51.

2

Barbour, John, The Bruce, 202.

3

Scalacronica, 54.

4

Barrow, G W S, Robert Bruce, 221.

5

Chronicle Lanercost, 225.

CHAPTER NINE

1

Vita Edwardi Secundi, 51–2.

2

Barbour, John, The Bruce, 209.

3

Morris, J E, Bannockburn, 39.

4

Barbour, John, op. cit., 209.

5

ibid., 210.

6

Scalacronica, 54–5.

7

Vita Edwardi Secundi, 51;Chronicle Lanercost, 206.

8

Barbour, John, op. cit., 204–5.

9

Scalacronica, 55.

10

Barrow, G W S, op. cit., 319 (Chronicon Galfridi le Baker, Thompson (ed.), 7).

11

Morris, J E, op. cit., 72.

12

Scoticronicon, Vol. VI, Bk 12, Ch. 22, 365.

13

Chronicle Bower, ii, 249–50.

14

Barrow, G W S, op. cit., 215.

15

Ramsay, Sir James of Bamff.Genesis of Lancaster, Vol. i, 1307–1368 (Oxford 1913), 65.

16

MacKenzie, W M, The Battle of Bannockburn, 92 (MS held in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge).

17

Chronica Monasterii de Melsa, Bond, E A (ed.), 1867, Vol. II, 331.

18

Miller, T, The Site of the Battle of Bannockburn, Historical Association 1931.

19

His arguments here are contained in Christison’s Bannockburn: the Story of a Battle (National Trust for Scotland, 1962 edition).

20

Scott, Ronald McNair, Robert the Bruce, 150–151.

21

Traquair, Peter, Freedom’s Sword, 90.

22

Letter of General Christison to Hugo Millar in the Scotsman of 5 July 1960.

CHAPTER TEN

1

Chronicle Lanercost, 225.

2

Barbour, John, The Bruce, 212.

3

Traquair, Peter, Freedom’s Sword, 192.

4

Vita Edwardi Secundi, 204.

5

Barbour, John, op. cit., 214.

6

Chronicle Lanercost, 225.

7

Chronicle, Baker of Swinbroke (edited with notes by Edward Maunde Thompson) (Oxford, 1889), 8.

8

Barbour, John, op. cit., 217.

9

MacKenzie, W M, The Battle of Bannockburn, 79.

10

ibid., 220.

11

ibid., 221.

12

ibid., 222.

13

ibid., 223.

14

Sinclair, Andrew, The Sword and the Grail (1993), 46–7.

15

On the anniversary of the battle Scottish Templars still pay tribute to their predecessors who fought there.

16

Scalacronica, 142.

17

Barron, Evan, The Scottish War of Independence, 472.

18

Chronicle Lanercost, 228.

19

Becke, Major A F, The Complete Peerage, Vol. xi 1949, Appendix B.

20

Barbour, op. cit., 225.

21

Scalacronica, 56.

22

Chronicle Lanercost, 226.

CHAPTER ELEVEN

1

Barbour, John, The Bruce, 255;Vita Edwardi Secundi, 54.

2

Barbour, John, op. cit., 227.

3

Phillips, J R S, Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke 1307–1324, 75.

4

Vita Edwardi Secundi, 55.

5

Chronicle, Baker of Swinbroke, 9.

6

Barron, Evan, The Scottish War of Independence, 473.

7

Barbour, John, op. cit., 227.

8

Phillips, J R S, op. cit., 116–17.

9

Chronicles of the Reigns of Edward I and II, iii, 231.

10

Phillips, J R S, op. cit., 116, 7.

11

Barbour, John, op. cit., 227.

12

Chronicle Lanercost, 209;Vita Edwardi Secundi, 55; Scalacronica, 143.

13

Barbour, John, op. cit., 234.

14

Riley, HT (ed.), Historia Anglicani of Thomas Walsingham, 2 vols, Rolls Series (London 1863–4) Vol. i, 141–2.

15

Barbour, John, op. cit., 230.

16

Barrow, G W S, Robert Bruce, 230.

17

Mackenzie, Agnes Mure, Robert Bruce King of Scots, 282.

18

Morris, E J, The Welsh Wars of Edward I, 88, 98.

AFTERMATH

1

McNamee, Colm, The Wars of the Bruces, 1306–1328, 66.

2

Barron, Evan, The Scottish War of Independence, 479.

3

Chronicle Lanercost, 229.

4

Barrow, G W S, Robert Bruce and the Community of the Realm, 337.

5

ibid., 342.

6

Scoticronicon, Vol. vii, Book 13, 3.

7

Barbour, John, The Bruce, 318.

8

Paterson, Raymond Campbell, For the Lion, 82.

9

Fryde, N, Tyranny and Fall (Cambridge 1979), 185–92.

10

Chronique de Jean le Bel (Paris 1894), 55/6.

11

Davis, I M, The Black Douglas, 138.

12

Rotuli Scotiae, 2216.

13

Paterson, Raymond Campbell, op. cit., 104.

14

Wailly, Henri de, Crécy: Anatomy of a Battle (1987), 51.

15

Ramsay, Sir J H, The Dawn of the Constitution (1908), 196.

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