Post-classical history


1. Introduction

1.   The detail that Richard III was killed by a Welshman with a halberd is given only by Jean Molinet, a contemporary but admittedly sometimes unreliable French chronicler. J. Molinet, Chroniques, ed. S. A. Buchon, Paris 1827–28.

2.   The Waning of the Middle Ages, London, 1924. Modern historians, such as J. R. Lander (in Conflict and Stability in Fifteenth-Century England), dismiss Huizinga’s ‘morphology of decay’. Yet the fifteenth century was that of the danse macabre and of flagellantism, a climate in which skulls and skeletons inspired countless painters and sculptors throughout northern Europe.

3.   ‘to leve right wisley and never to take the state of Baron upon them if they may leye it from them nor to desire to be grete about princes, for it is daungeros.’ Complete Peerage, IX, p. 338. Lord Mountjoy (one of William Hastings’ ‘affinity’) was only thirty-five when he died – his father had been treasurer to Edward IV while his elder brother had been killed at Barnet.

4.   For landowners’ incomes, H. L. Gray, ‘Incomes from land in England in 1436’, in English Historical Review XLIX (1934), and T. B. Pugh, ‘The magnates, knights and gentry’, in Fifteenth-Century England.

5.   The travels of Leo of Rozmital, 1465–67, ed. M. Letts, Hakluyt Society, Second Series 108, Cambridge, 1957.

6.   In 1460 commissions were issued to arrest ‘certain persons of Sussex wandering about the country, spoiling, beating, maiming and slaying’. M. Clough, ‘The Book of Bartholomew Bolney’, in Sussex Record Society 67 (1964), p. xxvi.

7.   ‘The Sussex Colepeppers’, in Sussex Archaeological Collections, Vol. xlvii, pp. 59–60. (The account of the girls’ abduction comes from Early Chancery Proceedings, Bundle 27, No. 218, and Bundle 31, No. 281.)

2. The Five

1.   Jane Shore was not identified as Elizabeth Lambert until Nicholas Barker did so in 1972. N. Barker and Sir R. Birley, ‘The Story of Jane Shore’, in Etoniana.

3. Jack Cade’s Revolt, 1450

1.   ‘Standards of Comfort’ and ‘Symbolic Elements in Standards of Living’, in S. Thrupp, The Merchant Class of Medieval London, pp. 130–4 and 143–54.

2.   For Jack Cade’s revolt. R. L. Storey, The End of the House of Lancaster, and ‘Parliamentary opposition and popular risings, 1’.–50’, in B. Wolffe, Henry VI.

4. Lady Margaret Beaufort is Married, 1455

1.   For Margaret Beaufort, M. K. Jones and M. G. Underwood,’ The King’s Mother.

2.   For rumours of the Duke of Somerset’s suicide, Historiae Croylandensis Continuatio, in Rerum Scriptores Veterum, p. 519.

3.   ‘a mornynge remembraunce had at the moneth mynde of the noble prynces Margarete countesse of Rychemonde & Darbye moder unto kynge Henry the vii . . .’, in The English Works of John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, p. 292.

5. The Earl of Oxford is Late at St Albans, 1455

1.   The account (which has not been translated) is in Registrum Abbatiae Johannis Whethamstede, Abbatis Monasterii Sancti Albani, I, 88. 166–78.

2.   For the list of casualties, Paston Letters, 111, p. 29.

6. The Loveday at St Paul’s, 1458

1.   ‘It was a time of rumour and innuendo worthy of Renaissance Italy . . .’ R. A. Grifiths, The Reign of King Henry VI, p. 685.

2.   Richard Grafton in Grafton’s Chronicle or History of England. London 1809.

3.   Acts of Court of the Mercers’ Company, 1453–1529, p. 47, and Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Henry VI, 1452–61, VI, p. 339.

4.   Rawcliffe, The Staffords, Earls of Stafford and Dukes of Buckingham, 1395–1521.

7. Dr Morton and the Parliament of Devils, 1459

1.   For Morton’s career, A. B. Emden, A Biographical Register of the University of Oxford to AD 1500, Oxford, 1957–59. For his ancestry and relations, J. and J. B. Burke, ‘Morton’, in Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies, London, 1844.

2.   For King Réné, R. A. Lecoy de la Marche, Le Roi Réné, Paris, 1875.

3.   K. B. McFarlane, ‘Bastard Feudalism’, in Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research XX (1945), pp. 161–80; and M. Hicks, ‘Bastard Feudalism: Society and Politics in Fifteenth Century England’, in Parliamentary History iii (1984).

4.   The Act is in Rotuli Parliamentorum V, pp. 346–9.

8.‘They that were in the Tower cast wildfire into the City’,1460

1.   Beaven, Aldermen of the City of London, Vol. 1, pp. 146, 416.

2.   Ibid, Vol. 2, pp. 12, 14; Acts of Court of the Mercers’ Company, p.53.

3.   Whethamstede, op. cit., 1, p. 400.

9. The Squire of Burton Hastings Goes to War, 1461

1.   When his father died on 30 October 1455, William Hastings was ‘etatis viginti et quatuor annorum et amplius’, CP VI, p. 370.

2.   For Hastings’ ancestry, relatives and family, Dugdale’s Baronage I, p. 580; and Wedgwood, p. 433.

3.   For William Hastings’ likely education, H. G. Richardson, ‘Business Training in Medieval Oxford’, in American Historical Review xlvi (1940–41).

4.   ‘The fifteenth-century retinue served as protection in a land otherwise ineffectively policed . . .’ says Professor Lander, Crown and Nobility, p.32.

5.   Hastings does not appear in William Worcestre’s list of ‘Gentlemen who were with King Edward IV at the Battle of Mortimer’s Cross’ (Itineraries, ed. J. H. Harvey, Oxford, 1969, p. 204) but Worcestre was not present himself. Dugdale, however, was convinced that Hastings had fought in it, referring to ‘signal adventures in divers Battels . . . against Jasper, Earl of Pembroke, James, Earl of Wiltshire’ (Baronage, p. 581). Dugdale’s source appears to be the patent that created Hastings a peer, printed in Complete Peerage VI, p. 371.

10. Dr Morton Sees a Battle – Towton, 1461

1.   For Waurin’s account, Recueil des Croniques V, pp. 339–42.

2.   Whethamstede writes scornfully of ‘those Northern rascals’ – ‘bobinantes Boreales’, op. cit. I, p. 410.

3.   For a comparison of figures given for those killed at Towton, Goodman, Wars of the Roses, p. 244 (n. 78).

4.   ‘treatyse concerning the fruytful saynges of Dauid . . .’, in The English Works of John Fisher, p. 239.

11. The Coronation of King Edward IV, 1461

1.   Sylvia Thrupp quotes an anonymous fifteenth-century writer – ‘many be dysseyved for be cause they take her wives at xii yere age or ther a boute’. The Merchant Class of Medieval London, p. 196.

2.   For Sir Thomas More’s daughters, Aubrey’s Brief Lives, London, 1972, p. 375.

3.   For Mr Shore’s early years, A. F. Sutton, ‘William Shore, Merchant of London and Derby’, in Derbyshire Archaeological Journal, Vol. 106 (1986).

4.   Thomas More, History of King Richard the Third, p.56.

5.   For Mr Lambert’s appointment as a Collector of the Customs, together with a London tailor, Thomas Gay, Patent Rolls, 1461–67, p. 345.

6.   Rotuli Parliamentorum V, pp. 462–3.

12.‘Lord Hastings of Hastings’,1461

1.   For Hastings’ rewards, Complete Peerage VI, p. 371.

2.   For Hastings’ affinity, William H. Dunham, ‘Lord Hastings’ Indentured Retainers’; but also M. Hicks, ‘Lord Hastings’ Indentured Retainers’, in Richard III and his Rivals.

3.   For Lord Grey of Codnor and Roger Vernon’s murder, Annales [Rerum Anglicarum], pp. 788–9 – ‘factum est horribile murdrum in quadam parte iuxta Derby’. Also S. M. Wright, ‘The Derbyshire Gentry in the Fifteenth Century’, Derbyshire Record Society Vol. 8 (1983).

4.   Robert Russell, The Boke of Nurture folowyng Englond’s gise . . .’, ed. F. J. Furnivall, London, 1868.

5.   Ross, Edward IV, p. 317.

6.   Hugh Bryce (or Brice) and his son James had worked with Hastings since 1462, when they had been entrusted with the post of ‘usher of the King’s Exchange within the Tower of London’. According to the Close Rolls, in 1469 Bryce was appointed ‘deputy to William Lord Hastings in his office of master and worker of the King’s moneys of gold and silver and keeper of the mints and exchanges in the Tower of London, the realm of England and the town of Calais’. Very rich, a banker who helped to finance Margaret of York’s marriage settlement, he was greatly respected; when an Act of 1478 gave Irishmen in England the choice of going home or of paying a tax for maintaining law and order in Ireland, he was specifically exempted. Bryce survived Lord Hastings, becoming Mayor of London and being knighted by Henry VII.

7.   For the recoinage of 1464, Sir J. Craig, The Mint: A History of the London Mint from AD 287 to 1948, Cambridge, 1953.

8.   There were never more than thirty to forty Knights and Esquires of the Body.

9.   For Ralph’s post at the Tower, Patent Rolls, 1461–67, p.14.

10. ‘The great majority of contemporary Englishmen regarded Wales with fear and suspicion.’ R. A. Griffiths, ‘Wales and the Marches’, in Fifteenth Century England.

11. For John Donne’s background, McFarlane, Hans Memling.

13. The Adventures of Dr Morton, 1462–63

1.   For William Hastings’ letter to Lannoy, Scofield, Life and Reign of Edward IV II, pp. 461–2.

2.   Clinker-built, about 50 tons and with 25 oars a side, the ballinger was not unlike the Mediterranean galley, but better suited for northern waters. Besides a crew of forty, they usually carried ten men-at-arms and ten archers. These may have been ‘King’s Ships’ of the Scots Crown.

3.   For Morton’s loss of the archdeaconry of Norwich on 20 March 1464, Patent Rolls, 1461–67, p. 436.

14. The Lord Chamberlain and the Unwelcome Guest, 1463

1.   For this episode, Scofield, ‘Henry, Duke of Somerset and Edward IV’, in English Historical Review 21 (1906).

2.   ‘King Edward held him very dear’ – ‘valde carum’, Annales [rerum Anglicarum], p. 781.

3.   For Somerset, M. Hicks, ‘Edward IV, the Duke of Somerset and Lancastrian Loyalism in the North’, in Northern History XX (1984).

15. King Edward Finds a Queen, 1464

1.   For Lencastre, C. Schofield, ‘An Engagement of Service to Warwick the Kingmaker’, in English Historical Review XXIX (1914).

2.   For witchcraft, H. A. Kelly, ‘English Kings and the Fear of Sorcery’, in Medieval Studies 39 (1977).

3.   More, History of King Richard the Third, p.64.

4.   For the Woodvilles, Lander, ‘The Changing Role of the Wydevilles in Yorkist Politics to 1483’, in Patronage, Pedigree and Power in Later Medieval England; and Lander, ‘Marriage and politics in the fifteenth century; the Nevilles and the Wydevilles’, in Crown and Nobility.

5.   For Elizabeth and Hastings, Lander, Crown and Nobility, p. 107.

16. Dr Morton in Exile, 1464

1.   [Queen] ‘Margaret’s diplomacy was singularly ineffective – until, that is, extraneous factors gave her and her son a certain importance in international affairs.’ Griffiths, Henry VI. But Fortescue ‘showed an increasing sense of realpolitik’, according to A. Gross, ‘Lancaster in Exile’, in History Today 42 (August 1992).

17. Lady Margaret Entertains King Edward, 1468

1.   For Old Woking, D. J. Haggard, ‘The ruins of Old Woking Palace’, in Surrey Archaeological Collections 55 (1958); also R. A. C. Goodwin-Austen, ‘Woking Manor’, in ibid 7 (1874).

2.   Jones and Underwood, The King’s Mother, p. 252.

3.   For the Stafford–Woodville links, Rawcliffe, The Staffords; and Hicks, False, fleeting, perjur’d Clarence, p.35.

4.   Jones and Underwood, pp. 140–1.

18.‘My Lord of Oxford is Commit to the Tower’,1468

1.   Waurin, V, p. 363.

2.   Schofield, ‘The Early Life of John de Vere, thirteenth Earl of Oxford’, in English Historical Review xxix (1914).

3.   For Cook, M. Hicks, ‘The Case of Sir Thomas Cook 1468’, in English Historical Review xc (1978).

4.   For Oxford’s arrest, Plumpton Correspondence, pp. 19–20.

5.   Dr Hicks believes so: ‘Warwick had obtained the restoration of John de Vere to the earldom of Oxford and had married him to his sister Margaret.’ False, fleeting, perjur’d Clarence, p.45.

19.‘Robin of Redesdale’ Invades the South Country,1469

1.   The best account of these months is in Hicks, op. cit.

2.   Their letter and Robin’s manifesto are printed in the notes to Warkworth’s Chronicle (ed. Halliwell), pp. 46–51.

3.   For an officially inspired account of these events, Chronicle of the Rebellion in Lincolnshire, 1470.

20.‘Eleven days’,1470

1.   For Edward IV’s grant of lands to John Lambert, Patent Rolls, 1467–77, pp. 186–7. Nicholas Barker, ‘The Real Jane Shore’, overlooked the grant by confusing John with another John Lambert who was active in the West Country during Edward IV’s reign.

2.   ‘The Manner and Guiding of the Earl of Warwick at Angers’, in Ellis, Original Letters, Series II, I.

3.   For John Lambert’s ‘exoneration’ from his aldermanry, Corporation of London Records Office, Journal of Common Council, 7, f. 221.

21. The ‘Readeption’, 1470–71

1.   For Clarence’s dangerously threatened position, see Hicks, op. cit., pp. 96–100.

2.   For Oxford’s occupation of Lord Hastings’ London house, The Great Chronicle of London, p. 212; for his condemning to death the Earl of Worcester, Warkworth, p.13.

3.   For Henry Spelman (or Spilman), MP, Wedgwood, Biographies.

22. William Hastings in Exile, 1470–71

1.   For the identification, Pamela Tudor-Craig, Richard III (National Portrait Gallery catalogue) 1973, p. 39.

2.   For John Donne’s triptych, McFarlane, Hans Memling.

3.   D. H. Turner, The Hastings Hours, London, 1983.

23. Who Will Win?, 1471

1.   Sir Richard Corbet of Morton Corbet, b. 1448, was Lord Ferrers’ son-in-law. Wedgwood, Biographies, p. 222.

2.   Jones and Underwood, p. 49.

3.   Ibid., p. 55.

24. Lord Oxford Loses a Battle – Barnet, 1471

1.   For the authorship of the Arrivall, see L. Visser-Fuchs, ‘Nicholas Harpisfield, Clerk of the Signet, Author and Murderer’, in The Ricardian, June 1994.

2.   According to Warkworth, ‘one of the Erle [of] Oxenfordes brother with the comons of the cuntre arose up togedere, and put hym abake to the see ageyne.’ Chronicle, p.13.

3.   For Lord Oxford’s letter to his wife after the battle of Barnet, Paston Letters V, pp. 101–2.

25. Dr Morton Turns Yorkist – Tewkesbury, 1471

1.   For Lancastrian optimism, Paston Letters V, p. 103.

2.   At the time of writing, a housing estate is about to be built on the site of the battlefield.

3.   Warkworth says enigmatically, ‘And ther was slayne in the felde, Prynce Edwarde, which cryede for socoure to his brother-in-lawe the Duke of Clarence’. Chronicle, p.18.

4.   ‘if the Bastard’s attack on London had not come too late, things might have been very different’. Ross, Edward IV, p. 176.

26. William Hastings, Lieutenant of Calais, 1471

1.   Appointed a Knight of the Body in 1471, Ralph was Captain of Guisnes 1474–83 and 1484–85. Wedgwood, Biographies, p. 433. For Richard Hastings, Lord Welles, Complete Peerage XII, pp. 445–8.

2.   Scofield, Life and Reign of Edward IV II, pp. 36–37.

3.   For Lord Hastings’ trading activities, Scofield, op. cit., II, pp. 420, 454, 457.

4.   For Kirby, A. H. Hamilton Thompson, ‘The building accounts of Kirby Muxloe, 1480–1484’, in Transactions of the Leicestershire Archaeological Society II, Pts 7 and 8 (1919–20); for Ashby, K. Hiller, ‘William Lord Hastings and Ashby-de-la-Zouch’, in The Ricardian, Vol. 8 (1988).

5.   For this story, Dugdale, Baronage, p. 582, quoting J. Leland, Collectanea I (ed. T. Hearn), London, 1770, p. 144.

6.   For Sir James Harrington, Wedgwood, Biographies, pp. 423–4; and Ross, Edward IV, pp. 408–9.

7.   For the Garter ceremonies, Sir E. Ashmole, The History of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, London, 1672; and G. F. Beltz, Memorials of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, London, 1841.

8.   For the reburial of the Duke of York, P. W. Hammond, A. F. Sutton and L. Visser-Fuchs in The Ricardian, Vol. 10 (December 1994).

9.   ‘Caxton’s amusingly and unashamedly incompetent woodcuts are the first printed illustrations in any English book; perhaps this was the special feature which attracted the patronage of Bryce and Hastings.’ G. D. Painter, William Caxton, London, 1976, p. 110.

10. Yet Cora Scofield, a most knowledgeable historian of the period, thought that ‘Lord Hastings . . . was neither a wise man nor a good.’ Life and Reign of Edward IV II, p. 3.

27. Lady Margaret Beaufort’s Fourth Husband, 1472

1.   Jones and Underwood, pp. 58–59, 97.

28. Lord Oxford Turns Pirate, 1473

1.   For the monks’ plot and Lord Oxford, Paston Letters V, p. 186.

2.   For Lord Oxford in Cornwall, A. L. Rowse, ‘The Turbulent Career of Sir Henry Bodrugan’, in History xxix (1944), pp. 17–26.

3.   For Clarence’s dangerous boasting, Paston Letters V, p. 195.

4.   For the naval blockade of Lord Oxford on St Michael’s Mount, Scofield, Life and Reign of Edward IV II, p. 87.

5.   For the Duke of Gloucester’s persecution of old Lady Oxford, M. Hicks, ‘The Last Days of Elizabeth, Countess of Oxford’, in English Historical Review C (1988).

29. Edward IV Invades France, 1475

1. For the speech to the House of Commons about the general suffering brought by the Wars of the Roses, Literae Cantuarienses III, ed. J. B. Sheppard (Rolls Series, London, 1889), No. 1079, pp. 274ff.

2.   For the English invasion of France, F. P. Barnard, Edward IV’s French Expedition of 1475, the Leaders and Their Badges (College of Arms MS 2 M 16), Oxford, 1925; and Lander, ‘The Hundred Years’ War and Edward IV’s 1475 campaign in France’, in Crown and Nobility, pp. 91–93.

3.   For Edward IV and the Duke of Exeter’s drowning, The New Chronicles of England and France, p. 663; and also Calendar of State Papers . . . Milan I, p. 220.

30. Mrs Shore’s Divorce, 1476

1.   For Edward IV’s love of Jane, Thomas More, The History of King Richard the Third, p.57.

2.   For the slandering of Mr Lambert as a traitor to Henry VI, Calendars of Plea and Memoranda Rolls, 1458–82, pp. 57–64.

3.   For the Goldsmiths’ law-suit against John Lambert, Goldsmiths’ Company Minute Book A, pp. 170–2.

4.   For John Agard of Foston, A. Sutton, ‘William Shore, Merchant of London and Derby’, in Derbyshire Archaeological Journal, vol 106 (1986) pp. 130–6.

5.   For the ‘gift’, Calendar of the Close Rolls, 1468–71, No. 1147.

6.   For Mr Shore’s shortcomings, Calendar of Entries in the Papal Registers . . .’, XIII pt 2, Vol. XIII, pp. 487–8 – ‘quia tamen idem Wilhelmus idem adeo frigidus et impotens existit quod eandem Elizabeth interim carnaliter cognoscere non potuerat neque poterat, eadem Elizabeth que mater esse et prolem procreare desiderabat . . .’

7.   For Dr Thomas Millyngton, DNB.

8.   For the career of Jane’s ex-husband, A. F. Sutton, ‘William Shore, Merchant of London and Derby’, in Derbyshire Archaeological Journal, vol. 106 (1986), pp. 127–39.

9.   ‘Jane Shore and Eton’, in Etoniana, December 1972, pp. 408–10.

31. Lord Oxford Tries to Drown Himself, 1478

1.   For Sir John’s view of the situation, Paston Letters V, p. 270.

2.   For Louis XI’s scheming, Ross, Edward IV, p. 240; and Scofield, Life and Reign of Edward IV II, p. 188.

3.   For Edmund Bedingfeld’s ‘tidings’ from Calais, Paston Letters V, pp. 296–7.

4.   Hicks suggests that Gloucester may at least have participated in his brother’s trial in some way or other. False, Fleeting, Perjur’d Clarence, p. 181.

5.   For Lord Oxford’s attempted suicide, Paston Letters VI, p. 2.

32. Dr John Morton, Bishop of Ely, 1478

1.   Schofield, Life and Reign of Edward IV II, pp. 246–8.

2.   For Robert Morton, DNB.

3.   Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1476–85, p. 215.

33. Hastings ‘highly in the King’s indignation’, 1482–83

1.   Lyell and Watney, Acts of Court of the Mercers’ Company, p. 125.

2.   For King Edward’s hunting party, Sir Thomas More, History of King Richard the Third, p.6.

3.   The Great Chronicle of London, pp. 228–9. (More says the party was at Windsor)

4.   For Mancini’s characterization of Lord Hastings, De Occupatione Regni Anglie, pp. 67–8.

5.   For the accusations made by Hastings and Rivers about each other, Mancini, De Occupatione Regni Anglie, pp. 68–9; and Gairdner, History of the Life and Reign of Richard the Third, pp. 338–9.

6.   For Bartholomew Reed replacing Lord Hastings as master of the mint, Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1476–85, p. 343.

7.   For Hastings’ conversation with Tiger [or ‘Hastings’] Pursuivant, Sir Thomas More, History of King Richard the Third, p.52.

8.   For the king’s fury on hearing of the Treaty of Arras, Schofield, Life and Reign of Edward IV II, pp. 356–7; and Ross, Edward IV, p. 292.

9.   For the funeral of King Edward, Scofield, Life and Reign of Edward IV, pp. 366–8.

34. The End of William Hastings, 1483

1.   Hicks believes that Gloucester had no intention of usurping the throne until after the death of Edward IV. ‘Richard III as Duke of Gloucester: A Study in Character’, in Borthwick Papers 70 (1986), p. 249.

2.   For the threat to Richard’s estates which resulted from George Nevill’s death, Hicks, ‘Richard III as Duke of Gloucester’.

3.   For Buckingham, Rawcliffe, The Staffords, pp. 28–35.

4.   For the Queen’s foreboding, Sir Thomas More, History of King Richard the Third, p.22.

5.   ‘The evidence for any conspiracy between Hastings and the Woodvilles, especially with Mistress Shore – the former mistress of Edward IV and now the mistress of Lord Hastings – as go-between, is slight indeed, and rests entirely on Richard’s own allegations.’ Ross, Richard III, p.81.

6.   For Catesby, ‘William Catesby, Counsellor to Richard III’, in Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, Vol. 42 (1959).

7.   For More’s account of Gloucester’s coup, History of King Richard the Third, pp. 47–52.

8.   For Vergil’s account of the coup, Three Books of Polydore Vergil’s English History, pp. 179–82.

9.   For Lord Hastings’ will, PCC 10 Logge, 1483, Public Record Office Prob. 11/7, f.10.

10. For Canon Stallworth’s report, The Stonor Letters II, p. 161.

11. Not only did Richard reappoint Hastings’ brother Ralph as Captain of Guisnes but he even made him a Knight of the Body.

35. Mrs Shore Does Penance, 1483

1.   ‘Mastres Chore is in prisone: what schall happyne hyr I knowe nott’ – in The Stonor Letters quoted above.

2.   Mancini, De Occupatione Regni Anglie, pp. 90–1.

3.   The Great Chronicle of London, p. 233.

4.   For the theft of Jane’s goods, Sir Thomas More, The History of King Richard the Third, p.55.

5.   We know that Jane was imprisoned in Ludgate gaol from the testimony of King Richard himself, in the letter he wrote to Dr Russell in October – reproduced at the beginning of Ch. 37.

6.   The text of the Act Titulus Regis is in Rotuli Parliamentorum VI, pp. 240–2.

7.   For More’s account of Jane’s penance, History of King Richard the Third, pp. 54–55.

36. Lady Margaret Beaufort’s Conspiracy, 1483

1.   A. F. Sutton and P. W. Hammond, The Coronation of Richard III: The Extant Documents, Gloucester, 1983, pp. 278–81.

2.   ‘This is the father’s own figure, this his own countenance, the very print of his visage, the sure undoubted image, the plain express likeness of the noble duke’, claimed Dr Shaa in his sermon at Paul’s Cross. Sir Thomas More, The History of King Richard the Third, p.68.

3.   J. Stow, Annales of England, 1631, p. 459. But see M. Hicks, ‘Unweaving the Web: the Plot of July 1483 against Richard III and its Wider Significance’, in The Ricardian IX, September 1993.

4.   Sir Thomas More, History of King Richard the Third, pp. 88–9.

5.   Jones and Underwood, The King’s Mother, pp. 60–1.

6.   Hall’s Chronicle, pp. 388–9.

7.   Sir George Buck, The History of King Richard III, ed. A. N. Kincaid, Gloucester, 1979.

8.   Rawcliffe, The Staffords, p.29.

9.   The proclamation is printed in Rymer, Foedera XI, pp. 204–5.

10. Ross, Richard III, p. 138.

37. Mrs Shore Marries Again, 1483

1.   For the nature of Mr Lynom’s work, M. Hicks, ‘The Cartulary of Richard III as Duke of Gloucester in British Library Manuscript Cotton Julius B XVIII’, in Richard III and his Rivals.

2.   For Lynom’s career, Barker, ‘The Real Jane Shore’, op. cit., pp. 388–91.

3.   For John Lambert’s successful law-suit, Close Rolls 1476–85, pp. 395–6.

4.   H. Chauncey, The Historical Antiquities of Hertfordshire II, London, 1700, p. 66.

5.   For the identification of Pulters with Hinxworth Place, Victoria County History of Hertfordshire, III 1912, p. 236.

6.   For the later life of Jane’s first husband, Sutton, ‘William Shore, Merchant of London and Derby’, op. cit., pp. 130–9.

7.   Ross, Richard III, pp. 175–6.

8.   A. J. Pollard, ‘The Tyranny of Richard III’, in Journal of Medieval History, 1977 (iii).

38.‘Mother to the king’s great rebel and traitor’,1484

1.   Margaret was ‘commonly caulyd the head of that conspiracy’. Polydore Vergil, English History, p. 204.

2.   For the sentence against Lady Margaret, Rotuli Parliamentorum VI, p. 250.

3.   Quoted by Jones and Underwood, The King’s Mother, p.65.

4.   Chrimes, Henry VII, p.53.

39. Dr Morton Visits Rome, 1484–85

1.   Ross, Richard III, p. 113.

2.   ‘Richard III was the first English king to use character-assassination as a deliberate instrument of policy.’ Ross, ibid, p. 138.

3.   ‘How it was that John Morton who had fled to Flanders got wind of this plot and was able to send warning to Henry remains a mystery, but this signal service, which must be understood as equivalent to saving Henry’s life and all that depended thereon, was one that Henry could never forget . . .’ Chrimes, op. cit., p. 29. Ross suggests Lord Stanley as the source. Richard III p.199.

4.   For Morton’s entry into the confraternity at Rome in 1485, confirming his presence in the Eternal City, P. Egidi, Fonti per la Storia d’Italia, Institutia Storia Italia, 45 (1914).

40. Lord Oxford Wins a Battle, 1485

1.   As Margaret’s steward, it was surely on her account that Bray had succeeded in collecting ‘no small sum of money’ for Henry. Vergil, English History, p. 559.

2.   Recently the exact site of the battlefield has been disputed. An alternative site at least half a mile away to the south-west has been suggested, towards the village of Dadlington. However, the battle was certainly fought in the vicinity of Bosworth.

3.   For Lord Oxford’s counter-charge at Bosworth, Vergil, English History, pp. 563–4.

4.   Part of the legend is that it was Margaret’s steward, Reginald Bray, who found the crown. This detail first appears in W. Hutton, The battle of Bosworth Field, 1788.

41. The Last Battle – Stoke, 1487

1.   ‘Mornynge Remembraunce’, p. 306.

2.   In a petition of 1489 All Souls’ College, Oxford referred tactfully to ‘Youre dere Uncle of Noble Memorie Henry the Sexte’ – Rotuli Parliamentorum VI, p. 436.

3.   For the so-called ‘great grant’ to Margaret, Jones and Underwood, op. cit., p. 75.

4.   Ibid, p. 100.

5.   For Lady Surrey’s good opinion of Lord Oxford, Paston Letters VI, pp. 87–8.

6.   For Oxford on William Paston’s madness, Paston Letters VI, p. 167.

7.   For the King’s letter to Lord Ormonde, Cooper, Memoir of Margaret, p.38.

8.   Ross, The Wars of the Roses, p. 105.

9.   Cooper, op. cit., p. 40.

10. For Margaret’s signature, Jones and Underwood, op. cit., p. 86.

42. Perkin Warbeck, 1491–99

1.   Bacon, Henry VII, p. 154.

2.   For the implications of this revolt, M. Hicks, ‘The Yorkist Rebellion of 1489 reconsidered’, in Northern History xxii (1986).

3.   For Abbot Sant’s conspiracy, Rotuli Parliamentorum VI, pp. 436–7.

4.   For the gift of the porpoise, Paston Letters VI, pp. 138–9.

5.   The best account of Warbeck’s career is I. Arthurson, The Perkyn Warbeck Conspiracy 1491–1499, Gloucester, 1994.

6.   For the Battle of Blackheath, Busch, England under the Tudors, pp. 110–12.

7.   For Ralph Wulford, Great Chronicle of London, p. 289.

8.   ‘Ferdinando had written to the King in plain terms, that he saw no assurance of his succession, so long as the earl of Warwick lived; and that he was loth to send his daughter to troubles and dangers.’ Bacon, Henry VII, p. 179.

Epilogue: The Four Survivors

1.   Calendar of state papers, Spanish, I, Henry VII, pp. 177–8.

2.   The letter to Ormonde is in Cooper, Memorial to Margaret, pp. 48–9.

3.   ‘Vita Henrici Septimi’, in Memorials of King Henry VII, pp. 14–16.

4.   ‘Mornynge Remembraunce’, p. 300.

5.   Ibid, pp. 296–7.

6.   These letters are in Cooper, Memorial to Margaret, p. 64 and pp. 91–4.

7.   ‘Mornynge Remembraunce’, pp. 300–1.

8.   Letter in Cooper, op. cit., p. 64.

9.   For the Cardinal’s skull, ‘How posterity beheaded Morton: the case of the missing head’, in The Ricardian, September 1992.

10. For Lord Oxford’s expenditure, see M. J. Tucker, ‘The Household Accounts, 1490–1491, of John de Vere’ in English Historical Review 75 (1960).

11. For Oxford’s petition to recover his mother’s lands, stressing that Gloucester had made her hand them over ‘by compulcion, cohercion and empresonment’, Rotuli Parliamentorum VI, pp. 473–4.

12. For Oxford’s patronage of Caxton, G. D. Painter, William Caxton, pp. 164–70.

13. For the King’s visit to Lord Oxford, Bacon, Henry VII, p. 192.

14. For these details, Sir W. H. St John Hope, ‘The Last Testament and Inventory of John de Veer, thirteenth Earl of Oxford’, in Archaeologia LXVI (1915).

15. Ibid, p. 310.

16. Ross, Wars of the Roses, pp. 143–4.

17. For the return of Mr Lambert’s West Country estates to the Courtenays, Patent Rolls, Henry VII I, pp. 28–9.

18. For Mr Lambert’s will, Barker, ‘The Real Jane Shore’, p. 38.

19. Birley, ‘Jane Shore in Literature’, p. 407.

20. ‘Miseram hodie vitam mendicando sustinet’.

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